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Sample records for advancing items identify

  1. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  2. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  3. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  4. Identifying Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items with the Rasch Model: An Introduction and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    This study (a) provided a conceptual introduction to differential item functioning (DIF), (b) introduced the multifaceted Rasch rating scale model (MRSM) and an associated statistical procedure for identifying DIF in rating scale items, and (c) applied this procedure to previously collected data from American coaches who responded to the coaching…

  5. Food and Nutrition (Advanced). Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Advanced Food and Nutrition semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics teachers…

  6. Identifying Predictors of Physics Item Difficulty: A Linear Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary…

  7. Methods of Identifying Individual Guessers from Item Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiangdong

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates several methods of identifying individual guessers from their response data. Both the posterior probability method and the likelihood ratio method are based on the two-state mixture modeling approach to response times. The accuracy method is based on response accuracy data. Results from the simulation study showed that…

  8. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or... Carriers § 421.214 Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B. (a) Scope and... issuance and recovery of advance payments to suppliers of Part B services and the rights...

  9. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or... Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B. (a) Scope and applicability. This... recovery of advance payments to suppliers of Part B services and the rights and responsibilities...

  10. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or... Carriers § 421.214 Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B. (a) Scope and... issuance and recovery of advance payments to suppliers of Part B services and the rights...

  11. 78 FR 76067 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply chain integrity, enhance cyber...); and (v) High risk item identified by the requiring activity as vulnerable to supply chain threat, a... rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 35921 on June 15, 2012. The comment period closed on August...

  12. 77 FR 35921 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... and efficiency; and (e) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply... nonreparable); and (vi) High risk item identified by the requiring activity as vulnerable to supply chain... following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments via the Federal...

  13. Identifying Potentially Biased Test Items: A Comparison of the Mantel-Haenszel Statistic and Several Item Response Theory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

    Four item bias methods were studied. The methods compared include the Mantel-Haenszel statistic, the plot method, the route mean squared difference method, and the total area method; the latter two methods are based on item response theory. The test consisted of item responses of 451 male and 486 female ninth graders to 75 test items on the 1985…

  14. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items. 242.48 Section 242.48 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... for certain equipment and long lead items. The Commissioner may allow advances for certain pieces...

  15. Identifying Advanced Technologies for Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; Yin, Robert K.

    A study to determine how three advanced technologies might be applied to the needs of special education students helped inspire the development of a new method for identifying such applications. This new method, named the "Hybrid Approach," combines features of the two traditional methods: technology-push and demand-pull. Technology-push involves…

  16. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equipment and long lead items. 242.48 Section 242.48 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... for certain equipment and long lead items. The Commissioner may allow advances for certain pieces of equipment or other construction materials for which a manufacturer, fabricator, or other source requires...

  17. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... equipment and long lead items. 242.48 Section 242.48 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... for certain equipment and long lead items. The Commissioner may allow advances for certain pieces of equipment or other construction materials for which a manufacturer, fabricator, or other source requires...

  18. Identifying Undifferentiating Response Sets and Assessing Their Effects on the Measurement of Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Sun, Anji

    Undifferentiating response sets, defined as "overuse" of any category of a Likert scale, were identified using a combination of simple criteria, such as whether a single-category response set involved more than four items, and statistical criteria based on D. Andrich's (1978) measurement model for Likert scales (the Rating Scale model). Data were…

  19. Using Multiple-Variable Matching to Identify Cultural Sources of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the sources of differential item functioning (DIF) in international assessments is very challenging, because such sources are often nebulous and intertwined. Even though researchers frequently focus on test translation and content area, few actually go beyond these factors to investigate other cultural sources of DIF. This article…

  20. 42 CFR 435.953 - Identifying items of information to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identifying items of information to use. 435.953 Section 435.953 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN...

  1. Advances in identifying beryllium sensitization and disease.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and 1940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  2. Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true “gold standard” for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms. PMID:20195436

  3. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

    2014-04-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  4. Use of multilevel logistic regression to identify the causes of differential item functioning.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, María Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Given that a key function of tests is to serve as evaluation instruments and for decision making in the fields of psychology and education, the possibility that some of their items may show differential behaviour is a major concern for psychometricians. In recent decades, important progress has been made as regards the efficacy of techniques designed to detect this differential item functioning (DIF). However, the findings are scant when it comes to explaining its causes. The present study addresses this problem from the perspective of multilevel analysis. Starting from a case study in the area of transcultural comparisons, multilevel logistic regression is used: 1) to identify the item characteristics associated with the presence of DIF; 2) to estimate the proportion of variation in the DIF coefficients that is explained by these characteristics; and 3) to evaluate alternative explanations of the DIF by comparing the explanatory power or fit of different sequential models. The comparison of these models confirmed one of the two alternatives (familiarity with the stimulus) and rejected the other (the topic area) as being a cause of differential functioning with respect to the compared groups.

  5. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items. 242.48 Section 242.48 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  6. Identifying Differential Item Functioning Related to Student Socioeconomic Status and Investigating Sources Related to Classroom Opportunities to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkes, LaShona L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study identified socioeconomic status (SES) group differences in student performance on an eighth grade mathematics assessment derived from the Third/Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology was applied to examine SES group differences on item performance for…

  7. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  8. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  9. Using Necessary Information to Identify Item Dependence in Passage-Based Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldonado, Angela Argo; Svetina, Dubravka; Gorin, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Applications of traditional unidimensional item response theory models to passage-based reading comprehension assessment data have been criticized based on potential violations of local independence. However, simple rules for determining dependency, such as including all items associated with a particular passage, may overestimate the dependency…

  10. An Examination of Two Procedures for Identifying Consequential Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Meng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate two procedures flagging consequential item parameter drift (IPD) in an operational testing program. The first procedure was based on flagging items that exhibit a meaningful magnitude of IPD using a critical value that was defined to represent barely tolerable IPD. The second procedure…

  11. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567

  12. Recursive Partitioning to Identify Potential Causes of Differential Item Functioning in Cross-National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Hernández Finch, Maria E.; French, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment is key in score validation. When DIF is present scores may not accurately reflect the construct of interest for some groups of examinees, leading to incorrect conclusions from the scores. Given rising immigration, and the increased reliance of educational policymakers on cross-national assessments…

  13. Using the Cumulative Common Log-Odds Ratio to Identify Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items in the Exercise and Sport Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2007-01-01

    One aspect of construct validity is the extent to which the measurement properties of a rating scale are invariant across the groups being compared. An increasingly used method for assessing between-group differences in the measurement properties of items of a scale is the framework of differential item functioning (DIF). In this paper we…

  14. Representativeness of deaths identified through the injury-at-work item on the death certificate: implications for surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J; Conroy, C

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This research investigated the accuracy of the injury-at-work item on the death certificate for surveillance of occupational injury deaths in Oklahoma during 1985 and 1986. METHODS. Representativeness of occupational injury deaths identified by death certificates was assessed by comparing these deaths with all occupational injury deaths identified through death certificates, workers' compensation reports, medical examiner reports, and OSHA records for categories of occupation, industry, and external causes of death. RESULTS. Certain external causes of death (e.g., motor vehicle traffic deaths) and certain occupations (e.g., farming) and industries (agriculture and services) are more often underidentified through death certificates. CONCLUSIONS. The findings of this study support Baker's observation that no single data source contains all deaths or all the data elements necessary to describe occupational injury deaths. Data sources may be combined to improve representativeness through more complete case ascertainment. PMID:1836109

  15. Using Frequent Item Set Mining and Feature Selection Methods to Identify Interacted Risk Factors - The Atrial Fibrillation Case Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Haifeng; Du, Xin; Hu, Gang; Xie, Guotong; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Disease risk prediction is highly important for early intervention and treatment, and identification of predictive risk factors is the key point to achieve accurate prediction. In addition to original independent features in a dataset, some interacted features, such as comorbidities and combination therapies, may have non-additive influence on the disease outcome and can also be used in risk prediction to improve the prediction performance. However, it is usually difficult to manually identify the possible interacted risk factors due to the combination explosion of features. In this paper, we propose an automatic approach to identify predictive risk factors with interactions using frequent item set mining and feature selection methods. The proposed approach was applied in the real world case study of predicting ischemic stroke and thromboembolism for atrial fibrillation patients on the Chinese atrial fibrillation registry dataset, and the results show that our approach can not only improve the prediction performance, but also identify the comorbidities and combination therapies that have potential influences on TE occurrence for AF. PMID:27577446

  16. Advance care planning: identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Howlett, J.; Sharma, N.C.; Biondo, P.; Holroyd-Leduc, J.; Fassbender, K.; Simon, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning (acp) is an important process in health care today. How to prospectively identify potential local barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp across a complex, multi-sector, publicly funded health care system and how to develop specific mitigating strategies have not been well characterized. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of clinical and administrative health care opinion leaders across the province of Alberta to characterize system-specific barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp. The survey was based on published literature about the barriers to and facilitators of acp and on the Michie Theoretical Domains Framework. Results Of 88 surveys, 51 (58%) were returned. The survey identified system-specific barriers that could challenge uptake of acp. The factors were categorized into four main domains. Three examples of individual system-specific barriers were “insufficient public engagement and misunderstanding,” “conflict among different provincial health service initiatives,” and “lack of infrastructure.” Local system-specific barriers and facilitators were subsequently explored through a semi-structured informal discussion group involving key informants. The group identified approaches to mitigate specific barriers. Conclusions Uptake of acp is a priority for many health care systems, but bringing about change in multi-sector health care systems is complex. Identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators to the uptake of innovation are important elements of successful knowledge translation. We developed and successfully used a simple and inexpensive process to identify local system-specific barriers and enablers to uptake of acp, and to identify specific mitigating strategies. PMID:26300673

  17. Advanced Electrocardiography Can Identify Occult Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiljak, M.; Petric, A. Domanjko; Wilberg, M.; Olsen, L. H.; Stepancic, A.; Schlegel, T. T.; Starc, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, multiple advanced resting electrocardiographic (A-ECG) techniques have improved the diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in detection of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. This study investigated whether 12-lead A-ECG recordings could accurately identify the occult phase of DCM in dogs. Short-duration (3-5 min) high-fidelity 12-lead ECG recordings were obtained from 31 privately-owned, clinically healthy Doberman Pinschers (5.4 +/- 1.7 years, 11/20 males/females). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 healthy dogs with normal echocardiographic M-mode measurements: left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd . 47mm) and in systole (LVIDs . 38mm) and normal 24-hour ECG recordings (<50 ventricular premature complexes, VPCs); and 2) 12 dogs with occult DCM: 11/12 dogs had increased M-mode measurements (LVIDd . 49mm and/or LVIDs . 40mm) and 5/11 dogs had also >100 VPCs/24h; 1/12 dogs had only abnormal 24-hour ECG recordings (>100 VPCs/24h). ECG recordings were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate multiple parameters of high-frequency (HF) QRS ECG, heart rate variability, QT variability, waveform complexity and 3-D ECG. Student's t-tests determined 19 ECG parameters that were significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups. Principal component factor analysis identified a 5-factor model with 81.4% explained variance. QRS dipolar and non-dipolar voltages, Cornell voltage criteria and QRS waveform residuum were increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas mean HF QRS amplitude was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in dogs with occult DCM. For the 5 selected parameters the prediction of occult DCM was performed using a binary logistic regression model with Chi-square tested significance (P < 0.01). ROC analyses showed that the five selected ECG parameters could identify occult ECG with sensitivity 89% and specificity 83%. Results suggest that 12-lead A-ECG might improve diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in earlier detection

  18. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  19. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... equipment or other construction materials for which a manufacturer, fabricator, or other source requires an... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.48 Insured advances... site. Such advances can be made only if a bill of sale or an invoice describes the material...

  20. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  1. Identifying landmark articles for advancing the practice of geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Camille P; Fowler, Rachel; Goodman, Richard A; Graves, Taylor R; Flacker, Jonathan M; Johnson, Theodore M

    2014-11-01

    Landmark articles from the peer-reviewed literature can be used to teach the fundamental principles of geriatric medicine. Three approaches were used in sequential combination to identify landmark articles as a resource for geriatricians and other healthcare practitioners. Candidate articles were identified first through a literature review and expert opinion survey of geriatric medicine faculty. Candidate articles in a winnowed list (n = 30) were then included in a bibliometric analysis that incorporated the journal impact factor and average monthly citation index. Finally, a consensus panel reviewed articles to assess each manuscript's clinical relevance. For each article, a final score was determined by averaging, with equal weight, the opinion survey, bibliometric analysis, and consensus panel review. This process ultimately resulted in the identification of 27 landmark articles. Overall, there was weak correlation between articles that the expert opinion survey and bibliometric analysis both rated highly. This process demonstrates a feasible method combining subjective and objective measures that can be used to identify landmark papers in geriatric medicine for the enhancement of geriatrics education and practice.

  2. Error identified as hysteresis in flexure testing of advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.R.; Salem, J.A.

    1996-08-15

    Flexure testing has been widely used to determine the strength, fracture toughness, fatigue and creep behavior of brittle ceramic materials at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The sources of error have been identified in detail by several investigators. A previous study by the present authors showed that friction between the support-rollers of a four-point flexure fixture and the specimen surface resulted in a well-defined hysteresis in the load (stress) versus strain cycle when the rollers were fixed. Based on the previous finding that hysteresis is a measure of stress error, a particular attempt was made in this study to establish a quantitative correlation between hysteresis and stress error for the four-point, fixed-roller fixture system. For this purpose, friction between support rollers and specimen surface was arbitrarily changed by using five different mediums at the contact points: air, distilled water, silicon oil, solid lubricant, and Teflon tape. The stress error thus obtained was correlated in terms of a hysteresis index that quantifies the degree of hysteresis. The frictional effect of various contact mediums was determined by loading a strain gaged silicon nitride specimen in a SiC, four-point flexure fixture with SiC rollers that were fixed in V-grooves.

  3. The Quest for Item Types Based on Information Processing: An Analysis of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, with a Consideration of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Francois; Bors, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Various taxonomies of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) items have been proposed in the literature to account for performance on the test. In the present article, three such taxonomies based on information processing, namely Carpenter, Just and Shell's [Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., & Shell, P., (1990). What one intelligence test…

  4. integIRTy: a method to identify genes altered in cancer by accounting for multiple mechanisms of regulation using item response theory

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Pan; Coombes, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying genes altered in cancer plays a crucial role in both understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis and developing novel therapeutics. It is known that there are various mechanisms of regulation that can lead to gene dysfunction, including copy number change, methylation, abnormal expression, mutation and so on. Nowadays, all these types of alterations can be simultaneously interrogated by different types of assays. Although many methods have been proposed to identify altered genes from a single assay, there is no method that can deal with multiple assays accounting for different alteration types systematically. Results: In this article, we propose a novel method, integration using item response theory (integIRTy), to identify altered genes by using item response theory that allows integrated analysis of multiple high-throughput assays. When applied to a single assay, the proposed method is more robust and reliable than conventional methods such as Student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. When used to integrate multiple assays, integIRTy can identify novel-altered genes that cannot be found by looking at individual assay separately. We applied integIRTy to three public cancer datasets (ovarian carcinoma, breast cancer, glioblastoma) for cross-assay type integration which all show encouraging results. Availability and implementation: The R package integIRTy is available at the web site http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/main/OOMPA:Overview. Contact: kcoombes@mdanderson.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23014630

  5. Identifying Dyslexia in Adults: An Iterative Method Using the Predictive Value of Item Scores and Self-Report Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…

  6. Identifying Successful Advancement Approaches in Four Catholic Universities: The Effectiveness of the Four Advancement Models of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonglia, Jean-Pierre K.

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of the most successful Catholic universities in the United States identifies the prevalence of four advancement models of communication that have contributed to make those institutions successful in their philanthropic efforts. While research by Grunig and Kelly maintained that the two-way symmetrical model of…

  7. Analysis of advanced glycation endproducts in selected food items by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Presentation of a dietary AGE database.

    PubMed

    Scheijen, Jean L J M; Clevers, Egbert; Engelen, Lian; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Brouns, Fred; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in food items and to analyze AGEs in a selection of food items commonly consumed in a Western diet. N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N(ε)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were quantified in the protein fractions of 190 food items using UPLC-MS/MS. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were 2-29%. The calibration curves showed perfect linearity in water and food matrices. We found the highest AGE levels in high-heat processed nut or grain products, and canned meats. Fruits, vegetables, butter and coffee had the lowest AGE content. The described method proved to be suitable for the quantification of three major AGEs in food items. The presented dietary AGE database opens the possibility to further quantify actual dietary exposure to AGEs and to explore its physiological impact on human health. PMID:26213088

  8. Analysis of advanced glycation endproducts in selected food items by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Presentation of a dietary AGE database.

    PubMed

    Scheijen, Jean L J M; Clevers, Egbert; Engelen, Lian; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Brouns, Fred; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in food items and to analyze AGEs in a selection of food items commonly consumed in a Western diet. N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N(ε)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were quantified in the protein fractions of 190 food items using UPLC-MS/MS. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were 2-29%. The calibration curves showed perfect linearity in water and food matrices. We found the highest AGE levels in high-heat processed nut or grain products, and canned meats. Fruits, vegetables, butter and coffee had the lowest AGE content. The described method proved to be suitable for the quantification of three major AGEs in food items. The presented dietary AGE database opens the possibility to further quantify actual dietary exposure to AGEs and to explore its physiological impact on human health.

  9. Advance to and Persistence in Graduate School: Identifying the Influential Factors and Major-Based Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2014-01-01

    Structured within an expanded econometric theoretical framework, this study uses national data sources to identify the critical factors that influence college graduates' advance to and persistence in graduate education and to compare the systematic differences between students in the STEM and non-STEM majors. The findings indicate that there is a…

  10. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  11. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William Richins; Stephen Novascone; Cheryl O'Brien

    2009-08-01

    Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors William Richins1, Stephen Novascone1, and Cheryl O’Brien1 1Idaho National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, e-mail: William.Richins@inl.gov The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; 1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and 2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1 The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  12. Identifying the factors that facilitate or hinder advance planning by persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Karen B; Kapo, Jennifer M; Karlawish, Jason H T

    2008-01-01

    We performed semistructured interviews with 30 family members of patients with advanced dementia to identify the factors that facilitate or hinder advance planning by persons with dementia. All interviews were analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. The majority (77%) of family members reported that their relative had some form of written advance directive, and at least half reported previous discussions about health care preferences (57%), living situation or placement issues (50%), and finances or estate planning (60%) with the patient. Family members reported some themes that prompted planning and others that were barriers to planning. Events that most often triggered planning were medical, living situation, or financial issues associated with a friend or family member of the patient (57%). Barriers to planning included both passive and active avoidance. The most common form of passive avoidance was not realizing the importance of planning until it was too late to have the discussion (63%). The most common form of active avoidance was avoiding the discussion (53%). These data suggest potentially remediable strategies to address barriers to advance planning discussions.

  13. Identifying and addressing student difficulties with electrostatics and magnetostatics in introductory and advanced courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Ryan Lowell Crites

    This dissertation describes an investigation of student conceptual understanding of statics concepts in E&M, at the introductory and junior level. At the introductory level, this research led to the development of three new research-based and research-validated worksheets for Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The topics are electric potential difference, electric properties of conductors, and Ampere's law. The research at the junior level provides the initial research base for the creation of a set of junior-level worksheets, Tutorials in Physics: Electrodynamics. This research primarily focuses on identifying advanced students' difficulties with various topics across the E&M course, as well as comparing the difficulties encountered by introductory and advanced students. We also describe some initial attempts to address these conceptual difficulties at the junior level in electrostatics and magnetostatics.

  14. Identifying the optimal criteria of radiotherapeutic parameters for patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Son, Seok Hyun; Jang, Hong Seok; Sung, Soo Yoon; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Sojung; Kay, Chul Seung

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the optimal criteria of the radiotherapeutic parameters in patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 103 patients were enrolled in this study. All patients received RT delivered using the TomoTherapy Hi-Art system between March 2006 and February 2012. We evaluated the planning target volume (PTV), total dose (Gy10), and NTNL-V(BED20) (non-target normal liver volume receiving more than a biologically effective dose of 20 Gy8) as significant radiotherapeutic parameters associated with hepatic function deterioration and local progression-free survival (PFS). A PTV of 279 cm3 or 304 cm3, a total dose of 60 Gy10, and a NTNL-V(BED20) of 40.8% were identified as the optimal cut-off values of radiotherapeutic parameters to prevent hepatic function deterioration and prolong local PFS. Based on these findings, patients were divided in a favorable and an unfavorable prognosis group. The differences in median local PFS, overall survival, and incidence of deteriorated hepatic function between the two groups were 11.2 months, 11.1 months, and 71.7%, respectively (p < 0.001 in each case). In conclusion, we suggest that the optimal criteria of the radiotherapeutic parameters for patients with unresectable locally advanced HCC are: PTV ≤ 279 cm3, total dose > 60 Gy10, and NTNL-V(BED20) ≤ 40.8%. PMID:26510905

  15. Immunogenetic mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity: recent advances in identifying susceptibility genes and regions.

    PubMed

    Brand, Oliver J; Gough, Stephen C L

    2011-12-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) include Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which are characterised by a breakdown in immune tolerance to thyroid antigens. Unravelling the genetic architecture of AITD is vital to better understanding of AITD pathogenesis, required to advance therapeutic options in both disease management and prevention. The early whole-genome linkage and candidate gene association studies provided the first evidence that the HLA region and CTLA-4 represented AITD risk loci. Recent improvements in; high throughput genotyping technologies, collection of larger disease cohorts and cataloguing of genome-scale variation have facilitated genome-wide association studies and more thorough screening of candidate gene regions. This has allowed identification of many novel AITD risk genes and more detailed association mapping. The growing number of confirmed AITD susceptibility loci, implicates a number of putative disease mechanisms most of which are tightly linked with aspects of immune system function. The unprecedented advances in genetic study will allow future studies to identify further novel disease risk genes and to identify aetiological variants within specific gene regions, which will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of AITD patho-physiology.

  16. Action Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Keane, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing school resources and managing a shrinking budget--these are two important items affected when a building's roofing system does not perform properly. Rather than acting in haste, school and university administrators should do what every teacher tells a student prior to answering any question: think through the research and studies to…

  17. Identifying Gaps in Grid Middleware on Fast Networks with the Advanced Networking Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Kim, Hyunwoo; Mhashilkar, Parag

    2012-12-01

    As of 2012, a number of US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories have access to a 100 Gb/s wide-area network backbone. The ESnet Advanced Networking Initiative (ANI) project is intended to develop a prototype network, based on emerging 100 Gb/s Ethernet technology. The ANI network will support DOE's science research programs. A 100 Gb/s network test bed is a key component of the ANI project. The test bed offers the opportunity for early evaluation of 100Gb/s network infrastructure for supporting the high impact data movement typical of science collaborations and experiments. In order to make effective use of this advanced infrastructure, the applications and middleware currently used by the distributed computing systems of large-scale science need to be adapted and tested within the new environment, with gaps in functionality identified and corrected. As a user of the ANI test bed, Fermilab aims to study the issues related to end-to-end integration and use of 100 Gb/s networks for the event simulation and analysis applications of physics experiments. In this paper we discuss our findings from evaluating existing HEP Physics middleware and application components, including GridFTP, Globus Online, etc. in the high-speed environment. These will include possible recommendations to the system administrators, application and middleware developers on changes that would make production use of the 100 Gb/s networks, including data storage, caching and wide area access.

  18. Identifying human disease genes: advances in molecular genetics and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, S M; Ali, A; Baig, S M; Barh, D; Miyoshi, A; Azevedo, V

    2014-07-04

    The human genome project is one of the significant achievements that have provided detailed insight into our genetic legacy. During the last two decades, biomedical investigations have gathered a considerable body of evidence by detecting more than 2000 disease genes. Despite the imperative advances in the genetic understanding of various diseases, the pathogenesis of many others remains obscure. With recent advances, the laborious methodologies used to identify DNA variations are replaced by direct sequencing of genomic DNA to detect genetic changes. The ability to perform such studies depends equally on the development of high-throughput and economical genotyping methods. Currently, basically for every disease whose origen is still unknown, genetic approaches are available which could be pedigree-dependent or -independent with the capacity to elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms. Computer algorithms and programs for linkage analysis have formed the foundation for many disease gene detection projects, similarly databases of clinical findings have been widely used to support diagnostic decisions in dysmorphology and general human disease. For every disease type, genome sequence variations, particularly single nucleotide polymorphisms are mapped by comparing the genetic makeup of case and control groups. Methods that predict the effects of polymorphisms on protein stability are useful for the identification of possible disease associations, whereas structural effects can be assessed using methods to predict stability changes in proteins using sequence and/or structural information.

  19. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4). PMID:27637819

  20. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4).

  1. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  2. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Delmont, Tom O.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today’s microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes. PMID:27069789

  3. Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

  4. Identifying with More than One Ethnic and/or Racial Group: Another Examination of the Impact on Differential Item Functioning Statistics. Statistical Report 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Anita; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Hendrickson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The classification of test-takers into ethnic and racial groups ensures individuals and groups, identified in Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, are protected from adverse treatment (Camilli, 2006). The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) suggests that…

  5. Usefulness of a single item in a mail survey to identify persons with possible dementia: a new strategy for finding high-risk elders.

    PubMed

    Brody, Kathleen K; Maslow, Katie; Perrin, Nancy A; Crooks, Valerie; DellaPenna, Richard; Kuang, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of elderly persons who responded positively to a question about "severe memory problems" on a mailed health questionnaire yet were missed by the existing health risk algorithm to identify vulnerable elderly persons. A total of 324,471 respondents aged 65 and older completed a primary care health status questionnaire that gathered clinical information to quickly identify members with functional impairment, multiple chronic diseases, and higher medical care needs. The respondents were part of a large, integrated, not-for-profit managed care organization that implemented a model of care for elders using a uniform risk identification method across eight regions. Respondents with severe memory problems were compared to general respondents by morbidity, geriatric syndromes, functional impairments, service utilization, sensory impairments, sociodemographic characteristics, and activities of daily living. Of the respondents, 13,902 persons (4.3%) reported severe memory problems; the existing health risk algorithm missed 47.1% of these. When severe memory problems were included in the risk algorithm, identification increased from 11% to 13%, and risk prevalence by age groups ranged from 4.4% to 40.5%; one third had severe memory problems, a finding that was fairly consistent within age groups (28.4% to 36.5%). A question about severe memory problems should be incorporated into population risk-identification techniques. While false-negative rates are unknown, the false-positive rate of a self-report mail survey appears to be minimal. Persons reporting severe memory problems clearly have multiple comorbidities, higher prevalence of geriatric syndromes, and greater functional and sensory impairments. PMID:15815155

  6. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  7. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    A multiple choice test item is identified as flawed if it has no single best answer. In spite of extensive quality control procedures, the administration of flawed items to test-takers is inevitable. Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in the principle of fairness to test-takers, are reexamined in the…

  8. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  9. Ultra-deep targeted sequencing of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma identifies a mutation-based prognostic gene signature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Jung; Huang, Yi; Hsu, An; Tang, Petrus; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chen, Hua-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have heterogeneous outcomes that limit the implementation of tailored treatment options. Genetic markers for improved prognostic stratification are eagerly awaited. Methods Herein, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 345 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples obtained from advanced OSCC patients. Genetic mutations on the hotspot regions of 45 cancer-related genes were detected using an ultra-deep (>1000×) sequencing approach. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between the mutation status and disease-free survival (DFS). Results We identified 1269 non-synonymous mutations in 276 OSCC samples. TP53, PIK3CA, CDKN2A, HRAS and BRAF were the most frequently mutated genes. Mutations in 14 genes were found to predict DFS. A mutation-based signature affecting ten genes (HRAS, BRAF, FGFR3, SMAD4, KIT, PTEN, NOTCH1, AKT1, CTNNB1, and PTPN11) was devised to predict DFS. Two different resampling methods were used to validate the prognostic value of the identified gene signature. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that presence of a mutated gene signature was an independent predictor of poorer DFS (P = 0.005). Conclusions Genetic variants identified by NGS technology in FFPE samples are clinically useful to predict prognosis in advanced OSCC patients. PMID:25980437

  10. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guhyun; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Do, In-Gu; Wang, Kai; Kang, So Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Kang, Won Ki; Jang, Jiryeon; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Seonwoo; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2013-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes) and AGCs (3104 genes). A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010). The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  11. Preferential Allele Expression Analysis Identifies Shared Germline and Somatic Driver Genes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Najeeb M; Martinez, Alejandra; Al-Farsi, Halema; Mery, Eliane; Puydenus, Laurence; Pujol, Pascal; Khalak, Hanif G; McLurcan, Cameron; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Al-Azwani, Iman; Al-Dous, Eman; Mohamoud, Yasmin A; Malek, Joel A; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genes where a variant allele is preferentially expressed in tumors could lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and optimization of targeted therapy. However, tumor sample heterogeneity complicates standard approaches for detecting preferential allele expression. We therefore developed a novel approach combining genome and transcriptome sequencing data from the same sample that corrects for sample heterogeneity and identifies significant preferentially expressed alleles. We applied this analysis to epithelial ovarian cancer samples consisting of matched primary ovary and peritoneum and lymph node metastasis. We find that preferentially expressed variant alleles include germline and somatic variants, are shared at a relatively high frequency between patients, and are in gene networks known to be involved in cancer processes. Analysis at a patient level identifies patient-specific preferentially expressed alleles in genes that are targets for known drugs. Analysis at a site level identifies patterns of site specific preferential allele expression with similar pathways being impacted in the primary and metastasis sites. We conclude that genes with preferentially expressed variant alleles can act as cancer drivers and that targeting those genes could lead to new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Advances in Using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Identify the Mixing of Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Voytek, E. B.; Buckley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) provides thermal data through space and time along linear cables. When installed along a streambed, FO-DTS can capture the influence of upwelling groundwater (GW) as thermal anomalies. The planning of labor-intensive physical measurements can make use of FO-DTS data to target areas of focused GW discharge that can disproportionately affect surface-water (SW) quality and temperature. Typical longitudinal FO-DTS spatial resolution ranges 0.25 to1.0 m, and cannot resolve small-scale water-column mixing or sub-surface diurnal fluctuations. However, configurations where the cable is wrapped around rods can improve the effective vertical resolution to sub-centimeter scales, and the pipes can be actively heated to induce a thermal tracer. Longitudinal streambed and high-resolution vertical arrays were deployed at the upper Delaware River (PA, USA) and the Quashnet River (MA, USA) for aquatic habitat studies. The resultant datasets exemplify the varied uses of FO-DTS. Cold anomalies found along the Delaware River steambed coincide with zones of known mussel populations, and high-resolution vertical array data showed relatively stable in-channel thermal refugia. Cold anomalies at the Quashnet River identified in 2013 were found to persist in 2014, and seepage measurements and water samples at these locations showed high GW flux with distinctive chemistry. Cable location is paramount to seepage identification, particularly in faster flowing deep streams such as the Quashnet and Delaware Rivers where steambed FO-DTS identified many seepage zones with no surface expression. The temporal characterization of seepage dynamics are unique to FO-DTS. However, data from Tidmarsh Farms, a cranberry bog restoration site in MA, USA indicate that in slower flowing shallow steams GW inflow affects surface temperature; therefore infrared imaging can provide seepage location information similar to FO-DTS with substantially less effort.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Dust Source Variability in Northern China Identified Using Advanced Remote Sensing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taramelli, A.; Pasqui, M.; Barbour, J.; Kirschbaum, D.; Bottai, L.; Busillo, C.; Calastrini, F.; Guarnieri, F.; Small, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to provide a detailed characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the regional and local dust source areas within the desert of the Alashan Prefecture (Inner Mongolia, China). This problem was approached through multi-scale remote sensing analysis of vegetation changes. The primary requirements for this regional analysis are high spatial and spectral resolution data, accurate spectral calibration and good temporal resolution with a suitable temporal baseline. Landsat analysis and field validation along with the low spatial resolution classifications from MODIS and AVHRR are combined to provide a reliable characterization of the different potential dust-producing sources. The representation of intra-annual and inter-annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trend to assess land cover discrimination for mapping potential dust source using MODIS and AVHRR at larger scale is enhanced by Landsat Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA). The combined methodology is to determine the extent to which Landsat can distinguish important soils types in order to better understand how soil reflectance behaves at seasonal and inter-annual timescales. As a final result mapping soil surface properties using SMA is representative of responses of different land and soil cover previously identified by NDVI trend. The results could be used in dust emission models even if they are not reflecting aggregate formation, soil stability or particle coatings showing to be critical for accurately represent dust source over different regional and local emitting areas.

  14. Automated Item Selection Using Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; And Others

    This paper presents a new heuristic approach to interactive test assembly that is called the successive item replacement algorithm. This approach builds on the work of W. J. van der Linden (1987) and W. J. van der Linden and E. Boekkooi-Timminga (1989) in which methods of mathematical optimization are combined with item response theory to…

  15. A miRNA Signature of Chemoresistant Mesenchymal Phenotype Identifies Novel Molecular Targets Associated with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Alakesh; VenkataSubbaRao, Kolaparthi; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Hill, Ping; Freeman, James W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a microRNA (miRNA) signature was identified in a gemcitabine resistant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line model (BxPC3-GZR) and this signature was further examined in advanced PDAC tumor specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. BxPC3-GZR showed a mesenchymal phenotype, expressed high levels of CD44 and showed a highly significant deregulation of 17 miRNAs. Based on relevance to cancer, a seven-miRNA signature (miR-100, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-21, miR-205, miR-27b and miR-455-3p) was selected for further studies. A strong correlation was observed for six of the seven miRNAs in 43 advanced tumor specimens compared to normal pancreas tissue. To assess the functional relevance we initially focused on miRNA-125b, which is over-expressed in both the BxPC3-GZR model and advanced PDAC tumor specimens. Knockdown of miRNA-125b in BxPC3-GZR and Panc-1 cells caused a partial reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced response to gemcitabine. Moreover, RNA-seq data from each of 40 advanced PDAC tumor specimens from the TCGA data base indicate a negative correlation between expression of miRNA-125b and five of six potential target genes (BAP1, BBC3, NEU1, BCL2, STARD13). Thus far, two of these target genes, BBC3 and NEU1, that are tumor suppressor genes but not yet studied in PDAC, appear to be functional targets of miR-125b since knockdown of miR125b caused their up regulation. These miRNAs and their molecular targets may serve as targets to enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy and reduce metastatic spread. PMID:25184537

  16. Item Bias Identification: A Comparison of Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groome, Mary Lynn; Groome, William R.

    Angoff's method for identifying possible biased test items was applied to four computer-generated hypothetical tests, two of which contained no biased items and two of which contained a few biased items. The tests were generated to match specifications of a latent trait model. Angoff's method compared item difficulty estimates for two different…

  17. Comparing Item Characteristic Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops and applies three nonparametric comparisons of the shapes of two item characteristic surfaces: (1) proportional latent odds; (2) uniform relative difficulty; and (3) item sensitivity. A method is presented for comparing the relative shapes of two item characteristic curves in two examinee populations who were administered an…

  18. Random Item IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It is common practice in IRT to consider items as fixed and persons as random. Both, continuous and categorical person parameters are most often random variables, whereas for items only continuous parameters are used and they are commonly of the fixed type, although exceptions occur. It is shown in the present article that random item parameters…

  19. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  20. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  1. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  2. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  3. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  4. The Relationship between Item Parameters and Item Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2004-01-01

    The effect of item parameters (discrimination, difficulty, and level of guessing) on the item-fit statistic was investigated using simulated dichotomous data. Nine tests were simulated using 1,000 persons, 50 items, three levels of item discrimination, three levels of item difficulty, and three levels of guessing. The item fit was estimated using…

  5. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214-72 Section 852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s)...

  6. Using Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model to detect test cheating due to item compromise.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Henson, Robert; Luecht, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model (DGM, Shu, Unpublished Dissertation. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2010) is proposed to identify cheaters who obtain significant score gain on tests due to item exposure/compromise by conditioning on the item status (exposed or unexposed items). A "gated" function is introduced to decompose the observed examinees' performance into two distributions (the true ability distribution determined by examinees' true ability and the cheating distribution determined by examinees' cheating ability). Test cheaters who have score gain due to item exposure are identified through the comparison of the two distributions. Hierarchical Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used as the model's estimation framework. Finally, the model is applied in a real data set to illustrate how the model can be used to identify examinees having pre-knowledge on the exposed items.

  7. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... life of the item. (3) Data syntax and semantics of unique item identifiers. The Contractor shall ensure...) The encoded data elements of the unique item identifier conform to the transfer structure, syntax, and... International Standard 15434, Information Technology—Transfer Syntax for High Capacity Automatic Data...

  8. Paternal Transmission of Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosome 15 Identified in Prenatal Diagnosis Due to Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruna C S; Portocarrero, Ana; Alves, Cláudia; Sampaio, André; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The detection of supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) in prenatal diagnosis is always a challenge. In this study, we report a paternally inherited case of a small SMC(15) that was identified in prenatal diagnosis due to advanced maternal age. A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation. A fetal abnormal karyotype - 47,XX,+mar - with one sSMC was detected in all metaphases. Since this sSMC was critical in the parental decision to continue or interrupt this pregnancy, we proceeded to study the fetus and their parents. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a fetal karyotype 47,XX,+mar pat.ish idic(15)(ql2)(D15Zl++,SNRPN-), in which the sSMC(15) was a paternally inherited inverted duplicated chromosome and did not contain the critical region of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes. Moreover, fetal uniparental disomy was excluded. Based on this information and normal obstetric ultrasounds, the parents decided to proceed with the pregnancy and a phenotypically normal girl was born at 39 weeks of gestation. In conclusion, the clinical effects of sSMCs need to be investigated, especially when sSMCs are encountered at prenatal diagnosis. Here, although the paternal sSMC(15) was not associated with an abnormal phenotype, its characterization allows more accurate genetic counseling for the family progeny. PMID:26523119

  9. 41 CFR 101-30.301 - Types of items to be cataloged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.3-Cataloging Items of Supply § 101-30.301 Types of items to be cataloged. Items of..., identified, classified, and numbered (cataloged) in the Federal Catalog System. Other locally purchased...

  10. 41 CFR 101-30.301 - Types of items to be cataloged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.3-Cataloging Items of Supply § 101-30.301 Types of items to be cataloged. Items of..., identified, classified, and numbered (cataloged) in the Federal Catalog System. Other locally purchased...

  11. 41 CFR 101-30.301 - Types of items to be cataloged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.3-Cataloging Items of Supply § 101-30.301 Types of items to be cataloged. Items of..., identified, classified, and numbered (cataloged) in the Federal Catalog System. Other locally purchased...

  12. 41 CFR 101-30.301 - Types of items to be cataloged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.3-Cataloging Items of Supply § 101-30.301 Types of items to be cataloged. Items of..., identified, classified, and numbered (cataloged) in the Federal Catalog System. Other locally purchased...

  13. 41 CFR 101-30.301 - Types of items to be cataloged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATALOG SYSTEM 30.3-Cataloging Items of Supply § 101-30.301 Types of items to be cataloged. Items of..., identified, classified, and numbered (cataloged) in the Federal Catalog System. Other locally purchased...

  14. Detecting Differential Item Functioning of Polytomous Items for an Ideal Point Response Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei; Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing use of ideal point models to develop scales measuring important psychological constructs. For meaningful comparisons across groups, it is important to identify items on such scales that exhibit differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, the authors examined several methods for assessing DIF on polytomous items…

  15. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subscriber bill itemization. 76.985 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.985 Subscriber bill itemization. (a) Cable operators may identify as a separate line item of each regular subscriber bill the following:...

  16. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subscriber bill itemization. 76.985 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.985 Subscriber bill itemization. (a) Cable operators may identify as a separate line item of each regular subscriber bill the following:...

  17. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subscriber bill itemization. 76.985 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.985 Subscriber bill itemization. (a) Cable operators may identify as a separate line item of each regular subscriber bill the following:...

  18. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subscriber bill itemization. 76.985 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.985 Subscriber bill itemization. (a) Cable operators may identify as a separate line item of each regular subscriber bill the following:...

  19. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subscriber bill itemization. 76.985 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.985 Subscriber bill itemization. (a) Cable operators may identify as a separate line item of each regular subscriber bill the following:...

  20. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  1. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... has an embedded item with a unique item identifier or DoD recognized unique identification equivalent... description (iii) Subassemblies, components, and parts embedded within delivered items as specified in.... (11) Unit of measure. (e) For embedded subassemblies, components, and parts that require DoD...

  2. Item Writer Judgments of Item Difficulty versus Actual Item Difficulty: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how accurate one item writer can be on item difficulty estimates and whether factors affecting item writer judgments correspond to predictors of actual item difficulty. The items were based on conversational dialogs (presented as videos online) that focus on pragmatic functions. Thirty-five 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-year learners…

  3. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  4. Australian Item Bank Program: Handbook for Science Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This handbook is designed to assist teachers in using the Science Item Bank to construct diagnostic tests and end-of-course achievement tests. The item bank consists of over 2,800 multiple-choice items, and teachers are encouraged to supplement this source of test items with other forms of test questions. Key answers to these questions are arrived…

  5. Item Information and Discrimination Functions for Trinary PCM Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkermans, Wies; Muraki, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    For trinary partial credit items, the shape of the item information and item discrimination functions is examined in relation to the item parameters. Conditions under which these functions are unimodal and bimodal are discussed, and the locations and values of maxima are derived. Practical relevance of the results is discussed. (SLD)

  6. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  7. 15 CFR 752.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Maritime (civil) nuclear propulsion systems or associated design or production software and technology identified in § 744.5 of the EAR; (7) Communications intercepting devices and related software and technology...) Items controlled for missile technology reasons that are identified by the letters MT in the...

  8. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth-Orbital Transportation Systems, Dual-Mode Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study of dual mode propulsion concepts applied to advanced earth orbital transportation systems using reuseable single stage to orbit vehicle concepts were summarized. Both series burn and parallel burn modes of propulsion were analyzed for vertical takeoff, horizontal landing vehicles based on accelerated technology goals. A major study objective was to assess the merits of dual mode main propulsion concepts compared to single mode concepts for carrying payloads of Space Shuttle type to orbit.

  9. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  10. Development of the PROMIS® Social Motivations for Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D.; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking behavior is influenced by social motivations such as the expected social benefits of smoking and the social cues that induce craving. This paper describes development of the PROMIS® Social Motivations for Smoking item banks, which will serve to standardize assessment of these social motivations among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers completed an online survey. Item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted to identify a unidimensional set of items for each group. Short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) were evaluated as tools for more efficiently assessing this construct. Results: A total of 15 items were included in the item banks (9 items common to daily and nondaily smokers, 3 unique to daily, 3 unique to nondaily). Scores based on full item banks are highly reliable (reliability = 0.90–0.91). Additionally, the item banks are strongly unidimensional and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A fixed SF for use with both daily and nondaily smokers consists of 4 items (reliability = 0.80). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 5 items are needed to assess this construct with adequate precision using the item banks. Conclusions: A new set of items has been identified for assessing the social motivations for smoking in a reliable, standardized manner for daily and nondaily smokers. In addition to using the full item banks, efficient assessment can be achieved by using SFs, employing CATs, or selecting items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. PMID:25118231

  11. The Right Jobs: Identifying Career Advancement Opportunities for Low-Skilled Workers. A Guide for Public and Private Sector Workforce Development Practitioners. Advancement for Low-Wage Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan; Lessell, Newell; Biswas, Radha Roy

    2005-01-01

    The Right Jobs provides workforce policymakers and directors of workforce development programs with a structured approach to: (1) Identifying the most promising employment opportunities within reach of low-skill workers; (2) Determining the postsecondary training and career preparation routes that will yield results for their clients; and (3)…

  12. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  13. Examining Differential Item Functions of Different Item Ordered Test Forms According to Item Difficulty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Gül, Emrah; Dogan-Gül, Çilem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to examine whether differential item function is displayed in three different test forms that have item orders of random and sequential versions (easy-to-hard and hard-to-easy), based on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods and bearing item difficulty levels in mind. In the correlational research, the…

  14. Development and assessment of floor and ceiling items for the PROMIS physical function item bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. Results In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. Conclusions These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at

  15. Data Visualization of Item-Total Correlation by Median Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; Douglas, Samantha; Lee, Anna; An, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how data visualization could be utilized to identify errors prior to modeling, using an example with multi-dimensional item response theory (MIRT). MIRT combines item response theory and factor analysis to identify a psychometric model that investigates two or more latent traits. While it may seem convenient to…

  16. Methodology for Developing and Evaluating the PROMIS® Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Stucky, Brian D.; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article describes the procedures used in the PROMIS® Smoking Initiative for the development and evaluation of item banks, short forms (SFs), and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) for the assessment of 6 constructs related to cigarette smoking: nicotine dependence, coping expectancies, emotional and sensory expectancies, health expectancies, psychosocial expectancies, and social motivations for smoking. Methods: Analyses were conducted using response data from a large national sample of smokers. Items related to each construct were subjected to extensive item factor analyses and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Final item banks were calibrated, and SF assessments were developed for each construct. The performance of the SFs and the potential use of the item banks for CAT administration were examined through simulation study. Results: Item selection based on dimensionality assessment and DIF analyses produced item banks that were essentially unidimensional in structure and free of bias. Simulation studies demonstrated that the constructs could be accurately measured with a relatively small number of carefully selected items, either through fixed SFs or CAT-based assessment. Illustrative results are presented, and subsequent articles provide detailed discussion of each item bank in turn. Conclusions: The development of the PROMIS smoking item banks provides researchers with new tools for measuring smoking-related constructs. The use of the calibrated item banks and suggested SF assessments will enhance the quality of score estimates, thus advancing smoking research. Moreover, the methods used in the current study, including innovative approaches to item selection and SF construction, may have general relevance to item bank development and evaluation. PMID:23943843

  17. Component Identification and Item Difficulty of Raven's Matrices Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    Item components that might contribute to the difficulty of items on the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were studied. Subjects providing responses to CPM items were 269 children aged 2 years 9 months to 11 years 8 months, most of whom were referred for testing as potentially gifted. A second…

  18. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  19. Development and exploitation of a novel mutant androgen receptor modelling strategy to identify new targets for advanced prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Daniel; Jones, Dominic; Wade, Mark; Grey, James; Nakjang, Sirintra; Guo, Wenrui; Cork, David; Davies, Barry R; Wedge, Steve R; Robson, Craig N; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-09-22

    The persistence of androgen receptor (AR) signalling in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) highlights the unmet clinical need for the development of more effective AR targeting therapies. A key mechanism of therapy-resistance is by selection of AR mutations that convert anti-androgens to agonists enabling the retention of androgenic signalling in CRPC. To improve our understanding of these receptors in advanced disease we developed a physiologically-relevant model to analyse the global functionality of AR mutants in CRPC. Using the bicalutamide-activated AR(W741L/C) mutation as proof of concept, we demonstrate that this mutant confers an androgenic-like signalling programme and growth promoting phenotype in the presence of bicalutamide. Transcriptomic profiling of AR(W741L) highlighted key genes markedly up-regulated by the mutant receptor, including TIPARP, RASD1 and SGK1. Importantly, SGK1 expression was found to be highly expressed in the KUCaP xenograft model and a CRPC patient biopsy sample both of which express the bicalutamide-activated receptor mutant. Using an SGK1 inhibitor, AR(W741L) transcriptional and growth promoting activity was reduced indicating that exploiting functional distinctions between receptor isoforms in our model may provide new and effective therapies for CRPC patients.

  20. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma: From improving risk stratification and revealing novel biology to identifying actionable genomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus and not only has catalyzed a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis but also has revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent, activating, somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed toward aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma.

  1. The Future of Item Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of the item in test construction, and suggests some new methods of item analysis. A look at dynamic, graphical item analysis is provided that uses the advantages of modern, high-speed, highly interactive computing. Several illustrations are provided. (Author/TJH)

  2. Putative circulating markers of the early and advanced stages of breast cancer identified by high-resolution label-free proteomics.

    PubMed

    Panis, Carolina; Pizzatti, Luciana; Herrera, Ana Cristina; Cecchini, Rubens; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the plasmatic proteomic profile of breast cancer patients in the early (ED) and advanced (AD) stages, employing high-throughput proteomics. We identified 92 differentially expressed proteins in ED and 73 proteins in AD patients. Gelsolin, lumican, clusterin, SALL4 and PMS2, as well hTERT, TNF-α and GRHL3 were chosen for further investigation. ED presented augmented expression of GRHL3 and reduced circulating TNF-α with high expression of GRHL3 in tumors. AD displayed high TNF-α and a significant expression of PMS2 in tumors. These findings suggest processes enrolling stem cell division in ED, with TNF-α signaling and DNA mismatch repair in the advanced stage.

  3. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-04-21

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals.

  4. Solving the measurement invariance anchor item problem in item response theory.

    PubMed

    Meade, Adam W; Wright, Natalie A

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of tests of differential item functioning (measurement invariance) has been well established. It is clear that when properly implemented, these tests can successfully identify differentially functioning (DF) items when they exist. However, an assumption of these analyses is that the metric for different groups is linked using anchor items that are invariant. In practice, however, it is impossible to be certain which items are DF and which are invariant. This problem of anchor items, or referent indicators, has long plagued invariance research, and a multitude of suggested approaches have been put forth. Unfortunately, the relative efficacy of these approaches has not been tested. This study compares 11 variations on 5 qualitatively different approaches from recent literature for selecting optimal anchor items. A large-scale simulation study indicates that for nearly all conditions, an easily implemented 2-stage procedure recently put forth by Lopez Rivas, Stark, and Chernyshenko (2009) provided optimal power while maintaining nominal Type I error. With this approach, appropriate anchor items can be easily and quickly located, resulting in more efficacious invariance tests. Recommendations for invariance testing are illustrated using a pedagogical example of employee responses to an organizational culture measure. PMID:22468848

  5. Advances in the Kepler Transit Search Engine and Automated Approaches to Identifying Likely Planet Candidates in Transit Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-08-01

    Twenty years ago, no planets were known outside our own solar system. Since then, the discoveries of ~1500 exoplanets have radically altered our views of planets and planetary systems. This revolution is due in no small part to the Kepler Mission, which has discovered >1000 of these planets and >4000 planet candidates. While Kepler has shown that small rocky planets and planetary systems are quite common, the quest to find Earth’s closest cousins and characterize their atmospheres presses forward with missions such as NASA Explorer Program’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) slated for launch in 2017 and ESA’s PLATO mission scheduled for launch in 2024.These future missions pose daunting data processing challenges in terms of the number of stars, the amount of data, and the difficulties in detecting weak signatures of transiting small planets against a roaring background. These complications include instrument noise and systematic effects as well as the intrinsic stellar variability of the subjects under scrutiny. In this paper we review recent developments in the Kepler transit search pipeline improving both the yield and reliability of detected transit signatures.Many of the phenomena in light curves that represent noise can also trigger transit detection algorithms. The Kepler Mission has expended great effort in suppressing false positives from its planetary candidate catalogs. While over 18,000 transit-like signatures can be identified for a search across 4 years of data, most of these signatures are artifacts, not planets. Vetting all such signatures historically takes several months’ effort by many individuals. We describe the application of machine learning approaches for the automated vetting and production of planet candidate catalogs. These algorithms can improve the efficiency of the human vetting effort as well as quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is truly a planet. This information is crucial for obtaining valid planet

  6. Item analysis of in use multiple choice questions in pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Mandeep; Singla, Shweta; Mahajan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common method of assessment of medical students. The quality of MCQs is determined by three parameters such as difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI), and distracter efficiency (DE). Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of MCQs currently in use in pharmacology and discard the MCQs which are not found useful. Materials and Methods: A class test of central nervous system unit was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. This test comprised 50 MCQs/items and 150 distracters. A correct response to an item was awarded one mark with no negative marking for incorrect response. Each item was analyzed for three parameters such as DIF I, DI, and DE. Results: DIF of 38 (76%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 11 (22%) items were too easy (P > 70%), and 1 (2%) item was too difficult (P < 30%). DI of 31 (62%) items was excellent (d > 0.35), of 12 (24%) items was good (d = 0.20–0.34), and of 7 (14%) items was poor (d < 0.20). A total of 50 items had 150 distracters. Among these, 27 (18%) were nonfunctional distracters (NFDs) and 123 (82%) were functional distracters. Items with one NFD were 11 and with two NFDs were 8. Based on these parameters, 6 items were discarded, 17 were revised, and 27 were kept for subsequent use. Conclusion: Item analysis is a valuable tool as it helps us to retain the valuable MCQs and discard the items which are not useful. It also helps in increasing our skills in test construction and identifies the specific areas of course content which need greater emphasis or clarity. PMID:27563581

  7. How Item Banks and Their Application Can Influence Measurement Practice in Rehabilitation Medicine: A PROMIS Fatigue Item Bank Example

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David; Choi, Seung; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Christodoulou, Christopher; Gershon, Richard; Stone, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To illustrate how measurement practices can be advanced using as an example the fatigue item bank (FIB) and its applications (short-forms and computerized adaptive test) that were developed via the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Cooperative Group. Design Psychometric analysis of data collected by an internet survey company using Item Response Theory (IRT) related techniques. Setting A United States general population representative sample collected via internet. Participants 803 respondents used for dimensionality evaluation of the PROMIS FIB and 14,931 respondents used for item calibrations Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures 112 fatigue items developed by the PROMIS fatigue domain working group, 13-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and 4-item SF-36 Vitality scale. Results The PROMIS FIB version 1 which consists of 95 items demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) showed consistently better precision than short-forms. However, all three short-forms showed good precision for the majority of participants, in that more than 95% of sample could be precisely measured with a reliability greater than 0.9. Conclusions Measurement practice can be advanced by using a psychometrically sound measurement tool and its applications. This example shows that CAT and short-forms derived from the PROMIS FIB can reliably estimate fatigue reported by the US general population. Evaluation in clinical populations is warranted before the item bank can be used for clinical trials. PMID:21958919

  8. Identifying patients with advanced chronic conditions for a progressive palliative care approach: a cross-sectional study of prognostic indicators related to end-of-life trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Amblàs-Novellas, J; Murray, S A; Espaulella, J; Martinez-Muñoz, M; Blay, C; Gómez-Batiste, X

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 2 innovative concepts have lately been developed to radically improve the care of patients with advanced chronic conditions (PACC): early identification of palliative care (PC) needs and the 3 end-of-life trajectories in chronic illnesses (acute, intermittent and gradual dwindling). It is not clear (1) what indicators work best for this early identification and (2) if specific clinical indicators exist for each of these trajectories. The objectives of this study are to explore these 2 issues. Setting 3 primary care services, an acute care hospital, an intermediate care centre and 4 nursing homes in a mixed urban–rural district in Barcelona, Spain. Participants 782 patients (61.5% women) with a positive NECPAL CCOMS-ICO test, indicating they might benefit from a PC approach. Outcome measures The characteristics and distribution of the indicators of the NECPAL CCOMS-ICO tool are analysed with respect to the 3 trajectories and have been arranged by domain (functional, nutritional and cognitive status, emotional problems, geriatric syndromes, social vulnerability and others) and according to their static (severity) and dynamic (progression) properties. Results The common indicators associated with early end-of-life identification are functional (44.3%) and nutritional (30.7%) progression, emotional distress (21.9%) and geriatric syndromes (15.7% delirium, 11.2% falls). The rest of the indicators showed differences in the associations per illness trajectories (p<0.05). 48.2% of the total cohort was identified as advanced frailty patients with no advanced disease criteria. Conclusions Dynamic indicators are present in the 3 trajectories and are especially useful to identify PACC for a progressive PC approach purpose. Most of the other indicators are typically associated with a specific trajectory. These findings can help clinicians improve the identification of patients for a palliative approach. PMID:27645556

  9. Item Bias Issues: Background, Problems, and Where We Are Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Esther E.

    As test standards and research literature in general indicate, definitions of test bias and item bias vary considerably, as do the results of existing methods of identifying biased items. The situation is further complicated by issues of content, context, construct, and criterion. In achievement tests, for example, content validity may impose…

  10. Sub-Technical Vocabulary and the ESP Teacher: An Analysis of Some Rhetorical Items in Medical Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mona

    1988-01-01

    Subtechnical vocabulary includes items that are neither highly technical nor obviously general, and rhetorical/organizational items are in this category. They serve to signal the writer's intentions or his/her evaluation of the material presented. A technique for identifying subtechnical items is explained. Three identified items are analyzed, and…

  11. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  12. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  13. Item-properties may influence item-item associations in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Madan, Christopher R; Bedwell, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Attributes of words, such as frequency and imageability, can influence memory for order. In serial recall, Hulme, Stuart, Brown, and Morin (Journal of Memory and Language, 49(4), 500-518, 2003) found that high-frequency words were recalled worse, and low-frequency words better, when embedded in alternating lists than pure lists. This is predicted by associative chaining, wherein each recalled list-item becomes a recall-cue for the next item. However, Hulme, Stuart, Brown, and Morin (Journal of Memory and Language, 49(4), 500-518, 2003) argued their findings supported positional-coding models, wherein items are linked to a representation of position, with no direct associations between items. They suggested their serial-position effects were due to pre-experimental semantic similarity between pairs of items, which depended on frequency, or a complex tradeoff between item- and order-coding (Morin, Poirier, Fortin, & Hulme, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 13(4), 724-729, 2006). We replicated the smooth serial-position effects, but accounts based on pre-existing similarity or item-order tradeoffs were untenable. Alternative accounts based, on imageability, phonological and lexical neighbourhood sizes were also ruled out. The standard chaining account predicts that if accuracy is conditionalized on whether the prior item was correct, the word-frequency effect should reappear in alternating lists; however, this prediction was not borne out, challenging this retrieval-based chaining account. We describe a new account, whereby frequency influences the strengths of item-item associations, symmetrically, during study. A manipulation of word-imageability also produced a pattern consistent with item-item cueing at study, but left room for effects of imageability at the final stage of recall. These findings provide further support for the contribution of associative chaining to serial-recall behaviour and show that item-properties may influence serial-recall in multiple ways.

  14. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214-72 Section 852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. Evaluating Item Fit for Multidimensional Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Stone, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the utility of the s-x[superscript 2] statistic proposed by Orlando and Thissen (2000) in evaluating item fit for multidimensional item response models. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate both the Type I error and statistical power of this fit statistic in analyzing two kinds of multidimensional test…

  16. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Allen E.

    A procedure for the detection of differential item performance (DIP) is used to investigate the relationships between characteristics of mathematics achievement items and gender differences in performance. Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM).…

  17. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  18. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  19. An item factor analysis and item response theory-based revision of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian D; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Panter, A T; Daye, Charles E; Allen, Walter R; Wightman, Linda F

    2011-04-01

    The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS), a widely used measure of daily perceived discrimination, is purported to be unidimensional, to function well among African Americans, and to have adequate construct validity. Two separate studies and data sources were used to examine and cross-validate the psychometric properties of the EDS. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a sample of African American law students (N = 589), providing strong evidence of local dependence, or nuisance multidimensionality within the EDS. In Study 2, a separate nationally representative community sample (N = 3,527) was used to model the identified local dependence in an item factor analysis (i.e., bifactor model). Next, item response theory (IRT) calibrations were conducted to obtain item parameters. A five-item, revised-EDS was then tested for gender differential item functioning (in an IRT framework). Based on these analyses, a summed score to IRT-scaled score translation table is provided for the revised-EDS. Our results indicate that the revised-EDS is unidimensional, with minimal differential item functioning, and retains predictive validity consistent with the original scale.

  20. Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)

  1. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  2. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item unique identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... number within the original part, lot, or batch number. Data matrix means a two-dimensional matrix... item identifier component data elements shall be marked on an item using two dimensional data...

  3. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  4. Agriculture Library of Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Duncan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  5. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  6. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B.

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  7. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure - release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public - in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations - 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure - by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers' right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  8. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure - release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public - in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations - 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure - by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers' right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  9. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  10. Immediate serial recall, word frequency, item identity and item position.

    PubMed

    Poirier, M; Saint-Aubin, J

    1996-12-01

    Eighteen subjects completed an immediate serial recall task, where the to-be-recalled lists consisted of either high, medium, or low-frequency items. Moreover, lists were either phonologically similar or distinct. Results showed that increasing frequency enhanced item information recall but had no effect on order recall. Conversely, increasing phonological similarity had a detrimental effect on order recall but no significant effect on item recall. It is argued that both effects reflect retrieval processes where degraded representations are reconstructed on the basis of long-term knowledge: Low-frequency words have reduced accessibility, lowering the probability of correct reconstruction, and phonologically similar items are more easily confused with other recall candidates.

  11. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  12. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  13. Selecting optimal screening items for delirium: an application of item response theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delirium (acute confusion), is a common, morbid, and costly complication of acute illness in older adults. Yet, researchers and clinicians lack short, efficient, and sensitive case identification tools for delirium. Though the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used algorithm for delirium, the existing assessments that operationalize the CAM algorithm may be too long or complicated for routine clinical use. Item response theory (IRT) models help facilitate the development of short screening tools for use in clinical applications or research studies. This study utilizes IRT to identify a reduced set of optimally performing screening indicators for the four CAM features of delirium. Methods Older adults were screened for enrollment in a large scale delirium study conducted in Boston-area post-acute facilities (n = 4,598). Trained interviewers conducted a structured delirium assessment that culminated in rating the presence or absence of four features of delirium based on the CAM. A pool of 135 indicators from established cognitive testing and delirium assessment tools were assigned by an expert panel into two indicator sets per CAM feature representing (a) direct interview questions, including cognitive testing, and (b) interviewer observations. We used IRT models to identify the best items to screen for each feature of delirium. Results We identified 10 dimensions and chose up to five indicators per dimension. Preference was given to items with peak psychometric information in the latent trait region relevant for screening for delirium. The final set of 48 indicators, derived from 39 items, maintains fidelity to clinical constructs of delirium and maximizes psychometric information relevant for screening. Conclusions We identified optimal indicators from a large item pool to screen for delirium. The selected indicators maintain fidelity to clinical constructs of delirium while maximizing psychometric information important for

  14. Alignment of Content and Effectiveness of Mathematics Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald; Dager Wilson, Linda; Kitchen, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Alignment has taken on increased importance given the current high-stakes nature of assessment. To make well-informed decisions about student learning on the basis of test results, assessment items need to be well aligned with standards. Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has developed a procedure for…

  15. Fundamentals of Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains multiple choice test items and assessment techniques for Missouri's fundamentals of marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum is divided into these nine occupational duties: (1) communications in marketing; (2) economics and marketing; (3) employment and advancement; (4) human relations in marketing; (5) marketing…

  16. A Study of the Homogeneity of Items Produced From Item Forms Across Different Taxonomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Margaret B.; Argo, Jana K.

    This study determined whether item forms ( rules for constructing items related to a domain or set of tasks) would enable naive item writers to generate multiple-choice items at three taxonomic levels--knowledge, comprehension, and application. Students wrote 120 multiple-choice items from 20 item forms, corresponding to educational objectives…

  17. Cancer Genomics Identifies Regulatory Gene Networks Associated with the Transition from Dysplasia to Advanced Lung Adenocarcinomas Induced by c-Raf-1

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Borlak, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer morbidity. To improve an understanding of molecular causes of disease a transgenic mouse model was investigated where targeted expression of the serine threonine kinase c-Raf to respiratory epithelium induced initialy dysplasia and subsequently adenocarcinomas. This enables dissection of genetic events associated with precancerous and cancerous lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings By laser microdissection cancer cell populations were harvested and subjected to whole genome expression analyses. Overall 473 and 541 genes were significantly regulated, when cancer versus transgenic and non-transgenic cells were compared, giving rise to three distinct and one common regulatory gene network. At advanced stages of tumor growth predominately repression of gene expression was observed, but genes previously shown to be up-regulated in dysplasia were also up-regulated in solid tumors. Regulation of developmental programs as well as epithelial mesenchymal and mesenchymal endothelial transition was a hall mark of adenocarcinomas. Additionaly, genes coding for cell adhesion, i.e. the integrins and the tight and gap junction proteins were repressed, whereas ligands for receptor tyrosine kinase such as epi- and amphiregulin were up-regulated. Notably, Vegfr- 2 and its ligand Vegfd, as well as Notch and Wnt signalling cascades were regulated as were glycosylases that influence cellular recognition. Other regulated signalling molecules included guanine exchange factors that play a role in an activation of the MAP kinases while several tumor suppressors i.e. Mcc, Hey1, Fat3, Armcx1 and Reck were significantly repressed. Finally, probable molecular switches forcing dysplastic cells into malignantly transformed cells could be identified. Conclusions/Significance This study provides insight into molecular pertubations allowing dysplasia to progress further to adenocarcinoma induced by exaggerted c-Raf kinase activity. PMID:19812696

  18. Multidimensional Item Response Theory Parameter Estimation with Nonsimple Structure Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model parameters can be carried out using the normal ogive with unweighted least squares estimation with the normal-ogive harmonic analysis robust method (NOHARM) software. Previous simulation research has demonstrated that this approach does yield accurate and efficient estimates of item…

  19. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  20. Item Generation for Test Development [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2003-01-01

    This volume, based on papers presented at a 1998 conference, collects thinking and research on item generation for test development. It includes materials on psychometric and cognitive theory, construct-oriented approaches to item generation, the item generation process, and some applications of item generative principles. (SLD)

  1. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  2. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  3. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  4. Use of Cognitive Interviews to Adapt PROMIS Measurement Items for Spanish Speakers Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, R.; Ayala, N. C.; Paez, E.; Skalicky, A. M.; Morales, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To use cognitive interviewing techniques to assess comprehension of existing Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) items among Latinos living with HIV and then refine items based on participant feedback. Methods. Latino monolingual Spanish speakers living with HIV (n = 56) participated in cognitive interviews. Items from four PROMIS domains, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and alcohol use, were assessed for comprehension. Audiotaped interviews and handwritten notes were subjected to content analysis to identify problems specific to each instrument for each domain. Results. The assessments from the cognitive interviews identified areas for improvement in each domain. We present data on the type of items that were difficult to comprehend and provide examples for how items were refined based on participants' and PROMIS Statistical Coordinating Center (PSCC) feedback. Six out of 48 depression items, 7 out of the 61 anxiety items, 18 out of 42 fatigue items, and 7 out of 44 alcohol use items were found to have poor comprehension. These items were refined based on participant feedback; the items were then submitted to the PSCC for additional guidance on linguistics and grammar to improve comprehension. Conclusions. Cognitive interviews may be used to enhance comprehension of PROMIS items among Latinos. PMID:27022480

  5. Application of Optimal Designs to Item Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), examinees are presented with various sets of items chosen from a precalibrated item pool. Consequently, the attrition speed of the items is extremely fast, and replenishing the item pool is essential. Therefore, item calibration has become a crucial concern in maintaining item banks. In this study, a two-parameter logistic model is used. We applied optimal designs and adaptive sequential analysis to solve this item calibration problem. The results indicated that the proposed optimal designs are cost effective and time efficient. PMID:25188318

  6. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  7. Measurement of teen dating violence attitudes: an item response theory evaluation of differential item functioning according to gender.

    PubMed

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; McCaffrey, Daniel F; Marshall, Grant N; Jaycox, Lisa H

    2009-08-01

    Accurate assessment of attitudes about intimate partner violence is important for evaluation of prevention and early intervention programs. Assessment of attitudes about cross-gender interactions is particularly susceptible to bias because it requires specifying the gender of the perpetrator and the victim. As it is likely that respondents will tend to identify with the same-gender actor, items and scales assessing attitudes about intimate partner violence may not have equivalent measurement properties for male and female respondents. This article examines data from 2,575 high school students who participated in a teen-dating violence intervention study. The majority of participants were Latino (91%), and the sample was nearly evenly split with respect to gender (51% female). Items from two scales (boy-on-girl violence, 4 items; girl-on-boy violence, 5 items) reflecting teens' attitudes about dating violence were calibrated with the graded item response theory (IRT) model and evaluated for differential item functioning (DIF) by gender. A total of three items, two from the girl-on-boy violence scale and one from the boy-on-girl violence scale, were identified as functioning differently for girls and boys. In all cases where DIF was detected, the item's attitudinal statement was easier to accept for the gender group that was portrayed as victim rather than perpetrator. For both scales, accounting for the identified DIF influenced inferences about the magnitude of mean differences in attitudes between boys and girls. These results support the use of IRT scores that account for DIF to minimize measurement error and improve inferences about gender differences in attitudes about dating violence.

  8. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  9. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  10. Development of the PROMIS® Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D.; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The positive emotional and sensory expectancies of cigarette smoking include improved cognitive abilities, positive affective states, and pleasurable sensorimotor sensations. This paper describes development of Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking item banks that will serve to standardize the assessment of this construct among daily and nondaily cigarette smokers. Methods: Data came from daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers who completed an online survey. To identify a unidimensional set of items, we conducted item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of fixed-item short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess the construct. Results: Eighteen items were included in the item banks (15 common across daily and nondaily smokers, 1 unique to daily, 2 unique to nondaily). The item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 for both), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.86). Results from simulated CATs indicated that, on average, less than 8 items are needed to assess the construct with adequate precision using the item banks. Conclusions: These analyses identified a new set of items that can assess the positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking in a reliable and standardized manner. Considerable efficiency in assessing this construct can be achieved by using the item bank SF, employing computer adaptive tests, or selecting subsets of items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. PMID:25118228

  11. Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardamone, Caroline N.; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel T.; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-02-01

    Item response theory is useful in both the development and evaluation of assessments and in computing standardized measures of student performance. In item response theory, individual parameters (difficulty, discrimination) for each item or question are fit by item response models. These parameters provide a means for evaluating a test and offer a better measure of student skill than a raw test score, because each skill calculation considers not only the number of questions answered correctly, but the individual properties of all questions answered. Here, we present the results from an analysis of the Mechanics Baseline Test given at MIT during 2005-2010. Using the item parameters, we identify questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test that are not effective in discriminating between MIT students of different abilities. We show that a limited subset of the highest quality questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test returns accurate measures of student skill. We compare student skills as determined by item response theory to the more traditional measurement of the raw score and show that a comparable measure of learning gain can be computed.

  12. Investigating the Function of Content and Argumentation Items in a Science Test: A Multidimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shih-Ying; Wilson, Mark; Henderson, J Bryan; Osborne, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The latest national science framework has formally stated the need for developing assessments that test both students' content knowledge and scientific practices. In response to this call, a science assessment that consists of (a) content items that measure students' understanding of a grade eight physics topic and (b) argumentation items that measure students' argumentation competency has been developed. This paper investigated the function of these content and argumentation items with a multidimensional measurement framework from two perspectives. First, we performed a dimensionality analysis to investigate whether the relationship between the content and argumentation items conformed to test deign. Second, we conducted a differential item functioning analysis in the multidimensional framework to examine if any content or argumentation item unfairly favored students with an advanced level of English literacy. Methods and findings of this study could inform future research on the validation of assessments measuring higher-order and complex abilities.

  13. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  14. Item Overlap Correlations: Definitions, Interpretations, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1994-01-01

    Item overlap coefficient (IOC) formulas are discussed, providing six warnings about their calculation and interpretation and some explanations of why item overlap influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory factor structures. (SLD)

  15. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  16. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale.

    PubMed

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice C; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child's behavioral patterns (i.e., Surgency, Negative Affectivity Effortful Control) using both scales. Psychometrics of the 36-item Children's Behavior Questionnaire were examined using classical test theory, principal factor analysis, and item response modeling. Classical test theory analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency and factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Potential improvements to the measure were identified using item response modeling. A one-item (three response categories) temperament scale was validated against the three temperament factors of the 36-item scale. The temperament response categories correlated with the temperament factors of the 36-item scale, as expected. The one-item temperament scale may be applicable for clinical use.

  17. Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents

    PubMed Central

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed. PMID:21389777

  18. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  19. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  20. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... items, if reported other than as extraordinary items. (c) This account shall be charged or credited and Account 4070, Income taxes—accrued, shall be credited or charged for all current income tax effects (Federal, state and local) of extraordinary items. (d) This account shall also be charged or credited,...

  1. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  2. Computer Equipment Repair Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 321 test items for use in teaching a course in repairing computer equipment. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in the following skill areas (with selected skills mentioned in brackets): performing…

  3. Linking Item Parameters to a Base Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Petersen, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares three methods of item calibration--concurrent calibration, separate calibration with linking, and fixed item parameter calibration--that are frequently used for linking item parameters to a base scale. Concurrent and separate calibrations were implemented using BILOG-MG. The Stocking and Lord in "Appl Psychol Measure"…

  4. On the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty: An Issue of Methods? Item Response Theory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between differential item functioning (DIF) and item difficulty on the SAT is such that more difficult items tended to exhibit DIF in favor of the focal group (usually minority groups). These results were reported by Kulick and Hu, and Freedle and have been enthusiastically discussed by more recent literature. Examining the…

  5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on welding contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Welding Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. Questions have been statistically sampled and validated…

  6. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., USDA will use life cycle cost information only from tests using the BEES analytical method. (c... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., USDA will use life cycle cost information only from tests using the BEES analytical method. (c... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate...

  8. Identification of a Semiparametric Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peress, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We consider the identification of a semiparametric multidimensional fixed effects item response model. Item response models are typically estimated under parametric assumptions about the shape of the item characteristic curves (ICCs), and existing results suggest difficulties in recovering the distribution of individual characteristics under…

  9. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  10. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  11. Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

  12. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  13. A Scalable Set of ESL Reading Comprehension Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle

    Guttman implicational scaling techniques were used to identify a unidimensional set of English as a Second Language reading comprehension items. Data were analyzed from 202 students who sat for an institutional administration of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The examinees who contributed to the scalable set had significantly…

  14. Design Patterns for Digital Item Types in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draaijer, S.; Hartog, R. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    A set of design patterns for digital item types has been developed in response to challenges identified in various projects by teachers in higher education. The goal of the projects in question was to design and develop formative and summative tests, and to develop interactive learning material in the form of quizzes. The subject domains involved…

  15. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Advanced Ovarian Cancer Tissue to Identify Potential Biomarkers of Responders and Nonresponders to First-Line Chemotherapy of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Urmila; Pokhriyal, Ruchika; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Hariprasad, Roopa; Khan, Mohd Imran; Gupta, Divya; Naru, Jasmine; Singh, Sundararajan Baskar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Vanamail, Perumal; Kumar, Lalit; Kumar, Sunesh; Hariprasad, Gururao

    2016-01-01

    Conventional treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is an initial debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel. Despite initial high response, three-fourths of these women experience disease recurrence with a dismal prognosis. Patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery were enrolled and tissue samples were collected. Post surgery, these patients were started on chemotherapy and followed up till the end of the cycle. Fluorescence-based differential in-gel expression coupled with mass spectrometric analysis was used for discovery phase of experiments, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and pathway analysis were performed for expression and functional validation of differentially expressed proteins. While aldehyde reductase, hnRNP, cyclophilin A, heat shock protein-27, and actin are upregulated in responders, prohibitin, enoyl-coA hydratase, peroxiredoxin, and fibrin-β are upregulated in the nonresponders. The expressions of some of these proteins correlated with increased apoptotic activity in responders and decreased apoptotic activity in nonresponders. Therefore, the proteins qualify as potential biomarkers to predict chemotherapy response. PMID:26997873

  17. Exposure dating and glacial reconstruction at Mt. Field, Tasmania, Australia, identifies MIS 3 and MIS 2 glacial advances and climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackintosh, A. N.; Barrows, T. T.; Colhoun, E. A.; Fifield, L. K.

    2006-05-01

    Tasmania is important for understanding Quaternary climatic change because it is one of only three areas that experienced extensive mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere glaciation and it lies in a dominantly oceanic environment at a great distance from Northern Hemisphere ice sheet feedbacks. We applied exposure dating using 36Cl to an extensive sequence of moraines from the last glacial at Mt. Field, Tasmania. Glaciers advanced at 41-44 ka during Marine oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and at 18 ka during MIS 2. Both advances occurred in response to an ELA lowering greater than 1100 m below the present-day mean summer freezing level, and a possible temperature reduction of 7-8°C. Deglaciation was rapid and complete by ca. 16 ka. The overall story emerging from studies of former Tasmanian glaciers is that the MIS 2 glaciation was of limited extent and that some glaciers were more extensive during earlier parts of the last glacial cycle. Copyright

  18. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  19. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Clones. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it is assumed that the item parameters of a…

  20. Distractor Similarity and Item-Stem Structure: Effects on Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascalon, M. Evelina; Meyers, Lawrence S.; Davis, Bruce W.; Smits, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article examined two item-writing guidelines: the format of the item stem and homogeneity of the answer set. Answering the call of Haladyna, Downing, and Rodriguez (2002) for empirical tests of item writing guidelines and extending the work of Smith and Smith (1988) on differential use of item characteristics, a mock multiple-choice driver's…

  1. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  2. An Item Response Theory Model for Incorporating Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a general item response theory model for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear model and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…

  3. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  4. Developing an Interpretation of Item Parameters for Personality Items: Content Correlates of Parameter Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickar, Michael J.; Ury, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempted to relate content features of personality items to item parameter estimates from the partial credit model of E. Muraki (1990) by administering the Adjective Checklist (L. Goldberg, 1992) to 329 undergraduates. As predicted, the discrimination parameter was related to the item subtlety ratings of personality items but the level of word…

  5. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  6. Differential Item Functioning of GRE Mathematics Items across Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Testing Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lixiong; Drake, Samuel; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether item features are related to observed differences in item difficulty (DIF) between computer- and paper-based test delivery media. Examinees responded to 60 quantitative items similar to those found on the GRE general test in either a computer-based or paper-based medium. Thirty-eight percent of the items were…

  7. Restricted interests and teacher presentation of items.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items.

  8. RESTRICTED INTERESTS AND TEACHER PRESENTATION OF ITEMS

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items. PMID:21941381

  9. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 3: Supporting data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The overall study effort proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of 5 for detail trade studies. The technical issues and options were evaluated through the trade process. Finally, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement. Eight priority technology items were identified for advancement. Supporting data generated during the trade selection and trade study process were presented. Space platform requirements, trade study and cost benefits analysis, and technology advancement planning are advanced. The structured approach used took advantage of a number of forms developed to ensure that a consistent approach was employed by each of the diverse specialists that participated. These forms were an intrinsic part of the study protocol.

  10. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  12. Increased Levels of Plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA Identify a Poor-Risk Subset of Patients With Advanced Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Gru, Alejandro A.; Geyer, Susan M.; Bingman, Anissa K.; Hemminger, Jessica A.; Mishra, Anjali; Wong, Henry K.; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Discovering prognostic factors that simultaneously describe tumor characteristics and improve risk stratification is a priority in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). More than a third of advanced stage CTCL patients in this cohort had detectable cell free plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-DNA (pEBVd) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An increased level of pEBVd was highly concordant with EBV (ie, Epstein–Barr virus RNAs) in tumor tissue and was associated with inferior survival. Introduction Outcomes in advanced stage (AS) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are poor but with great variability. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Frequency of plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) detection, concordance with EBV RNA (EBER) in tumor tissue, codetection of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA (pCMVd), and prognostic effect in AS CTCL are unknown. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 46; 2006–2013) with AS CTCL (≥IIB) were retrospectively studied. pEBVd and pCMVd were longitudinally measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on tumor samples. Survival from time of diagnosis (ToD) and time of progression to AS was assessed. Results Plasma EBV-DNA and pCMVd were detected in 37% (17 of 46) and 17% (8 of 46) of AS CTCL patients, respectively. pCMVd detection was significantly more frequent in pEBVd-positive (pEBVd+) than pEBVd− patients (35% vs. 7%; P = .038). Tumor tissue for EBER-ISH was available in 14 of 17 pEBVd+ and 22 of 29 pEBVd− patients; 12 of 14 (85.7%) pEBVd+ patients were EBER+ versus 0 of 22 pEBVd− patients. Frequency of large cell transformation (LCT) tended to be greater in pEBVd+ patients, but was not significant (10 of 14 pEBVd+ vs. 10 of 23 pEBVd−; P = .17). No notable differences in rates of increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed (17 of 17 pEBVd+ vs. 27 of 29 pEBVd−). pEBVd detection was associated with

  13. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  14. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Using Hierarchical Logistic Regression Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, David B.; Clauser, Brian E.; Case, Susan M.; Nungester, Ronald J.; Featherman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an approach to differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using hierarchical linear regression that makes it possible to combine results of logistic regression analyses across items to identify consistent sources of DIF, to quantify the proportion of explained variation in DIF coefficients, and to compare the predictive accuracy of…

  15. Sensitivity of Equated Aggregate Scores to the Treatment of Misbehaving Common Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2010-01-01

    The delta-plot method (Angoff, 1972) is a graphical technique used in the context of test equating for identifying common items with aberrant changes in their item difficulties across administrations or alternate forms. This brief research report explores the effects on equated aggregate scores when delta-plot outliers are either retained in or…

  16. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  17. 17 CFR 229.1103 - (Item 1103) Transaction summary and risk factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subordination features) and any other material features of the transaction. (1) Identify the participants in the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1103) Transaction... (Regulation AB) § 229.1103 (Item 1103) Transaction summary and risk factors. (a) Prospectus summary....

  18. A Polytomous Item Response Theory Analysis of Social Physique Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard B.; Crocker, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the social physique anxiety scale's factor structure and item properties using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. An additional aim was to identify differences in response patterns between groups (gender). A large sample of high school students aged 11-15 years (N = 1,529) consisting of n =…

  19. Multiple-Choice Test Items: What Are Textbook Authors Telling Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Randy A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of educational psychology textbooks identified textbook authors' guidelines for teachers to follow when writing multiple-choice test items. Selected guidelines were used to evaluate multiple-choice items (N=1,080) from 18 college instructor guides to educational psychology texts. Results indicated that approximately 60 percent of the…

  20. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  1. A scoping study to identify opportunities to advance the ethical implementation and scale-up of HIV treatment as prevention: priorities for empirical research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the evidence showing the promise of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) in reducing HIV incidence, a variety of ethical questions surrounding the implementation and “scaling up” of TasP have been articulated by a variety of stakeholders including scientists, community activists and government officials. Given the high profile and potential promise of TasP in combatting the global HIV epidemic, an explicit and transparent research priority-setting process is critical to inform ongoing ethical discussions pertaining to TasP. Methods We drew on the Arksey and O’Malley framework for conducting scoping review studies as well as systematic approaches to identifying empirical and theoretical gaps within ethical discussions pertaining to population-level intervention implementation and scale up. We searched the health science database PubMed to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles on ethical and implementation issues pertaining to TasP. We included English language articles that were published after 2009 (i.e., after the emergence of causal evidence within this field) by using search terms related to TasP. Given the tendency for much of the criticism and support of TasP to occur outside the peer-reviewed literature, we also included grey literature in order to provide a more exhaustive representation of how the ethical discussions pertaining to TasP have and are currently taking place. To identify the grey literature, we systematically searched a set of search engines, databases, and related webpages for keywords pertaining to TasP. Results Three dominant themes emerged in our analysis with respect to the ethical questions pertaining to TasP implementation and scale-up: (a) balancing individual- and population-level interests; (b) power relations within clinical practice and competing resource demands within health care systems; (c) effectiveness considerations and socio-structural contexts of HIV treatment experiences within broader

  2. Neuro-QOL: quality of life item banks for adults with neurological disorders: item development and calibrations based upon clinical and general population testing

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin Shei; Bode, Rita; Choi, Seung; Moy, Claudia; Bleck, Tom; Miller, Deborah; Peterman, Amy; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Neuro-QOL provides a clinically relevant and psychometrically robust health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessment tool for both adults and children with common neurological disorders. We now report the psychometric results for the adult tools. Methods An extensive research, survey and consensus process was used to produce a list of 5 priority adult neurological conditions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and ALS). We identified relevant health related quality of life (HRQL) domains through multiple methods and data sources including a comprehensive review of the literature and literature search, expert interviews and surveys and patient and caregiver focus groups. The final domain framework consisted of 17 domains of Physical, Mental and Social health. There were five phases of item development: (1) identification of 3,482 extant items, (2) item classification and selection, (3) item review and revision, (4) cognitive interviews with 63 patients to assess their understanding of individual items and (5) field testing of 432 representative items. Participants and Procedures Participants were drawn from the US general population and clinical settings, and included both English and Spanish speaking subjects (N = 3,246). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the dimensionality of unidimensional domains. Where the domain structure was previously unknown, the dataset was split and first analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and then CFA. Samejima’s graded response model (GRM) was used to calculate IRT parameters. We further evaluated differential item functioning (DIF) on gender, education and age. Results Thirteen unidimensional calibrated item banks consisting of 297 items were developed. All of the tested item banks had high reliability and few or no locally dependent items. The range of item slopes and thresholds with good information are reported for each of the item banks. The banks can support CAT and

  3. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determined by the requirements of each Government agency's supply system. The item of supply concept... quality controlled item than the regular item of production, or (d) A modification of a regular item...

  4. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determined by the requirements of each Government agency's supply system. The item of supply concept... quality controlled item than the regular item of production, or (d) A modification of a regular item...

  5. Digital item for digital human memory--television commerce application: family tree albuming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Lee, Hyejoo; Hong, JinWoo

    2004-01-01

    Technical advance in creating, storing digital media in daily life enables computers to capture human life and remember it as people do. A critical point with digitizing human life is how to recall bits of experience that are associated by semantic information. This paper proposes a technique for structuring dynamic digital object based on MPEG-21 Digital Item (DI) in order to recall human"s memory and providing interactive TV service on family tree albuming system as one of its applications. DIs are a dynamically reconfigurable, uniquely identified, described by a descriptor language, logical unit for structuring relationship among multiple media resources. Digital Item Processing (DIP) provides the means to interact with DIs to remind context to user, with active properties where objects have executable properties. Each user can adapt DIs" active properties to tailor the behavior of DIs to match his/her own specific needs. DIs" technologies in Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) can be used for privacy protection. In the interaction between the social space and technological space, the internal dynamics of family life fits well sharing family albuming service via family television. Family albuming service can act as virtual communities builders for family members. As memory is shared between family members, multiple annotations (including active properties on contextual information) will be made with snowballing value.

  6. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items. PMID:27546077

  7. An item response curves analysis of the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Harshman, Nathan; Branum-Martin, Lee; Mazur, Eric; Mzoughi, Taha; Baker, Stephen D.

    2012-09-01

    Several years ago, we introduced the idea of item response curves (IRC), a simplistic form of item response theory (IRT), to the physics education research community as a way to examine item performance on diagnostic instruments such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). We noted that a full-blown analysis using IRT would be a next logical step, which several authors have since taken. In this paper, we show that our simple approach not only yields similar conclusions in the analysis of the performance of items on the FCI to the more sophisticated and complex IRT analyses but also permits additional insights by characterizing both the correct and incorrect answer choices. Our IRC approach can be applied to a variety of multiple-choice assessments but, as applied to a carefully designed instrument such as the FCI, allows us to probe student understanding as a function of ability level through an examination of each answer choice. We imagine that physics teachers could use IRC analysis to identify prominent misconceptions and tailor their instruction to combat those misconceptions, fulfilling the FCI authors' original intentions for its use. Furthermore, the IRC analysis can assist test designers to improve their assessments by identifying nonfunctioning distractors that can be replaced with distractors attractive to students at various ability levels.

  8. Automatic Identification of Critical Data Items in a Database to Mitigate the Effects of Malicious Insiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan; Panda, Brajendra

    A major concern for computer system security is the threat from malicious insiders who target and abuse critical data items in the system. In this paper, we propose a solution to enable automatic identification of critical data items in a database by way of data dependency relationships. This identification of critical data items is necessary because insider threats often target mission critical data in order to accomplish malicious tasks. Unfortunately, currently available systems fail to address this problem in a comprehensive manner. It is more difficult for non-experts to identify these critical data items because of their lack of familiarity and due to the fact that data systems are constantly changing. By identifying the critical data items automatically, security engineers will be better prepared to protect what is critical to the mission of the organization and also have the ability to focus their security efforts on these critical data items. We have developed an algorithm that scans the database logs and forms a directed graph showing which items influence a large number of other items and at what frequency this influence occurs. This graph is traversed to reveal the data items which have a large influence throughout the database system by using a novel metric based formula. These items are critical to the system because if they are maliciously altered or stolen, the malicious alterations will spread throughout the system, delaying recovery and causing a much more malignant effect. As these items have significant influence, they are deemed to be critical and worthy of extra security measures. Our proposal is not intended to replace existing intrusion detection systems, but rather is intended to complement current and future technologies. Our proposal has never been performed before, and our experimental results have shown that it is very effective in revealing critical data items automatically.

  9. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  10. L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

  11. From concepts to lexical items.

    PubMed

    Bierwisch, M; Schreuder, R

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we address the question how in language production conceptual structures are mapped onto lexical items. First we describe the lexical system in a fairly abstract way. Such a system consists of, among other things, a fixed set of basic lexical entries characterized by four groups of information: phonetic form, grammatical features, argument structure, and semantic form. A crucial assumption of the paper is that the meaning in a lexical entry has a complex internal structure composed of more primitive elements (decomposition). Some aspects of argument structure and semantic form and their interaction are discussed with respect to the issue of synonymy. We propose two different mappings involved in lexical access. One maps conceptual structures to semantic forms, and the other maps semantic forms to conceptual structures. Both mappings are context dependent and are many-to-many mappings. We present an elaboration of Levelt's (1989) model in which these processes interact with the grammatical encoder and the mental lexicon. Then we address the consequences of decomposition for processing models, especially the nature of the input of lexical access and the time course. Processing models that use the activation metaphor may have difficulties accounting for certain phenomena where a certain lemma triggers not one, but two or more word forms that have to be produced with other word forms in between.

  12. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  13. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  14. Identifying the Drivers and Occurrence of Historical and Future Extreme Air-quality Events in the United States Using Advanced Statistical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D. S.; Russell, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Episodes of air-quality extremes are known to be heavily influenced by meteorological conditions, but traditional statistical analysis techniques focused on means and standard deviations may not capture important relationships at the tails of these two respective distributions. Using quantile regression (QR) and extreme value theory (EVT), methodologies specifically developed to examine the behavior of heavy-tailed phenomena, we analyze extremes in the multi-decadal record of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. We investigate observations from the Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) networks for connections to meteorological drivers, as provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) product. Through regional characterization by quantile behavior and EVT modeling of the meteorological covariates most responsible for extreme levels of O3 and PM2.5, we estimate pollutant exceedance frequencies and uncertainties in the United States under current and projected future climates, highlighting those meteorological covariates and interactions whose influence on air-quality extremes differs most significantly from the behavior of the bulk of the distribution. As current policy may be influenced by air-quality projections, we then compare these estimated frequencies to those produced by NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM) identifying regions, covariates, and species whose extreme behavior may not be adequately captured by current models.

  15. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  16. Does Acquiescence Affect Individual Items Consistently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found the effects of acquiescence to be generally consistent across item "aggregates" within a single survey (i.e., essential tau-equivalence), but it is unknown whether this phenomenon is consistent at the" individual item" level. This article evaluated the often assumed but inadequately tested…

  17. FILE: A Program for Cataloging Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindler, Dick L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer program which allows the user to establish and maintain a file of up to 1,000 items. Items are stored alphabetically and may be searched. Copy of the program for Apple II Plus (DOS 3.3) may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  18. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    1997-01-01

    Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in principles of fairness to examinees, are re-examined in the context of adaptive testing. The additional strategy of retesting from a pool cleansed of flawed items is found, through a Monte Carlo study, to bring about no practical improvement. (SLD)

  19. Classification Scheme for Items in CAAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marion G.

    In planning the development of the system for computer assisted assembly of tests, it was agreed at the outset that one of the basic requirements for the successful initiation of any such system would be the development of a detailed item content classification system. The design of the system for classifying item content is a key element in…

  20. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  1. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  2. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  3. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  4. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  5. Detecting Gender Bias through Test Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    Many physical science and physics instructors might not be trained in pedagogically appropriate test construction methods. This could lead to test items that do not measure what they are intended to measure. A subgroup of these items might show bias against some groups of students. This paper describes how the author became aware of potentially…

  6. Modeling Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework, using a data-augmented Gibbs sampler. An obvious…

  7. Geography: Library of Test Items. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  8. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  9. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to §...

  10. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business... the Handbook. DATES: Comments should be submitted in writing to the address shown below on or...

  11. Item Banks: What, Where, Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzaldua, Ric M.

    This paper discusses item banks calibrated to indicate levels of difficulty to assist in test development. The item bank topics discussed are: (1) purpose; (2) development issues; (3) advantages and disadvantages; and (4) practical issues. The most common issues are content validity, reliability, concerns with software purchase and programming,…

  12. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  13. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  14. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25... OTHER FIREARMS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 479.25 Collector's items. The Director shall determine in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 5845(a), whether a firearm or device, which...

  15. Nomograms Predicting Progression-Free Survival, Overall Survival, and Pelvic Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Developed From an Analysis of Identifiable Prognostic Factors in Patients From NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Randomized Trials of Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter G.; Java, James; Whitney, Charles W.; Stehman, Frederick B.; Lanciano, Rachelle; Thomas, Gillian M.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic factors in locally advanced cervical cancer limited to the pelvis and develop nomograms for 2-year progression-free survival (PFS), 5-year overall survival (OS), and pelvic recurrence. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 2,042 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma enrolled onto Gynecologic Oncology Group clinical trials of concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nomograms for 2-year PFS, five-year OS, and pelvic recurrence were created as visualizations of Cox proportional hazards regression models. The models were validated by bootstrap-corrected, relatively unbiased estimates of discrimination and calibration. Results Multivariable analysis identified prognostic factors including histology, race/ethnicity, performance status, tumor size, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor grade, pelvic node status, and treatment with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PFS, OS, and pelvic recurrence nomograms had bootstrap-corrected concordance indices of 0.62, 0.64, and 0.73, respectively, and were well calibrated. Conclusion Prognostic factors were used to develop nomograms for 2-year PFS, 5-year OS, and pelvic recurrence for locally advanced cervical cancer clinically limited to the pelvis treated with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These nomograms can be used to better estimate individual and collective outcomes. PMID:25732170

  16. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... alteration, modification, or repair. The following functions are identified as direct production:...

  17. 48 CFR 1352.271-72 - Additional Item Requirements (AIR)-growth work

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-72 Additional Item Requirements (AIR)—growth work As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.103... alteration, modification, or repair. The following functions are identified as direct production:...

  18. Test Anxiety and Item Order: New Parameters for Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Richard C.

    Examinees (N=1,233) at the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) were administered one of three test forms in which only item order differed. The study was undertaken to determine the validity of the assumption underlying item response theory (IRT) that there are fixed item parameters that can predict performance. The Rasch IRT model was…

  19. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  20. Assessing the Utility of Item Response Theory Models: Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd

    The current status of item response theory (IRT) is discussed. Several IRT methods exist for assessing whether an item is biased. Focus is on methods proposed by L. M. Rudner (1975), F. M. Lord (1977), D. Thissen et al. (1988) and R. L. Linn and D. Harnisch (1981). Rudner suggested a measure of the area lying between the two item characteristic…

  1. Designing P-Optimal Item Pools in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xuechun

    2012-01-01

    Current CAT applications consist of predominantly dichotomous items, and CATs with polytomously scored items are limited. To ascertain the best approach to polytomous CAT, a significant amount of research has been conducted on item selection, ability estimation, and impact of termination rules based on polytomous IRT models. Few studies…

  2. Comparing Methods for Item Analysis: The Impact of Different Item-Selection Statistics on Test Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…

  3. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  4. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  5. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  6. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morley, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and to assess its psychometric properties. The final instrument is intended for use in clinical trials and interventions targeted at maintaining or improving activity and participation. PMID:26056503

  7. Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-08-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 85 to 140) and age (college age, 60-74 years old, and 75-90 years old). IQ had large effects on drift rate in recognition and recall performance, except for the oldest participants with some measures near floor. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in recall, and IQ all correlated strongly. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and cued recall accuracy (70%). In contrast, there were large effects of age on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks) but small effects of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual-process models of item recognition are discussed, and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than are models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for modeling. PMID:21707207

  8. Controlling Type I Error Rate in Evaluating Differential Item Functioning for Four DIF Methods: Use of Three Procedures for Adjustment of Multiple Item Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    In DIF studies, a Type I error refers to the mistake of identifying non-DIF items as DIF items, and a Type I error rate refers to the proportion of Type I errors in a simulation study. The possibility of making a Type I error in DIF studies is always present and high possibility of making such an error can weaken the validity of the assessment.…

  9. Frontoparietal networks involved in categorization and item working memory.

    PubMed

    Braunlich, Kurt; Gomez-Lavin, Javier; Seger, Carol A

    2015-02-15

    Categorization and memory for specific items are fundamental processes that allow us to apply knowledge to novel stimuli. This study directly compares categorization and memory using delay match to category (DMC) and delay match to sample (DMS) tasks. In DMC participants view and categorize a stimulus, maintain the category across a delay, and at the probe phase view another stimulus and indicate whether it is in the same category or not. In DMS, a standard item working memory task, participants encode and maintain a specific individual item, and at probe decide if the stimulus is an exact match or not. Constrained Principal Components Analysis was used to identify and compare activity within neural networks associated with these tasks, and we relate these networks to those that have been identified with resting state-fMRI. We found that two frontoparietal networks of particular interest. The first network included regions associated with the dorsal attention network and frontoparietal salience network; this network showed patterns of activity consistent with a role in rapid orienting to and processing of complex stimuli. The second uniquely involved regions of the frontoparietal central-executive network; this network responded more slowly following each stimulus and showed a pattern of activity consistent with a general role in role in decision-making across tasks. Additional components were identified that were associated with visual, somatomotor and default mode networks. PMID:25482265

  10. Advanced Docking Berthing System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James

    2006-01-01

    In FY05 the Exploration Systems Technology Maturation Program selected the JSC advanced mating systems development to continue as an in-house project. In FY06, as a result of ESAS Study (60 Day Study) the CEV Project (within the Constellation Program) has chosen to continue the project as a GFE Flight Hardware development effort. New requirement for CEV to travel and dock with the ISS in 2011/12 in support of retiring the Shuttle and reducing the gap of time where US does not have any US based crew launch capability. As before, long-duration compatible seal-on-seal technology (seal-on-seal to support androgynous interface) has been identified as a risk mitigation item.

  11. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  12. Bookmark locations and item response model selection in the presence of local item dependence.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The bookmark standard setting procedure is a popular method for setting performance standards on state assessment programs. This study reanalyzed data from an application of the bookmark procedure to a passage-based test that used the Rasch model to create the item ordered booklet. Several problems were noted in this implementation of the bookmark procedure, including disagreement among the SMEs about the correct order of items in the bookmark booklet, performance level descriptions of the passing standard being based on passage difficulty as well as item difficulty, and the presence of local item dependence within reading passages. Bookmark item locations were recalculated for the IRT three-parameter model and the multidimensional bifactor model. The results showed that the order of item locations was very similar for all three models when items of high difficulty and low discrimination were excluded. However, the items whose positions were the most discrepant between models were not the items that the SMEs disagreed about the most in the original standard setting. The choice of latent trait model did not address problems of item order disagreement. Implications for the use of the bookmark method in the presence of local item dependence are discussed.

  13. Item response theory for measurement validity

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Frances M.; KAO, Solon T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Item response theory (IRT) is an important method of assessing the validity of measurement scales that is underutilized in the field of psychiatry. IRT describes the relationship between a latent trait (e.g., the construct that the scale proposes to assess), the properties of the items in the scale, and respondents’ answers to the individual items. This paper introduces the basic premise, assumptions, and methods of IRT. To help explain these concepts we generate a hypothetical scale using three items from a modified, binary (yes/no) response version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale that was administered to 19,399 respondents. We first conducted a factor analysis to confirm the unidimensionality of the three items and then proceeded with Mplus software to construct the 2-Parameter Logic (2-PL) IRT model of the data, a method which allows for estimates of both item discrimination and item difficulty. The utility of this information both for clinical purposes and for scale construction purposes is discussed. PMID:25114494

  14. 12 CFR 950.2 - Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances. 950.2 Section 950.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.2...

  15. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A’Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Materials and methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Results Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. Conclusion The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.

  16. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A’Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Materials and methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Results Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. Conclusion The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey. PMID:27621678

  17. Development of the 7-Item Binge-Eating Disorder Screener (BEDS-7)

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Linda S.; DiBenedetti, Dana B.; Nelson, Lauren; Fehnel, Sheri E.; Brown, T. Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective Develop a brief, patient-reported screening tool designed to identify individuals with probable binge-eating disorder (BED) for further evaluation or referral to specialists. Methods Items were developed on the basis of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, existing tools, and input from 3 clinical experts (January 2014). Items were then refined in cognitive debriefing interviews with participants self-reporting BED characteristics (March 2014) and piloted in a multisite, cross-sectional, prospective, noninterventional study consisting of a semistructured diagnostic interview (to diagnose BED) and administration of the pilot Binge-Eating Disorder Screener (BEDS), Binge Eating Scale (BES), and RAND 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (RAND-36) (June 2014–July 2014). The sensitivity and specificity of classification algorithms (formed from the pilot BEDS item-level responses) in predicting BED diagnosis were evaluated. The final algorithm was selected to minimize false negatives and false positives, while utilizing the fewest number of BEDS items. Results Starting with the initial BEDS item pool (20 items), the 13-item pilot BEDS resulted from the cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 13). Of the 97 participants in the noninterventional study, 16 were diagnosed with BED (10/62 female, 16%; 6/35 male, 17%). Seven BEDS items (BEDS-7) yielded 100% sensitivity and 38.7% specificity. Participants correctly identified (true positives) had poorer BES scores and RAND-36 scores than participants identified as true negatives. Conclusions Implementation of the brief, patient-reported BEDS-7 in real-world clinical practice is expected to promote better understanding of BED characteristics and help physicians identify patients who may have BED. PMID:27486542

  18. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  19. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  20. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  1. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  2. Extending item response theory to online homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  3. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  4. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  5. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  6. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L; Sampson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  7. 12 CFR 950.13 - Special advances to savings associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special advances to savings associations. 950... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.13 Special advances to savings associations..., may make short-term advances to a savings association member. (2) Such request must certify that...

  8. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, Jeffrey A; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2015-01-06

    A system includes host and learning machines. Each machine has a processor in electrical communication with at least one sensor. Instructions for predicting a binary quality status of an item of interest during a repeatable process are recorded in memory. The binary quality status includes passing and failing binary classes. The learning machine receives signals from the at least one sensor and identifies candidate features. Features are extracted from the candidate features, each more predictive of the binary quality status. The extracted features are mapped to a dimensional space having a number of dimensions proportional to the number of extracted features. The dimensional space includes most of the passing class and excludes at least 90 percent of the failing class. Received signals are compared to the boundaries of the recorded dimensional space to predict, in real time, the binary quality status of a subsequent item of interest.

  9. Using Automatic Item Generation to Meet the Increasing Item Demands of High-Stakes Educational and Occupational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The use of new test administration technologies such as computerized adaptive testing in high-stakes educational and occupational assessments demands large item pools. Classic item construction processes and previous approaches to automatic item generation faced the problems of a considerable loss of items after the item calibration phase. In this…

  10. Item-Weighted Likelihood Method for Ability Estimation in Tests Composed of Both Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jian; Shi, Ning-Zhong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of both dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous ones. To reflect the difference between the two types of items, polytomous items are usually pre-assigned with larger weights. We propose an item-weighted likelihood method to better assess examinees' ability…

  11. 12 CFR 950.4 - Limitations on access to advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Out-of-District Members and Housing Associates § 950.4... bear upon the member's creditworthiness; or (v) Has any other deficiencies, as determined by the...

  12. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174

  13. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items....

  14. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30... differentiates one item from another item in the Federal Catalog System. Each item of supply is expressed in...

  15. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30... differentiates one item from another item in the Federal Catalog System. Each item of supply is expressed in...

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30... differentiates one item from another item in the Federal Catalog System. Each item of supply is expressed in...

  17. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  18. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  19. The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

  20. 12 CFR 950.14 - Advances to the Savings Association Insurance Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Out-of-District Members and Housing Associates.... Advances to the FDIC for the use of the Savings Association Insurance Fund shall: (1) Bear a rate...

  1. Using Item-Type Performance Covariance to Improve the Skill Model of an Existing Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Cen, Hao; Wu, Lili; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from an existing pre-algebra computer-based tutor, we analyzed the covariance of item-types with the goal of describing a more effective way to assign skill labels to item-types. Analyzing covariance is important because it allows us to place the skills in a related network in which we can identify the role each skill plays in learning…

  2. "Experimental amnesia" induced by emotional items.

    PubMed

    Angelini, R; Capozzoli, F; Lepore, P; Grossi, D; Orsini, A

    1994-02-01

    Tulving described an effect of retrograde amnesia in a free-recall task of word lists, produced by inserting items having priority in recall. Other authors confirmed the amnesic effect without giving instructions for priority both in recall and in recognition tasks. The effect was explained by Tulving as a premature termination of encoding processes. The similarity between these experiments and the researches aimed at reproducing amnesia by emotional trauma led us to hypothesize that the two phenomena might be due to the same functional mechanisms. We have organized a free-recall task of word lists into which emotional items were inserted. Our aim was to verify whether with these experimental conditions Tulving's results would be reproduced. The obtained data show amnesic effects in free recall; nevertheless, they do not seem to confirm closely the experimental hypothesis. Lastly, changes in primacy and recency effects produced by emotional items are analyzed.

  3. Item diagnostics in multivariate discrete data.

    PubMed

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Researchers who evaluate the fit of psychometric models to binary or multinomial items often look at univariate and bivariate residuals to determine how a poorly fitting model can be improved. There is a class of z statistics and also a class of generalized X₂ statistics that can be used for examining these marginal fits. We describe these statistics and compare them with regard to the control of Type I error and statistical power. We show how the class of z statistics can be extended to accommodate items with multinomial response options. We provide guidelines for the use of these statistics, including how to control for multiple testing, and present 2 detailed examples. Using the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) for discrete data to adjudge fit, the examples illustrate how the use of these methods can dramatically improve the fit of item response theory models to widely used measures in personality and clinical psychology. PMID:25867486

  4. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  5. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in Testlet-Based Items Using the Rasch Testlet Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a procedure for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous and polytomous items in testlet-based tests, whereby DIF is taken into account by adding DIF parameters into the Rasch testlet model. Simulations were conducted to assess recovery of the DIF and other parameters. Two independent variables, test type…

  6. 48 CFR 852.214-71 - Restrictions on alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on alternate item(s). 852.214-71 Section 852.214-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  7. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  8. Effects of Decreasing the Number of Common Items in Equating Link Item Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanick, Patricia L.; Huang, Chi-Yu

    The term "equating" refers to a statistical procedure that adjusts test scores on different forms of the same examination so that scores can be interpreted interchangeably. This study examines the impact of equating with fewer items than originally planned when items have been removed from the equating set for a variety of reasons. A real data set…

  9. Australian Item Bank Program: Mathematics Item Bank. Book 1: Arithmetic, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This item bank was compiled by the Australian Council for Educational research (ACER) to help teachers at the secondary school level construct objective tests in arithmetic and algebra. The multiple-choice items were written by teachers who attended ACER writing workshops. The questions are classified according to their subject content and the…

  10. Are Inferential Reading Items More Susceptible to Cultural Bias than Literal Reading Items?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate a seven-step process for determining whether inferential reading items were more susceptible to cultural bias than literal reading items. The seven-step process was demonstrated using multiple-choice data from the reading portion of a reading/language arts test for fifth and seventh grade Hispanic,…

  11. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  12. Differential Item Functioning due to Gender between Depression and Anxiety Items among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among adolescent females, less is known about the differential item endorsement due to gender in items of commonly scales used to measure anxiety and depression. We conducted a study to examine if adolescent males and females from Chile differed on how they endorsed the items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) anxious/depressed problem scale. We used data from a cross-sectional sample consisting of 925 participants (Mean age = 14, SD=1.3, 49% females) of low to lower-middle socioeconomic status. A two-parameter logistic (2PL) IRT DIF model was fit. Results revealed differential item endorsement (DIF) by gender for six of the 13 items with adolescent females being more likely to endorse a depression item while males were found more likely to endorse anxiety items. Findings suggest that items found in commonly utilized measures of anxiety and depression symptoms may not equally capture true levels of these behavioral problems among adolescent males and females. Given the high levels of mental disorders in Chile and surrounding countries, further attention should be focused on increasing the number of empirical studies examining potential gender differences in the assessment of mental health problems among Latin American populations to better aid our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of these problems in the region. PMID:21628359

  13. Factor Analysis of Multidimensional Polytomous Item Response Data Suffering from Ignorable Item Nonresponse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernaards A., Coen; Sijtsma, Klaas

    1999-01-01

    Used simulation to study the problem of missing item responses in tests and questionnaires when factor analysis is used to study the structure of the items. Factor loadings based on the EM algorithm best approximated the loading structure, with imputation of the mean per person across the scores for that person being the best alternative. (SLD)

  14. Accommodations and Item-Level Analyses Using Mixture Differential Item Functioning Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpati, Stanley E.; Wells, Craig S.; Lewis, Christine; Jirka, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use differential item functioning (DIF) and latent mixture model analyses to explore factors that explain performance differences on a large-scale mathematics assessment between examinees allowed to use a calculator or who were afforded item presentation accommodations versus those who did not receive the same…

  15. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-1 - Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... when partnership items are treated inconsistently. 301.6222(b)-1 Section 301.6222(b)-1 Internal Revenue... partnership items are treated inconsistently. (a) In general. The statement identifying an inconsistency..., see § 301.6222(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001....

  16. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-1 - Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... when partnership items are treated inconsistently. 301.6222(b)-1 Section 301.6222(b)-1 Internal Revenue... partnership items are treated inconsistently. (a) In general. The statement identifying an inconsistency..., see § 301.6222(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001....

  17. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-1 - Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... when partnership items are treated inconsistently. 301.6222(b)-1 Section 301.6222(b)-1 Internal Revenue... partnership items are treated inconsistently. (a) In general. The statement identifying an inconsistency..., see § 301.6222(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001....

  18. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-1 - Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... when partnership items are treated inconsistently. 301.6222(b)-1 Section 301.6222(b)-1 Internal Revenue... partnership items are treated inconsistently. (a) In general. The statement identifying an inconsistency..., see § 301.6222(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001....

  19. 26 CFR 301.6222(b)-1 - Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... when partnership items are treated inconsistently. 301.6222(b)-1 Section 301.6222(b)-1 Internal Revenue... partnership items are treated inconsistently. (a) In general. The statement identifying an inconsistency..., see § 301.6222(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001....

  20. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  1. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): An Item Response Theory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2013-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6–16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships–Revised (ECR–R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR–R, informant ratings on the ECR–R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  2. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  3. Classification Accuracy of Mixed Format Tests: A Bi-Factor Item Response Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Drasgow, Fritz; Liu, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Mixed format tests (e.g., a test consisting of multiple-choice [MC] items and constructed response [CR] items) have become increasingly popular. However, the latent structure of item pools consisting of the two formats is still equivocal. Moreover, the implications of this latent structure are unclear: For example, do constructed response items tap reasoning skills that cannot be assessed with multiple choice items? This study explored the dimensionality of mixed format tests by applying bi-factor models to 10 tests of various subjects from the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Program and compared the accuracy of scores based on the bi-factor analysis with scores derived from a unidimensional analysis. More importantly, this study focused on a practical and important question—classification accuracy of the overall grade on a mixed format test. Our findings revealed that the degree of multidimensionality resulting from the mixed item format varied from subject to subject, depending on the disattenuated correlation between scores from MC and CR subtests. Moreover, remarkably small decrements in classification accuracy were found for the unidimensional analysis when the disattenuated correlations exceeded 0.90. PMID:26973568

  4. Screening for depression in clinical practice: reliability and validity of a five-item subset of the CES-Depression.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Maljanian, Rose; Goethe, John

    2003-12-01

    Individuals with chronic disease are not screened routinely for depression. Availability of an abbreviated test with demonstrated reliability and validity might encourage screening so we explored the reliability and validity of a 5-item subset of the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among inner-city outpatients with chronic asthma or diabetes. Most patients were female (73.1%) and Hispanic (61.8%). Acceptable reliability was shown by Cronbach alpha (.76) for the subset of 5 items. Validity was supported by the high correlation of .91 between patients' scores on the 5-item subset and the full 20 items. The 5 items reflected a single factor (eigenvalue = 2.66). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified cut-points for the 5 items that were sensitive (> .84) and specific (> or = .80) in identifying patients classified as depressed by full 20 items. The reduced patient and clinician burden of the subset of 5 items, as well as its desirable psychometric properties, support broader application of this subset as a screening tool for depression.

  5. PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: Development of a Peer Relationships Item Bank as Part of Social Health Measurement

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D.; Langer, Michelle M.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Irwin, Debra E.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B.; Gross, Heather E.; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8–17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima’s Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. Results The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. Conclusions The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health. PMID:23772887

  6. 48 CFR 252.209-7010 - Critical Safety Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical Safety Items. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.209-7010 Critical Safety Items. As prescribed in 209.270-5, use the following clause: CRITICAL SAFETY ITEMS (AUG 2011) (a) Definitions. Aviation critical safety item means a part,...

  7. 48 CFR 252.209-7010 - Critical Safety Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical Safety Items. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.209-7010 Critical Safety Items. As prescribed in 209.270-5, use the following clause: Critical Safety Items (AUG 2011) (a) Definitions. Aviation critical safety item means a part,...

  8. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers...

  9. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  10. 48 CFR 252.209-7010 - Critical Safety Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... clause: Critical Safety Items (AUG 2011) (a) Definitions. Aviation critical safety item means a part, an... control activity. (i) With respect to an aviation critical safety item, means the systems command of a... or equipment, in which an aviation critical safety item is to be used; and (ii) With respect to...

  11. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  12. Reconsideration of the ANOVA Method of Detecting Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Tae-Je

    The validity of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a split plot factorial design was investigated using a complex interaction contrast with matched two-group ability data for detecting biased items. The definition of a biased item by this method is: an item is biased if there is an item-by-group interaction when there is no group difference in…

  13. An Evaluation of Select Approaches For Biased Item Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Convey, John J.

    Transformed item difficulties, chi-square, item characteristic curve (icc) theory and factor score techniques were evaluated as approaches for the identification of biased test items. The study was implemented to determine whether the approaches would provide identical classifications of items as to degree of aberrance for culturally different…

  14. Item Difficulty Estimation: An Auspicious Collaboration between Data and Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, Kelly; Desmet, Piet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The evolution from static to dynamic electronic learning environments has stimulated the research on adaptive item sequencing. A prerequisite for adaptive item sequencing, in which the difficulty of the item is constantly matched to the ability level of the learner, is to have items with a known difficulty level. The difficulty level can be…

  15. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  16. Rasch Measurement and Item Banking: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    The Rasch Model is an item response theory, one parameter model developed that states that the probability of a correct response on a test is a function of the difficulty of the item and the ability of the candidate. Item banking is useful for language testing. The Rasch Model provides estimates of item difficulties that are meaningful,…

  17. Rasch Based Analysis of Oral Presentation Assessment for Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    The Rasch Model is an item response theory, one parameter model developed that states that the probability of a correct response is a function of the difficulty of the item and the ability of the candidate. Item banking is useful for language testing. The Rasch Model provides estimates of item difficulties that are meaningful, irrespective of…

  18. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 & 12. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the "ACER Chemistry Test…

  19. A Refined Item Digraph Analysis of a Proportional Reasoning Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Williams-Morris, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Refined item digraph analysis (RIDA) is a way of studying diagnostic and prescriptive testing. It permits assessment of a test item's diagnostic value by examining the extent to which the item has properties of ideal items. RIDA is illustrated with the Orange Juice Test, which assesses the proportionality concept. (TJH)

  20. Ethnic DIF in Reading Tests with Mixed Item Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a study of ethnic Differential Item Functioning (DIF) for 4th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade reading items on a state criterion-referenced achievement test. The tests, administered 1997 to 2001, were composed of multiple-choice and constructed-response items. Item performance by focal groups (i.e., students from Asian/Pacific Island,…

  1. An Examination of Item Context Effects, DIF, and Gender DIF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Chiu, Shuwan

    The relationship between differential item functioning (DIF)and test item context effects was studied in an investigation of whether the patterns of gender DIF in parcels of items are influenced by changes in item position, as seen in two forms of a test. A second aim was to determine whether performance of male and female test takers is…

  2. 49 CFR 1248.2 - Items to be reported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Items to be reported. 1248.2 Section 1248.2... Items to be reported. (a) The following items are to be reported quarterly and annually by class I... shipments,” shall be omitted, the following items: Revenue freight originating on respondent's...

  3. 49 CFR 1248.2 - Items to be reported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Items to be reported. 1248.2 Section 1248.2... Items to be reported. (a) The following items are to be reported quarterly and annually by class I... shipments,” shall be omitted, the following items: Revenue freight originating on respondent's...

  4. 49 CFR 1248.2 - Items to be reported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Items to be reported. 1248.2 Section 1248.2... Items to be reported. (a) The following items are to be reported quarterly and annually by class I... shipments,” shall be omitted, the following items: Revenue freight originating on respondent's...

  5. 41 CFR 101-30.101-1 - Civil agency item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil agency item. 101-30.101-1 Section 101-30.101-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....1-General § 101-30.101-1 Civil agency item. Civil agency item means an item of supply in the...

  6. Item Response Theory Equating Using Bayesian Informative Priors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Patz, Richard J.

    This paper seeks to extend the application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods in item response theory (IRT) to include the estimation of equating relationships along with the estimation of test item parameters. A method is proposed that incorporates estimation of the equating relationship in the item calibration phase. Item parameters from…

  7. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  8. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 748 - Authorization Validated End-User (VEU): List of Validated End-Users, Respective Items Eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Eligible items (by ECCN) Eligible destination Federal Register citation China (People's Republic of) Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc 3D002, 3D003, 3E001 (limited to “technology” for items classified under... 4E001 (limited to the “development” of products under ECCN 4A003) AMD Technologies (China) Co., Ltd.,...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 748 - Authorization Validated End-User (VEU): List of Validated End-Users, Respective Items Eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Eligible items (by ECCN) Eligible destination Federal Register citation China (People's Republic of) Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc 3D002, 3D003, 3E001 (limited to “technology” for items classified under... 4E001 (limited to the “development” of products under ECCN 4A003) AMD Technologies (China) Co., Ltd.,...

  11. Open-Ended Test Items Pose Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Most experts in the testing community have presumed that the $350 million promised by the U.S. Department of Education to support common assessments would promote those that made greater use of open-ended items capable of measuring higher-order critical-thinking skills. But as measurement experts consider the multitude of possibilities for an…

  12. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  13. How Item Writers Understand Depth of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Viger, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    An important part of test development is ensuring alignment between test forms and content standards. One common way of measuring alignment is the Webb (1997, 2007) alignment procedure. This article investigates (a) how well item writers understand components of the definition of Depth of Knowledge (DOK) from the Webb alignment procedure and (b)…

  14. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…

  15. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1Cumulative Effect on Prior Years of a Change in Accounting Principle Extraordinary Items 434Extraordinary... on Prior Years of a Change in Accounting Principle This account shall include the cumulative effect on margins of prior periods as a result of a change in accounting principle from one that is...

  16. IRT Model Selection Methods for Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Cohen, Allan S.

    2007-01-01

    Fit of the model to the data is important if the benefits of item response theory (IRT) are to be obtained. In this study, the authors compared model selection results using the likelihood ratio test, two information-based criteria, and two Bayesian methods. An example illustrated the potential for inconsistency in model selection depending on…

  17. 18 CFR 367.7 - Item list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Item list. 367.7... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  18. 18 CFR 367.7 - Item list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Item list. 367.7... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  19. 18 CFR 367.7 - Item list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Item list. 367.7... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  20. 18 CFR 367.7 - Item list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Item list. 367.7... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  1. 18 CFR 367.7 - Item list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Item list. 367.7... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT...

  2. Sensitivity of Item Difficulties to Curricular Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrens, William A.; Phillips, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    A taxonomic matrix classification was used to assess the curricular validity of the Stanford Achievement Tests for the mathematics textbooks used in a school district's fifth and sixth grades. Rasch item difficulty was also examined. Results indicated only small differences between textbooks. (GDC)

  3. 16 CFR 436.5 - Disclosure items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acceptable if the franchisor defines the term “gross sales.” Item 6 Table OTHER FEES Column 1Type of fee... table. If remarks are long, franchisors may use footnotes instead of the remarks column. If applicable... tables to show expenditure variations caused by differences such as in site location and premises...

  4. The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlees, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…

  5. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  6. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  7. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  8. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  9. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 770.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... machine prior to shipment loses its identity as a bearing. In this scenario, the machine or segment of... scenario, the complete machine is the item subject to export license requirements. (b) Interpretation...

  10. 42 CFR 414.224 - Customized items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customized items. 414.224 Section 414.224 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Durable Medical...

  11. U.S. Government (Depository Items).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxymuk, John A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Lists and annotates 100 items published by the U.S. government that were received by depository libraries during fiscal year 1993-1994. Subject areas represented include defense; health policy and economics; health care and disease; education; the social sciences, environment, technology, energy, and business. (KRN)

  12. 16 CFR 1105.9 - Itemized vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Itemized vouchers. 1105.9 Section 1105.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.9...

  13. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  14. 15 CFR 747.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible items. 747.3 Section 747.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL IRAQ...

  15. 15 CFR 747.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible items. 747.3 Section 747.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL IRAQ...

  16. 15 CFR 747.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible items. 747.3 Section 747.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL IRAQ...

  17. 15 CFR 747.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible items. 747.3 Section 747.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL IRAQ...

  18. 15 CFR 747.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible items. 747.3 Section 747.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL IRAQ...

  19. Paradoxical Results in Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Giles; Finkelman, Matthew; Schwartzman, Armin

    2009-01-01

    In multidimensional item response theory (MIRT), it is possible for the estimate of a subject's ability in some dimension to decrease after they have answered a question correctly. This paper investigates how and when this type of paradoxical result can occur. We demonstrate that many response models and statistical estimates can produce…

  20. Modeling the Discrimination Power of Physics Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesic, Vanes

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of tailoring physics instruction in accordance with the needs and abilities of the students it is useful to explore the knowledge structure of students of different ability levels. In order to precisely differentiate the successive, characteristic states of student achievement it is necessary to use test items that possess…

  1. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  2. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in "Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies," ed. by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T. Lee, Kluwer…

  3. In-Process Items on LCS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Thyra K.

    Morris Library at Southern Illinois University computerized its technical processes using the Library Computer System (LCS), which was implemented in the library to streamline order processing by: (1) providing up-to-date online files to track in-process items; (2) encouraging quick, efficient accessing of information; (3) reducing manual files;…

  4. A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

  5. Measuring the effects of online health information for patients: Item generation for an e-health impact questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Ziebland, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective The internet is a valuable resource for accessing health information and support. We are developing an instrument to assess the effects of websites with experiential and factual health information. This study aimed to inform an item pool for the proposed questionnaire. Methods Items were informed through a review of relevant literature and secondary qualitative analysis of 99 narrative interviews relating to patient and carer experiences of health. Statements relating to identified themes were re-cast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n = 21) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results Eighty-two generic items were identified following secondary qualitative analysis and expert review. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, 62 items and the response options were acceptable to patients and carers. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 62 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. Practice implications The final questionnaire will initially be used in a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of online patient's experiences. This will inform recommendations on the best way to present patients’ experiences within health information websites. PMID:23598293

  6. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Science and Mathematics Items in the University Entrance Examinations in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaycioglu, Dilara Bakan; Berberoglu, Giray

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) items across gender groups, analyze item content for the possible sources of DIF, and eventually investigate the effect of DIF items on the criterion-related validity of the test scores in the quantitative section of the university entrance examination (UEE) in Turkey. The reason…

  7. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items...

  8. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items...

  9. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items...

  10. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items...

  11. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items...

  12. Effectiveness of Combining Statistical Tests and Effect Sizes When Using Logistic Discriminant Function Regression to Detect Differential Item Functioning for Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, Maria Dolores; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to find an optimal decision rule for identifying polytomous items with large or moderate amounts of differential functioning. The effectiveness of combining statistical tests with effect size measures was assessed using logistic discriminant function analysis and two effect size measures: R[superscript 2] and…

  13. Investigation of Specific Learning Disability and Testing Accommodations Based Differential Item Functioning Using a Multilevel Multidimensional Mixture Item Response Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Hernández Finch, Maria E.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of test data for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) is a key component of instrument development and validation. Among the many methods that have been used successfully in such analyses is the mixture modeling approach. Using this approach to identify the presence of DIF has been touted as potentially superior for…

  14. Development and psychometric properties of the Suicidality of Adolescent Screening Scale (SASS) using Multidimensional Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Hurst, Cameron

    2016-09-30

    Suicide prevention in adolescents by early detection using screening tools to identify high suicidal risk is a priority. Our objective was to build a multidimensional scale namely "Suicidality of Adolescent Screening Scale (SASS)" to identify adolescents at risk of suicide. An initial pool of items was developed by using in-depth interview, focus groups and a literature review. Initially, 77 items were administered to 307 adolescents and analyzed using the exploratory Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) to remove unnecessary items. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis revealed 35 items that collected into 4 factors: Stressors, Pessimism, Suicidality and Depression. To confirm this structure, a new sample of 450 adolescents were collected and confirmatory MIRT factor analysis was performed. The resulting scale was shown to be both construct valid and able to discriminate well between adolescents that had, and hadn't previous attempted suicide. PMID:27450746

  15. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  16. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  17. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  18. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  19. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  20. 12 CFR 950.17 - Advances to housing associates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advances to housing associates. 950.17 Section 950.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Housing Associates § 950.17 Advances to housing associates....

  1. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  2. Preliminary Development of an Ultrabrief Two-Item Bedside Test for Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Donna M.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Guess, Jamey; Ngo, Long H.; Jones, Richard N.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is common, morbid, and costly, yet is greatly under-recognized among hospitalized older adults. Objective To identify the best single and pair of mental status test items that predict the presence of delirium. Design, Setting Diagnostic test evaluation study that enrolled medicine inpatients aged 75 years or older at an academic medical center. Methods Patients underwent a clinical reference standard assessment involving a patient interview, medical record review, and interviews with family members and nurses to determine the presence or absence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition defined delirium. Participants also underwent the three-dimensional Confusion Assessment Method (3D-CAM), a brief, validated assessment for delirium. Individual items and pairs of items from the 3D-CAM were evaluated to determine sensitivity and specificity relative to the reference standard delirium diagnosis. Results Of the 201 participants (mean age 84 years, 62% female), 42 (21%) had delirium based on the clinical reference standard. The single item with the best test characteristics was “months of the year backwards” with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-93%) and specificity of 69% (95% CI: 61%-76%). The best 2-item screen was the combination of “months of the year backwards” and “what is the day of the week?” with a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI: 81%-99%) and specificity of 64% (95% CI: 56%-70%). Conclusions We identified a single item with >80% and pair of items with >90% sensitivity for delirium. If validated prospectively, these items will serve as an initial innovative screening step for delirium identification in hospitalized older adults. PMID:26369992

  3. Psychometrical assessment and item analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in victims of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-03-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and 729 relatives of the victims. All participants were evaluated using the 28-item version of the GHQ (GHQ-28). We examined the reliability and external validity of scores on the scale using Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), respectively. The factor structure of the scale was analyzed with varimax rotation. Samejima's (1969) graded response model was used to explore the item properties. The GHQ-28 scores showed good reliability and item-scale correlations. The factor analysis identified 3 factors: anxious-somatic symptoms, social dysfunction, and depression symptoms. All factors showed good correlation with the STAI. Before rotation, the first, second, and third factor explained 44.0%, 6.4%, and 5.0% of the variance, respectively. Varimax rotation redistributed the percentages of variance accounted for to 28.4%, 13.8%, and 13.2%, respectively. Items with the highest loadings in the first factor measured anxiety symptoms, whereas items with the highest loadings in the third factor measured suicide ideation. Samejima's model found that high scores in suicide-related items were associated with severe depression. The factor structure of the GHQ-28 found in this study underscores the preeminence of anxiety symptoms among victims of terrorism and their relatives. Item response analysis identified the most difficult and significant items for each factor.

  4. Increasing Item Complexity: A Possible Cause of Scale Shrinkage for Unidimensional Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate relationship is devised between the unidimensional model used in data analysis and a multidimensional model hypothesized to be generating the item responses. Scale shrinkage is successfully predicted for several sets of simulated data. (Author/LMO)

  5. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  7. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  8. The SAT Gender Gap: Identifying the Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Phyllis

    Questions on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) with the largest score differences between women and men of all racial and ethnic groups were identified. Patterns of difficulty that would explain the SAT's continuing underprediction of female first-year college performance were studied. An item analysis of one form of the June 1986 SAT for 1,112…

  9. Varying levels of difficulty index of skills-test items randomly selected by examinees on the Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to characterize the difficulty index of the items in the skills test components of the class I and II Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination (KEMTLE), which requires examinees to select items randomly. Methods: The results of 1,309 class I KEMTLE examinations and 1,801 class II KEMTLE examinations in 2013 were subjected to analysis. Items from the basic and advanced skills test sections of the KEMTLE were compared to determine whether some were significantly more difficult than others. Results: In the class I KEMTLE, all 4 of the items on the basic skills test showed significant variation in difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as 4 of the 5 items on the advanced skills test (P<0.05). In the class II KEMTLE, 4 of the 5 items on the basic skills test showed significantly different difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as all 3 of the advanced skills test items (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the skills test components of the class I and II KEMTLE, the procedure in which examinees randomly select questions should be revised to require examinees to respond to a set of fixed items in order to improve the reliability of the national licensing examination. PMID:26883810

  10. Validation of Single-Item Screening Measures for Provider Burnout in a Rural Health Care Network.

    PubMed

    Waddimba, Anthony C; Scribani, Melissa; Nieves, Melinda A; Krupa, Nicole; May, John J; Jenkins, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We validated three single-item measures for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among rural physician/nonphysician practitioners. We linked cross-sectional survey data (on provider demographics, satisfaction, resilience, and burnout) with administrative information from an integrated health care network (1 academic medical center, 6 community hospitals, 31 clinics, and 19 school-based health centers) in an eight-county underserved area of upstate New York. In total, 308 physicians and advanced-practice clinicians completed a self-administered, multi-instrument questionnaire (65.1% response rate). Significant proportions of respondents reported high EE (36.1%) and DP (9.9%). In multivariable linear mixed models, scores on EE/DP subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were regressed on each single-item measure. The Physician Work-Life Study's single-item measure (classifying 32.8% of respondents as burning out/completely burned out) was correlated with EE and DP (Spearman's ρ = .72 and .41, p < .0001; Kruskal-Wallis χ(2) = 149.9 and 56.5, p < .0001, respectively). In multivariable models, it predicted high EE (but neither low EE nor low/high DP). EE/DP single items were correlated with parent subscales (Spearman's ρ = .89 and .81, p < .0001; Kruskal-Wallis χ(2) = 230.98 and 197.84, p < .0001, respectively). In multivariable models, the EE item predicted high/low EE, whereas the DP item predicted only low DP. Therefore, the three single-item measures tested varied in effectiveness as screeners for EE/DP dimensions of burnout. PMID:25716107

  11. Validation of Single-Item Screening Measures for Provider Burnout in a Rural Health Care Network.

    PubMed

    Waddimba, Anthony C; Scribani, Melissa; Nieves, Melinda A; Krupa, Nicole; May, John J; Jenkins, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We validated three single-item measures for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among rural physician/nonphysician practitioners. We linked cross-sectional survey data (on provider demographics, satisfaction, resilience, and burnout) with administrative information from an integrated health care network (1 academic medical center, 6 community hospitals, 31 clinics, and 19 school-based health centers) in an eight-county underserved area of upstate New York. In total, 308 physicians and advanced-practice clinicians completed a self-administered, multi-instrument questionnaire (65.1% response rate). Significant proportions of respondents reported high EE (36.1%) and DP (9.9%). In multivariable linear mixed models, scores on EE/DP subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were regressed on each single-item measure. The Physician Work-Life Study's single-item measure (classifying 32.8% of respondents as burning out/completely burned out) was correlated with EE and DP (Spearman's ρ = .72 and .41, p < .0001; Kruskal-Wallis χ(2) = 149.9 and 56.5, p < .0001, respectively). In multivariable models, it predicted high EE (but neither low EE nor low/high DP). EE/DP single items were correlated with parent subscales (Spearman's ρ = .89 and .81, p < .0001; Kruskal-Wallis χ(2) = 230.98 and 197.84, p < .0001, respectively). In multivariable models, the EE item predicted high/low EE, whereas the DP item predicted only low DP. Therefore, the three single-item measures tested varied in effectiveness as screeners for EE/DP dimensions of burnout.

  12. Students' proficiency scores within multitrait item response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a series of item response models of data collected using the Force Concept Inventory. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was designed to poll the Newtonian conception of force viewed as a multidimensional concept, that is, as a complex of distinguishable conceptual dimensions. Several previous studies have developed single-trait item response models of FCI data; however, we feel that multidimensional models are also appropriate given the explicitly multidimensional design of the inventory. The models employed in the research reported here vary in both the number of fitting parameters and the number of underlying latent traits assumed. We calculate several model information statistics to ensure adequate model fit and to determine which of the models provides the optimal balance of information and parsimony. Our analysis indicates that all item response models tested, from the single-trait Rasch model through to a model with ten latent traits, satisfy the standard requirements of fit. However, analysis of model information criteria indicates that the five-trait model is optimal. We note that an earlier factor analysis of the same FCI data also led to a five-factor model. Furthermore the factors in our previous study and the traits identified in the current work match each other well. The optimal five-trait model assigns proficiency scores to all respondents for each of the five traits. We construct a correlation matrix between the proficiencies in each of these traits. This correlation matrix shows strong correlations between some proficiencies, and strong anticorrelations between others. We present an interpretation of this correlation matrix.

  13. Correlates of a Single-Item Indicator Versus a Multi-Item Scale of Outness About Same-Sex Attraction.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction ("out") as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur's R (2) as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.38), and depression (r = -0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.21), and depression (r = -0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness.

  14. The Advance Organizer Concept: Some Methodological Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Robert; And Others

    The effect of an advance organizer on post test performance was studied in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design with the effects of the organizer, pretest and mathematics learning passage controlled. An advance organizer of approximately 500 words and a learning passage of approximately 1,000 words were developed. A 41-item multiple choice test based on…

  15. 48 CFR 1852.236-71 - Additive or deductive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Additive or Deductive Items (MAR 1989) (a) The low bidder for purposes of award shall be the conforming... conforming responsible bidder for the same combination of bid items. (End of provision)...

  16. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... working capital allowance using the following formula. (1) Compute the weighted average revenue lag days... for interstate revenues billed in advance by the percentage of interstate revenues billed in advance...) and (ii) of this section to determine the weighted average revenue lag days. (2) Compute the...

  17. Control of Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, Marnelle L.

    2013-09-03

    This procedure implements portions of the requirements of MSC-MP-599, Quality Assurance Program Description. It establishes the Mission Support Alliance (MSA) practices for minimizing the introduction of and identifying, documenting, dispositioning, reporting, controlling, and disposing of suspect/counterfeit and defective items (S/CIs). employees whose work scope relates to Safety Systems (i.e., Safety Class [SC] or Safety Significant [SS] items), non-safety systems and other applications (i.e., General Service [GS]) where engineering has determined that their use could result in a potential safety hazard. MSA implements an effective Quality Assurance (QA) Program providing a comprehensive network of controls and verification providing defense-in-depth by preventing the introduction of S/CIs through the design, procurement, construction, operation, maintenance, and modification of processes. This procedure focuses on those safety systems, and other systems, including critical load paths of lifting equipment, where the introduction of S/CIs would have the greatest potential for creating unsafe conditions.

  18. Identifying image preferences based on demographic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Lawrence, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    The intent of this study is to determine what sorts of images are considered more interesting by which demographic groups. Specifically, we attempt to identify images whose interestingness ratings are influenced by the demographic attribute of the viewer's gender. To that end, we use the data from an experiment where 18 participants (9 women and 9 men) rated several hundred images based on "visual interest" or preferences in viewing images. The images were selected to represent the consumer "photo-space" - typical categories of subject matter found in consumer photo collections. They were annotated using perceptual and semantic descriptors. In analyzing the image interestingness ratings, we apply a multivariate procedure known as forced classification, a feature of dual scaling, a discrete analogue of principal components analysis (similar to correspondence analysis). This particular analysis of ratings (i.e., ordered-choice or Likert) data enables the investigator to emphasize the effect of a specific item or collection of items. We focus on the influence of the demographic item of gender on the analysis, so that the solutions are essentially confined to subspaces spanned by the emphasized item. Using this technique, we can know definitively which images' ratings have been influenced by the demographic item of choice. Subsequently, images can be evaluated and linked, on one hand, to their perceptual and semantic descriptors, and, on the other hand, to the preferences associated with viewers' demographic attributes.

  19. Drafting. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Mary, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 12 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: drafting room procedures; tools and equipment; basic drawing skills; geometric…

  20. Is the New Item Priority Effect an Experimental Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas

    This research was directed at determining whether the new item priority (NIP) effect in free recall was a result of an experimental artifact produced by the joint action of the serial position effect and the randomization of items over trials, or a consequence of a strategy of recalling newer items before older ones. In the experiment, subjects…

  1. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  2. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…

  3. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Small Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Amon

    This notebook contains criterion-referenced test items for testing students' knowledge of small engines. The test items are based upon competencies found in the Missouri Small Engine Competency Profile. The test item bank is organized in 18 sections that cover the following duties: shop procedures; tools and equipment; fasteners; servicing fuel…

  4. Item Clusters and Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Case for Testlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Kiely, Gerard L.

    1987-01-01

    The testlet, a bundle of test items, alleviates some problems associated with computerized adaptive testing: context effects, lack of robustness, and item difficulty ordering. While testlets may be linear or hierarchical, the most useful ones are four-level hierarchical units, containing 15 items and partitioning examinees into 16 classes. (GDC)

  5. IRT Differential Item Functioning: An Examination of Ability Scale Purifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautenschlager, Gary J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) methods used to determine the accuracy of item classification as biased or unbiased were studied. Results from simulations show that the iterative linking and ability scale purification method can be more effective than iterative linking alone primarily by reducing false negatives.…

  6. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  7. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  8. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  9. Test Pac: A Program for Comprehensive Item and Reliability Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    Test Pac, a test scoring and analysis computer program for moderate-sized sample designs using dichotomous response items, performs comprehensive item analyses and multiple reliability estimates. It also performs single-facet generalizability analysis of variance, single-parameter item response theory analyses, test score reporting, and computer…

  10. Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…

  11. ASCAL: A Microcomputer Program for Estimating Logistic IRT Item Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, C. David; Gialluca, Kathleen A.

    ASCAL is a microcomputer-based program for calibrating items according to the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory. It uses a modified multivariate Newton-Raphson procedure for estimating item parameters. This study evaluated this procedure using Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques. The current version of ASCAL was then compared to…

  12. A Lognormal Model for Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    A lognormal model for the response times of a person on a set of test items is investigated. The model has a parameter structure analogous to the two-parameter logistic response models in item response theory, with a parameter for the speed of each person as well as parameters for the time intensity and discriminating power of each item. It is…

  13. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  14. An Item Response Model for Characterizing Test Compromise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2002-01-01

    Developed an item response model for characterizing test-compromise that enables the estimation of item preview and score-gain distributions. In the approach, models parameters and posterior distributions are estimated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedures. Simulation study results suggest that when at least some test items are known to be…

  15. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  16. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  17. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commercial Items. 52.244-6 Section 52.244-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.244-6 Subcontracts for Commercial Items. As prescribed in 44.403(a), insert the following clause: Subcontracts for Commercial Items (OCT 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause—...

  18. Psychological Components of Responses to Interest Inventory Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiebaut, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the relevance of 10 psychological traits that are assumed to exemplify responses to the items of INFORIZON, an occupational interest inventory. To accomplish this goal, the author analyzed the responses to the interest items based on a sample of 824 participants (17-25 years old), with an assessment of the items based on…

  19. Validation of Cognitive Sensitivity for Item Response Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined whether the item response curves from a two-parameter model reflected characteristics of the mathematics items, each of which required unique cognitive tasks. A computer program performed error analysis of test performance. Cognitive subtasks appeared to influence the slopes and difficulties of item response curves. (GDC)

  20. Evaluating Common Item Block Options When Faced with Practical Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkowitz, Amanda; Davis-Becker, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of common item characteristics on the outcome of equating in credentialing examinations when traditionally recommended representation is not possible. This research used real data sets from several credentialing exams to test the impact of content representation, item statistics, and number of common items on…

  1. 26 CFR 301.6501(o)-3 - Partnership items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership items. 301.6501(o)-3 Section 301.6501(o)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE... § 301.6501(o)-3 Partnership items. (a) Partnership item defined. For purposes of section 6501(o) (as...

  2. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on graphic arts contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Offset Lithography Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. The tests cover the following 15…

  3. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  4. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  5. The Effect of Item Stratification in Multiple Matrix Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerberg, N. James

    The effect of stratified sampling of items on the estimation of test score distribution parameters by multiple matrix sampling was studied. Item difficulty and/or interitem correlations were the bases of stratification. Various item iniverses were created by computer simulation and sampled according to several plans. The results indicate that…

  6. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  7. Development and Design of a Dynamic Multimedia Item Generation Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Ting-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This research applies multimedia technology to design a dynamic item generation method that can adaptively adjust the difficulty level of items according to the level of the testee. The method is based on interactive testing software developed by Flash Actionscript, and provides a testing solution for users by automatically distributing items of…

  8. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the...

  10. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  11. Assessing and Explaining Differential Item Functioning Using Logistic Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Noortgate, Wim; De Boeck, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Although differential item functioning (DIF) theory traditionally focuses on the behavior of individual items in two (or a few) specific groups, in educational measurement contexts, it is often plausible to regard the set of items as a random sample from a broader category. This article presents logistic mixed models that can be used to model…

  12. The Applicability of Interactive Item Templates in Varied Knowledge Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Wu, Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A well-edited assessment can enhance student's learning motives. Applicability of items, which includes item content and template, plays a crucial role in authoring a good assessment. Templates in discussion contain not only conventional true & false, multiple choice, completion item and short answer but also of those interactive ones. Methods…

  13. Curriculum, Translation, and Differential Functioning of Measurement and Geometry Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenogu, Barnabas C.; Childs, Ruth A.

    2005-01-01

    A test item exhibits differential item functioning (DIF) if students with the same ability find it differentially difficult. When the item is administered in French and English, differences in language difficulty and meaning are the most likely explanations. However, curriculum differences may also contribute to DIF. The responses of Ontario…

  14. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  15. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  16. Classroom Test Writing: Effects of Item Format on Test Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi-Parizi, Rosa; Campbell, Noma Jo

    1982-01-01

    Investigates the effects of varying the placement of blanks and the number of options available in multiple-choice items on the reliability of fifth-grade students' scores. Results indicate that scores on three-choice item tests were not less reliable than scores on four-choice item tests. A similar finding was found regarding the placement of…

  17. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  18. Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

  19. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  20. In Praise of the Free-Response Item.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Gips, Crystal J.

    A mailed national survey of 500 randomly selected secondary school principals, which yielded 271 responses, used a single free-response item, 10 Likert-type items, and 36 paired-comparison items. The study was an attempt to determine the qualities that principals look for in selecting teacher candidates and whether there was a bias against the…

  1. The Effects of Testlets on Reliability and Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teker, Gulsen Tasdelen; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Reliability and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were conducted on testlets displaying local item dependence in this study. The data set employed in the research was obtained from the answers given by 1,500 students to the 20 items included in six testlets given in English Proficiency Exam by the School of Foreign Languages of a state…

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-5 - Administratively controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... personal property, which includes such items as those controlled for calibration or maintenance purposes, contaminated property, tool crib items, and equipment pool items. Various control records can be employed to... check-outs, loss and theft reports, calibration records, disposal records, and other similar...

  3. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-5 - Administratively controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal property, which includes such items as those controlled for calibration or maintenance purposes, contaminated property, tool crib items, and equipment pool items. Various control records can be employed to... check-outs, loss and theft reports, calibration records, disposal records, and other similar...

  4. Auto Mechanics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This document contains 546 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in auto mechanics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 35 units covering the…

  5. Dealing with Uncertainty about Item Parameters: Expected Response Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; And Others

    It is a common practice in item response theory (IRT) to treat estimates of item parameters, say "B" circumflex, as if they were the known, true quantities, "B." However, ignoring the uncertainty associated with item parameters can lead to biases and over-confidence in subsequent inferences such as ability estimation, especially when…

  6. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  7. 48 CFR 235.071 - Export-controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export-controlled items..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.071 Export-controlled items. For requirements regarding access to export-controlled items, see Subpart 204.73....

  8. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  9. Machine Shop. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the machine shop competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 16 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: orientation to machine shop; performing mathematical calculations; performing…

  10. Calorimeter measurements of low wattage items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, T.L.; Camp, K.L.; Hildner, S.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to decontamination and decommissioning has led to more measurements of waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. The difficulty that these materials pose for segmented gamma scanning and neutron counting has increased the use of calorimetric assay for very low wattage items (< 250 millwatts). We have measured well characterized {sup 238}Pu oxide ranging in wattage from 25 to 500 milliwatts in the calorimeters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and report the error and the precision of the measurements.

  11. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.

    PubMed

    Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

    1991-08-01

    Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.

  12. Picture Chem: Playing a Game to Identify Laboratory Equipment Items and Describe Their Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavak, Nusret; Yamak, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory activities are an important means of instruction in science; as such, they have been used in chemistry education since the 1880s. Many learning objectives can be achieved through the use of laboratory activities undertaken by chemistry students. In student-centered laboratory activities, students should know how to use an apparatus in…

  13. Identifying Country-Specific Cultures of Physics Education: A Differential Item Functioning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesic, Vanes

    2012-01-01

    In international large-scale assessments of educational outcomes, student achievement is often represented by unidimensional constructs. This approach allows for drawing general conclusions about country rankings with respect to the given achievement measure, but it typically does not provide specific diagnostic information which is necessary for…

  14. Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…

  15. Validity of 42-Item Mooney Problem Check List Scale for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    Studies employing the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) have found that counseling center clients indicate more problems on the MPCL than nonclients. Domino and DeGroote identified 42 MPCL items concerned with self-satisfaction and a need for social contacts which further differentiated counseling seekers from nonseekers. In order to further…

  16. Food and Nutrition (Intermediate). Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Intermediate Food and Nutrition semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…

  17. Child Development, Care and Guidance. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Child Development, Care and Guidance semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics…

  18. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  19. 76 FR 52138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... a proposed rule at 76 FR 14641 on March 17, 2011, to add a contract clause that clearly identifies... published at 76 FR 14642 on March 17, 2011. Briefly, the combination of the actions of the design control... Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS Case 2010-D022) AGENCY:...

  20. The Impact of Multidimensionality on the Detection of Differential Bundle Functioning Using Simultaneous Item Bias Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlow, Carolyn F.; Ross, Terris Raiford; Gagne, Phill

    2009-01-01

    Douglas, Roussos, and Stout introduced the concept of differential bundle functioning (DBF) for identifying the underlying causes of differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, reference group was simulated to have higher mean ability than the focal group on a nuisance dimension, resulting in DIF for each of the multidimensional items…

  1. Family and Individual Health. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This document contains competencies and criterion-referenced test items for the Family/Individual Health semester course in Missouri that were derived from the duties and tasks of the Missouri homemaker and identified and validated by home economics teachers and subject-matter specialists. The guide is designed to assist home economics teachers in…

  2. Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991 to 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The US National Marine Debris Monitoring Program is using indicator items from beach surveys to identify whether amounts of marine debris are changing over time. Indicator items were selected through expert opinion and assumed to reflect the trend of all debris. We used monthly data from a 1991-1996 study of debris on a New Jersey beach to determine if indicator and non-indicator items showed similar trends. Total indicator debris levels did not change; this was true regardless of probable source. Non-indicator debris increased about 40% annually. Plastic non-indicator items increased regardless of whether items were whole items, cigarette filters, or pieces. Of the whole items, almost 50% were plastic lids, cups, and utensils, and about 25% were drug-related paraphernalia, tobacco-related products, plastic stirrers, pull rings, and fireworks. When indicator items are used in a monitoring programme to reflect total debris patterns, concordance of trends in indicator and non-indicator debris should be checked.

  3. The whole is indeed more than the sum of its parts: perceptual averaging in the absence of individual item representation.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Jennifer E; Oriet, Chris

    2011-10-01

    We tested Ariely's (2001) proposal that the visual system represents the overall statistical properties of sets of objects against alternative accounts of rapid averaging involving sub-sampling strategies. In four experiments, observers could rapidly extract the mean size of a set of circles presented in an RSVP sequence, but could not reliably identify individual members. Experiment 1 contrasted performance on a member identification task with performance on a mean judgment task, and showed that the tasks could be dissociated based on whether the test probe was presented before or after the sequence, suggesting that member identification and mean judgment are subserved by different mechanisms. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that when given a choice between a probe corresponding to the mean size of the set and a foil corresponding to the mean of the smallest and largest items only, the former is preferred to the latter, even when observers are explicitly instructed to average only the smallest and largest items. Experiment 3 showed that a test item corresponding to the mean size of the set could be reliably discriminated from a foil but the largest item in the set, differing by an equivalent amount, could not. In Experiment 4, observers rejected test items dissimilar to the mean size of the set in a member identification task, favoring test items that corresponded to the mean of the set over items that were actually shown. These findings suggest that mean representation is accomplished without explicitly encoding individual items.

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  9. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  10. A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

  11. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  12. A Study on Detecting of Differential Item Functioning of PISA 2006 Science Literacy Items in Turkish and American Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çikirikçi Demirtasli, Nükhet; Ulutas, Seher

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Item bias occurs when individuals from different groups (different gender, cultural background, etc.) have different probabilities of responding correctly to a test item despite having the same skill levels. It is important that tests or items do not have bias in order to ensure the accuracy of decisions taken according to test…

  13. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  14. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nineteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  16. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  17. The Mantel-Haenszel Method for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in Dichotomously Scored Items: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacInnes, Jann Marie Wise

    2009-01-01

    Multilevel data often exist in educational studies. The focus of this study is to consider differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous items from a multilevel perspective. One of the most often used methods for detecting DIF in dichotomously scored items is the Mantel-Haenszel log odds-ratio. However, the Mantel-Haenszel reduces the…

  18. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  19. Line-item veto may pass this month

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U.S. House and Senate Republicans have cleared the way for legislation to give the President the power of a line-item-veto in time for the 1998 budget season.The line-item veto, as proposed, would allow the President to remove from appropriations bills selected appropriations items, new entitlement spending, or narrowly targeted tax breaks. Once a line item is cut from the budget, Congress would have to pass a separate appropriations bill for that individual item; that new, separate bill would then be subject to the traditional Presidential veto.

  20. Development of the PROMIS® Coping Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a coping strategy for many smokers who then have difficulty finding new ways to cope with negative affect when they quit. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing the coping expectancies of smoking for daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses (according to gender, age, and ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) for assessing coping expectancies of smoking. Results: For both daily and nondaily smokers, the unidimensional Coping Expectancies item banks (21 items) are relatively DIF free and are highly reliable (0.96 and 0.97, respectively). A common 4-item SF for daily and nondaily smokers also showed good reliability (0.85). Adaptive tests required an average of 4.3 and 3.7 items for simulated daily and nondaily respondents, respectively, and achieved reliabilities of 0.91 for both when the maximum test length was 10 items. Conclusions: This research provides a new set of items that can be used to reliably assess coping expectancies of smoking, through a SF, CAT, or a tailored set selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118227