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Sample records for advancing items identify

  1. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  2. An Analytical Method of Identifying Biased Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; Hoover, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A follow-up technique is needed to identify items contributing to items-by-groups interaction when using an ANOVA procedure to examine a test for biased items. The method described includes distribution theory for assessing level of significance and is sensitive to items at all difficulty levels. (Author/GSK)

  3. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  4. Identifying and Managing Local Item Dependence in Context-Dependent Item Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sally; Sudweeks, Richard R.

    A study was conducted to identify local item dependence (LID) in the context-dependent item sets used in an examination prepared for use in an introductory university physics class and to assess the effects of LID on estimates of the reliability and standard error of measurement. Test scores were obtained for 487 students in the physics class. The…

  5. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  6. [Advances in recently identified coronaviruses].

    PubMed

    Geng, He-Yuan; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which include viruses that cause the common cold and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans and other diseases in animals. There are considerable genetic diversities within coronaviruses due to their wide rang hosts and their special gene replication and transcription mechanisms. During this process, gene recombinations often occur, resulting in novel subtype or coronavirus emerge constantly. Of note are SARS-like-CoVs and novel HCoV-EMC identified in 2012. This minireview summarized major advances of recently identified coronaviruses, focusing on the genome structures and interspecies jumping mechanism of coronavirus.

  7. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  8. Identifying Predictors of Physics Item Difficulty: A Linear Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary…

  9. Identifying an Efficient Set of Items Sensitive to Clinical-Range Externalizing Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in two independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5–8 and 9–13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items' measurement precision for sub-clinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others' things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. PMID:26322800

  10. Identifying an efficient set of items sensitive to clinical-range externalizing problems in children.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2016-05-01

    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in 2 independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5-8 and 9-13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items' measurement precision for subclinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others' things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or... Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B. (a) Scope and applicability. This... recovery of advance payments to suppliers of Part B services and the rights and responsibilities...

  12. Evaluation of the Plot Method for Identifying Potentially Biased Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Rogers, H. Jane

    This report was designed to respond to two major methodological shortcomings in the item bias literature: (1) misfitting test models; and (2) the use of significance tests. Specifically, the goals of the research were to describe a newly developed method known as the "plot method" for identifying potentially biased test items and to…

  13. 78 FR 76067 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...); and (v) High risk item identified by the requiring activity as vulnerable to supply chain threat, a target of cyber threats, or counterfeiting. (b) Exceptions. The contractor will not be required to...) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply chain integrity, enhance...

  14. 42 CFR 435.953 - Identifying items of information to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... against the case file all items of information received or it may identify (target) separately for each... is not cost-effective; a formal cost/benefit analysis is not required. (c) If an agency receives...

  15. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items. 242.48 Section 242.48 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... for certain equipment and long lead items. The Commissioner may allow advances for certain pieces...

  16. Comparative Racial Analysis of Enlisted Advancement Exams: Item Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    which selects only those items having a Black P value greatcr than 25. 3. The SEQUIN method, developed by Moonan, Balaban, and Geyser (1967), which...validity of test items. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1942, 26, 846-849. (See Appendix) Moonan, W. J., Balaban, J. G., & Geyser , M. J. SEQUIN II: A

  17. Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor

  18. Identifying Discrepant Item Response Patterns (Item Bias) in a Measure of ESL Subjects' Control of the (D) and (Z) Morphemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutten, Sheila R.; And Others

    In a study of the detection of test item bias, Chinese speakers and Spanish speakers were administered a measure of pronunciation accuracy for the (d) and (z) morphemes. Six indices were calculated for each item: item difficulty, point biserial correlation coefficient, item variance, chi-square, Rasch logit of difficulty, and the average…

  19. Identifying Advanced Technologies for Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; Yin, Robert K.

    A study to determine how three advanced technologies might be applied to the needs of special education students helped inspire the development of a new method for identifying such applications. This new method, named the "Hybrid Approach," combines features of the two traditional methods: technology-push and demand-pull. Technology-push involves…

  20. Analyses of medical data models - identifying common concepts and items in a repository of medical forms.

    PubMed

    Breil, Bernhard; Dugas, Martin

    2013-01-01

    One year ago the portal of Medical Data Models (http://medical-data-models.org) was presented as a resource for the scientific community. As of November 2012 there are approximately 3,300 forms with 102,000 items available in the CDISC ODM format. First descriptive analyses regarding form metadata demonstrate the capability of such a repository to identify commonly used medical concepts. Most common items are administrative attributes which indicates that more clinical information are needed to increase the secondary use of data documented within these forms.

  1. Advances in identifying beryllium sensitization and disease.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and 1940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  2. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z.; Khalid, M. N.

    2014-04-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  3. Identifying Country-Specific Cultures of Physics Education: A differential item functioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesic, Vanes

    2012-11-01

    In international large-scale assessments of educational outcomes, student achievement is often represented by unidimensional constructs. This approach allows for drawing general conclusions about country rankings with respect to the given achievement measure, but it typically does not provide specific diagnostic information which is necessary for systematic comparisons and improvements of educational systems. Useful information could be obtained by exploring the differences in national profiles of student achievement between low-achieving and high-achieving countries. In this study, we aimed to identify the relative weaknesses and strengths of eighth graders' physics achievement in Bosnia and Herzegovina in comparison to the achievement of their peers from Slovenia. For this purpose, we ran a secondary analysis of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 data. The student sample consisted of 4,220 students from Bosnia and Herzegovina and 4,043 students from Slovenia. After analysing the cognitive demands of TIMSS 2007 physics items, the correspondent differential item functioning (DIF)/differential group functioning contrasts were estimated. Approximately 40% of items exhibited large DIF contrasts, indicating significant differences between cultures of physics education in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. The relative strength of students from Bosnia and Herzegovina showed to be mainly associated with the topic area 'Electricity and magnetism'. Classes of items which required the knowledge of experimental method, counterintuitive thinking, proportional reasoning and/or the use of complex knowledge structures proved to be differentially easier for students from Slovenia. In the light of the presented results, the common practice of ranking countries with respect to universally established cognitive categories seems to be potentially misleading.

  4. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  5. A Rasch Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument: Identifying Race and Gender Differential Item Functioning among Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; MacIntosh, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The juvenile justice system needs a tool that can identify and assess mental health problems among youths quickly with validity and reliability. The goal of this article is to evaluate the racial/ethnic and gender differential item functioning (DIF) of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) using the Rasch Model.…

  6. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  7. Using Necessary Information to Identify Item Dependence in Passage-Based Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldonado, Angela Argo; Svetina, Dubravka; Gorin, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Applications of traditional unidimensional item response theory models to passage-based reading comprehension assessment data have been criticized based on potential violations of local independence. However, simple rules for determining dependency, such as including all items associated with a particular passage, may overestimate the dependency…

  8. An Examination of Two Procedures for Identifying Consequential Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Meng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate two procedures flagging consequential item parameter drift (IPD) in an operational testing program. The first procedure was based on flagging items that exhibit a meaningful magnitude of IPD using a critical value that was defined to represent barely tolerable IPD. The second procedure…

  9. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567

  10. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification.

  11. 77 FR 35921 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...) Regardless of value for any-- (i) DoD serially managed subassembly, component, or part embedded within a subassembly, component, or part; (ii) Parent item (as defined in 252.211-7003(a)) that contains the embedded... Schedule, insert ``See Schedule'' in this table.) (iii) Subassemblies, components, and parts...

  12. Identifying Promising Items: The Use of Crowdsourcing in the Development of Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Coyle, Harold P.; Miller, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometrically sound development of assessment instruments requires pilot testing of candidate items as a first step in gauging their quality, typically a time-consuming and costly effort. Crowdsourcing offers the opportunity for gathering data much more quickly and inexpensively than from most targeted populations. In a simulation of a…

  13. Using the Cumulative Common Log-Odds Ratio to Identify Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items in the Exercise and Sport Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2007-01-01

    One aspect of construct validity is the extent to which the measurement properties of a rating scale are invariant across the groups being compared. An increasingly used method for assessing between-group differences in the measurement properties of items of a scale is the framework of differential item functioning (DIF). In this paper we…

  14. Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.

  15. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire advanced: item and test score characteristics, 4-factor solution, and severity classification.

    PubMed

    Bodenburg, Sebastian; Dopslaff, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX, , Behavioral assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome, 1996) is a standardized instrument to measure possible behavioral changes as a result of the dysexecutive syndrome. Although initially intended only as a qualitative instrument, the DEX has also been used increasingly to address quantitative problems. Until now there have not been more fundamental statistical analyses of the questionnaire's testing quality. The present study is based on an unselected sample of 191 patients with acquired brain injury and reports on the data relating to the quality of the items, the reliability and the factorial structure of the DEX. Item 3 displayed too great an item difficulty, whereas item 11 was not sufficiently discriminating. The DEX's reliability in self-rating is r = 0.85. In addition to presenting the statistical values of the tests, a clinical severity classification of the overall scores of the 4 found factors and of the questionnaire as a whole is carried out on the basis of quartile standards.

  16. Advanced Electrocardiography Can Identify Occult Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiljak, M.; Petric, A. Domanjko; Wilberg, M.; Olsen, L. H.; Stepancic, A.; Schlegel, T. T.; Starc, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, multiple advanced resting electrocardiographic (A-ECG) techniques have improved the diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in detection of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. This study investigated whether 12-lead A-ECG recordings could accurately identify the occult phase of DCM in dogs. Short-duration (3-5 min) high-fidelity 12-lead ECG recordings were obtained from 31 privately-owned, clinically healthy Doberman Pinschers (5.4 +/- 1.7 years, 11/20 males/females). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 healthy dogs with normal echocardiographic M-mode measurements: left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd . 47mm) and in systole (LVIDs . 38mm) and normal 24-hour ECG recordings (<50 ventricular premature complexes, VPCs); and 2) 12 dogs with occult DCM: 11/12 dogs had increased M-mode measurements (LVIDd . 49mm and/or LVIDs . 40mm) and 5/11 dogs had also >100 VPCs/24h; 1/12 dogs had only abnormal 24-hour ECG recordings (>100 VPCs/24h). ECG recordings were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate multiple parameters of high-frequency (HF) QRS ECG, heart rate variability, QT variability, waveform complexity and 3-D ECG. Student's t-tests determined 19 ECG parameters that were significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups. Principal component factor analysis identified a 5-factor model with 81.4% explained variance. QRS dipolar and non-dipolar voltages, Cornell voltage criteria and QRS waveform residuum were increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas mean HF QRS amplitude was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in dogs with occult DCM. For the 5 selected parameters the prediction of occult DCM was performed using a binary logistic regression model with Chi-square tested significance (P < 0.01). ROC analyses showed that the five selected ECG parameters could identify occult ECG with sensitivity 89% and specificity 83%. Results suggest that 12-lead A-ECG might improve diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in earlier detection

  17. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  18. Identifying type and determinants of missing items in quality of life questionnaires: Application to the SF-36 French version of the 2003 Decennial Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Missing items are common in quality of life (QoL) questionnaires and present a challenge for research in this field. The development of sound strategies of replacement and prevention requires accurate knowledge of their type and determinants. Methods We used the 2003 French Decennial Health Survey of a representative sample of the general population -- including 22,620 adult subjects who completed the SF-36 questionnaire-- to test various socio-demographic, health status and QoL variables as potential predictors of missingness. We constructed logistic regression models for each SF-36 item to identify independent predictors and classify them according to Little and Rubin ("missing completely at random", "missing at random" and "missing not at random"). Results The type of missingness was missing at random for half of the items of the SF-36 and missing not at random for the others. None of the items were missing completely at random. Independent predictors of missingness were age, female sex, low scores on the SF-36 subscales and in some cases low educational level, occupation, nationality and poor health status. Conclusion This study of the SF-36 shows that imputation of missing items is necessary and emphasizes several factors for missingness that should be considered in prevention strategies of missing data. Similar methodologies could be applied to item missingness in other QoL questionnaires. PMID:20128899

  19. Identifying patients at risk for recurrent or advanced BCC.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Omid; Goldenberg, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common skin cancer and its incidence is on the rise worldwide. Clinical presentation and histologic examination are used for diagnosis and to stratify BCCs as either low- or high-risk for recurrence or development of advanced disease. A number of surgical and nonsurgical options are available for BCC. BCC is most often managed with a surgical approach, but not all tumors and patients are suitable for surgery. Vismodegib is a recently approved first-in-class hedgehog pathway inhibitor that has expanded options for patients who have locally advanced or metastatic BCC.

  20. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…

  1. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... necessary to meet the requirements of the overall construction schedule cited in the construction contract. ... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.48 Insured advances... equipment or other construction materials for which a manufacturer, fabricator, or other source requires...

  2. Identifying landmark articles for advancing the practice of geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Camille P; Fowler, Rachel; Goodman, Richard A; Graves, Taylor R; Flacker, Jonathan M; Johnson, Theodore M

    2014-11-01

    Landmark articles from the peer-reviewed literature can be used to teach the fundamental principles of geriatric medicine. Three approaches were used in sequential combination to identify landmark articles as a resource for geriatricians and other healthcare practitioners. Candidate articles were identified first through a literature review and expert opinion survey of geriatric medicine faculty. Candidate articles in a winnowed list (n = 30) were then included in a bibliometric analysis that incorporated the journal impact factor and average monthly citation index. Finally, a consensus panel reviewed articles to assess each manuscript's clinical relevance. For each article, a final score was determined by averaging, with equal weight, the opinion survey, bibliometric analysis, and consensus panel review. This process ultimately resulted in the identification of 27 landmark articles. Overall, there was weak correlation between articles that the expert opinion survey and bibliometric analysis both rated highly. This process demonstrates a feasible method combining subjective and objective measures that can be used to identify landmark papers in geriatric medicine for the enhancement of geriatrics education and practice.

  3. The Quest for Item Types Based on Information Processing: An Analysis of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, with a Consideration of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Francois; Bors, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Various taxonomies of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) items have been proposed in the literature to account for performance on the test. In the present article, three such taxonomies based on information processing, namely Carpenter, Just and Shell's [Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., & Shell, P., (1990). What one intelligence test…

  4. Identifying Dyslexia in Adults: An Iterative Method Using the Predictive Value of Item Scores and Self-Report Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…

  5. Identifying Successful Advancement Approaches in Four Catholic Universities: The Effectiveness of the Four Advancement Models of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonglia, Jean-Pierre K.

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of the most successful Catholic universities in the United States identifies the prevalence of four advancement models of communication that have contributed to make those institutions successful in their philanthropic efforts. While research by Grunig and Kelly maintained that the two-way symmetrical model of…

  6. Evaluation of Item Candidates: The PROMIS Qualitative Item Review

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Rothrock, Nan; Yount, Susan; Stone, Arthur A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) network's primary goals is the development of a comprehensive item bank for patient-reported outcomes of chronic diseases. For its first set of item banks, PROMIS chose to focus on pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, and social function. An essential step for the development of an item pool is the identification, evaluation, and revision of extant questionnaire items for the core item pool. In this work, we also describe the systematic process wherein items are classified for subsequent statistical processing by the PROMIS investigators. Six phases of item development are documented: identification of extant items, item classification and selection, item review and revision, focus group input on domain coverage, cognitive interviews with individual items, and final revision before field testing. Identification of items refers to the systematic search for existing items in currently available scales. Expert item review and revision was conducted by trained professionals who reviewed the wording of each item and revised as appropriate for conventions adopted by the PROMIS network. Focus groups were used to confirm domain definitions and to identify new areas of item development for future PROMIS item banks. Cognitive interviews were used to examine individual items. Items successfully screened through this process were sent to field testing and will be subjected to innovative scale construction procedures. PMID:17443114

  7. Advance to and Persistence in Graduate School: Identifying the Influential Factors and Major-Based Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2014-01-01

    Structured within an expanded econometric theoretical framework, this study uses national data sources to identify the critical factors that influence college graduates' advance to and persistence in graduate education and to compare the systematic differences between students in the STEM and non-STEM majors. The findings indicate that there is a…

  8. Assessment of differential item functioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses several important issues in assessment of differential item functioning (DIF). It starts with the definition of DIF, effectiveness of using item fit statistics to detect DIF, and linear modeling of DIF in dichotomous items, polytomous items, facets, and testlet-based items. Because a common metric over groups of test-takers is a prerequisite in DIF assessment, this study reviews three such methods of establishing a common metric: the equal-mean-difficulty method, the all-other-item method, and the constant-item (CI) method. A small simulation demonstrates the superiority of the CI method over the others. As the CI method relies on a correct specification of DIF-free items to serve as anchors, a method of identifying such items is recommended and its effectiveness is illustrated through a simulation. Finally, this study discusses how to assess practical significance of DIF at both item and test levels.

  9. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  10. Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William Richins; Stephen Novascone; Cheryl O'Brien

    2009-08-01

    Summary of SMIRT20 Preconference Topical Workshop – Identifying Structural Issues in Advanced Reactors William Richins1, Stephen Novascone1, and Cheryl O’Brien1 1Idaho National Laboratory, US Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA, e-mail: William.Richins@inl.gov The Idaho National Laboratory (INL, USA) and IASMiRT sponsored an international forum Nov 5-6, 2008 in Porvoo, Finland for nuclear industry, academic, and regulatory representatives to identify structural issues in current and future advanced reactor design, especially for extreme conditions and external threats. The purpose of this Topical Workshop was to articulate research, engineering, and regulatory Code development needs. The topics addressed by the Workshop were selected to address critical industry needs specific to advanced reactor structures that have long lead times and can be the subject of future SMiRT technical sessions. The topics were; 1) structural/materials needs for extreme conditions and external threats in contemporary (Gen. III) and future (Gen. IV and NGNP) advanced reactors and 2) calibrating simulation software and methods that address topic 1 The workshop discussions and research needs identified are presented. The Workshop successfully produced interactive discussion on the two topics resulting in a list of research and technology needs. It is recommended that IASMiRT communicate the results of the discussion to industry and researchers to encourage new ideas and projects. In addition, opportunities exist to retrieve research reports and information that currently exists, and encourage more international cooperation and collaboration. It is recommended that IASMiRT continue with an off-year workshop series on select topics.

  11. Identifying the Factors That Facilitate or Hinder Advance Planning by Persons With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Karen B.; Kapo, Jennifer M.; Karlawish, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We performed semistructured interviews with 30 family members of patients with advanced dementia to identify the factors that facilitate or hinder advance planning by persons with dementia. All interviews were analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. The majority (77%) of family members reported that their relative had some form of written advance directive, and at least half reported previous discussions about health care preferences (57%), living situation or placement issues (50%), and finances or estate planning (60%) with the patient. Family members reported some themes that prompted planning and others that were barriers to planning. Events that most often triggered planning were medical, living situation, or financial issues associated with a friend or family member of the patient (57%). Barriers to planning included both passive and active avoidance. The most common form of passive avoidance was not realizing the importance of planning until it was too late to have the discussion (63%). The most common form of active avoidance was avoiding the discussion (53%). These data suggest potentially remediable strategies to address barriers to advance planning discussions. PMID:18580595

  12. Immunogenetic mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity: recent advances in identifying susceptibility genes and regions.

    PubMed

    Brand, Oliver J; Gough, Stephen C L

    2011-12-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) include Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which are characterised by a breakdown in immune tolerance to thyroid antigens. Unravelling the genetic architecture of AITD is vital to better understanding of AITD pathogenesis, required to advance therapeutic options in both disease management and prevention. The early whole-genome linkage and candidate gene association studies provided the first evidence that the HLA region and CTLA-4 represented AITD risk loci. Recent improvements in; high throughput genotyping technologies, collection of larger disease cohorts and cataloguing of genome-scale variation have facilitated genome-wide association studies and more thorough screening of candidate gene regions. This has allowed identification of many novel AITD risk genes and more detailed association mapping. The growing number of confirmed AITD susceptibility loci, implicates a number of putative disease mechanisms most of which are tightly linked with aspects of immune system function. The unprecedented advances in genetic study will allow future studies to identify further novel disease risk genes and to identify aetiological variants within specific gene regions, which will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of AITD patho-physiology.

  13. Action Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Keane, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing school resources and managing a shrinking budget--these are two important items affected when a building's roofing system does not perform properly. Rather than acting in haste, school and university administrators should do what every teacher tells a student prior to answering any question: think through the research and studies to…

  14. Identifying human disease genes: advances in molecular genetics and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, S M; Ali, A; Baig, S M; Barh, D; Miyoshi, A; Azevedo, V

    2014-07-04

    The human genome project is one of the significant achievements that have provided detailed insight into our genetic legacy. During the last two decades, biomedical investigations have gathered a considerable body of evidence by detecting more than 2000 disease genes. Despite the imperative advances in the genetic understanding of various diseases, the pathogenesis of many others remains obscure. With recent advances, the laborious methodologies used to identify DNA variations are replaced by direct sequencing of genomic DNA to detect genetic changes. The ability to perform such studies depends equally on the development of high-throughput and economical genotyping methods. Currently, basically for every disease whose origen is still unknown, genetic approaches are available which could be pedigree-dependent or -independent with the capacity to elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms. Computer algorithms and programs for linkage analysis have formed the foundation for many disease gene detection projects, similarly databases of clinical findings have been widely used to support diagnostic decisions in dysmorphology and general human disease. For every disease type, genome sequence variations, particularly single nucleotide polymorphisms are mapped by comparing the genetic makeup of case and control groups. Methods that predict the effects of polymorphisms on protein stability are useful for the identification of possible disease associations, whereas structural effects can be assessed using methods to predict stability changes in proteins using sequence and/or structural information.

  15. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  16. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Eren, A Murat

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today's microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes.

  17. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Delmont, Tom O.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today’s microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes. PMID:27069789

  18. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  19. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Item reduction study....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  20. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  1. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  2. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  3. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  4. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item standardization code....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code (ISC) means a code assigned an item in the supply system which identifies the item as authorized...

  5. Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

  6. Identifying with More than One Ethnic and/or Racial Group: Another Examination of the Impact on Differential Item Functioning Statistics. Statistical Report 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Anita; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Hendrickson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The classification of test-takers into ethnic and racial groups ensures individuals and groups, identified in Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, are protected from adverse treatment (Camilli, 2006). The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) suggests that…

  7. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  8. 48 CFR 252.246-7005 - Notice of Warranty Tracking of Serialized Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... _, Warranty Tracking Information, (indicated by a single asterisk (*)), on each contract line item number..., starting event, serialized item, unique item identifier, usage, warranty administrator, warranty...

  9. [Meglumine acridonacetate and complex therapy of patients with newly identified advanced pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Pravada, N S; Budritskiĭ, A M; Sukhanov, D S

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and immunological efficacy of meglumine acridonacetate (cycloferon) tablets was evaluated in complex treatment of patients with newly diagnosed advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. It was shown that the use of cycloferon according to our scheme increased the efficacy of the therapy (earlier disappearance of the disease symptoms and bacteria isolation, shorter-terms of cavern healing, more pronounced positive radiographic dynamics vs. the patients under the etiotropic therapy). The use of cycloferon normalized the number of gamma interferon receptors, increased the gamma interferon serum levels, reduced the incidence of the side effects (liver damage) due to the use of TB drugs. Such a use of cycloferon was cost effective. The use of sycloferon is possible in the complex treatment of outpatients with advanced pulmonary tuberculosis.

  10. Identifying locally advanced basal cell carcinoma eligible for treatment with vismodegib: an expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Peris, Ketty; Licitra, Lisa; Ascierto, Paolo A; Corvò, Renzo; Simonacci, Marco; Picciotto, Franco; Gualdi, Giulio; Pellacani, Giovanni; Santoro, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide. Most occur on the head and neck, where cosmetic and functional outcomes are critical. BCC can be locally destructive if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. Surgery is the treatment of choice for the majority of high-risk lesions. Aggressive, recurrent or unresectable tumors can be difficult to manage. Until recently, no approved systemic therapy was available for locally advanced or metastatic BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Vismodegib provides a systemic treatment option. However, a consensus definition of advanced BCC is lacking. A multidisciplinary panel with expertise in oncology, dermatology, dermatologic surgery and radiation oncology proposes a consensus definition based on published evidence and clinical experience.

  11. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  12. [Advances of studies on new technology and method for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Guo, Baolin; Zhang, Guijun; Yan, Zhuyun; Luo, Guangming; Sun, Suqin; Wu, Hezhen; Huang, Linfang; Pang, Xiaohui; Chen, Jianbo

    2012-04-01

    In this review, the authors summarized the new technologies and methods for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials, including molecular identification, chemical identification, morphological identification, microscopic identification and identification based on biological effects. The authors introduced the principle, characteristics, application and prospect on each new technology or method and compared their advantages and disadvantages. In general, new methods make the result more objective and accurate. DNA barcoding technique and spectroscopy identification have their owner obvious strongpoint in universality and digitalization. In the near future, the two techniques are promising to be the main trend for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials. The identification techniques based on microscopy, liquid chromatography, PCR, biological effects and DNA chip will be indispensable supplements. However, the bionic identification technology is just placed in the developing stage at present.

  13. Post-Arab Spring Governments in North Africa: Identifying Focus Areas for Economic Advancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Henry and Springborg explain that prior to the Arab Spring, both Egypt and Tunisia could be categorized as “ bully states” or praetorian regimes...while the Qaddafi-led government in Libya was characterized as a “bunker state.” These were identified as the least successful categories delineated...and were shown to produce poorer results than the Middle East/North African (MENA) countries belonging to the other categories defined.1 Julia

  14. Exome sequencing identifies a spectrum of mutation frequencies in advanced and lethal prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akash; White, Thomas A.; MacKenzie, Alexandra P.; Clegg, Nigel; Lee, Choli; Dumpit, Ruth F.; Coleman, Ilsa; Ng, Sarah B.; Salipante, Stephen J.; Rieder, Mark J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Corey, Eva; Lange, Paul H.; Morrissey, Colm; Vessella, Robert L.; Nelson, Peter S.; Shendure, Jay

    2011-01-01

    To catalog protein-altering mutations that may drive the development of prostate cancers and their progression to metastatic disease systematically, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 23 prostate cancers derived from 16 different lethal metastatic tumors and three high-grade primary carcinomas. All tumors were propagated in mice as xenografts, designated the LuCaP series, to model phenotypic variation, such as responses to cancer-directed therapeutics. Although corresponding normal tissue was not available for most tumors, we were able to take advantage of increasingly deep catalogs of human genetic variation to remove most germline variants. On average, each tumor genome contained ∼200 novel nonsynonymous variants, of which the vast majority was specific to individual carcinomas. A subset of genes was recurrently altered across tumors derived from different individuals, including TP53, DLK2, GPC6, and SDF4. Unexpectedly, three prostate cancer genomes exhibited substantially higher mutation frequencies, with 2,000–4,000 novel coding variants per exome. A comparison of castration-resistant and castration-sensitive pairs of tumor lines derived from the same prostate cancer highlights mutations in the Wnt pathway as potentially contributing to the development of castration resistance. Collectively, our results indicate that point mutations arising in coding regions of advanced prostate cancers are common but, with notable exceptions, very few genes are mutated in a substantial fraction of tumors. We also report a previously undescribed subtype of prostate cancers exhibiting “hypermutated” genomes, with potential implications for resistance to cancer therapeutics. Our results also suggest that increasingly deep catalogs of human germline variation may challenge the necessity of sequencing matched tumor-normal pairs. PMID:21949389

  15. Exact Small-Sample Differential Item Functioning Methods for Polytomous Items with Illustration Based on an Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Huynh, Huynh; Seaman, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Exact nonparametric procedures have been used to identify the level of differential item functioning (DIF) in binary items. This study explored the use of exact DIF procedures with items scored on a Likert scale. The results from an attitude survey suggest that the large-sample Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) procedure identifies more items as…

  16. Advances in Using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Identify the Mixing of Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Voytek, E. B.; Buckley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) provides thermal data through space and time along linear cables. When installed along a streambed, FO-DTS can capture the influence of upwelling groundwater (GW) as thermal anomalies. The planning of labor-intensive physical measurements can make use of FO-DTS data to target areas of focused GW discharge that can disproportionately affect surface-water (SW) quality and temperature. Typical longitudinal FO-DTS spatial resolution ranges 0.25 to1.0 m, and cannot resolve small-scale water-column mixing or sub-surface diurnal fluctuations. However, configurations where the cable is wrapped around rods can improve the effective vertical resolution to sub-centimeter scales, and the pipes can be actively heated to induce a thermal tracer. Longitudinal streambed and high-resolution vertical arrays were deployed at the upper Delaware River (PA, USA) and the Quashnet River (MA, USA) for aquatic habitat studies. The resultant datasets exemplify the varied uses of FO-DTS. Cold anomalies found along the Delaware River steambed coincide with zones of known mussel populations, and high-resolution vertical array data showed relatively stable in-channel thermal refugia. Cold anomalies at the Quashnet River identified in 2013 were found to persist in 2014, and seepage measurements and water samples at these locations showed high GW flux with distinctive chemistry. Cable location is paramount to seepage identification, particularly in faster flowing deep streams such as the Quashnet and Delaware Rivers where steambed FO-DTS identified many seepage zones with no surface expression. The temporal characterization of seepage dynamics are unique to FO-DTS. However, data from Tidmarsh Farms, a cranberry bog restoration site in MA, USA indicate that in slower flowing shallow steams GW inflow affects surface temperature; therefore infrared imaging can provide seepage location information similar to FO-DTS with substantially less effort.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Dust Source Variability in Northern China Identified Using Advanced Remote Sensing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taramelli, A.; Pasqui, M.; Barbour, J.; Kirschbaum, D.; Bottai, L.; Busillo, C.; Calastrini, F.; Guarnieri, F.; Small, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to provide a detailed characterization of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the regional and local dust source areas within the desert of the Alashan Prefecture (Inner Mongolia, China). This problem was approached through multi-scale remote sensing analysis of vegetation changes. The primary requirements for this regional analysis are high spatial and spectral resolution data, accurate spectral calibration and good temporal resolution with a suitable temporal baseline. Landsat analysis and field validation along with the low spatial resolution classifications from MODIS and AVHRR are combined to provide a reliable characterization of the different potential dust-producing sources. The representation of intra-annual and inter-annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trend to assess land cover discrimination for mapping potential dust source using MODIS and AVHRR at larger scale is enhanced by Landsat Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA). The combined methodology is to determine the extent to which Landsat can distinguish important soils types in order to better understand how soil reflectance behaves at seasonal and inter-annual timescales. As a final result mapping soil surface properties using SMA is representative of responses of different land and soil cover previously identified by NDVI trend. The results could be used in dust emission models even if they are not reflecting aggregate formation, soil stability or particle coatings showing to be critical for accurately represent dust source over different regional and local emitting areas.

  18. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  19. Serum proteome profiling detects myelodysplastic syndromes and identifies CXC chemokine ligands 4 and 7 as markers for advanced disease

    PubMed Central

    Aivado, Manuel; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Germing, Ulrich; Alterovitz, Gil; Meng, Xiao-Ying; Grall, Franck; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Klement, Giannoula; Steidl, Ulrich; Otu, Hasan H.; Czibere, Akos; Prall, Wolf C.; Iking-Konert, Christof; Shayne, Michelle; Ramoni, Marco F.; Gattermann, Norbert; Haas, Rainer; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Fung, Eric T.; Libermann, Towia A.

    2007-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are among the most frequent hematologic malignancies. Patients have a short survival and often progress to acute myeloid leukemia. The diagnosis of MDS can be difficult; there is a paucity of molecular markers, and the pathophysiology is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a multicenter study investigating whether serum proteome profiling may serve as a noninvasive platform to discover novel molecular markers for MDS. We generated serum proteome profiles from 218 individuals by MS and identified a profile that distinguishes MDS from non-MDS cytopenias in a learning sample set. This profile was validated by testing its ability to predict MDS in a first independent validation set and a second, prospectively collected, independent validation set run 5 months apart. Accuracy was 80.5% in the first and 79.0% in the second validation set. Peptide mass fingerprinting and quadrupole TOF MS identified two differential proteins: CXC chemokine ligands 4 (CXCL4) and 7 (CXCL7), both of which had significantly decreased serum levels in MDS, as confirmed with independent antibody assays. Western blot analyses of platelet lysates for these two platelet-derived molecules revealed a lack of CXCL4 and CXCL7 in MDS. Subtype analyses revealed that these two proteins have decreased serum levels in advanced MDS, suggesting the possibility of a concerted disturbance of transcription or translation of these chemokines in advanced MDS. PMID:17220270

  20. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  1. Transcript Profiling Identifies Iqgap2−/− Mouse as a Model for Advanced Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gnatenko, Dmitri V.; Xu, Xiao; Zhu, Wei; Schmidt, Valentina A.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly accepted that genetically engineered animal models do not always recapitulate human pathobiology. Therefore identifying best-fit mouse models of human cancers that truly reflect the corresponding human disease is of vital importance in elucidating molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and developing preventive and therapeutic approaches. A new hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse model lacking a novel putative tumor suppressor IQGAP2 has been generated by our laboratory. The aim of this study was to obtain the molecular signature of Iqgap2−/− HCC tumors and establish the relevance of this model to human disease. Here we report a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of Iqgap2−/− livers and a cross-species comparison of human and Iqgap2−/− HCC tumors using Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. We identified the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as the top canonical pathway dysregulated in Iqgap2−/− livers. We also demonstrated that Iqgap2−/− hepatic tumors shared genetic signatures with HCC tumors from patients with advanced disease as evidenced by a 78% mouse-to-human microarray data set concordance rate with 117 out of 151 identified ortholog genes having similar expression profiles across the two species. Collectively, these results indicate that the Iqgap2 knockout mouse model closely recapitulates human HCC at the molecular level and supports its further application for the study of this disease. PMID:23951254

  2. Application of effect-directed analysis to identify mutagenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products of advanced oxidation drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Vughs, D; Baken, K A; Kolkman, A; Martijn, A J; de Voogt, P

    2016-07-22

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants in (drinking) water treatment. It is however known that medium pressure UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to mutagenicity in the Ames test, which is no longer present after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Many nitrogen-containing disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM) during medium pressure UV treatment of water. Identification of the N-DBPs and the application of effect-directed analysis to combine chemical screening results with biological activity would provide more insight into the relation of specific N-DBPs with the observed mutagenicity and was the subject of this study. To this end, fractions of medium pressure UV-treated and untreated water extracts were prepared using preparative HPLC and tested using the Ames fluctuation test. In addition, high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on all fractions to assess the presence of N-DBPs. Based on toxicity data and read across analysis, we could identify five N-DBPs that are potentially genotoxic and were present in relatively high concentrations in the fractions in which mutagenicity was observed. The results of this study offer opportunities to further evaluate the identity and potential health concern of N-DBPs formed during advanced oxidation UV drinking water treatment.

  3. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  4. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  5. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  6. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  7. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  8. De novo sequencing of circulating miRNAs identifies novel markers predicting clinical outcome of locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently detected in the circulation of cancer patients, where they are associated with clinical parameters. Discovery profiling of circulating small RNAs has not been reported in breast cancer (BC), and was carried out in this study to identify blood-based small RNA markers of BC clinical outcome. Methods The pre-treatment sera of 42 stage II-III locally advanced and inflammatory BC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) followed by surgical tumor resection were analyzed for marker identification by deep sequencing all circulating small RNAs. An independent validation cohort of 26 stage II-III BC patients was used to assess the power of identified miRNA markers. Results More than 800 miRNA species were detected in the circulation, and observed patterns showed association with histopathological profiles of BC. Groups of circulating miRNAs differentially associated with ER/PR/HER2 status and inflammatory BC were identified. The relative levels of selected miRNAs measured by PCR showed consistency with their abundance determined by deep sequencing. Two circulating miRNAs, miR-375 and miR-122, exhibited strong correlations with clinical outcomes, including NCT response and relapse with metastatic disease. In the validation cohort, higher levels of circulating miR-122 specifically predicted metastatic recurrence in stage II-III BC patients. Conclusions Our study indicates that certain miRNAs can serve as potential blood-based biomarkers for NCT response, and that miR-122 prevalence in the circulation predicts BC metastasis in early-stage patients. These results may allow optimized chemotherapy treatments and preventive anti-metastasis interventions in future clinical applications. PMID:22400902

  9. Writing better test items.

    PubMed

    Aucoin, Julia W

    2005-01-01

    Professional development specialists have had little opportunity to learn how to write test items to meet the expectations of today's graduate nurse. Schools of nursing have moved away from knowledge-level test items and have had to develop more application and analysis items to prepare graduates for the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). This same type of question can be used effectively to support a competence assessment system and document critical thinking skills.

  10. EPA Report Shows Progress on E-Recycling and Identifies Opportunity to Advance G7s Recognition of Circular Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Facts and Figures report showing progress in consumer electronics recycling in the United States. Consumer electronics re

  11. Estimating Bias in Test Items Utilizing Principal Components Analysis and the General Linear Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R.

    A number of methods have been used to identify potentially biased items within a test. These methods examine one item at a time and do not deal with the complex interrelationships among items or among items and the potentially biasing elements. The use of multivariate procedures to assess whether or not items are biased and to obtain clues about…

  12. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item unique identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assembly, intermediate component, or subassembly that has an embedded item with a unique item identifier or...) Subassemblies, components, and parts embedded within delivered items, items with warranty requirements, DoD... Tooling or Special Test Equipment. (14) Whether the item is covered by a warranty. (e) For...

  13. Evolution of a Test Item

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of test items (see "Language Assessment Quarterly", Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 71-79 for the article "Test and Item Specifications Development"), beginning with a review of test and item specifications, then proceeding to writing and editing of items, pretesting and analysis, and finally selection of an item for a…

  14. Item Banking. Basic Testing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Roy

    This pamphlet describes the exciting potential of item banking--a new approach to testing which combines both comparability of scores with flexibility of test format. Item banks are collections of items where the characteristics of each item is known and these characteristics can be summated to described a test made from such items. The principle…

  15. Novelty and Promotional Items

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small novelty or promotional products, primarily used for outreach and educational purposes, must effectively convey a message, and their purchase will only be allowed if the item will contribute to the accomplishment of the Agency's mission.

  16. Detecting Differential Item Functioning of Polytomous Items for an Ideal Point Response Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei; Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing use of ideal point models to develop scales measuring important psychological constructs. For meaningful comparisons across groups, it is important to identify items on such scales that exhibit differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, the authors examined several methods for assessing DIF on polytomous items…

  17. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  18. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enterprise by an issuing agency. Government's unit acquisition cost means— (1) For fixed-price type line... cost-type or undefinitized line, subline, or exhibit line items, the Contractor's estimated fully... assembly, intermediate component, or subassembly that has an embedded item with a unique item identifier...

  19. Applying a Mixed Methods Framework to Differential Item Function Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Johanson, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the reason(s) for Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in the context of measurement is difficult. Although identifying potential DIF items is typically a statistical endeavor, understanding the reasons for DIF (and item repair or replacement) might require investigations that can be informed by qualitative work. Such work is…

  20. Preference and reinforcer efficacy of high- and low-tech items: A comparison of item type and duration of access.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Samaha, Andrew L; Bloom, Sarah E; Boyle, Megan A

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the interactions of stimulus type (high- vs. low-tech) and magnitude (duration of access) on preference and reinforcer efficacy. Two preference assessments were conducted to identify highly preferred high-tech and low-tech items for each participant. A subsequent assessment examined preference for those items when provided at 30-s and 600-s durations. We then evaluated reinforcer efficacy for those same items when provided for a range of durations using progressive-ratio schedules. Results suggested item type and access duration interacted to influence preference and reinforcer efficacy. Participants preferred high-tech items at longer durations of access and engaged in more responding when the high-tech item was provided for long durations, but these patterns were reversed for the low-tech item. In addition, participants engaged in less responding when the high-tech item was provided for short durations and when the low-tech item was provided for long durations.

  1. Multiplex Serum Protein Analysis Identifies Novel Biomarkers of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease with the Potential to Improve Diagnostic Accuracy of Established Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Hoffmann, Isabell; Horsfall, Leigh U.; Fagan, Kevin J.; Bijin, Veonice; Lee, Bernett; Clouston, Andrew D.; Lampe, Guy; Connolly, John E.; Powell, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis are urgently required, especially for use in non-specialist settings. The aim of this study was to identify novel serum biomarkers of advanced fibrosis. Methods We performed an unbiased screen of 120 serum analytes including cytokines, chemokines and proteases in 70 patients (35 without fibrosis, 35 with cirrhosis on biopsy), and selected a panel of 44 candidate biomarkers, which were subsequently measured in a mixed-etiology cohort of 432 patients with known serum HA, PIIINP and TIMP1 (which comprise the validated Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test). Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to generate models for the prediction of advanced or significant fibrosis (METAVIR ≥F3 and ≥F2, respectively); in addition to identifying biomarkers of disease activity and steatohepatitis. Results Seventeen analytes were significantly differentially expressed between patients with no advanced fibrosis and patients with advanced fibrosis, the most significant being hyaluronic acid (HA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 7 (p = 2.9E-41 and p = 1.0E-26, respectively). The optimal model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis comprised HA, MMP7, MMP1, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI). We demonstrate enhanced diagnostic accuracy (AUROC = 0.938) compared to a model comprising HA, PIIINP and TIMP1 alone (ELF) (AUROC = 0.898, p<0.0001, De Long’s test). Conclusions We have identified novel serum biomarkers of advanced liver fibrosis, which have the potential to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of established biomarkers. Our data suggest MMP7 is a valuable indicator of advanced fibrosis and may play a role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:27861569

  2. Investigating an Invariant Item Ordering for Polytomously Scored Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; te Marvelde, Janneke M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of an invariant item ordering (IIO) for polytomously scored items and proposes methods for investigating an IIO in real test data. Method manifest IIO is proposed for assessing whether item response functions intersect. Coefficient H[superscript T] is defined for polytomously scored items. Given that an IIO…

  3. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  4. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth-Orbital Transportation Systems, Dual-Mode Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study of dual mode propulsion concepts applied to advanced earth orbital transportation systems using reuseable single stage to orbit vehicle concepts were summarized. Both series burn and parallel burn modes of propulsion were analyzed for vertical takeoff, horizontal landing vehicles based on accelerated technology goals. A major study objective was to assess the merits of dual mode main propulsion concepts compared to single mode concepts for carrying payloads of Space Shuttle type to orbit.

  5. The Right Jobs: Identifying Career Advancement Opportunities for Low-Skilled Workers. A Guide for Public and Private Sector Workforce Development Practitioners. Advancement for Low-Wage Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan; Lessell, Newell; Biswas, Radha Roy

    2005-01-01

    The Right Jobs provides workforce policymakers and directors of workforce development programs with a structured approach to: (1) Identifying the most promising employment opportunities within reach of low-skill workers; (2) Determining the postsecondary training and career preparation routes that will yield results for their clients; and (3)…

  6. 15 CFR 752.3 - Eligible items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Maritime (civil) nuclear propulsion systems or associated design or production software and technology identified in § 744.5 of the EAR; (7) Communications intercepting devices and related software and technology...) Items controlled for missile technology reasons that are identified by the letters MT in the...

  7. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  8. Revising SAT-Verbal Items To Eliminate Differential Item Functioning. College Board Report No. 93-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, W. Edward; Schmitt, Alicia P.

    Based on initial Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Verbal pretest data and hypotheses advanced in the research literature, 7 sentence completion and 16 analogy items with extreme levels of differential item functioning (DIF) were selected and then systematically revised and re-administered in an attempt to reduce or eliminate DIF. The apparent…

  9. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  10. Examining Differential Item Functions of Different Item Ordered Test Forms According to Item Difficulty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Gül, Emrah; Dogan-Gül, Çilem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to examine whether differential item function is displayed in three different test forms that have item orders of random and sequential versions (easy-to-hard and hard-to-easy), based on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods and bearing item difficulty levels in mind. In the correlational research, the…

  11. Development and assessment of floor and ceiling items for the PROMIS physical function item bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. Results In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. Conclusions These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at

  12. Data Visualization of Item-Total Correlation by Median Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; Douglas, Samantha; Lee, Anna; An, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how data visualization could be utilized to identify errors prior to modeling, using an example with multi-dimensional item response theory (MIRT). MIRT combines item response theory and factor analysis to identify a psychometric model that investigates two or more latent traits. While it may seem convenient to…

  13. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma: From improving risk stratification and revealing novel biology to identifying actionable genomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus and not only has catalyzed a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis but also has revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent, activating, somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed toward aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma.

  14. Development and exploitation of a novel mutant androgen receptor modelling strategy to identify new targets for advanced prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Daniel; Jones, Dominic; Wade, Mark; Grey, James; Nakjang, Sirintra; Guo, Wenrui; Cork, David; Davies, Barry R; Wedge, Steve R; Robson, Craig N; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-09-22

    The persistence of androgen receptor (AR) signalling in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) highlights the unmet clinical need for the development of more effective AR targeting therapies. A key mechanism of therapy-resistance is by selection of AR mutations that convert anti-androgens to agonists enabling the retention of androgenic signalling in CRPC. To improve our understanding of these receptors in advanced disease we developed a physiologically-relevant model to analyse the global functionality of AR mutants in CRPC. Using the bicalutamide-activated AR(W741L/C) mutation as proof of concept, we demonstrate that this mutant confers an androgenic-like signalling programme and growth promoting phenotype in the presence of bicalutamide. Transcriptomic profiling of AR(W741L) highlighted key genes markedly up-regulated by the mutant receptor, including TIPARP, RASD1 and SGK1. Importantly, SGK1 expression was found to be highly expressed in the KUCaP xenograft model and a CRPC patient biopsy sample both of which express the bicalutamide-activated receptor mutant. Using an SGK1 inhibitor, AR(W741L) transcriptional and growth promoting activity was reduced indicating that exploiting functional distinctions between receptor isoforms in our model may provide new and effective therapies for CRPC patients.

  15. Development and exploitation of a novel mutant androgen receptor modelling strategy to identify new targets for advanced prostate cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Daniel; Jones, Dominic; Wade, Mark; Grey, James; Nakjang, Sirintra; Guo, Wenrui; Cork, David; Davies, Barry R.; Wedge, Steve R.; Robson, Craig N.; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of androgen receptor (AR) signalling in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) highlights the unmet clinical need for the development of more effective AR targeting therapies. A key mechanism of therapy-resistance is by selection of AR mutations that convert anti-androgens to agonists enabling the retention of androgenic signalling in CRPC. To improve our understanding of these receptors in advanced disease we developed a physiologically-relevant model to analyse the global functionality of AR mutants in CRPC. Using the bicalutamide-activated ARW741L/C mutation as proof of concept, we demonstrate that this mutant confers an androgenic-like signalling programme and growth promoting phenotype in the presence of bicalutamide. Transcriptomic profiling of ARW741L highlighted key genes markedly up-regulated by the mutant receptor, including TIPARP, RASD1 and SGK1. Importantly, SGK1 expression was found to be highly expressed in the KUCaP xenograft model and a CRPC patient biopsy sample both of which express the bicalutamide-activated receptor mutant. Using an SGK1 inhibitor, ARW741L transcriptional and growth promoting activity was reduced indicating that exploiting functional distinctions between receptor isoforms in our model may provide new and effective therapies for CRPC patients. PMID:26267320

  16. Prevention of retained surgical items.

    PubMed

    Feldman, David L

    2011-01-01

    Reduction in retained surgical items is an important part of any operating room patient-safety effort. Any item used in an operation can result in a retained surgical item, but sponges are the most frequent and the abdomen is the most common location. Retained sponges can cause significant morbidity, and the costs associated with both prevention and treatment of retained surgical items, including legal costs, can be considerable. This review will examine counting, teamwork, radiography, and new technology as methods used to prevent retained surgical items. Even though none of these techniques individually is likely to completely prevent retained surgical items, when used together the numbers can be reduced.

  17. Using Item Response Theory (IRT) to Reduce Patient Burden When Assessing Desire for Hastened Death.

    PubMed

    Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Liu, Ying; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2016-06-09

    Desire for hastened death (DHD) represents a wish to die sooner than might occur by natural disease progression. Efficient and accurate assessment of DHD is vital for clinicians providing care to terminally ill patients. The Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death (SAHD) is a commonly used self-report measure of DHD. The goal of this study was to use methods grounded in item response theory (IRT) to analyze the psychometric properties of the SAHD and identify an abbreviated version of the scale. Data were drawn from 4 studies of psychological distress at the end of life. Participants were 1,076 patients diagnosed with either advanced cancer or AIDS. The sample was divided into 2 subsamples for scale analysis and development of the shortened form. IRT was used to estimate item parameters. A 6-item version of the SAHD (SAHD-A) was identified through examination of item parameter estimations. The SAHD-A demonstrated adequate convergent validity. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated comparable cut scores to identify patients with high levels of DHD. These analyses support the utility of the SAHD-A, which can be more easily integrated into research studies and clinical assessments of DHD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. The Impact of Item Characteristics on Item and Scale Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the relation between personality items' validities, defined as the items' correlations with acquaintance ratings on the Big 5 personality factors, and other itemmetric properties including ambiguity, syntactic complexity, social desirability, content, and trait indicativity. Five external validity coefficients for each item on…

  19. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  20. Component Identification and Item Difficulty of Raven's Matrices Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    Item components that might contribute to the difficulty of items on the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were studied. Subjects providing responses to CPM items were 269 children aged 2 years 9 months to 11 years 8 months, most of whom were referred for testing as potentially gifted. A second…

  1. Item Context Factors Affecting Students' Performance on Mathematics Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado, Felipe Almuna; Stacey, Kaye

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports how the context in which a mathematics item is embedded impacts on students' performance. The performance of Year 10 students on four PISA items was compared with performance on variants with more familiar contexts. Performance was not better when they solved items with more familiar contexts but there was some evidence that…

  2. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  3. Sensitivity of IRT Equating to the Behavior of Test Equating Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    The delta-plot method is used to identify which common items in a common item nonequivalent groups design for test equating show large changes in their p-values across administrations. Outliers in that plot denote differential item behavior and are candidates for exclusion from the common item pool. This study investigated whether keeping or…

  4. Predicting Item Difficulty of Science National Curriculum Tests: The Case of Key Stage 2 Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Masri, Yasmine H.; Ferrara, Steve; Foltz, Peter W.; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Predicting item difficulty is highly important in education for both teachers and item writers. Despite identifying a large number of explanatory variables, predicting item difficulty remains a challenge in educational assessment with empirical attempts rarely exceeding 25% of variance explained. This paper analyses 216 science items of key stage…

  5. A Nested Logit Approach for Investigating Distractors as Causes of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-choice items, differential item functioning (DIF) in the correct response may or may not be caused by differentially functioning distractors. Identifying distractors as causes of DIF can provide valuable information for potential item revision or the design of new test items. In this paper, we examine a two-step approach based on…

  6. Advances in the Kepler Transit Search Engine and Automated Approaches to Identifying Likely Planet Candidates in Transit Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-08-01

    Twenty years ago, no planets were known outside our own solar system. Since then, the discoveries of ~1500 exoplanets have radically altered our views of planets and planetary systems. This revolution is due in no small part to the Kepler Mission, which has discovered >1000 of these planets and >4000 planet candidates. While Kepler has shown that small rocky planets and planetary systems are quite common, the quest to find Earth’s closest cousins and characterize their atmospheres presses forward with missions such as NASA Explorer Program’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) slated for launch in 2017 and ESA’s PLATO mission scheduled for launch in 2024.These future missions pose daunting data processing challenges in terms of the number of stars, the amount of data, and the difficulties in detecting weak signatures of transiting small planets against a roaring background. These complications include instrument noise and systematic effects as well as the intrinsic stellar variability of the subjects under scrutiny. In this paper we review recent developments in the Kepler transit search pipeline improving both the yield and reliability of detected transit signatures.Many of the phenomena in light curves that represent noise can also trigger transit detection algorithms. The Kepler Mission has expended great effort in suppressing false positives from its planetary candidate catalogs. While over 18,000 transit-like signatures can be identified for a search across 4 years of data, most of these signatures are artifacts, not planets. Vetting all such signatures historically takes several months’ effort by many individuals. We describe the application of machine learning approaches for the automated vetting and production of planet candidate catalogs. These algorithms can improve the efficiency of the human vetting effort as well as quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is truly a planet. This information is crucial for obtaining valid planet

  7. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-04-21

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals.

  8. Effects of Ignoring Item Interaction on Item Parameter Estimation and Detection of Interacting Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Te; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the effects of ignoring item interaction on item parameter estimation and the efficiency of using the local dependence index Q[subscript 3] and the SAS NLMIXED procedure to detect item interaction under the three-parameter logistic model and the generalized partial credit model. Through simulations, it was found that ignoring…

  9. Identifying patients with advanced chronic conditions for a progressive palliative care approach: a cross-sectional study of prognostic indicators related to end-of-life trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Amblàs-Novellas, J; Murray, S A; Espaulella, J; Martinez-Muñoz, M; Blay, C; Gómez-Batiste, X

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 2 innovative concepts have lately been developed to radically improve the care of patients with advanced chronic conditions (PACC): early identification of palliative care (PC) needs and the 3 end-of-life trajectories in chronic illnesses (acute, intermittent and gradual dwindling). It is not clear (1) what indicators work best for this early identification and (2) if specific clinical indicators exist for each of these trajectories. The objectives of this study are to explore these 2 issues. Setting 3 primary care services, an acute care hospital, an intermediate care centre and 4 nursing homes in a mixed urban–rural district in Barcelona, Spain. Participants 782 patients (61.5% women) with a positive NECPAL CCOMS-ICO test, indicating they might benefit from a PC approach. Outcome measures The characteristics and distribution of the indicators of the NECPAL CCOMS-ICO tool are analysed with respect to the 3 trajectories and have been arranged by domain (functional, nutritional and cognitive status, emotional problems, geriatric syndromes, social vulnerability and others) and according to their static (severity) and dynamic (progression) properties. Results The common indicators associated with early end-of-life identification are functional (44.3%) and nutritional (30.7%) progression, emotional distress (21.9%) and geriatric syndromes (15.7% delirium, 11.2% falls). The rest of the indicators showed differences in the associations per illness trajectories (p<0.05). 48.2% of the total cohort was identified as advanced frailty patients with no advanced disease criteria. Conclusions Dynamic indicators are present in the 3 trajectories and are especially useful to identify PACC for a progressive PC approach purpose. Most of the other indicators are typically associated with a specific trajectory. These findings can help clinicians improve the identification of patients for a palliative approach. PMID:27645556

  10. Item analysis of in use multiple choice questions in pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Mandeep; Singla, Shweta; Mahajan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common method of assessment of medical students. The quality of MCQs is determined by three parameters such as difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI), and distracter efficiency (DE). Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of MCQs currently in use in pharmacology and discard the MCQs which are not found useful. Materials and Methods: A class test of central nervous system unit was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. This test comprised 50 MCQs/items and 150 distracters. A correct response to an item was awarded one mark with no negative marking for incorrect response. Each item was analyzed for three parameters such as DIF I, DI, and DE. Results: DIF of 38 (76%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 11 (22%) items were too easy (P > 70%), and 1 (2%) item was too difficult (P < 30%). DI of 31 (62%) items was excellent (d > 0.35), of 12 (24%) items was good (d = 0.20–0.34), and of 7 (14%) items was poor (d < 0.20). A total of 50 items had 150 distracters. Among these, 27 (18%) were nonfunctional distracters (NFDs) and 123 (82%) were functional distracters. Items with one NFD were 11 and with two NFDs were 8. Based on these parameters, 6 items were discarded, 17 were revised, and 27 were kept for subsequent use. Conclusion: Item analysis is a valuable tool as it helps us to retain the valuable MCQs and discard the items which are not useful. It also helps in increasing our skills in test construction and identifies the specific areas of course content which need greater emphasis or clarity. PMID:27563581

  11. The Use of Item Analysis for Improvement of Biochemical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2004-01-01

    Item analysis was used to find out which biochemical explanations need to be improved in biochemical teaching, not which items are to be discarded, improved, or reusable in biochemical examinations. The analysis revealed the basic facts of which less able students had more misunderstanding than able students. Identifying these basic facts helps…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Several Methods of Assessing Item Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironson, Gail H.

    Four statistical methods for identifying biased test items were used with data from two ethnic groups (1,691 black and 1,794 white high school seniors). The data were responses to 150 items in five subtests including two traditional tests (reading and mathematics) and three nontraditional tests (picture number test of associative memory, letter…

  13. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the embedded subassembly, component, or part. (3) Unique item identifier type.** (4) Issuing agency... enterprise by an issuing agency. Government's unit acquisition cost means— (1) For fixed-price type line... cost-type or undefinitized line, subline, or exhibit line items, the Contractor's estimated...

  14. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the embedded subassembly, component, or part. (3) Unique item identifier type.** (4) Issuing agency... enterprise by an issuing agency. Government's unit acquisition cost means— (1) For fixed-price type line... cost-type or undefinitized line, subline, or exhibit line items, the Contractor's estimated...

  15. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the embedded subassembly, component, or part. (3) Unique item identifier type.** (4) Issuing agency... enterprise by an issuing agency. Government's unit acquisition cost means— (1) For fixed-price type line... cost-type or undefinitized line, subline, or exhibit line items, the Contractor's estimated...

  16. 17 CFR 229.407 - (Item 407) Corporate governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 407) Corporate....407 (Item 407) Corporate governance. (a) Director independence. Identify each director and, when the... independent accountant's communications with the audit committee concerning independence, and has...

  17. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  18. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  19. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  20. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  1. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  2. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  3. Molecular Profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells Identifies Notch1 as a Principal Regulator in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mariscal, Javier; Alonso-Nocelo, Marta; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Barbazan, Jorge; Vieito, Maria; Abalo, Alicia; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Maria de los Angeles, Casares de Cal; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Rodriguez, Carmela; Brozos, Elena; Baron, Francisco; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis colonization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains incomplete. A complete overview integrating driver mutations, primary tumour heterogeneity and overt metastasis lacks the dynamic contribution of disseminating metastatic cells due to the inaccessibility to the molecular profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). By combining immunoisolation and whole genome amplification, we performed a global gene expression analysis of EpCAM positive CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients. We identified an EpCAM+ CTC-specific expression profile in NSCLC patients mostly associated with cellular movement, cell adhesion and cell-to-cell signalling mediated by PI3K/AKT, ERK1/2 and NF-kB pathways. NOTCH1 emerged as a driver connecting active signalling pathways, with a reduced number of related candidate genes (NOTCH1, PTP4A3, LGALS3 and ITGB3) being further validated by RT-qPCR on an independent cohort of NSCLC patients. In addition, these markers demonstrated high prognostic value for Progression-Free Survival (PFS). In conclusion, molecular characterization of EpCAM+ CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients provided with highly specific biomarkers with potential applicability as a “liquid biopsy” for monitoring of NSCLC patients and confirmed NOTCH1 as a potential therapeutic target to block lung cancer dissemination. PMID:27901069

  4. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  5. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214-72 Section 852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  6. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  7. Evaluating Item Fit for Multidimensional Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Stone, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the utility of the s-x[superscript 2] statistic proposed by Orlando and Thissen (2000) in evaluating item fit for multidimensional item response models. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate both the Type I error and statistical power of this fit statistic in analyzing two kinds of multidimensional test…

  8. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  9. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  10. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  11. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B.

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  12. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  13. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  14. Further Evaluation of Leisure Items in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Eileen M; Carreau, Abbey; MacDonald, Jackie; Pence, Sacha T

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that including leisure items in the attention condition of a functional analysis may produce engagement that masks sensitivity to attention. In this study, 4 individuals' initial functional analyses indicated that behavior was maintained by nonsocial variables (n  =  3) or by attention (n  =  1). A preference assessment was used to identify items for subsequent functional analyses. Four conditions were compared, attention with and without leisure items and control with and without leisure items. Following this, either high- or low-preference items were included in the attention condition. Problem behavior was more probable during the attention condition when no leisure items or low-preference items were included, and lower levels of problem behavior were observed during the attention condition when high-preference leisure items were included. These findings suggest how preferred items may hinder detection of behavioral function. PMID:18816974

  15. Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…

  16. Item Banking. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    This digest discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks, and it provides useful information for those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school districts. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Using an item response theory method, such as the Rasch model, items from multiple…

  17. Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

  18. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  19. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate that product information to the item level for consideration in designating items. In considering these...

  20. Printed Comments With Item Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Christopher

    1970-01-01

    The author suggests that a computer program be designed which not only computes item statistics, but also provides a running commetary in English to assist teachers in their analysis of test results. (PR)

  1. 17 CFR 229.1121 - (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1121 (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information. (a) Describe... enhancement or other support identified in Item 1114 of this Regulation AB (such as insurance premiums or... Item 1114 of this Regulation AB, as applicable, and the amount of coverage remaining under any...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1121 - (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1121 (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information. (a) Describe... enhancement or other support identified in Item 1114 of this Regulation AB (such as insurance premiums or... Item 1114 of this Regulation AB, as applicable, and the amount of coverage remaining under any...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1121 - (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1121 (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information. (a) Describe... enhancement or other support identified in Item 1114 of this Regulation AB (such as insurance premiums or... Item 1114 of this Regulation AB, as applicable, and the amount of coverage remaining under any...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1121 - (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1121 (Item 1121) Distribution and pool performance information. (a) Describe... enhancement or other support identified in Item 1114 of this Regulation AB (such as insurance premiums or... Item 1114 of this Regulation AB, as applicable, and the amount of coverage remaining under any...

  5. 76 FR 14641 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... any items being purchased that are critical safety items so that the proper risk-based surveillance... This DFARS case was initiated at the request of the Defense Contract Management Agency so that when DoD requiring activities identify procurements involving critical safety items, the buying activities...

  6. The Impact of Discourse Features of Science Test Items on ELL Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachchaf, Rachel; Noble, Tracy; Rosebery, Ann; Wang, Yang; Warren, Beth; O'Connor, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Most research on linguistic features of test items negatively impacting English language learners' (ELLs') performance has focused on lexical and syntactic features, rather than discourse features that operate at the level of the whole item. This mixed-methods study identified two discourse features in 162 multiple-choice items on a standardized…

  7. Binding agent for molding ceramic items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshentsev, B. D.; Vityuk, N. P.; Volkov, A. V.; Yevdokimov, A. I.; Novikov, M. N.; Piskunov, Y. G.; Pobortsev, E. P.; Sadovnichaya, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The invention refers to the fabrication of ceramic items by the molding method. It can be used to produce items of complicated configuration, in particular composition of binding agent for electroceramic items.

  8. Alignment of Content and Effectiveness of Mathematics Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald; Dager Wilson, Linda; Kitchen, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Alignment has taken on increased importance given the current high-stakes nature of assessment. To make well-informed decisions about student learning on the basis of test results, assessment items need to be well aligned with standards. Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has developed a procedure for…

  9. Fundamentals of Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains multiple choice test items and assessment techniques for Missouri's fundamentals of marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum is divided into these nine occupational duties: (1) communications in marketing; (2) economics and marketing; (3) employment and advancement; (4) human relations in marketing; (5) marketing…

  10. Cancer Genomics Identifies Regulatory Gene Networks Associated with the Transition from Dysplasia to Advanced Lung Adenocarcinomas Induced by c-Raf-1

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Borlak, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer morbidity. To improve an understanding of molecular causes of disease a transgenic mouse model was investigated where targeted expression of the serine threonine kinase c-Raf to respiratory epithelium induced initialy dysplasia and subsequently adenocarcinomas. This enables dissection of genetic events associated with precancerous and cancerous lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings By laser microdissection cancer cell populations were harvested and subjected to whole genome expression analyses. Overall 473 and 541 genes were significantly regulated, when cancer versus transgenic and non-transgenic cells were compared, giving rise to three distinct and one common regulatory gene network. At advanced stages of tumor growth predominately repression of gene expression was observed, but genes previously shown to be up-regulated in dysplasia were also up-regulated in solid tumors. Regulation of developmental programs as well as epithelial mesenchymal and mesenchymal endothelial transition was a hall mark of adenocarcinomas. Additionaly, genes coding for cell adhesion, i.e. the integrins and the tight and gap junction proteins were repressed, whereas ligands for receptor tyrosine kinase such as epi- and amphiregulin were up-regulated. Notably, Vegfr- 2 and its ligand Vegfd, as well as Notch and Wnt signalling cascades were regulated as were glycosylases that influence cellular recognition. Other regulated signalling molecules included guanine exchange factors that play a role in an activation of the MAP kinases while several tumor suppressors i.e. Mcc, Hey1, Fat3, Armcx1 and Reck were significantly repressed. Finally, probable molecular switches forcing dysplastic cells into malignantly transformed cells could be identified. Conclusions/Significance This study provides insight into molecular pertubations allowing dysplasia to progress further to adenocarcinoma induced by exaggerted c-Raf kinase activity. PMID:19812696

  11. TU-CD-BRB-08: Radiomic Analysis of FDG-PET Identifies Novel Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated with SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y; Shirato, H; Song, J; Pollom, E; Chang, D; Koong, A; Li, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to identify novel prognostic imaging biomarkers in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) using quantitative, high-throughput image analysis. Methods: 86 patients with LAPC receiving chemotherapy followed by SBRT were retrospectively studied. All patients had a baseline FDG-PET scan prior to SBRT. For each patient, we extracted 435 PET imaging features of five types: statistical, morphological, textural, histogram, and wavelet. These features went through redundancy checks, robustness analysis, as well as a prescreening process based on their concordance indices with respect to the relevant outcomes. We then performed principle component analysis on the remaining features (number ranged from 10 to 16), and fitted a Cox proportional hazard regression model using the first 3 principle components. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the ability to distinguish high versus low-risk patients separated by median predicted survival. To avoid overfitting, all evaluations were based on leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV), in which each holdout patient was assigned to a risk group according to the model obtained from a separate training set. Results: For predicting overall survival (OS), the most dominant imaging features were wavelet coefficients. There was a statistically significant difference in OS between patients with predicted high and low-risk based on LOOCV (hazard ratio: 2.26, p<0.001). Similar imaging features were also strongly associated with local progression-free survival (LPFS) (hazard ratio: 1.53, p=0.026) on LOOCV. In comparison, neither SUVmax nor TLG was associated with LPFS (p=0.103, p=0.433) (Table 1). Results for progression-free survival and distant progression-free survival showed similar trends. Conclusion: Radiomic analysis identified novel imaging features that showed improved prognostic value over conventional methods. These features characterize the degree of intra-tumor heterogeneity reflected on FDG

  12. A Study of the Homogeneity of Items Produced From Item Forms Across Different Taxonomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Margaret B.; Argo, Jana K.

    This study determined whether item forms ( rules for constructing items related to a domain or set of tasks) would enable naive item writers to generate multiple-choice items at three taxonomic levels--knowledge, comprehension, and application. Students wrote 120 multiple-choice items from 20 item forms, corresponding to educational objectives…

  13. 12 CFR 950.2 - Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Out-of-District Members and... transaction, for money borrowed from a Bank by a member of any Bank shall be considered an advance subject...

  14. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  15. Evaluating the Magnitude of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    1996-01-01

    Two possible standard error formulas for the polytomous differential item functioning index proposed by N. J. Dorans and A. P. Schmitt (1991) were derived. These standard errors, and associated hypothesis-testing procedures, were evaluated through simulated data. The standard error that performed better is based on N. Mantel's (1963)…

  16. Understanding Psychological Processes That Underlie Examinees' Choices of Constructed Response Items on a Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang Bo

    It has been found that when examinees are allowed to choose a subset of constructed response (CR) items to answer on a test, they tend to choose differently and often perform lower on more popularly chosen items. The purpose of this study was to examine this finding. Using an experiment that incorporated a revised Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry…

  17. Use of Cognitive Interviews to Adapt PROMIS Measurement Items for Spanish Speakers Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, R.; Ayala, N. C.; Paez, E.; Skalicky, A. M.; Morales, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To use cognitive interviewing techniques to assess comprehension of existing Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) items among Latinos living with HIV and then refine items based on participant feedback. Methods. Latino monolingual Spanish speakers living with HIV (n = 56) participated in cognitive interviews. Items from four PROMIS domains, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and alcohol use, were assessed for comprehension. Audiotaped interviews and handwritten notes were subjected to content analysis to identify problems specific to each instrument for each domain. Results. The assessments from the cognitive interviews identified areas for improvement in each domain. We present data on the type of items that were difficult to comprehend and provide examples for how items were refined based on participants' and PROMIS Statistical Coordinating Center (PSCC) feedback. Six out of 48 depression items, 7 out of the 61 anxiety items, 18 out of 42 fatigue items, and 7 out of 44 alcohol use items were found to have poor comprehension. These items were refined based on participant feedback; the items were then submitted to the PSCC for additional guidance on linguistics and grammar to improve comprehension. Conclusions. Cognitive interviews may be used to enhance comprehension of PROMIS items among Latinos. PMID:27022480

  18. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  19. A Monte Carlo Study Investigating the Influence of Item Discrimination, Category Intersection Parameters, and Differential Item Functioning Patterns on the Detection of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of polytomous item formats has led assessment developers to pay greater attention to the detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in these items. DIF occurs when an item performs differently for two contrasting groups of respondents (e.g., males versus females) after controlling for differences in the abilities of the…

  20. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  1. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  2. The Identification of Neurologically Relevant Items in the MMPI-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Balen, H. G. G.; Van Limbeek, J.; De Mey, H. R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Forty neuropsychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and physiatrists identified neurologically relevant items (NRIs) in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Raters identified four sets of NRIs: one for brain damage in general and three partially overlapping sets for stroke, traumatic brain damage, and whiplash.…

  3. Application of Optimal Designs to Item Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), examinees are presented with various sets of items chosen from a precalibrated item pool. Consequently, the attrition speed of the items is extremely fast, and replenishing the item pool is essential. Therefore, item calibration has become a crucial concern in maintaining item banks. In this study, a two-parameter logistic model is used. We applied optimal designs and adaptive sequential analysis to solve this item calibration problem. The results indicated that the proposed optimal designs are cost effective and time efficient. PMID:25188318

  4. Paradoxical Results and Item Bundles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Giles; Finkelman, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Hooker, Finkelman, and Schwartzman ("Psychometrika," 2009, in press) defined a paradoxical result as the attainment of a higher test score by changing answers from correct to incorrect and demonstrated that such results are unavoidable for maximum likelihood estimates in multidimensional item response theory. The potential for these results to…

  5. Effects of Education on Differential Item Functioning on the 15-Item Modified Korean Version of the Boston Naming Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae-Nam; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Shinkyum; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Jee-Eun; Cho, Maeng Je

    2017-01-01

    Objective Education is expected to have an effect on differential item functioning (DIF) on the 15-item Modified Boston Naming Test in the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (BNT-KC). However, no study has examined DIF in the BNT-KC. Methods We used the item response theory to investigate the impact of education on the DIF in the BNT-KC among elderly individuals with or without dementia (n=720). A two-parameter item response model was used to determine the difficulty and discrimination parameters of each item. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to address the risk of Type I errors on multiple testing. Results Four items, “mermaid,” “acorn,” “compass,” and “pomegranate” continued to demonstrate DIF after controlling for multiple comparisons. Those with low education levels were more likely to error on “mermaid” and “compass,” while those with high education levels were more likely to error on “acorn” and “pomegranate.” “Hand” and “red pepper” were too easily identified to be used for detecting dementia patients. “Monk's hat” and “pomegranate” were less discriminating than other items, limiting their usefulness in clinical setting. Conclusion These findings may provide useful information for the development of a revised version of the BNT-KC to help clinicians make diagnostic decisions more accurately. PMID:28326109

  6. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  7. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  8. A New Item Selection Procedure for Mixed Item Type in Computerized Classification Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, C. Allen; Wang, Tianyou

    This paper proposes a new Information-Time index as the basis for item selection in computerized classification testing (CCT) and investigates how this new item selection algorithm can help improve test efficiency for item pools with mixed item types. It also investigates how practical constraints such as item exposure rate control, test…

  9. Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education in Ghana: A Symposium To Examine Current Practices and Identify Future Directions (1st, Ajumako, Central Region, Ghana, June 25-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The Girls' Education Unit (GEU) of the Basic Education Division of Ghana Education Service (GES) organized this Approaches for Advancing Girls' Education (AAGE) symposium to address the issues of girls' education, to construct a comprehensive picture of what interventions related to girls' education are currently being implemented, and identify…

  10. Predicting Preference for Items during Periods of Extended Access Based on Early Response Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Rojas, Nairim C.; Colby-Dirksen, Amanda M.; Swanson, Greg J.; Marvin, Kendra L.

    2010-01-01

    Top-ranked items were identified during 30-min free-operant preference assessments for 9 individuals. Data from each session were analyzed to identify the item (a) that was engaged with first in each session and (b) to which the most responding was allocated after 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, and 25 min had elapsed in each session. The results…

  11. Detecting Gender Bias Through Test Item Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-03-01

    Many physical science and physics instructors might not be trained in pedagogically appropriate test construction methods. This could lead to test items that do not measure what they are intended to measure. A subgroup of these items might show bias against some groups of students. This paper describes how the author became aware of potentially biased items against females in his examinations, which led to the exploration of fundamental issues related to item validity, gender bias, and differential item functioning, or DIF. A brief discussion of DIF in the context of university courses, as well as practical suggestions to detect possible gender-biased items, follows.

  12. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  13. Targeted O-glycoproteomics explored increased sialylation and identified MUC16 as a poor prognosis biomarker in advanced stage bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sofia; Azevedo, Rita; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Ferreira, Dylan; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Manuel; Neves, Diogo; Amaro, Teresina; Cruz, Ricardo; Tavares, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Silva, André M N; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2017-02-03

    Bladder carcinogenesis and tumour progression is accompanied by profound alterations in protein glycosylation on the cell surface, which may be explored for improving disease management. In a search for prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets we have screened, using immunohistochemistry, a series of bladder tumours with differing clinicopathology for short-chain O-glycans commonly found in glycoproteins of human solid tumours. These included the Tn and T antigens and their sialylated counterparts sialyl-Tn(STn) and sialyl-T(ST), which are generally associated with poor prognosis. We have also explored the nature of T antigen sialylation, namely the sialyl-3-T(S3T) and sialyl-6-T(S6T) sialoforms, based on combinations of enzymatic treatments. We observed a predominance of sialoglycans over neutral glycoforms (Tn and T antigens) in bladder tumours. In particular, the STn antigen was associated with high-grade disease and muscle invasion, in accordance with our previous observations. The S3T and S6T antigens were detected for the first time in bladder tumours but not in healthy urothelia, highlighting their cancer-specific nature. These glycans were also overexpressed in advanced lesions, especially in cases showing muscle invasion. Glycoproteomic analyses of advanced bladder tumours based on enzymatic treatments, Vicia Villosa lectin-affinity chromatography enrichment and nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of several key cancer-associated glycoproteins (MUC16, CD44, integrins) carrying altered glycosylation. Of particular interest were MUC16 STn(+) -glycoforms, characteristic of ovarian cancers, which were found in a subset of advanced-stage bladder tumours facing the worst prognosis. In summary, significant alterations in the O-glycome and O-glycoproteome of bladder tumors hold promise for the development of novel non-invasive diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, abnormal MUC16 glycoforms hold potential as

  14. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  15. Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents

    PubMed Central

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed. PMID:21389777

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Advanced Ovarian Cancer Tissue to Identify Potential Biomarkers of Responders and Nonresponders to First-Line Chemotherapy of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Urmila; Pokhriyal, Ruchika; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Hariprasad, Roopa; Khan, Mohd Imran; Gupta, Divya; Naru, Jasmine; Singh, Sundararajan Baskar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Vanamail, Perumal; Kumar, Lalit; Kumar, Sunesh; Hariprasad, Gururao

    2016-01-01

    Conventional treatment for advanced ovarian cancer is an initial debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel. Despite initial high response, three-fourths of these women experience disease recurrence with a dismal prognosis. Patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery were enrolled and tissue samples were collected. Post surgery, these patients were started on chemotherapy and followed up till the end of the cycle. Fluorescence-based differential in-gel expression coupled with mass spectrometric analysis was used for discovery phase of experiments, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and pathway analysis were performed for expression and functional validation of differentially expressed proteins. While aldehyde reductase, hnRNP, cyclophilin A, heat shock protein-27, and actin are upregulated in responders, prohibitin, enoyl-coA hydratase, peroxiredoxin, and fibrin-β are upregulated in the nonresponders. The expressions of some of these proteins correlated with increased apoptotic activity in responders and decreased apoptotic activity in nonresponders. Therefore, the proteins qualify as potential biomarkers to predict chemotherapy response. PMID:26997873

  17. Exposure dating and glacial reconstruction at Mt. Field, Tasmania, Australia, identifies MIS 3 and MIS 2 glacial advances and climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackintosh, A. N.; Barrows, T. T.; Colhoun, E. A.; Fifield, L. K.

    2006-05-01

    Tasmania is important for understanding Quaternary climatic change because it is one of only three areas that experienced extensive mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere glaciation and it lies in a dominantly oceanic environment at a great distance from Northern Hemisphere ice sheet feedbacks. We applied exposure dating using 36Cl to an extensive sequence of moraines from the last glacial at Mt. Field, Tasmania. Glaciers advanced at 41-44 ka during Marine oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and at 18 ka during MIS 2. Both advances occurred in response to an ELA lowering greater than 1100 m below the present-day mean summer freezing level, and a possible temperature reduction of 7-8°C. Deglaciation was rapid and complete by ca. 16 ka. The overall story emerging from studies of former Tasmanian glaciers is that the MIS 2 glaciation was of limited extent and that some glaciers were more extensive during earlier parts of the last glacial cycle. Copyright

  18. Understanding interdisciplinary health care teams: using simulation design processes from the Air Carrier Advanced Qualification Program to identify and train critical teamwork skills.

    PubMed

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    In the report "Five Years After 'To Err is Human' ", it was noted that "the combination of complexity, professional fragmentation, and a tradition of individualism, enhanced by a well-entrenched hierarchical authority structure and diffuse accountability, forms a daunting barrier to creating the habits and beliefs of common purpose, teamwork, and individual accountability for successful interdependence that a safe culture requires". Training physicians, nurses, and other professionals to work in teams is a concept that has been promoted by many patient safety experts. However the model of teamwork in healthcare is diffusely defined, no clear performance metrics have been established, and the use of simulation to train teams has been suboptimal. This paper reports on the first three years of work performed in the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) Tri-Corridor life science grant to apply concepts and processes of simulation design that were developed in the air carrier industry to understand and train healthcare teams. This work has been monitored by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAA) and is based on concepts designed in the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) from the air carrier industry, which trains and assesses teamwork skills in the same manner as technical skills. This grant has formed the foundation for the Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Research (CESR).

  19. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., USDA will use life cycle cost information only from tests using the BEES analytical method. (c... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate...

  20. Using Multimedia Technology To Create Innovative Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Ann; Godwin, Janet

    The development of innovative test item types that use multimedia technology to improve item authenticity and interaction and allow for objective scoring through partial-credit scoring methodologies was studied. Science test items were developed for community college developmental students using "Authorware 3.0," an instructional compact disc. The…

  1. On the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty: An Issue of Methods? Item Response Theory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between differential item functioning (DIF) and item difficulty on the SAT is such that more difficult items tended to exhibit DIF in favor of the focal group (usually minority groups). These results were reported by Kulick and Hu, and Freedle and have been enthusiastically discussed by more recent literature. Examining the…

  2. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  3. Item Response Methods for Educational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Rieser, Mark R.

    Multiple matrix sampling (MMS) theory indicates how data may be gathered to most efficiently convey information about levels of attainment in a population, but standard analyses of these data require random sampling of items from a fixed pool of items. This assumption proscribes the retirement of flawed or obsolete items from the pool as well as…

  4. Effects of Including Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    Two 50-item multiple-choice forms of a grammar test were developed differing only in humor being included in 20 items of one form. One hundred twenty-six (126) eighth graders received the test plus alternate forms of a questionnaire. Humor inclusion did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items nor on common post-treatment…

  5. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  6. Binomial Test Models and Item Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    1979-01-01

    The restrictions on item difficulties that must be met when binomial models are applied to domain-referenced testing are examined. Both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses are discussed with respect to difficulty and Guttman-type items. (Author/BH)

  7. Are All Item Response Functions Monotonically Increasing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    Item response functions of the parametric logistic IRT models follow the logistic form which is monotonically increasing. However, item response functions of some real items are nonmonotonic which might lead to examinees with lower proficiency levels receiving higher scores. This study compared three nonparametric IRF estimation methods--the…

  8. Computer Equipment Repair Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 321 test items for use in teaching a course in repairing computer equipment. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in the following skill areas (with selected skills mentioned in brackets): performing…

  9. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on the contents before...

  10. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  11. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  12. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on welding contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Welding Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. Questions have been statistically sampled and validated…

  13. Differential Item Functioning from a Multilevel Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Huub; And Others

    The term differential item functioning (DIF) refers to whether or not the same psychological constructs are measured across different groups. If an item does not measure the same skills or subskills in different populations, it is said to function differentially or to display item bias. A multilevel approach to DIF is proposed. In such a model,…

  14. Identification of a Semiparametric Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peress, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We consider the identification of a semiparametric multidimensional fixed effects item response model. Item response models are typically estimated under parametric assumptions about the shape of the item characteristic curves (ICCs), and existing results suggest difficulties in recovering the distribution of individual characteristics under…

  15. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  16. Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

  17. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... encryption software are distinguished from controls on other software regulated under the EAR. (a) Licensing... items (“EI”) classified under 5A002.a.1, .a.2, .a.5, .a.6, .a.9, and .b; 5D002.a, .c.1 or .d for... items and terms. Most encryption items may be exported under the provisions of License Exception ENC...

  18. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... encryption software are distinguished from controls on other software regulated under the EAR. (a) Licensing... items (“EI”) classified under 5A002.a.1, .a.2, .a.5, .a.6, .a.9, and .b; 5D002.a, .c.1 or .d for... items and terms. Most encryption items may be exported under the provisions of License Exception ENC...

  19. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... encryption software are distinguished from controls on other software regulated under the EAR. (a) Licensing... items (“EI”) classified under 5A002.a.1, .a.2, .a.5, .a.6, .a.9, and .b; 5D002.a, .c.1 or .d for... items and terms. Most encryption items may be exported under the provisions of License Exception ENC...

  20. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  1. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  2. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  3. Linking Item Parameters to a Base Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Petersen, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares three methods of item calibration--concurrent calibration, separate calibration with linking, and fixed item parameter calibration--that are frequently used for linking item parameters to a base scale. Concurrent and separate calibrations were implemented using BILOG-MG. The Stocking and Lord in "Appl Psychol Measure"…

  4. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  9. Design Patterns for Digital Item Types in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draaijer, S.; Hartog, R. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    A set of design patterns for digital item types has been developed in response to challenges identified in various projects by teachers in higher education. The goal of the projects in question was to design and develop formative and summative tests, and to develop interactive learning material in the form of quizzes. The subject domains involved…

  10. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  11. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 3: Supporting data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The overall study effort proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of 5 for detail trade studies. The technical issues and options were evaluated through the trade process. Finally, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement. Eight priority technology items were identified for advancement. Supporting data generated during the trade selection and trade study process were presented. Space platform requirements, trade study and cost benefits analysis, and technology advancement planning are advanced. The structured approach used took advantage of a number of forms developed to ensure that a consistent approach was employed by each of the diverse specialists that participated. These forms were an intrinsic part of the study protocol.

  13. A survey of anatomical items relevant to the practice of rheumatology: upper extremity, head, neck, spine, and general concepts.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Biundo, Joseph J; Kalish, Robert A; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; McGonagle, Dennis; Carette, Simon; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the anatomical items of the upper extremity and spine that are potentially relevant to the practice of rheumatology. Ten rheumatologists interested in clinical anatomy who published, taught, and/or participated as active members of Clinical Anatomy Interest groups (six seniors, four juniors), participated in a one-round relevance Delphi exercise. An initial, 560-item list that included 45 (8.0 %) general concepts items; 138 (24.8 %) hand items; 100 (17.8 %) forearm and elbow items; 147 (26.2 %) shoulder items; and 130 (23.2 %) head, neck, and spine items was compiled by 5 of the participants. Each item was graded for importance with a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). Thus, scores could range from 10 (1 × 10) to 50 (5 × 10). An item score of ≥40 was considered most relevant to competent practice as a rheumatologist. Mean item Likert scores ranged from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 4.6 ± 0.7. A total of 115 (20.5 %) of the 560 initial items reached relevance. Broken down by categories, this final relevant item list was composed by 7 (6.1 %) general concepts items; 32 (27.8 %) hand items; 20 (17.4 %) forearm and elbow items; 33 (28.7 %) shoulder items; and 23 (17.6 %) head, neck, and spine items. In this Delphi exercise, a group of practicing academic rheumatologists with an interest in clinical anatomy compiled a list of anatomical items that were deemed important to the practice of rheumatology. We suggest these items be considered curricular priorities when training rheumatology fellows in clinical anatomy skills and in programs of continuing rheumatology education.

  14. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  15. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Clones. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it is assumed that the item parameters of a…

  16. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  17. Optimal Calibration Designs for Tests of Polytomously Scored Items Described by Item Response Theory Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Rebecca; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Studied calibration designs that maximize the determinants of Fisher's information matrix on the item parameters for sets of polytomously scored items. Analyzed these items using a number of item response theory models. Results show that for the data and models used, a D-optimal calibration design for an answer or set of answers can reduce the…

  18. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  19. When Do Item Response Function and Mantel-Haenszel Definitions of Differential Item Functioning Coincide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    1990-01-01

    Use of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure as a test for differential item functioning under the Rasch model of item-response theory is examined. Results of the procedure cannot be generalized to the class of items for which item-response functions are monotonic and local independence holds. (TJH)

  20. An Item Response Theory Model for Incorporating Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a general item response theory model for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear model and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…

  1. Robustness of Lord's Formulas for Item Difficulty and Discrimination Conversions between Classical and Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawber, Teresa; Rogers, W. Todd; Carbonaro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Lord (1980) proposed formulas that provide direct relationships between IRT discrimination and difficulty parameters and conventional item statistics. The purpose of the present study was to determine the robustness of the formulas beyond the initial and restrictive conditions identified by Lord. Simulation and real achievement data were employed.…

  2. RESTRICTED INTERESTS AND TEACHER PRESENTATION OF ITEMS

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items. PMID:21941381

  3. Restricted interests and teacher presentation of items.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items.

  4. Increased Levels of Plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA Identify a Poor-Risk Subset of Patients With Advanced Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Gru, Alejandro A.; Geyer, Susan M.; Bingman, Anissa K.; Hemminger, Jessica A.; Mishra, Anjali; Wong, Henry K.; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Discovering prognostic factors that simultaneously describe tumor characteristics and improve risk stratification is a priority in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). More than a third of advanced stage CTCL patients in this cohort had detectable cell free plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-DNA (pEBVd) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An increased level of pEBVd was highly concordant with EBV (ie, Epstein–Barr virus RNAs) in tumor tissue and was associated with inferior survival. Introduction Outcomes in advanced stage (AS) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are poor but with great variability. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Frequency of plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) detection, concordance with EBV RNA (EBER) in tumor tissue, codetection of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA (pCMVd), and prognostic effect in AS CTCL are unknown. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 46; 2006–2013) with AS CTCL (≥IIB) were retrospectively studied. pEBVd and pCMVd were longitudinally measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on tumor samples. Survival from time of diagnosis (ToD) and time of progression to AS was assessed. Results Plasma EBV-DNA and pCMVd were detected in 37% (17 of 46) and 17% (8 of 46) of AS CTCL patients, respectively. pCMVd detection was significantly more frequent in pEBVd-positive (pEBVd+) than pEBVd− patients (35% vs. 7%; P = .038). Tumor tissue for EBER-ISH was available in 14 of 17 pEBVd+ and 22 of 29 pEBVd− patients; 12 of 14 (85.7%) pEBVd+ patients were EBER+ versus 0 of 22 pEBVd− patients. Frequency of large cell transformation (LCT) tended to be greater in pEBVd+ patients, but was not significant (10 of 14 pEBVd+ vs. 10 of 23 pEBVd−; P = .17). No notable differences in rates of increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed (17 of 17 pEBVd+ vs. 27 of 29 pEBVd−). pEBVd detection was associated with

  5. Reversed item bias: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Weijters, Bert; Baumgartner, Hans; Schillewaert, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In the recent methodological literature, various models have been proposed to account for the phenomenon that reversed items (defined as items for which respondents' scores have to be recoded in order to make the direction of keying consistent across all items) tend to lead to problematic responses. In this article we propose an integrative conceptualization of three important sources of reversed item method bias (acquiescence, careless responding, and confirmation bias) and specify a multisample confirmatory factor analysis model with 2 method factors to empirically test the hypothesized mechanisms, using explicit measures of acquiescence and carelessness and experimentally manipulated versions of a questionnaire that varies 3 item arrangements and the keying direction of the first item measuring the focal construct. We explain the mechanisms, review prior attempts to model reversed item bias, present our new model, and apply it to responses to a 4-item self-esteem scale (N = 306) and the 6-item Revised Life Orientation Test (N = 595). Based on the literature review and the empirical results, we formulate recommendations on how to use reversed items in questionnaires.

  6. Molecular profiling of myeloid progenitor cells in multi-mutated advanced systemic mastocytosis identifies KIT D816V as a distinct and late event.

    PubMed

    Jawhar, M; Schwaab, J; Schnittger, S; Sotlar, K; Horny, H-P; Metzgeroth, G; Müller, N; Schneider, S; Naumann, N; Walz, C; Haferlach, T; Valent, P; Hofmann, W-K; Cross, N C P; Fabarius, A; Reiter, A

    2015-05-01

    To explore the molecular profile and its prognostic implication in systemic mastocytosis (SM), we analyzed the mutation status of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming progenitor cells (CFU-GM) in patients with KIT D816V(+) indolent SM (ISM, n=4), smoldering SM (SSM, n=2), aggressive SM (ASM, n=1), SM with associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disorder (SM-AHNMD, n=5) and ASM-AHNMD (n=7). All patients with (A)SM-AHNMD (n=12) carried 1-4 (median 3) additional mutations in 11 genes tested, most frequently TET2, SRSF2, ASXL1, CBL and EZH2. In multi-mutated (A)SM-AHNMD, KIT D816V(+) single-cell-derived CFU-GM colonies were identified in 8/12 patients (median 60%, range 0-95). Additional mutations were identified in CFU-GM colonies in all patients, and logical hierarchy analysis indicated that mutations in TET2, SRSF2 and ASXL1 preceded KIT D816V. In ISM/SSM, no additional mutations were detected and CFU-GM colonies were exclusively KIT D816V(-). These data indicate that (a) (A)SM-AHNMD is a multi-mutated neoplasm, (b) mutations in TET2, SRSF2 or ASXL1 precede KIT D816V in ASM-AHNMD,

  7. 78 FR 11680 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Rochester Museum & Science Center, Rochester, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Description of the Cultural Items Traditional religious leaders from the Tonawanda Band of Seneca (previously listed as the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians of New York) have identified six wampum items as being... the Tonawanda Band of Seneca (previously listed as the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians of New...

  8. Sensitivity of Equated Aggregate Scores to the Treatment of Misbehaving Common Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2010-01-01

    The delta-plot method (Angoff, 1972) is a graphical technique used in the context of test equating for identifying common items with aberrant changes in their item difficulties across administrations or alternate forms. This brief research report explores the effects on equated aggregate scores when delta-plot outliers are either retained in or…

  9. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  10. A Polytomous Item Response Theory Analysis of Social Physique Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard B.; Crocker, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the social physique anxiety scale's factor structure and item properties using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. An additional aim was to identify differences in response patterns between groups (gender). A large sample of high school students aged 11-15 years (N = 1,529) consisting of n =…

  11. 2-ammonio-6-(3-oxidopyridinium-1-yl)hexanoate (OP-lysine) is a newly identified advanced glycation end product in cataractous and aged human lenses.

    PubMed

    Argirov, Ognyan K; Lin, Bin; Ortwerth, Beryl J

    2004-02-20

    Post-translational modifications of proteins take place during the aging of human lens. The present study describes a newly isolated glycation product of lysine, which was found in the human lens. Cataractous and aged human lenses were hydrolyzed and fractionated using reverse-phase and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). One of the nonproteinogenic amino acid components of the hydrolysates was identified as a 3-hydroxypyridinium derivative of lysine, 2-ammonio-6-(3-oxidopyridinium-1-yl)hexanoate (OP-lysine). The compound was synthesized independently from 3-hydroxypyridine and methyl 2-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]-6-iodohexanoate. The spectral and chromatographic properties of the synthetic OP-lysine and the substance isolated from hydrolyzed lenses were identical. HPLC analysis showed that the amounts of OP-lysine were higher in water-insoluble compared with water-soluble proteins and was higher in a pool of cataractous lenses compared with normal aged lenses, reaching 500 pmol/mg protein. The model incubations showed that an anaerobic reaction mixture of Nalpha-tert-butoxycarbonyllysine, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde could produce the Nalpha-t-butoxycarbonyl derivative of OP-lysine. The irradiation of OP-lysine with UVA under anaerobic conditions in the presence of ascorbate led to a photochemical bleaching of this compound. Our results argue that OP-lysine is a newly identified glycation product of lysine in the lens. It is a marker of aging and pathology of the lens, and its formation could be considered as a potential cataract risk-factor based on its concentration and its photochemical properties.

  12. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  13. Digital item for digital human memory--television commerce application: family tree albuming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Lee, Hyejoo; Hong, JinWoo

    2004-01-01

    Technical advance in creating, storing digital media in daily life enables computers to capture human life and remember it as people do. A critical point with digitizing human life is how to recall bits of experience that are associated by semantic information. This paper proposes a technique for structuring dynamic digital object based on MPEG-21 Digital Item (DI) in order to recall human"s memory and providing interactive TV service on family tree albuming system as one of its applications. DIs are a dynamically reconfigurable, uniquely identified, described by a descriptor language, logical unit for structuring relationship among multiple media resources. Digital Item Processing (DIP) provides the means to interact with DIs to remind context to user, with active properties where objects have executable properties. Each user can adapt DIs" active properties to tailor the behavior of DIs to match his/her own specific needs. DIs" technologies in Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) can be used for privacy protection. In the interaction between the social space and technological space, the internal dynamics of family life fits well sharing family albuming service via family television. Family albuming service can act as virtual communities builders for family members. As memory is shared between family members, multiple annotations (including active properties on contextual information) will be made with snowballing value.

  14. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  15. Nonrestricted multiple-choice examination items.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, R; Goaz, P; Kolstad, R

    1982-08-01

    Multiple-choice items are frequently used in objective examinations. The format chosen should conform to the nature of the instruction. Knowledge about cumulative information, such as lists of attributes, can be tested efficiently by means of multiple-choice items that include a variable number of correct answers. In contrast to conventional, single-answer questions, nonrestricted multiple-choice items are capable of including more facts and fewer incorrect responses. In addition, the nonrestricted format is not burdened with the repetitious pattern of one correct answer coupled with several incorrect responses, a cue that may promote successful guessing. Item analyses can be performed on examinations that include both conventional and nonrestricted items. The reliability of one examination constructed totally with nonrestricted items was analyzed by means of the Kuder-Richardson Formula No. 20. The value 0.72 proved this examination to be both discriminating and consistent.

  16. Automatic Identification of Critical Data Items in a Database to Mitigate the Effects of Malicious Insiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan; Panda, Brajendra

    A major concern for computer system security is the threat from malicious insiders who target and abuse critical data items in the system. In this paper, we propose a solution to enable automatic identification of critical data items in a database by way of data dependency relationships. This identification of critical data items is necessary because insider threats often target mission critical data in order to accomplish malicious tasks. Unfortunately, currently available systems fail to address this problem in a comprehensive manner. It is more difficult for non-experts to identify these critical data items because of their lack of familiarity and due to the fact that data systems are constantly changing. By identifying the critical data items automatically, security engineers will be better prepared to protect what is critical to the mission of the organization and also have the ability to focus their security efforts on these critical data items. We have developed an algorithm that scans the database logs and forms a directed graph showing which items influence a large number of other items and at what frequency this influence occurs. This graph is traversed to reveal the data items which have a large influence throughout the database system by using a novel metric based formula. These items are critical to the system because if they are maliciously altered or stolen, the malicious alterations will spread throughout the system, delaying recovery and causing a much more malignant effect. As these items have significant influence, they are deemed to be critical and worthy of extra security measures. Our proposal is not intended to replace existing intrusion detection systems, but rather is intended to complement current and future technologies. Our proposal has never been performed before, and our experimental results have shown that it is very effective in revealing critical data items automatically.

  17. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items.

  18. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  19. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  20. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  1. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  2. Advanced Docking Berthing System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James

    2006-01-01

    In FY05 the Exploration Systems Technology Maturation Program selected the JSC advanced mating systems development to continue as an in-house project. In FY06, as a result of ESAS Study (60 Day Study) the CEV Project (within the Constellation Program) has chosen to continue the project as a GFE Flight Hardware development effort. New requirement for CEV to travel and dock with the ISS in 2011/12 in support of retiring the Shuttle and reducing the gap of time where US does not have any US based crew launch capability. As before, long-duration compatible seal-on-seal technology (seal-on-seal to support androgynous interface) has been identified as a risk mitigation item.

  3. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... case. In any such instance any excess amount would be an acceptable item to be included in the burial...) is used as a shipping case and also for burial, an allowance of $30 may be made thereon in lieu of...

  4. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... case. In any such instance any excess amount would be an acceptable item to be included in the burial...) is used as a shipping case and also for burial, an allowance of $30 may be made thereon in lieu of...

  5. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... case. In any such instance any excess amount would be an acceptable item to be included in the burial...) is used as a shipping case and also for burial, an allowance of $30 may be made thereon in lieu of...

  6. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... case. In any such instance any excess amount would be an acceptable item to be included in the burial...) is used as a shipping case and also for burial, an allowance of $30 may be made thereon in lieu of...

  7. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... case. In any such instance any excess amount would be an acceptable item to be included in the burial...) is used as a shipping case and also for burial, an allowance of $30 may be made thereon in lieu of...

  8. Modeling Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework, using a data-augmented Gibbs sampler. An obvious…

  9. Invariant Ordering of Item-Total Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    A new observable consequence of the property of invariant item ordering is presented, which holds under Mokken's double monotonicity model for dichotomous data. The observable consequence is an invariant ordering of the item-total regressions. Kendall's measure of concordance "W" and a weighted version of this measure are proposed as measures for…

  10. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  11. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  12. Factoring handedness data: I. Item analysis.

    PubMed

    Messinger, H B; Messinger, M I

    1995-12-01

    Recently in this journal Peters and Murphy challenged the validity of factor analyses done on bimodal handedness data, suggesting instead that right- and left-handers be studied separately. But bimodality may be avoidable if attention is paid to Oldfield's questionnaire format and instructions for the subjects. Two characteristics appear crucial: a two-column LEFT-RIGHT format for the body of the instrument and what we call Oldfield's Admonition: not to indicate strong preference for handedness item, such as write, unless "... the preference is so strong that you would never try to use the other hand unless absolutely forced to...". Attaining unimodality of an item distribution would seem to overcome the objections of Peters and Murphy. In a 1984 survey in Boston we used Oldfield's ten-item questionnaire exactly as published. This produced unimodal item distributions. With reflection of the five-point item scale and a logarithmic transformation, we achieved a degree of normalization for the items. Two surveys elsewhere based on Oldfield's 20-item list but with changes in the questionnaire format and the instructions, yielded markedly different item distributions with peaks at each extreme and sometimes in the middle as well.

  13. 47 CFR 65.830 - Deducted items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deducted items. 65.830 Section 65.830 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.830 Deducted items. (a)...

  14. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  15. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  16. Effects of Item Disclosure on TOEFL Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Gordon A.; And Others

    To ascertain how the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) would be affected if candidates had access to some of the items before administration of a test containing those items, a number of specially constructed TOEFL forms were made available to 945 foreign students in intensive English language programs. The students were later…

  17. Geography: Library of Test Items. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  18. Similarity of Various Item Discrimination Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert C.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which various selected test item discrimination indices reflect a common factor. The indices used include the point-biserial, biserial, phi and tetrachoric coefficients, Flanagan's approximation of the product-moment correlation, Gulliksen's item reliability index, and Findley's difference…

  19. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  20. Comparing Methods for Item Analysis: The Impact of Different Item-Selection Statistics on Test Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…

  1. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  2. Investigating Separate and Concurrent Approaches for Item Parameter Drift in 3PL Item Response Theory Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Bulut, Okan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines separate and concurrent approaches to combine the detection of item parameter drift (IPD) and the estimation of scale transformation coefficients in the context of the common item nonequivalent groups design with the three-parameter item response theory equating. The study uses real and synthetic data sets to compare the two…

  3. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  4. Psychometric Changes on Item Difficulty Due to Item Review by Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2015-01-01

    If good measurement depends in part on the estimation of accurate item characteristics, it is essential that test developers become aware of discrepancies that may exist on the item parameters before and after item review. The purpose of this study was to examine the answer changing patterns of students while taking paper-and-pencil multiple…

  5. Designing P-Optimal Item Pools in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xuechun

    2012-01-01

    Current CAT applications consist of predominantly dichotomous items, and CATs with polytomously scored items are limited. To ascertain the best approach to polytomous CAT, a significant amount of research has been conducted on item selection, ability estimation, and impact of termination rules based on polytomous IRT models. Few studies…

  6. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  7. Improvement in Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using a Mixture Item Response Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Usually, methods for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) compare the functioning of items across manifest groups. However, the manifest groups with respect to which the items function differentially may not necessarily coincide with the true source of the bias. It is expected that DIF detection under a model that includes a latent DIF…

  8. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items.

  9. Descriptive and Inferential Procedures for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.; Mazzeo, John

    1997-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment procedures for items with more than two ordered score categories, referred to as polytomous items, were evaluated. Three descriptive statistics (standardized mean difference and two procedures based on the SIBTEST computer program) and five inferential procedures were used. Conditions under which the…

  10. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  11. 12 CFR 950.2 - Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization and application for advances; obligation to repay advances. 950.2 Section 950.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.2...

  12. Fighting bias with statistics: Detecting gender differences in responses to items on a preschool science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Ariela Caren

    Differential item functioning (DIF) and differential distractor functioning (DDF) are methods used to screen for item bias (Camilli & Shepard, 1994; Penfield, 2008). Using an applied empirical example, this mixed-methods study examined the congruency and relationship of DIF and DDF methods in screening multiple-choice items. Data for Study I were drawn from item responses of 271 female and 236 male low-income children on a preschool science assessment. Item analyses employed a common statistical approach of the Mantel-Haenszel log-odds ratio (MH-LOR) to detect DIF in dichotomously scored items (Holland & Thayer, 1988), and extended the approach to identify DDF (Penfield, 2008). Findings demonstrated that the using MH-LOR to detect DIF and DDF supported the theoretical relationship that the magnitude and form of DIF and are dependent on the DDF effects, and demonstrated the advantages of studying DIF and DDF in multiple-choice items. A total of 4 items with DIF and DDF and 5 items with only DDF were detected. Study II incorporated an item content review, an important but often overlooked and under-published step of DIF and DDF studies (Camilli & Shepard). Interviews with 25 female and 22 male low-income preschool children and an expert review helped to interpret the DIF and DDF results and their comparison, and determined that a content review process of studied items can reveal reasons for potential item bias that are often congruent with the statistical results. Patterns emerged and are discussed in detail. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted in an applied framework of examining the validity of the preschool science assessment scores for evaluating science programs serving low-income children, however, the techniques can be generalized for use with measures across various disciplines of research.

  13. Working Memory for Sequences of Temporal Durations Reveals a Volatile Single-Item Store

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    When a sequence is held in working memory, different items are retained with differing fidelity. Here we ask whether a sequence of brief time intervals that must be remembered show recency effects, similar to those observed in verbal and visuospatial working memory. It has been suggested that prioritizing some items over others can be accounted for by a “focus of attention,” maintaining some items in a privileged state. We therefore also investigated whether such benefits are vulnerable to disruption by attention or expectation. Participants listened to sequences of one to five tones, of varying durations (200 ms to 2 s). Subsequently, the length of one of the tones in the sequence had to be reproduced by holding a key. The discrepancy between the reproduced and actual durations quantified the fidelity of memory for auditory durations. Recall precision decreased with the number of items that had to be remembered, and was better for the first and last items of sequences, in line with set-size and serial position effects seen in other modalities. To test whether attentional filtering demands might impair performance, an irrelevant variation in pitch was introduced in some blocks of trials. In those blocks, memory precision was worse for sequences that consisted of only one item, i.e., the smallest memory set-size. Thus, when irrelevant information was present, the benefit of having only one item in memory is attenuated. Finally we examined whether expectation could interfere with memory. On half the trials, the number of items in the upcoming sequence was cued. When the number of items was known in advance, performance was paradoxically worse when the sequence consisted of only one item. Thus the benefit of having only one item to remember is stronger when it is unexpectedly the only item. Our results suggest that similar mechanisms are used to hold auditory time durations in working memory, as for visual or verbal stimuli. Further, solitary items were remembered

  14. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morley, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and to assess its psychometric properties. The final instrument is intended for use in clinical trials and interventions targeted at maintaining or improving activity and participation. PMID:26056503

  15. Identification of developmentally appropriate screening items for disruptive behavior problems in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Studts, Christina R; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2013-08-01

    Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e., >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders.

  16. 75 FR 58425 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New York... History. No known individual was identified. This individual has been identified as Native American...

  17. Controlling Type I Error Rate in Evaluating Differential Item Functioning for Four DIF Methods: Use of Three Procedures for Adjustment of Multiple Item Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    In DIF studies, a Type I error refers to the mistake of identifying non-DIF items as DIF items, and a Type I error rate refers to the proportion of Type I errors in a simulation study. The possibility of making a Type I error in DIF studies is always present and high possibility of making such an error can weaken the validity of the assessment.…

  18. Identifying Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The federal government has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed. Summaries of information on over 300 chemicals are maintained in the Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator.

  19. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A’Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Materials and methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Results Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. Conclusion The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey. PMID:27621678

  20. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  1. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  2. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  3. Identifying concealment-related responses in the concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2013-07-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) assesses an examinee's recognition of a crime-relevant item using physiological measures. However, a guilty examinee not only recognizes the crime-relevant item but also conceals the recognition intentionally. In this study, we attempted to identify the effect of concealing the recognition on event-related potentials and autonomic responses. After committing a mock theft of two items, 30 participants received two CITs: one for an item that they had to conceal, and the other for an item that they had disclosed. N2, P3, heart rate, skin conductance, and cutaneous blood flow differed between crime-relevant and irrelevant items in both CITs. In contrast, late positive potential and respiration differed between crime-relevant and irrelevant items only when the examinee needed to conceal. The former measures appear to be related to orienting process, whereas the latter to controlled process related to concealment.

  4. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  5. Extending item response theory to online homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  6. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  7. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  8. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  9. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L; Sampson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  10. NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project (Secondary Items)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-25

    NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project (Secondary Items) SAE Paper #2006-01-3192 25 September 2006, Grapevine Version R4 (Final) Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project (Secondary Items) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project By: Leo Miller, USA

  11. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... encryption software are distinguished from controls on other software regulated under the EAR. (a) Licensing... items (“EI”) classified under ECCN 5A002.a.1, a.2, a.5, a.6 and a.9; 5D002.a or c.1 for equipment... items may be exported under the provisions of License Exception ENC set forth in § 740.17 of the...

  12. Gender and Ethnicity Differences on the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) of Personality Traits: A Differential Item Functioning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Wicher, Eliza W.; LeBreton, James M.; Craig, S. Bartholomew

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluates the measurement precision of the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) of personality traits by identifying those items that demonstrate differential item functioning by gender and ethnicity. Differential item functioning is found in 33 of 45 (73%) of the AB5C scales, across gender and ethnic groups (Caucasian vs. African…

  13. Elicited Speech from Graph Items on the Test of Spoken English[TM]. Research Reports. Report 74. RR-04-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Xi, Xiaoming; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Cheng, Peter C. H.

    2004-01-01

    This research applied a cognitive model to identify item features that lead to irrelevant variance on the Test of Spoken English[TM] (TSE[R]). The TSE is an assessment of English oral proficiency and includes an item that elicits a description of a statistical graph. This item type sometimes appears to tap graph-reading skills--an irrelevant…

  14. The PROMIS Physical Function Item Bank Was Calibrated to a Standardized Metric and Shown to Improve Measurement Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Matthias; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Gandek, Barbara; Bruce, Bonnie; Fries, James F.; Ware, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. Study Design and Setting Items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. 16,065 adults answered item subsets (n>2,200/item) on the Internet, with over-sampling of the chronically ill. Classical test and item response theory (IRT) methods were used to evaluate 149 PROMIS PF items plus 10 SF-36 and 20 HAQ-DI items. A graded response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (SD=10) in a US general population sample. Results The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and IADL. In simulations, a 10-item Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) eliminated floor and decreased ceiling effects, achieving higher measurement precision than any comparable-length static tool across four standard deviations of the measurement range. Improved psychometric properties transferred to the CAT’s superior ability to identify differences between age and disease groups. Conclusion The item bank provides a common metric and can improve the measurement of PF by facilitating the standardization of PRO measures and implementation of CATs for more efficient PF assessments over a larger range. PMID:24698295

  15. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, Jeffrey A; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2015-01-06

    A system includes host and learning machines. Each machine has a processor in electrical communication with at least one sensor. Instructions for predicting a binary quality status of an item of interest during a repeatable process are recorded in memory. The binary quality status includes passing and failing binary classes. The learning machine receives signals from the at least one sensor and identifies candidate features. Features are extracted from the candidate features, each more predictive of the binary quality status. The extracted features are mapped to a dimensional space having a number of dimensions proportional to the number of extracted features. The dimensional space includes most of the passing class and excludes at least 90 percent of the failing class. Received signals are compared to the boundaries of the recorded dimensional space to predict, in real time, the binary quality status of a subsequent item of interest.

  16. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174

  17. 17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AB) § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative.... Instructions 2, 3 and 5 to Item 1114 of this Regulation AB apply to the information contemplated by...

  18. 17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AB) § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative.... Instructions 2, 3 and 5 to Item 1114 of this Regulation AB apply to the information contemplated by...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AB) § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative.... Instructions 2, 3 and 5 to Item 1114 of this Regulation AB apply to the information contemplated by...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AB) § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative.... Instructions 2, 3 and 5 to Item 1114 of this Regulation AB apply to the information contemplated by...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AB) § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative.... Instructions 2, 3 and 5 to Item 1114 of this Regulation AB apply to the information contemplated by...

  2. Alternate item types: continuing the quest for authentic testing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine E

    2009-03-01

    Many test developers suggest that multiple-choice items can be used to evaluate critical thinking if the items are focused on measuring higher order thinking ability. The literature supports the use of alternate item types to assess additional competencies, such as higher level cognitive processing and critical thinking, as well as ways to allow examinees to demonstrate their competencies differently. This research study surveyed nurses after taking a test composed of alternate item types paired with multiple-choice items. The participants were asked to provide opinions regarding the items and the item formats. Demographic information was asked. In addition, information was collected as the participants responded to the items. The results of this study reveal that the participants thought that, in general, the items were more authentic and allowed them to demonstrate their competence better than multiple-choice items did. Further investigation into the optimal blend of alternate items and multiple-choice items is needed.

  3. 75 FR 76664 - Commerce Control List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 Commerce Control List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Advance notice...

  4. The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

  5. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  6. Subsystem Hazard Analysis Methodology for the Ares I Upper Stage Source Controlled Items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Winner, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in developing subsystem hazard analyses for Source Controlled Items (SCI), specific components, sub-assemblies, and/or piece parts, of the NASA ARES I Upper Stage (US) project. SCIs will be designed, developed and /or procured by Boeing as an end item or an off-the-shelf item. Objectives include explaining the methodology, tools, stakeholders and products involved in development of these hazard analyses. Progress made and further challenges in identifying potential subsystem hazards are also provided in an effort to assist the System Safety community in understanding one part of the ARES I Upper Stage project.

  7. lordif: An R Package for Detecting Differential Item Functioning Using Iterative Hybrid Ordinal Logistic Regression/Item Response Theory and Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung W.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Crane, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    Logistic regression provides a flexible framework for detecting various types of differential item functioning (DIF). Previous efforts extended the framework by using item response theory (IRT) based trait scores, and by employing an iterative process using group–specific item parameters to account for DIF in the trait scores, analogous to purification approaches used in other DIF detection frameworks. The current investigation advances the technique by developing a computational platform integrating both statistical and IRT procedures into a single program. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation approach was incorporated to derive empirical criteria for various DIF statistics and effect size measures. For purposes of illustration, the procedure was applied to data from a questionnaire of anxiety symptoms for detecting DIF associated with age from the Patient–Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. PMID:21572908

  8. Using Item-Type Performance Covariance to Improve the Skill Model of an Existing Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Cen, Hao; Wu, Lili; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from an existing pre-algebra computer-based tutor, we analyzed the covariance of item-types with the goal of describing a more effective way to assign skill labels to item-types. Analyzing covariance is important because it allows us to place the skills in a related network in which we can identify the role each skill plays in learning…

  9. A Comprehensive List of Items to be Included on a Pediatric Drug Monograph

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shinya; Woods, David; Nunn, Anthony J.; Taketomo, Carol; de Hoog, Matthijs; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Children require special considerations for drug prescribing. Drug information summarized in a formulary containing drug monographs is essential for safe and effective prescribing. Currently, little is known about the information needs of those who prescribe and administer medicines to children. Our primary objective was to identify a list of important and relevant items to be included in a pediatric drug monograph. METHODS Following the establishment of an expert steering committee and an environmental scan of adult and pediatric formulary monograph items, 46 participants from 25 countries were invited to complete a 2-round Delphi survey. Questions regarding source of prescribing information and importance of items were recorded. An international consensus meeting to vote on and finalize the items list with the steering committee followed. RESULTS Pediatric formularies are most commonly the first resource consulted for information on medication used in children by 31 Delphi participants. After the Delphi rounds, 116 items were identified to be included in a comprehensive pediatric drug monograph, including general information, adverse drug reactions, dosages, precautions, drug-drug interactions, formulation, and drug properties. CONCLUSIONS Health care providers identified 116 monograph items as important for prescribing medicines for children by an international consensus-based process. This information will assist in setting standards for the creation of new pediatric drug monographs for international application and for those involved in pediatric formulary development.

  10. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  11. Item method directed forgetting diminishes false memory.

    PubMed

    Marche, Tammy A; Brainerd, Charles J; Lane, David G; Loehr, Janeen D

    2005-10-01

    Directed forgetting may reduce DRM false memory illusion by interfering with meaning processing. Participants were presented with a list composed of six 10-word semantically associated sub-lists, and they were either (a) asked to remember all list items of (b) asked to remember all associates from sub-lists and to forget all associates from other sub-lists. All participants were requested to recall and recognise list items. Although directed forgetting effects have been previously reported only for true responses in the DRM paradigm with the list method, we also found directed forgetting for false responses with the item method. Such forgetting instructions reduced both verbatim and meaning processing, decreasing both the intrusion and the false alarm rate. These results are consistent with two-process explanations of DRM false memories, such as fuzzy-trace theory, and add to our understanding of false memory editing.

  12. Effects of Decreasing the Number of Common Items in Equating Link Item Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanick, Patricia L.; Huang, Chi-Yu

    The term "equating" refers to a statistical procedure that adjusts test scores on different forms of the same examination so that scores can be interpreted interchangeably. This study examines the impact of equating with fewer items than originally planned when items have been removed from the equating set for a variety of reasons. A…

  13. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  14. 48 CFR 852.214-71 - Restrictions on alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on alternate item(s). 852.214-71 Section 852.214-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. Investigating Gender Differential Item Functioning across Countries and Test Languages for PISA Science Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Luc T.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses PISA cycle 3 field trial data to investigate the relationships between gender differential item functioning (DIF) across countries and test languages for science items and their formats and the four other dimensions defined in PISA framework: focus, context, competency, and scientific knowledge. The data used were collected from 60…

  16. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  17. The Use of Unidimensional Item Parameter Estimates of Multidimensional Items in Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using multidimensional items in a computer adaptive test (CAT) setting which assumes a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) framework. Previous research has suggested that the composite of multidimensional abilities being estimated by a unidimensional IRT model is not constant…

  18. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  19. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  20. Language-related differential item functioning between English and German PROMIS Depression items is negligible.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias

    2016-10-16

    To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R(2) -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (< 0.1 point on the PROMIS metric [mean = 50, standard deviation =10]), while the effect on the short forms was small (< 1 point). The mean depression severity (43.6) in the German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported.

  1. Are CAFAS subscales and item weights valid? A preliminary investigation of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Bates, Michael P; Furlong, Michael J; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2006-11-01

    Presents a psychometric analysis of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), one of the most commonly used measures of functional impairment in youths with emotional and behavioral disorders. Specific aims of the current investigation were to (a) examine the conceptual organization of the CAFAS items, (b) explore its scaling properties, and (c) investigate its construct validity. In Phase 1, a group of advanced graduate students and clinicians rated CAFAS items with respect to the degree that they reflect the originally assigned subscales. In Phase 2, additional raters assigned severity values to the subset of CAFAS items selected from Phase 1. Items were then scaled using simplified successive intervals scaling techniques. Results show differences between new empirically derived item weights and the original scoring method. This investigation highlights the benefits of continued examination and critique of level-of-functioning scaling for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in children and adolescents.

  2. Classification Accuracy of Mixed Format Tests: A Bi-Factor Item Response Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Drasgow, Fritz; Liu, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Mixed format tests (e.g., a test consisting of multiple-choice [MC] items and constructed response [CR] items) have become increasingly popular. However, the latent structure of item pools consisting of the two formats is still equivocal. Moreover, the implications of this latent structure are unclear: For example, do constructed response items tap reasoning skills that cannot be assessed with multiple choice items? This study explored the dimensionality of mixed format tests by applying bi-factor models to 10 tests of various subjects from the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Program and compared the accuracy of scores based on the bi-factor analysis with scores derived from a unidimensional analysis. More importantly, this study focused on a practical and important question—classification accuracy of the overall grade on a mixed format test. Our findings revealed that the degree of multidimensionality resulting from the mixed item format varied from subject to subject, depending on the disattenuated correlation between scores from MC and CR subtests. Moreover, remarkably small decrements in classification accuracy were found for the unidimensional analysis when the disattenuated correlations exceeded 0.90. PMID:26973568

  3. Directed forgetting of a single item.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Golding, Jonathan M; Hauselt, William J

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated directed forgetting of a single item. We presented participants with two phone numbers to remember and instructed half of the participants to forget the first phone number. The first number was either learned on a single trial (Experiment 1) or on three trials (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, there was evidence of directed forgetting as a result of differential encoding; the forget instruction affected recall and recognition for both phone numbers. In Experiment 2, the evidence favored differential rehearsal because the forget instruction affected recall but not recognition. These results indicate that instructions to forget can affect memory of single items.

  4. PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: Development of a Peer Relationships Item Bank as Part of Social Health Measurement

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D.; Langer, Michelle M.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Irwin, Debra E.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B.; Gross, Heather E.; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8–17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima’s Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. Results The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. Conclusions The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health. PMID:23772887

  5. 12 CFR 950.17 - Advances to housing associates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advances to housing associates. 950.17 Section 950.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Housing Associates § 950.17 Advances to housing associates....

  6. 12 CFR 952.5 - Community Investment Cash Advance Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. 952... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.5 Community Investment Cash... advances to members as provided in § 950.5 of this chapter, and may price such advances at rates below...

  7. 48 CFR 252.209-7010 - Critical Safety Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical Safety Items. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.209-7010 Critical Safety Items. As prescribed in 209.270-5, use the following clause: CRITICAL SAFETY ITEMS (AUG 2011) (a) Definitions. Aviation critical safety item means a part,...

  8. 48 CFR 252.209-7010 - Critical Safety Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical Safety Items. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.209-7010 Critical Safety Items. As prescribed in 209.270-5, use the following clause: Critical Safety Items (AUG 2011) (a) Definitions. Aviation critical safety item means a part,...

  9. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  10. Rasch Based Analysis of Oral Presentation Assessment for Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    The Rasch Model is an item response theory, one parameter model developed that states that the probability of a correct response is a function of the difficulty of the item and the ability of the candidate. Item banking is useful for language testing. The Rasch Model provides estimates of item difficulties that are meaningful, irrespective of…

  11. 48 CFR 252.204-7008 - Export-Controlled Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Export-Controlled Items... of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7008 Export-Controlled Items. As prescribed in 204.7304, use the following clause: Export-Controlled Items (APR 2010) (a) Definition. Export-controlled items, as used...

  12. Item Difficulty Estimation: An Auspicious Collaboration between Data and Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, Kelly; Desmet, Piet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The evolution from static to dynamic electronic learning environments has stimulated the research on adaptive item sequencing. A prerequisite for adaptive item sequencing, in which the difficulty of the item is constantly matched to the ability level of the learner, is to have items with a known difficulty level. The difficulty level can be…

  13. 48 CFR 252.204-7008 - Export-Controlled Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export-Controlled Items... of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7008 Export-Controlled Items. As prescribed in 204.7304, use the following clause: Export-Controlled Items (Apr 2010) (a) Definition. Export-controlled items, as used...

  14. Differential Responses of Female Forgers to MMPI Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Robert G.; Harms, Laura O.

    1993-01-01

    Compared Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) items for 128 females convicted of forgery against items for 128 females from age-matched normative sample. Thirty-three items were significant at 0.0001 level. Significant items were categorized as value system, relations with family, uncertainty, appearance of perfectionism,…

  15. Applying Hierarchical Model Calibration to Automatically Generated Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip; Bejar, Isaac I.

    This study explored the application of hierarchical model calibration as a means of reducing, if not eliminating, the need for pretesting of automatically generated items from a common item model prior to operational use. Ultimately the successful development of automatic item generation (AIG) systems capable of producing items with highly similar…

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.101-1 - Civil agency item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Civil agency item. 101-30.101-1 Section 101-30.101-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....1-General § 101-30.101-1 Civil agency item. Civil agency item means an item of supply in the...

  17. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers...

  18. Calibration of Automatically Generated Items Using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip

    For complex educational assessments, there is an increasing use of "item families," which are groups of related items. However, calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that take into account the dependence structure inherent among the items that belong to the same item family. C. Glas and W. van der Linden…

  19. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  20. 26 CFR 301.6501(o)-3 - Partnership items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnership items. 301.6501(o)-3 Section 301... § 301.6501(o)-3 Partnership items. (a) Partnership item defined. For purposes of section 6501(o) (as it..., and § 301.6511(g)-1, the term “partnership item” means— (1) Any item required to be taken into...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6501(o)-3 - Partnership items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnership items. 301.6501(o)-3 Section 301... § 301.6501(o)-3 Partnership items. (a) Partnership item defined. For purposes of section 6501(o) (as it..., and § 301.6511(g)-1, the term “partnership item” means— (1) Any item required to be taken into...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6501(o)-3 - Partnership items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partnership items. 301.6501(o)-3 Section 301... § 301.6501(o)-3 Partnership items. (a) Partnership item defined. For purposes of section 6501(o) (as it..., and § 301.6511(g)-1, the term “partnership item” means— (1) Any item required to be taken into...

  3. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commercial Items. 52.244-6 Section 52.244-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.244-6 Subcontracts for Commercial Items. As prescribed in 44.403, insert the following clause: Subcontracts for Commercial Items (DEC 2010) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Commercial item has...

  4. Optimal Design of Item Banks for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; Swanson, Len

    1998-01-01

    Applied optimal design methods to the item-bank design of adaptive testing for continuous testing situations using a version of the weighted-deviations model (M. Stocking and L. Swanson, 1993) in a simulation. Independent and overlapping item banks used items more efficiently than did a large item bank. (SLD)

  5. Item Response Theory Equating Using Bayesian Informative Priors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Patz, Richard J.

    This paper seeks to extend the application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods in item response theory (IRT) to include the estimation of equating relationships along with the estimation of test item parameters. A method is proposed that incorporates estimation of the equating relationship in the item calibration phase. Item parameters from…

  6. Estimating Rater Severity with Multilevel and Multidimensional Item Response Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-chung

    Traditional approaches to the investigation of the objectivity of ratings for constructed-response items are based on classical test theory, which is item-dependent and sample-dependent. Item response theory overcomes this drawback by decomposing item difficulties into genuine difficulties and rater severity. In so doing, objectivity of ability…

  7. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.101-1 - Civil agency item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil agency item. 101-30.101-1 Section 101-30.101-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management....1-General § 101-30.101-1 Civil agency item. Civil agency item means an item of supply in the...

  9. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  10. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 & 12. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the "ACER…

  11. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  12. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  13. Some Properties of the Correlation Matrix of Dichotomous Guttman Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    1988-01-01

    Properties of dichotomous Guttman-scalable items are described. Both the elements and eigenvalues of the Pearson correlation matrix of such items can be expressed as simple functions of the number of items if the score distribution is uniform and there is an equal number of items at each difficulty level. (SLD)

  14. Modeling Item-Position Effects within an IRT Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debeer, Dries; Janssen, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    Changing the order of items between alternate test forms to prevent copying and to enhance test security is a common practice in achievement testing. However, these changes in item order may affect item and test characteristics. Several procedures have been proposed for studying these item-order effects. The present study explores the use of…

  15. Relationship between Item Responses of Negative Affect Items and the Distribution of the Sum of the Item Scores in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Ono, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that total depressive symptom scores in the general population approximate an exponential pattern, except for the lower end of the distribution. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) consists of 20 items, each of which may take on four scores: “rarely,” “some,” “occasionally,” and “most of the time.” Recently, we reported that the item responses for 16 negative affect items commonly exhibit exponential patterns, except for the level of “rarely,” leading us to hypothesize that the item responses at the level of “rarely” may be related to the non-exponential pattern typical of the lower end of the distribution. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated how the item responses contribute to the distribution of the sum of the item scores. Methods Data collected from 21,040 subjects who had completed the CES-D questionnaire as part of a Japanese national survey were analyzed. To assess the item responses of negative affect items, we used a parameter r, which denotes the ratio of “rarely” to “some” in each item response. The distributions of the sum of negative affect items in various combinations were analyzed using log-normal scales and curve fitting. Results The sum of the item scores approximated an exponential pattern regardless of the combination of items, whereas, at the lower end of the distributions, there was a clear divergence between the actual data and the predicted exponential pattern. At the lower end of the distributions, the sum of the item scores with high values of r exhibited higher scores compared to those predicted from the exponential pattern, whereas the sum of the item scores with low values of r exhibited lower scores compared to those predicted. Conclusions The distributional pattern of the sum of the item scores could be predicted from the item responses of such items. PMID:27806132

  16. IRT Model Selection Methods for Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Cohen, Allan S.

    2007-01-01

    Fit of the model to the data is important if the benefits of item response theory (IRT) are to be obtained. In this study, the authors compared model selection results using the likelihood ratio test, two information-based criteria, and two Bayesian methods. An example illustrated the potential for inconsistency in model selection depending on…

  17. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  18. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  19. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  20. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  1. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  2. Estimating the Importance of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudas, Tamas; Zwick, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The mixture index of fit (T. Rudas et al, 1994) is used to estimate the fraction of a population for which differential item functioning (DIF) occurs, and this approach is compared to the Mantel Haenszel test of DIF. The proposed noniterative procedure provides information about data portions contributing to DIF. (SLD)

  3. Modeling the Discrimination Power of Physics Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesic, Vanes

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of tailoring physics instruction in accordance with the needs and abilities of the students it is useful to explore the knowledge structure of students of different ability levels. In order to precisely differentiate the successive, characteristic states of student achievement it is necessary to use test items that possess…

  4. Open-Ended Test Items Pose Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Most experts in the testing community have presumed that the $350 million promised by the U.S. Department of Education to support common assessments would promote those that made greater use of open-ended items capable of measuring higher-order critical-thinking skills. But as measurement experts consider the multitude of possibilities for an…

  5. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  6. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  7. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extraordinary items. 1767.24 Section 1767.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts §...

  8. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extraordinary items. 1767.24 Section 1767.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts §...

  9. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  10. In-Process Items on LCS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Thyra K.

    Morris Library at Southern Illinois University computerized its technical processes using the Library Computer System (LCS), which was implemented in the library to streamline order processing by: (1) providing up-to-date online files to track in-process items; (2) encouraging quick, efficient accessing of information; (3) reducing manual files;…

  11. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  12. A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

  13. The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlees, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…

  14. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…

  15. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  16. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 188 (Thursday, September 27, 2012)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 59339] [FR Doc No: 2012-23917] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 [Corrected] In Title 48 of the Code...

  17. U.S. Government (Depository Items).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxymuk, John A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Lists and annotates 100 items published by the U.S. government that were received by depository libraries during fiscal year 1993-1994. Subject areas represented include defense; health policy and economics; health care and disease; education; the social sciences, environment, technology, energy, and business. (KRN)

  18. How Item Writers Understand Depth of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Viger, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    An important part of test development is ensuring alignment between test forms and content standards. One common way of measuring alignment is the Webb (1997, 2007) alignment procedure. This article investigates (a) how well item writers understand components of the definition of Depth of Knowledge (DOK) from the Webb alignment procedure and (b)…

  19. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in "Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies," ed. by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T.…

  20. Missing Data and IRT Item Parameter Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine

    The situation of nonrandomly missing data has theoretically different implications for item parameter estimation depending on whether joint maximum likelihood or marginal maximum likelihood methods are used in the estimation. The objective of this paper is to illustrate what potentially can happen, under these estimation procedures, when there is…

  1. 7 CFR 1767.24 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1Cumulative Effect on Prior Years of a Change in Accounting Principle Extraordinary Items 434Extraordinary... on Prior Years of a Change in Accounting Principle This account shall include the cumulative effect on margins of prior periods as a result of a change in accounting principle from one that is...

  2. Summarizing Item Difficulty Variation with Parcel Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; Prowker, Adam; Dossey, John A.; Lindquist, Mary M.; Chiu, Ting-Wei; Vargas, Sadako; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    A new method for analyzing differential item functioning is proposed to investigate the relative strengths and weaknesses of multiple groups of examinees. Accordingly, the notion of a conditional measure of difference between two groups (Reference and Focal) is generalized to a conditional variance. The objective of this article is to present and…

  3. Quantifying Item Dependency by Fisher's Z.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    Three aspects of the usual approach to assessing local item dependency, Yen's "Q" (H. Huynh, H. Michaels, and S. Ferrara, 1995), deserve further investigation. Pearson correlation coefficients do not distribute normally when the coefficients are large, and thus cannot quantify the dependency well. In the second place, the accuracy of…

  4. Random Item Generation Is Affected by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multani, Namita; Rudzicz, Frank; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Random item generation (RIG) involves central executive functioning. Measuring aspects of random sequences can therefore provide a simple method to complement other tools for cognitive assessment. We examine the extent to which RIG relates to specific measures of cognitive function, and whether those measures can be estimated using RIG…

  5. An optimized item-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on item genre prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Jia

    2009-07-01

    With the fast development of Internet, many systems have emerged in e-commerce applications to support the product recommendation. Collaborative filtering is one of the most promising techniques in recommender systems, providing personalized recommendations to users based on their previously expressed preferences in the form of ratings and those of other similar users. In practice, with the adding of user and item scales, user-item ratings are becoming extremely sparsity and recommender systems utilizing traditional collaborative filtering are facing serious challenges. To address the issue, this paper presents an approach to compute item genre similarity, through mapping each item with a corresponding descriptive genre, and computing similarity between genres as similarity, then make basic predictions according to those similarities to lower sparsity of the user-item ratings. After that, item-based collaborative filtering steps are taken to generate predictions. Compared with previous methods, the presented collaborative filtering employs the item genre similarity can alleviate the sparsity issue in the recommender systems, and can improve accuracy of recommendation.

  6. Identification and Development of Items Comprising Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Among Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Semsick, Gretchen R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Identify behaviors that can compose a measure of organizational citizenship by pharmacy faculty. Methods. A four-round, modified Delphi procedure using open-ended questions (Round 1) was conducted with 13 panelists from pharmacy academia. The items generated were evaluated and refined for inclusion in subsequent rounds. A consensus was reached after completing four rounds. Results. The panel produced a set of 26 items indicative of extra-role behaviors by faculty colleagues considered to compose a measure of citizenship, which is an expressed manifestation of collegiality. Conclusions. The items generated require testing for validation and reliability in a large sample to create a measure of organizational citizenship. Even prior to doing so, the list of items can serve as a resource for mentorship of junior and senior faculty alike. PMID:28179717

  7. Use of Eye Movement Monitoring to Examine Item and Relational Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan; Ramsay, Ian S.; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Niendam, Tara A.; Carter, Cameron S.; Ragland, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia may be impaired at remembering inter-item and item-context relationships (relational memory), even when memory for items is intact. Here, we applied the novel approach of using eye movements to assess integrity of item and relational memory in schizophrenia. This method does not rely on introspection and may be more readily translated to animal models than traditional behavioral methods. Methods Sixteen healthy controls and sixteen patients were administered a scene memory task while eye movements were monitored. During testing, participants indicated whether the scenes were unchanged, contained a new item (item manipulation), had a change in item location (relational manipulation), or were new. It was predicted that memory would be disproportionately impaired when relational changes were made. Results Results confirmed that tasks were equally difficult, and showed that patients were impaired identifying all scene types. These behavioral impairments were associated with more severe disorganization and negative symptoms. Eye movement results were more specific. Both groups looked disproportionately at critical regions of repeated versus novel scenes – an effect of scene repetition. However, in contrast to predictions, patients showed equivalent eye-movement-based memory impairment whether changes were relational or item-based. Conclusions This is the first experiment to demonstrate that eye movements can be used to investigate item and relational memory in schizophrenia. The eye movement procedure was well tolerated and was more specific than behavioral measures with respect to memory impairment. Results suggest that eye movements may be of use in clinical trials and translational studies employing animal models. PMID:20673874

  8. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items...

  9. Investigation of Specific Learning Disability and Testing Accommodations Based Differential Item Functioning Using a Multilevel Multidimensional Mixture Item Response Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Hernández Finch, Maria E.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of test data for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) is a key component of instrument development and validation. Among the many methods that have been used successfully in such analyses is the mixture modeling approach. Using this approach to identify the presence of DIF has been touted as potentially superior for…

  10. Effectiveness of Combining Statistical Tests and Effect Sizes When Using Logistic Discriminant Function Regression to Detect Differential Item Functioning for Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, Maria Dolores; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to find an optimal decision rule for identifying polytomous items with large or moderate amounts of differential functioning. The effectiveness of combining statistical tests with effect size measures was assessed using logistic discriminant function analysis and two effect size measures: R[superscript 2] and…

  11. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  12. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  13. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  14. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  15. Psychometrical assessment and item analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in victims of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-03-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and 729 relatives of the victims. All participants were evaluated using the 28-item version of the GHQ (GHQ-28). We examined the reliability and external validity of scores on the scale using Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), respectively. The factor structure of the scale was analyzed with varimax rotation. Samejima's (1969) graded response model was used to explore the item properties. The GHQ-28 scores showed good reliability and item-scale correlations. The factor analysis identified 3 factors: anxious-somatic symptoms, social dysfunction, and depression symptoms. All factors showed good correlation with the STAI. Before rotation, the first, second, and third factor explained 44.0%, 6.4%, and 5.0% of the variance, respectively. Varimax rotation redistributed the percentages of variance accounted for to 28.4%, 13.8%, and 13.2%, respectively. Items with the highest loadings in the first factor measured anxiety symptoms, whereas items with the highest loadings in the third factor measured suicide ideation. Samejima's model found that high scores in suicide-related items were associated with severe depression. The factor structure of the GHQ-28 found in this study underscores the preeminence of anxiety symptoms among victims of terrorism and their relatives. Item response analysis identified the most difficult and significant items for each factor.

  16. Differential item functioning in quality of life measure between children with and without special health care needs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, I-Chan; Leite, Walter L.; Shearer, Patricia; Seid, Michael; Revicki, Dennis A.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Limited studies consider the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) comparisons between ill and health children. The objective is to assess DIF and compare HRQOL between children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and children without needs. Methods Data were collected from 1195 families of children enrolled in Florida’s public insurance programs. HRQOL was measured using physical, emotional, social, and school functioning of the PedsQL. We identified CSHCN using the CSHCN Screener and assessed DIF related to CSHCN using a multiple group-multiple indicator-multiple cause (MG-MIMIC) method. We assessed the impact of DIF by examining expected item/test scores and item/test information function. We tested the discrepancy between underlying HRQOL scores of both groups before and after DIF calibration (allowing parameters of DIF items to be different and DIF-free items to be the same across both groups). Results Two (25%) and 3 items (60%) of physical and school functioning, respectively, were identified with non-uniform DIF, and two items (40%) of social functioning were identified with uniform DIF. Expected item/test scores and item/test information function suggest the impact of DIF is minimal. Before DIF calibration, HRQOL in CSHCN was more impaired than children without needs (effect size −1.04, − 0.74, −0.96, and −0.98 for physical, emotional, social and school functioning, respectively). After DIF calibration, the discrepancy was increased slightly. Conclusions Although 30% of items in the PedsQL were identified with DIF related to CSHCN and children without needs, the impact of DIF is minimal. PMID:21914509

  17. Investigating latent constructs with item response models: a MATLAB IRTm toolbox.

    PubMed

    Braeken, Johan; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Item response theory (IRT) models are the central tools in modern measurement and advanced psychometrics. We offer a MATLAB IRT modeling (IRTm) toolbox that is freely available and that follows an explicit design matrix approach, giving the end user control and flexibility in building a model that goes beyond standard models, such as the Rasch model (Rasch, 1960) and the two-parameter logistic model. As such, IRTm allows for a large variety of unidimensional IRT models for binary responses, the incorporation of additional person and item information, and deviations from common model assumptions. An exclusive key feature of the toolbox is the inclusion of copula IRT models to handle local item dependencies. Two appendixes for this report, containing example code and information on the general copula IRT in IRTm, may be downloaded from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  18. Classical item and test analysis with graphics: the ViSta-CITA program.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; Molina, J Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    Current advances in test development theory have mostly been influenced by item response theory. Notwithstanding this, classical test theory still plays a major part in the development of tests for applied educational and behavioral research. This article describes ViSta-CITA, a computer program that implements a set of classical item and test analysis methods that incorporate innovative graphics whose aim is to provide deeper insight into analysis results. Such an aim is achieved through the SpreadPlot, a graphical method designed to display multiple, simultaneous, interactive views of the analysis results. It behaves on a dynamic basis, so that users' changes (e.g., selecting a subset of items) are automatically updated in the graphical windows showing the analysis results. Moreover, ViSta-CITA is freely available, and its code is open to modifications or additions by the user. Features such as these constitute useful tools for research and teaching purposes related to test development.

  19. Ordinal-To-Interval Scale Conversion Tables and National Items for the New Zealand Version of the WHOQOL-BREF.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Billington, D Rex; Hsu, Patricia Hsien-Chuan; Feng, Xuan Joanna; Medvedev, Oleg N; Kersten, Paula; Landon, Jason; Siegert, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires are widely used around the world and can claim strong cross-cultural validity due to their development in collaboration with international field centres. To enhance conceptual equivalence of quality of life across cultures, optional national items are often developed for use alongside the core instrument. The present study outlines the development of national items for the New Zealand WHOQOL-BREF. Focus groups with members of the community as well as health experts discussed what constitutes quality of life in their opinion. Based on themes extracted of aspects not contained in the existing WHOQOL instrument, 46 candidate items were generated and subsequently rated for their importance by a random sample of 585 individuals from the general population. Applying importance criteria reduced these items to 24, which were then sent to another large random sample (n = 808) to be rated alongside the existing WHOQOL-BREF. A final set of five items met the criteria for national items. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four national items as belonging to the psychological domain of quality of life, and one item to the social domain. Rasch analysis validated these results and generated ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithms to allow use of parametric statistics for domain scores with and without national items.

  20. Ordinal-To-Interval Scale Conversion Tables and National Items for the New Zealand Version of the WHOQOL-BREF

    PubMed Central

    Billington, D. Rex; Hsu, Patricia Hsien-Chuan; Feng, Xuan Joanna; Medvedev, Oleg N.; Kersten, Paula; Landon, Jason; Siegert, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires are widely used around the world and can claim strong cross-cultural validity due to their development in collaboration with international field centres. To enhance conceptual equivalence of quality of life across cultures, optional national items are often developed for use alongside the core instrument. The present study outlines the development of national items for the New Zealand WHOQOL-BREF. Focus groups with members of the community as well as health experts discussed what constitutes quality of life in their opinion. Based on themes extracted of aspects not contained in the existing WHOQOL instrument, 46 candidate items were generated and subsequently rated for their importance by a random sample of 585 individuals from the general population. Applying importance criteria reduced these items to 24, which were then sent to another large random sample (n = 808) to be rated alongside the existing WHOQOL-BREF. A final set of five items met the criteria for national items. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four national items as belonging to the psychological domain of quality of life, and one item to the social domain. Rasch analysis validated these results and generated ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithms to allow use of parametric statistics for domain scores with and without national items. PMID:27812203

  1. Latent Variable Selection for Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models via [Formula: see text] Regularization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianan; Chen, Yunxiao; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang; Xin, Tao

    2016-12-01

    We develop a latent variable selection method for multidimensional item response theory models. The proposed method identifies latent traits probed by items of a multidimensional test. Its basic strategy is to impose an [Formula: see text] penalty term to the log-likelihood. The computation is carried out by the expectation-maximization algorithm combined with the coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation studies show that the resulting estimator provides an effective way in correctly identifying the latent structures. The method is applied to a real dataset involving the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

  2. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A finely detailed defraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the defraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating.

  3. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  4. NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project (Secondary Items)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-06

    Supporting the Objective Force – NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project Version: 06 February 2007 Final UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public...release NAC Aftermarket Brake Components Project (Secondary Items) Version: 06 February 2007 Final UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release Leo Miller...Technology Insertion Project Officer (TIPO) US Army National Automotive Center ( NAC ) Warren, MI Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704

  5. Validation of Single-Item Screening Measures for Provider Burnout in a Rural Health Care Network.

    PubMed

    Waddimba, Anthony C; Scribani, Melissa; Nieves, Melinda A; Krupa, Nicole; May, John J; Jenkins, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We validated three single-item measures for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among rural physician/nonphysician practitioners. We linked cross-sectional survey data (on provider demographics, satisfaction, resilience, and burnout) with administrative information from an integrated health care network (1 academic medical center, 6 community hospitals, 31 clinics, and 19 school-based health centers) in an eight-county underserved area of upstate New York. In total, 308 physicians and advanced-practice clinicians completed a self-administered, multi-instrument questionnaire (65.1% response rate). Significant proportions of respondents reported high EE (36.1%) and DP (9.9%). In multivariable linear mixed models, scores on EE/DP subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were regressed on each single-item measure. The Physician Work-Life Study's single-item measure (classifying 32.8% of respondents as burning out/completely burned out) was correlated with EE and DP (Spearman's ρ = .72 and .41, p < .0001; Kruskal-Wallis χ(2) = 149.9 and 56.5, p < .0001, respectively). In multivariable models, it predicted high EE (but neither low EE nor low/high DP). EE/DP single items were correlated with parent subscales (Spearman's ρ = .89 and .81, p < .0001; Kruskal-Wallis χ(2) = 230.98 and 197.84, p < .0001, respectively). In multivariable models, the EE item predicted high/low EE, whereas the DP item predicted only low DP. Therefore, the three single-item measures tested varied in effectiveness as screeners for EE/DP dimensions of burnout.

  6. Modern psychometric methods for detection of differential item functioning: application to cognitive assessment measures.

    PubMed

    Teresi, J A; Kleinman, M; Ocepek-Welikson, K

    Cognitive screening tests and items have been found to perform differently across groups that differ in terms of education, ethnicity and race. Despite the profound implications that such bias holds for studies in the epidemiology of dementia, little research has been conducted in this area. Using the methods of modern psychometric theory (in addition to those of classical test theory), we examined the performance of the Attention subscale of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. Several item response theory models, including the two- and three-parameter dichotomous response logistic model, as well as a polytomous response model were compared. (Log-likelihood ratio tests showed that the three-parameter model was not an improvement over the two-parameter model.) Data were collected as part of the ten-study National Institute on Aging Collaborative investigation of special dementia care in institutional settings. The subscale KR-20 estimate for this sample was 0.92. IRT model-based reliability estimates, provided at several points along the latent attribute, ranged from 0.65 to 0.97; the measure was least precise at the less disabled tail of the distribution. Most items performed in similar fashion across education groups; the item characteristic curves were almost identical, indicating little or no differential item functioning (DIF). However, four items were problematic. One item (digit span backwards) demonstrated a large error term in the confirmatory factor analysis; item-fit chi-square statistics developed using BIMAIN confirm this result for the IRT models. Further, the discrimination parameter for that item was low for all education subgroups. Generally, persons with the highest education had a greater probability of passing the item for most levels of theta. Model-based tests of DIF using MULTILOG identified three other items with significant, albeit small, DIF. One item, for example, showed non-uniform DIF in that at the impaired tail of the latent distribution

  7. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items. PMID:21833230

  8. Students' proficiency scores within multitrait item response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a series of item response models of data collected using the Force Concept Inventory. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was designed to poll the Newtonian conception of force viewed as a multidimensional concept, that is, as a complex of distinguishable conceptual dimensions. Several previous studies have developed single-trait item response models of FCI data; however, we feel that multidimensional models are also appropriate given the explicitly multidimensional design of the inventory. The models employed in the research reported here vary in both the number of fitting parameters and the number of underlying latent traits assumed. We calculate several model information statistics to ensure adequate model fit and to determine which of the models provides the optimal balance of information and parsimony. Our analysis indicates that all item response models tested, from the single-trait Rasch model through to a model with ten latent traits, satisfy the standard requirements of fit. However, analysis of model information criteria indicates that the five-trait model is optimal. We note that an earlier factor analysis of the same FCI data also led to a five-factor model. Furthermore the factors in our previous study and the traits identified in the current work match each other well. The optimal five-trait model assigns proficiency scores to all respondents for each of the five traits. We construct a correlation matrix between the proficiencies in each of these traits. This correlation matrix shows strong correlations between some proficiencies, and strong anticorrelations between others. We present an interpretation of this correlation matrix.

  9. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard N.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The majority of scales to measure family member distress in dementia are designed for community settings and do not capture the unique burdens of the nursing home (NH) environment. We report the psychometric properties of a new Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale for use in the NH setting. Design, Setting, Participants Cross-sectional questionnaire of 130 family member health care proxies of NH residents with advanced dementia in 31 Boston-area NHs. Methods Thirty-one initial items were evaluated, measuring the frequency over the past 3 months of sources of distress. Exploratory factor analysis identified domains of distress; Cronbach’s alpha was computed for each domain. Associations between the domains and other measures were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients, including measures of depression (PHQ-9), satisfaction with care (Satisfaction with Care at the End-of-Life in Dementia [SWC-EOLD]) and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview short version). Results Factor analysis suggested three domains: Emotional Distress (9 items), Dementia Preparedness (5 items), and NH Relations (7 items). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.82, 0.75 and 0.83 respectively. The PHQ-9 correlated most strongly with the Emotional Distress factor (r = 0.34), the SWC-EOWD correlated most strongly with the NH Relations factor (r = 0.35), as did the Zarit Burden Scale (r = 0.50). Conculsions The Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale encompasses three domains of distress. This scale represents a much needed tool to assess distress among family members of NH residents with advanced dementia and provides a metric to evaluate interventions in the population. PMID:25940236

  10. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis.

  11. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  12. Test item linguistic complexity and assessments for deaf students.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic complexity of test items is one test format element that has been studied in the context of struggling readers and their participation in paper-and-pencil tests. The present article presents findings from an exploratory study on the potential relationship between linguistic complexity and test performance for deaf readers. A total of 64 students completed 52 multiple-choice items, 32 in mathematics and 20 in reading. These items were coded for linguistic complexity components of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse. Mathematics items had higher linguistic complexity ratings than reading items, but there were no significant relationships between item linguistic complexity scores and student performance on the test items. The discussion addresses issues related to the subject area, student proficiency levels in the test content, factors to look for in determining a "linguistic complexity effect," and areas for further research in test item development and deaf students.

  13. 42 CFR 414.104 - PEN Items and Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (PEN) Nutrients, Equipment and Supplies § 414.104 PEN Items and Services. (a) Payment rules. Payment for PEN items and services is made in a lump sum for nutrients and supplies...

  14. 42 CFR 414.104 - PEN Items and Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (PEN) Nutrients, Equipment and Supplies § 414.104 PEN Items and Services. (a) Payment rules. Payment for PEN items and services is made in a lump sum for nutrients...

  15. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... persons, promoters and certain control persons. Item 407 Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus...

  16. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... management must have the option to present in Commission filings its good faith assessment of a registrant's... persons, promoters and certain control persons. Item 407 Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus...

  17. Control of Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, Marnelle L.

    2013-09-03

    This procedure implements portions of the requirements of MSC-MP-599, Quality Assurance Program Description. It establishes the Mission Support Alliance (MSA) practices for minimizing the introduction of and identifying, documenting, dispositioning, reporting, controlling, and disposing of suspect/counterfeit and defective items (S/CIs). employees whose work scope relates to Safety Systems (i.e., Safety Class [SC] or Safety Significant [SS] items), non-safety systems and other applications (i.e., General Service [GS]) where engineering has determined that their use could result in a potential safety hazard. MSA implements an effective Quality Assurance (QA) Program providing a comprehensive network of controls and verification providing defense-in-depth by preventing the introduction of S/CIs through the design, procurement, construction, operation, maintenance, and modification of processes. This procedure focuses on those safety systems, and other systems, including critical load paths of lifting equipment, where the introduction of S/CIs would have the greatest potential for creating unsafe conditions.

  18. Identifying image preferences based on demographic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Lawrence, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    The intent of this study is to determine what sorts of images are considered more interesting by which demographic groups. Specifically, we attempt to identify images whose interestingness ratings are influenced by the demographic attribute of the viewer's gender. To that end, we use the data from an experiment where 18 participants (9 women and 9 men) rated several hundred images based on "visual interest" or preferences in viewing images. The images were selected to represent the consumer "photo-space" - typical categories of subject matter found in consumer photo collections. They were annotated using perceptual and semantic descriptors. In analyzing the image interestingness ratings, we apply a multivariate procedure known as forced classification, a feature of dual scaling, a discrete analogue of principal components analysis (similar to correspondence analysis). This particular analysis of ratings (i.e., ordered-choice or Likert) data enables the investigator to emphasize the effect of a specific item or collection of items. We focus on the influence of the demographic item of gender on the analysis, so that the solutions are essentially confined to subspaces spanned by the emphasized item. Using this technique, we can know definitively which images' ratings have been influenced by the demographic item of choice. Subsequently, images can be evaluated and linked, on one hand, to their perceptual and semantic descriptors, and, on the other hand, to the preferences associated with viewers' demographic attributes.

  19. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  20. Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…

  1. 17 CFR 229.1117 - (Item 1117) Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229..., depositor, trustee, issuing entity, servicer contemplated by Item 1108(a)(3) of this Regulation AB, originator contemplated by Item 1110(b) of this Regulation AB, or other party contemplated by Item...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1106 - (Item 1106) Depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1106 (Item... information regarding the depositor called for by paragraphs (a) and (b) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB..., paragraphs (c) and (d) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB. In addition, provide the following information:...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1117 - (Item 1117) Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229..., depositor, trustee, issuing entity, servicer contemplated by Item 1108(a)(3) of this Regulation AB, originator contemplated by Item 1110(b) of this Regulation AB, or other party contemplated by Item...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1106 - (Item 1106) Depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1106 (Item... information regarding the depositor called for by paragraphs (a) and (b) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB..., paragraphs (c) and (d) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB. In addition, provide the following information:...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1106 - (Item 1106) Depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1106 (Item... information regarding the depositor called for by paragraphs (a) and (b) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB..., paragraphs (c) and (d) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB. In addition, provide the following information:...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1117 - (Item 1117) Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229..., depositor, trustee, issuing entity, servicer contemplated by Item 1108(a)(3) of this Regulation AB, originator contemplated by Item 1110(b) of this Regulation AB, or other party contemplated by Item...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1117 - (Item 1117) Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229..., depositor, trustee, issuing entity, servicer contemplated by Item 1108(a)(3) of this Regulation AB, originator contemplated by Item 1110(b) of this Regulation AB, or other party contemplated by Item...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1106 - (Item 1106) Depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1106 (Item... information regarding the depositor called for by paragraphs (a) and (b) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB..., paragraphs (c) and (d) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB. In addition, provide the following information:...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1106 - (Item 1106) Depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1106 (Item... information regarding the depositor called for by paragraphs (a) and (b) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB..., paragraphs (c) and (d) of Item 1104 of this Regulation AB. In addition, provide the following information:...

  10. 17 CFR 229.1117 - (Item 1117) Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229..., depositor, trustee, issuing entity, servicer contemplated by Item 1108(a)(3) of this Regulation AB, originator contemplated by Item 1110(b) of this Regulation AB, or other party contemplated by Item...

  11. 48 CFR 235.071 - Export-controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Export-controlled items. 235.071 Section 235.071 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM...-controlled items. For requirements regarding access to export-controlled items, see Subpart 204.73....

  12. 48 CFR 235.071 - Export-controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export-controlled items..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.071 Export-controlled items. For requirements regarding access to export-controlled items, see Subpart 204.73....

  13. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  14. 48 CFR 235.071 - Export-controlled items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Export-controlled items. 235.071 Section 235.071 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM...-controlled items. For requirements regarding access to export-controlled items, see 225.7901....

  15. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  16. Full-Information Factor Analysis for Polytomous Item Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraki, Eiji; Carlson, James E.

    A multidimensional item response theory (IRT) model for polytomously scored items, based on the graded response model and using the normal ogive, is developed; and an EM algorithm that may be used to estimate the parameters of the model is also discussed. The model is illustrated through a simulation study in which the polytomous item responses of…

  17. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  18. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all...

  1. Machine Shop. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the machine shop competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 16 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: orientation to machine shop; performing mathematical calculations; performing…

  2. Item validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, O C; Outcalt, D; Boyer, S L; Ware, R; Landis, D

    1984-06-01

    The present study presents a brief summary of four extensive psychometric analyses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) items. Positive empirical evidence supports the MBTI item validity. However, several measurement issues on item construction were raised to caution the future users.

  3. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  4. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  5. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the...

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the...

  10. Detection of Item Parameter Drift over Multiple Test Administrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2004-01-01

    Three methods of detecting item drift were compared: the procedure in BILOG-MG for estimating linear trends in item difficulty, the CUSUM procedure that Veerkamp and Glas (2000) used to detect trends in difficulty or discrimination, and a modification of Kim, Cohen, and Park's (1995) x 2 test for multiple-group differential item functioning (DIF),…

  11. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  12. An Item Response Model for Characterizing Test Compromise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2002-01-01

    Developed an item response model for characterizing test-compromise that enables the estimation of item preview and score-gain distributions. In the approach, models parameters and posterior distributions are estimated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedures. Simulation study results suggest that when at least some test items are known to be…

  13. 41 CFR 101-28.306-6 - Sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for embarrassment of GSA and customer agencies, the level of customer complaints, and control as an accountable item of personal property. Each customer activity shall take all appropriate measures necessary to... 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.306-6 Sensitive items. Many items stocked by the CSCs may...

  14. Drafting. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Mary, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 12 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: drafting room procedures; tools and equipment; basic drawing skills; geometric…

  15. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  16. Mokken Scale Analysis for Dichotomous Items Using Marginal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Scalability coefficients play an important role in Mokken scale analysis. For a set of items, scalability coefficients have been defined for each pair of items, for each individual item, and for the entire scale. Hypothesis testing with respect to these scalability coefficients has not been fully developed. This study introduces marginal modelling…

  17. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  18. A Lognormal Model for Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    A lognormal model for the response times of a person on a set of test items is investigated. The model has a parameter structure analogous to the two-parameter logistic response models in item response theory, with a parameter for the speed of each person as well as parameters for the time intensity and discriminating power of each item. It is…

  19. Influence of Item Parameter Errors in Test Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others

    Item response theory (IRT) model parameter estimates have considerable merit and open up new directions for test development, but misleading results are often obtained because of errors in the item parameter estimates. The problem of the effects of item parameter estimation errors on the test development process is discussed, and the seriousness…

  20. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  1. Is the New Item Priority Effect an Experimental Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas

    This research was directed at determining whether the new item priority (NIP) effect in free recall was a result of an experimental artifact produced by the joint action of the serial position effect and the randomization of items over trials, or a consequence of a strategy of recalling newer items before older ones. In the experiment, subjects…

  2. 14 CFR Section 17 - Objective Classification-Extraordinary Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED... Extraordinary Items. Record here income taxes allocable to items of income included in profit and loss account 96 Extraordinary Items and income tax assessments that do not constitute ordinary adjustments of...

  3. Aligning Items and Achievement Levels: A Study Comparing Expert Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Huff, Kristen; Barry, Carol

    2011-01-01

    For educational achievement tests that employ multiple-choice (MC) items and aim to reliably classify students into performance categories, it is critical to design MC items that are capable of discriminating student performance according to the stated achievement levels. This is accomplished, in part, by clearly understanding how item design…

  4. 41 CFR 101-29.208 - Commercial item description (CID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial item... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.208 Commercial item description (CID). A commercial item... characteristics of available, acceptable commercial products that will satisfy the Government's needs....

  5. Evaluating Common Item Block Options When Faced with Practical Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkowitz, Amanda; Davis-Becker, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of common item characteristics on the outcome of equating in credentialing examinations when traditionally recommended representation is not possible. This research used real data sets from several credentialing exams to test the impact of content representation, item statistics, and number of common items on…

  6. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on graphic arts contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Offset Lithography Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. The tests cover the following 15…

  7. Dealing with Uncertainty about Item Parameters: Expected Response Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; And Others

    It is a common practice in item response theory (IRT) to treat estimates of item parameters, say "B" circumflex, as if they were the known, true quantities, "B." However, ignoring the uncertainty associated with item parameters can lead to biases and over-confidence in subsequent inferences such as ability estimation,…

  8. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Small Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Amon

    This notebook contains criterion-referenced test items for testing students' knowledge of small engines. The test items are based upon competencies found in the Missouri Small Engine Competency Profile. The test item bank is organized in 18 sections that cover the following duties: shop procedures; tools and equipment; fasteners; servicing fuel…

  9. The Identification of Radex Properties in Objective Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a Monte Carlo simulation, a methodology was developed to investigate the existence of radex properties among objective test items. In an experiment with items covering four categories of Bloom's cognitive domain taxonomy, the items did not have the factorial properties of a radex with four levels of complexity. (Author/BW)

  10. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  11. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  12. ITEM RESPONSE ANALYSES OF THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES SURVEY PRINCIPAL QUESTIONNAIRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAYESKE, GEORGE W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE TABULATIONS AND ANALYSES OF RESPONSES TO EACH ITEM OF THE PRINCIPAL QUESTIONNAIRE THAT WAS ADMINISTERED AS PART OF THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES SURVEY. THE ITEM ANALYSES OF THESE DATA WERE CONDUCTED (1) TO PRESENT THE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS RESPONDING TO EACH ITEM ALTERNATIVE,…

  13. 42 CFR 414.104 - PEN Items and Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PEN Items and Services. 414.104 Section 414.104... Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (PEN) Nutrients, Equipment and Supplies § 414.104 PEN Items and Services. (a) Payment rules. Payment for PEN items and services is made in a lump sum for nutrients and supplies...

  14. Auto Mechanics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Dana, Ed.

    This document contains 546 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in auto mechanics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 35 units covering the…

  15. Development and Design of a Dynamic Multimedia Item Generation Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Ting-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This research applies multimedia technology to design a dynamic item generation method that can adaptively adjust the difficulty level of items according to the level of the testee. The method is based on interactive testing software developed by Flash Actionscript, and provides a testing solution for users by automatically distributing items of…

  16. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  17. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  18. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  19. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  20. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…