Science.gov

Sample records for advancing medical knowledge

  1. Knowledge translation in the emergency medical services: a research agenda for advancing prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about knowledge translation in the practice of out-of-hospital medicine. It is generally accepted that much work is needed regarding "getting the evidence straight" in emergency medical services, given the substantial number of interventions that are performed regularly in the field but lack meaningful scientific support. Additional attention also needs to be given to "getting the evidence used," because there is some evidence that evidence-based practices are being incompletely or incorrectly applied in the field. In an effort to help advance a research agenda for knowledge translation in emergency medical services, nine recommendations are put forth to help address the problems identified.

  2. Demonopolizing medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sanjeev; Thornton, Karla; Komaromy, Miriam; Kalishman, Summers; Katzman, Joanna; Duhigg, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the past 100 years, there has been an explosion of medical knowledge-and in the next 50 years, more medical knowledge will be available than ever before. Regrettably, current medical practice has been unable to keep pace with this explosion of medical knowledge. Specialized medical knowledge has been confined largely to academic medical centers (i.e., teaching hospitals) and to specialists in major cities; it has been disconnected from primary care clinicians on the front lines of patient care. To bridge this disconnect, medical knowledge must be demonopolized, and a platform for collaborative practice amongst all clinicians needs to be created. A new model of health care and education delivery called Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), developed by the first author, does just this. Using videoconferencing technology and case-based learning, ECHO's medical specialists provide training and mentoring to primary care clinicians working in rural and urban underserved areas so that the latter can deliver the best evidence-based care to patients with complex health conditions in their own communities. The ECHO model increases access to care in rural and underserved areas, and it demonopolizes specialized medical knowledge and expertise.

  3. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  4. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  5. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published “open access” information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe. PMID:26664857

  6. Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

  7. On Advanced Knowledge and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongjie

    2009-01-01

    Advanced knowledge is the basis for higher education, but less research on higher education deals with it. The essay elaborates on the major point in several ways: first, the practice-oriented higher education research tends to ignore advanced knowledge; secondly, higher education shall never turn a blind eye to advanced knowledge due to their…

  8. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter “linac”); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laser-based acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  9. Recent advances in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Willi A; Quick, Harald H

    2011-03-01

    Some of the major interests in medical physics over the last few years have concerned the technical advances in Computed Tomography and high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This review discusses the introduction of Dual Source CT and explains how it can not only offer faster data acquisition but also operate with lower radiation doses. This provides enormous benefits for all patients, but for cardiac and pediatric examinations in particular. The advances in MRI at 7 T esla are also impressive, with better signal to noise; cardiac and musculoskeletal applications are discussed; technical improvements are work-in-progress for other applications.

  10. [Advancement of the medical doctorate].

    PubMed

    Baum, C; Förster, R; Schmidt, R E

    2009-08-01

    The medical doctorate and the subsequent advanced research qualification in medicine have an exceptional position within the natural sciences. While, in the German system, graduation to the degree of a medical doctor is often an initiation into scientific practice, the in-depth scientific education of medical doctors may be achieved in various configurations. In recent years, structured programs for doctorates in medicine and natural sciences have found increasing acceptance, following recommendations of national scientific councils ("Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" and "Hochschulrat"). Hannover Medical School has been offering such programs for a number of years. The StrucMed program increases the quality of medical doctorate studies, typically performed in the third and fourth years of university studies. The Hannover Biomedical Research School (HBRS) combines several programs for a doctorate in natural sciences, creating a platform for an internationally oriented education of post-graduates in various disciplines of life sciences. Evaluating the achievements and career paths of the trainees will contribute to the successful integration of research work in an efficiency-oriented clinical environment.

  11. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  12. Knowledge translation in international emergency medical care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Kristian; Alomran, Hisham; Anantharaman, V; Halpern, Pinchas; Hauswald, Mark; Malmquist, Pia; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Rajapakse, Bishan; Ranney, Megan; Razzak, Junaid

    2007-11-01

    More than 90% of the world population receives emergency medical care from different types of practitioners with little or no specific training in the field and with variable guidance and oversight. Emergency medical care is being recognized by actively practicing physicians around the world as an increasingly important domain in the overall health services package for a community. The know-do gap is well recognized as a major impediment to high-quality health care in much of the world. Knowledge translation principles for application in this highly varied young domain will require investigation of numerous aspects of the knowledge synthesis, exchange, and application domains in order to bring the greatest benefit of both explicit and tacit knowledge to increasing numbers of the world's population. This article reviews some of the issues particular to knowledge development and transfer in the international domain. The authors present a set of research proposals developed from a several-month online discussion among practitioners and teachers of emergency medical care in 16 countries from around the globe and from all economic strata, aimed at improving the flow of knowledge from developers and repositories of knowledge to the front lines of clinical care.

  13. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  14. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  15. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery.

  16. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions.

  17. Medical Teachers Conceptualize a Distinctive Form of Clinical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, J.; Yates, L.; McColl, G.

    2015-01-01

    For over four decades, there have been efforts to specify the types of knowledge that medical students need, how that knowledge is acquired and how its constituent parts are related. It is one of the areas of continuing concern underlying medical education reform. Despite their importance to medical students' learning and development, the…

  18. Rapid medical advances challenge the tooling industry.

    PubMed

    Conley, B

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for greater performance in smaller spaces has increased demands for product and process innovation in tubing and other medical products. In turn, these developments have placed greater demands on the producers of the advanced tooling for these products. Tooling manufacturers must now continuously design equipment with much tighter tolerances for more sophisticated coextrusions and for newer generations of multilumen and multilayer tubing.

  19. SW Architecture for Access to Medical Information for Knowledge Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suntae; Shim, Bingu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, many approaches have been studied to author medical knowledge and verify doctor's diagnosis based on the specified knowledge. During the verification, intensive access to medical information is unavoidable. Also, the access approach should consider modifiability in order to cover diverse medical information from the variety of hospitals. This paper presents an approach to generating query language from medical knowledge, and shows software architecture for accessing medical information from hospitals by executing generated query languages. Implementation of this architecture has been deployed in a hospital of South Korea so that it shows the feasibility of the architecture.

  20. Internal Medicine Residents Do Not Accurately Assess Their Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger; Panda, Mukta; Desbiens, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical knowledge is essential for appropriate patient care; however, the accuracy of internal medicine (IM) residents' assessment of their medical knowledge is unknown. Methods: IM residents predicted their overall percentile performance 1 week (on average) before and after taking the in-training exam (ITE), an objective and well…

  1. Unity of knowledge in the advancement of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Karen K; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Lopez, Ruth Palan

    2005-07-01

    During the past 20 years, we have witnessed an explosion in nursing knowledge providing the discipline with diverse and multifaceted theoretical frameworks and paradigms. One knowledge theme that pervades the dialogue in the scholarly literature is that of multiple ways of knowing. With the acknowledgement that the fundamental nature of nursing knowledge is grounded in the understanding of human nature and its response to its environment, comes an imperative for a consilience of knowledge. The purpose of this article is to present such a unified worldview by articulating a vision of nursing knowledge, a meaning of unity of knowledge, and a challenge to the discipline to embrace inclusive rather than exclusive ways of knowing.

  2. Medical teachers conceptualize a distinctive form of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J; Yates, L; McColl, G

    2015-05-01

    For over four decades, there have been efforts to specify the types of knowledge that medical students need, how that knowledge is acquired and how its constituent parts are related. It is one of the areas of continuing concern underlying medical education reform. Despite their importance to medical students' learning and development, the perspectives of medical teachers in hospitals are not always considered in such discourse. This study sought to generate an understanding of these teachers' values, perspectives and approaches by listening to them and seeing them in their everyday teaching work, finding and understanding the meanings they bring to the work of medical teaching in hospitals. In interviews, all of the teachers talked more about the optimal forms of knowledge that are important for students than they talked about the form of the teaching itself. Many revealed to students what knowledge they do and do not value. They had a particular way of thinking about clinical knowledge as existing in the people and the places in which the teaching and the clinical practice happen, and represented this as 'real' knowledge. By implication, there is other knowledge in medical education or in students' heads that is not real and needs to be transformed. Their values, practices and passions add texture and vitality to existing ways of thinking about the characteristics of clinical knowledge, how it is depicted in the discourse and the curriculum and how it is more dynamically related to other knowledge than is suggested in traditional conceptualizations of knowledge relationships.

  3. United States medical students’ knowledge of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Brian J.; Usita, Paula M.; Edland, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A knowledge gap exists between general physicians and specialists in diagnosing and managing Alzheimer disease (AD). This gap is concerning due to the estimated rise in prevalence of AD and cost to the health care system. Medical school is a viable avenue to decrease the gap, educating future physicians before they specialize. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge level of students in their first and final years of medical school. Methods: Fourteen participating United States medical schools used e-mail student rosters to distribute an online survey of a quantitative cross-sectional assessment of knowledge about AD; 343 students participated. Knowledge was measured using the 12-item University of Alabama at Birmingham AD Knowledge Test for Health Professionals. General linear models were used to examine the effect of demographic variables and previous experience with AD on knowledge scores. Results: Only 2.5% of first year and 68.0% of final year students correctly scored ten or more items on the knowledge scale. Personal experience with AD predicted higher knowledge scores in final year students (P= 0.027). Conclusion: Knowledge deficiencies were common in final year medical students. Future studies to identify and evaluate the efficacy of AD education programs in medical schools are warranted. Identifying and disseminating effective programs may help close the knowledge gap. PMID:23750313

  4. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  5. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  6. Data mining and intelligent queries in a knowledge-based multimedia medical database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhua; Coleman, John D.

    2000-04-01

    Multimedia medical databases have accumulated large quantities of data and information about patients and their medical conditions. Patterns and relationships within this data could provide new knowledge for making better medical decisions. Unfortunately, few technologies have been developed and applied to discover and use this hidden knowledge. We are currently developing a next generation knowledge-based multimedia medical database, named MedBase, with advanced behaviors for data analysis and data fusion. As part of this R&D effort, a knowledge-rich data model is constructed to incorporate data mining techniques/tools to assist the building of medical knowledge bases, and to facilitate intelligent answering of users' investigative and knowledge queries in the database. Techniques such as data generalization, classification, clustering, semantic structures, and concept hierarchies, are used to acquire and represent both symbolic and spatial knowledge implicit in the database. With the availability of semantic structures, concept hierarchies and generalized knowledge, queries may be posed and answered at multiple levels of abstraction. In this article we provide a general description of the approaches and efforts undertaken so far in the MedBase project.

  7. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Advance Organizer in a Medical Microbiology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slock, James A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An advance organizer is a set of conceptual statements about the unifying ideas of a topic in terms already familiar to the learner. A study is reported that sought to determine whether two presentations of an advance organizer for a unit on pathogenic bacteria would result in increasing medical students' knowledge and ability to solve problems in…

  8. Knowledge Discovery Using the Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Adam; Hripcsak, George; Knirsch, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge discovery and data mining is one of the most promising areas of current informatics research. However, real successes of clinical data mining have mainly been limited to algorithms research, to specific prospectively created datasets, or to administrative databases requiring manual extraction of data. Natural language processing (NLP), which extracts clinical information from text reports, increases the available data for knowledge discovery. This allows greater use of clinical data already stored in existing clinical databases. We validated a dataset using NLP and rules to extract clinical findings with a prediction rule that was validated on manually abstracted data. The outcome variables for each study were similar, indicating the potential of using NLP extracted findings to create datasets for clinical research. The study also indicated the potential for using data external data sources to determine clinical outcomes.

  9. A JAVA implementation of a medical knowledge base for decision support.

    PubMed

    Ambrosiadou, V; Goulis, D; Shankararaman, V; Shamtani, G

    1999-01-01

    Distributed decision support is a challenging issue requiring the implementation of advanced computer science techniques together with tools of development which offer ease of communication and efficiency of searching and control performance. This paper presents a JAVA implementation of a knowledge base model called ARISTOTELES which may be used in order to support the development of the medical knowledge base by clinicians in diverse specialised areas of interest. The advantages that are evident by the application of such a cognitive model are ease of knowledge acquisition, modular construction of the knowledge base and greater acceptance from clinicians.

  10. Medication Administration: Measuring Associate Degree Nursing Student Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The American Nurse Association's (ANA) provisions outline the commitment expected of nurses to protect the community from harm. Medication administration coincides with patient safety as a compelling obligation in nursing practice. The study's purpose was to examine retention of medication safety knowledge among first year nursing students, after…

  11. Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research in special education has yielded beneficial outcomes for students with disabilities as well as typical achieving students. The authors provide examples of the valuable knowledge special education research has generated, including the elements of response to intervention (e.g., screening and progress monitoring), instructional practices…

  12. Medical Students' Knowledge about Alcohol and Drug Problems: Results of the Medical Council of Canada Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Meldon; Midmer, Deana; Wilson, Lynn; Borsoi, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine knowledge of a national sample of medical students about substance withdrawal, screening and early intervention, medical and psychiatric complications of addiction, and treatment options. Methods: Based on learning objectives developed by medical faculty, twenty-two questions on addictions were included in the 1998 Canadian…

  13. Students Use "STAMP-OUT" Program to Advance Seniors' Knowledge of Drug Misuse.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Gabrielle; Torres, Elisa; Wahler, Robert G

    2016-12-01

    This program assessed the impact of student presentations on 30 seniors and sought to improve their knowledge of prescription drug misuse and abuse. The six pharmacy students used the ASCP Foundation's "STAMP Out Prescription Drug Misuse and Abuse Tool Kit." Information presented to senior audiences included descriptions of drug misuse and abuse and preventive measures to uphold medication safety. Students assessed seniors' prior knowledge about the topics through audience participation. Afterwards, a self-assessment quiz was given that examined participants' learning about safe medication practices. Before the presentation, only 36% of participants recognized the difference between prescription drug misuse and abuse. The self-assessment quiz results showed that following the three presentations, all 30 participants received perfect scores: The results showed an improvement in knowledge after attending the student presentations. This program demonstrates advancement of the pharmacy profession through educating seniors on proper medication use to prevent drug abuse and improve medication safety.

  14. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261

  15. Advances in knowledge-based software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this work is that a rigorous and comprehensive software reuse methodology can bring about a more effective and efficient utilization of constrained resources in the development of large-scale software systems by both government and industry. It is also believed that correct use of this type of software engineering methodology can significantly contribute to the higher levels of reliability that will be required of future operational systems. An overview and discussion of current research in the development and application of two systems that support a rigorous reuse paradigm are presented: the Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment (KBSEE) and the Knowledge Acquisition fo the Preservation of Tradeoffs and Underlying Rationales (KAPTUR) systems. Emphasis is on a presentation of operational scenarios which highlight the major functional capabilities of the two systems.

  16. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technology information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.

  17. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    DOE PAGES

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technologymore » information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.« less

  18. Case-Based Tutoring from a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Homer L.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of programs that make use of large knowledge bases to assist physicians in diagnosis within the general field of internal medicine. One such program, Internist-I, contains knowledge about over 600 diseases, covering a significant proportion of internal medicine. This paper describes the process of converting a subset of this knowledge base--in the area of cardiovascular diseases--into a probabilistic format, and the use of this resulting knowledge base to teach medical diagnostic knowledge. The system (called KBSimulator--for Knowledge-Based patient Simulator) generates simulated patient cases and uses these cases as a focal point from which to teach medical knowledge. It interacts with the student in a mixed-initiative fashion, presenting patients for the student to diagnose, and allowing the student to obtain further information on his/her own initiative in the context of that patient case. The system scores the student, and uses these scores to form a rudimentary model of the student. This resulting model of the student is then used to direct the generation of subsequent patient cases. This project demonstrates the feasibility of building an intelligent, flexible instructional system that uses a knowledge base constructed primarily for medical diagnosis.

  19. Assessing oral cancer knowledge among Saudi medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p = 0.23) or gender (p = 0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted.

  20. Medical graduates' knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; Vujovic, Olga; Dendle, Claire; McMenamin, Christine

    2014-02-01

    A survey of medical graduates commencing employment as junior doctors was performed to investigate knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure management, coupled with their experience of occupational exposures. There was a mismatch between general knowledge (excellent) and knowledge of postexposure management (poor), and graduates had commonly experienced an occupational exposure and not reported it. The knowledge deficit regarding postexposure management and history of poor practice (ie, nonreporting) following an exposure implies that the transition period from student to junior doctor may be associated with increased occupational health and safety risk.

  1. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  2. Conceptualizing a Framework for Advanced Placement Statistics Teaching Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to sketch a conceptualization of a framework for Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Teaching Knowledge. Recent research continues to problematize the lack of knowledge and preparation among secondary level statistics teachers. The College Board's AP Statistics course continues to grow and gain popularity, but is a…

  3. The requirement for bioscience knowledge in medical education.

    PubMed

    McColl, Geoffrey J; Bilszta, Justin; Harrap, Stephen

    2012-04-02

    The recent 100-year anniversary of the Flexner review and the release of the Australian Medical Education Study have stimulated vigorous debate about the role of bioscience knowledge in medical education. Two critical questions define debate in this area: does bioscience learning assist in educating medical students to become competent doctors, and, if so, what are the most effective teaching and learning methods to facilitate this outcome? There is tacit acceptance that specific bioscience knowledge is critical for the development of clinical expertise; however, there are few empirical data to support this notion. Two differing theories have been proposed to describe the role of bioscience learning in the development of clinical reasoning skills - the "two-worlds" model and the "encapsulation" model. A series of studies provides support for the encapsulation model. Some medical programs are now integrating bioscience teaching into the clinical years of the course. Evidence of the effectiveness of this on outcomes, such as improved clinical reasoning, is inconclusive.

  4. Which Form of Medical Training is the Best in Improving Interns’ knowledge Related to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Drugs Pharmacology? An Educational Analytical Intervention Study Between Electronic Learning and Lecture-Based Education

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ala, Alireza; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ebrahimian, Kimia; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad EJ; Salek Ranjbarzadeh, Fariba; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional educational systems seem to be improper throughout the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching process. The most common causes of failed resuscitation are unfamiliarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms, poor performance of leader of the CPR team and lack of skilled personnel, coordination among members during resuscitation, and responsibility of staff. Objectives: Electronic learning, as a new educational method is controversial issue in medical education for improving physicians’ practical knowledge and it is inevitable that further research on its effectiveness should be done. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective, pre- and post-educational, cross-sectional research, in which 84 interns were randomly divided into two groups. pre- and post- educational interventions that took place in the Department of Emergency Medicine, interns were evaluated by 21 multiple choice questions related to American Heart Association guidelineson cardiopulmonary resuscitation drugs. Questions were assessed in terms of routes for CPR drugs administration, CPR drug dosage forms, clinical judgment and appropriate CPR drug administration, and the alternative drugs in emergency situations. Data were analyzed by generalized estimating equations regression models and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Evaluating the effectiveness of both educational methods revealed that the mean answering score for 21 questions before education was 7.5 ± 2.6 and no significant difference was observed in groups (P = 0.55). However, after education, the average scores significantly increased to 11.0 ± 3.9 (P < 0.001). Electronic learning method was not associated with considerable increase in the knowledge of interns in this group compared with the lecture-based group (P = 0.49). Conclusions: No significant differences were observed between electronic learning and lecture-based education in improving interns

  5. Interdisciplinary workshop in the philosophy of medicine: medical knowledge, medical duties

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Elselijn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1‐day workshop on ‘Medical knowledge, Medical Duties’. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high‐quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed. PMID:25470528

  6. Interdisciplinary workshop in the philosophy of medicine: medical knowledge, medical duties.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Emma; Kingma, Elselijn

    2014-12-01

    On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on 'Medical knowledge, Medical Duties'. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed.

  7. Medical data mining: knowledge discovery in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed Central

    Prather, J. C.; Lobach, D. F.; Goodwin, L. K.; Hales, J. W.; Hage, M. L.; Hammond, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    Clinical databases have accumulated large quantities of information about patients and their medical conditions. Relationships and patterns within this data could provide new medical knowledge. Unfortunately, few methodologies have been developed and applied to discover this hidden knowledge. In this study, the techniques of data mining (also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases) were used to search for relationships in a large clinical database. Specifically, data accumulated on 3,902 obstetrical patients were evaluated for factors potentially contributing to preterm birth using exploratory factor analysis. Three factors were identified by the investigators for further exploration. This paper describes the processes involved in mining a clinical database including data warehousing, data query and cleaning, and data analysis. PMID:9357597

  8. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  9. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  10. Analysis of high alert medication knowledge of medical staff in Tianjin: A convenient sampling survey in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shang-feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ye; Hou, Jie; Ji, Lu; Wang, Man-li; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The current situation of medical staff's awareness about high alert medication was investigated in order to promote safe medication and standardized management of the high alert medication in China. Twenty questions were designed concerning elementary knowledge of high alert medications, storage management, medication issues and risks. In order to understand the knowledge level and education status of high alert medication, a convenient survey was conducted among 300 medical staffs in Tianjin. Medical staff's average score of high alert medication knowledge was 12.43±0.27, and the average scores of elementary knowledge of high alert medication, storage management, medication issues and risks were 3.38±0.11, 2.46±0.14, 3.17±0.11 and 3.41±0.12 respectively. Occupation (F=4.86, P=0.003), education background (F=5.57, P=0.019) and professional titles (F=13.44, P≤0.001) contributed to the high alert medications knowledge scores. Currently, the most important channel to obtain high alert medication knowledge was hospital files or administrative rules, and clinical pharmacist seminars were the most popular education form. It was suggested that the high alert medication knowledge level of the medical staff needs to increase, and it might benefit from targeted, systematic and diverse training to the medical staff working in the different circulation nodes of the medications. Further research to develop and validate the instrument is needed.

  11. Maintaining medical independence in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Barber, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Juneteenth Day celebrates June 19, 1865, when Major General Granger landed in Texas with news that the Civil War had ended and that slaves were now free (History of Juneteenth, n.d.). Similarly, this article brings you news that patients are free to make their own medical decisions. American law now guarantees the right of all patients to make their own such decisions. Thus, this article introduces the concept of medical policy statements, a new way for patients to give instructions to medical professionals.

  12. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.

  13. Medical advances in child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell A

    2011-09-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.

  14. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  15. Image analysis in medical imaging: recent advances in selected examples.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, G

    2010-01-01

    Medical imaging has developed into one of the most important fields within scientific imaging due to the rapid and continuing progress in computerised medical image visualisation and advances in analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis. Several research applications are selected to illustrate the advances in image analysis algorithms and visualisation. Recent results, including previously unpublished data, are presented to illustrate the challenges and ongoing developments.

  16. Advances in medical therapies for Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Biller, Beverly M K

    2012-02-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a heterogeneous disorder of diverse etiologies, leading to cortisol excess. Endogenous CS is caused by tumors secreting adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) (either eutopically or ectopically), cortisol, or very rarely corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Definitive therapy of endogenous CS optimally involves tumor resection. Indications for medical therapy include acutely ill patients in preparation for surgery, those for whom surgery is not indicated (such as patients with unknown tumor location or unresectable lesions, and patients unfit for surgery for medical reasons), or patients who remain hypercortisolemic postoperatively. In the current article, the published literature has been reviewed to summarize data on medical therapies used in CS. Several agents are either used "off label" or being studied as potential therapies for CS. Medications suppressing adrenal steroidogenesis currently in use include ketoconazole, metyrapone, mitotane, or etomidate. In addition, the investigational agent LCI699 is under study. Centrally acting agents, which suppress ACTH secretion, include cabergoline, octreotide, as well as the investigational agents pasireotide, bexarotene, and lapatinib, which are being studied in patients with pituitary tumors. Mifepristone, a type 2 glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, was recently approved by the FDA as a new therapy for CS. Although not definitive at present, medical therapies have an important role in the management of CS patients. It is anticipated that understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors at a molecular level may spawn the development of rationally designed, highly efficacious medical therapies for CS in the future.

  17. Semantic Health Knowledge Graph: Semantic Integration of Heterogeneous Medical Knowledge and Services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoran; Qi, Jiaheng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Binbin

    2017-01-01

    With the explosion of healthcare information, there has been a tremendous amount of heterogeneous textual medical knowledge (TMK), which plays an essential role in healthcare information systems. Existing works for integrating and utilizing the TMK mainly focus on straightforward connections establishment and pay less attention to make computers interpret and retrieve knowledge correctly and quickly. In this paper, we explore a novel model to organize and integrate the TMK into conceptual graphs. We then employ a framework to automatically retrieve knowledge in knowledge graphs with a high precision. In order to perform reasonable inference on knowledge graphs, we propose a contextual inference pruning algorithm to achieve efficient chain inference. Our algorithm achieves a better inference result with precision and recall of 92% and 96%, respectively, which can avoid most of the meaningless inferences. In addition, we implement two prototypes and provide services, and the results show our approach is practical and effective. PMID:28299322

  18. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  19. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students and nurses about dentistry in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals’ Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants’ biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. Results A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Conclusion Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health. PMID:27303588

  20. [Design and application of medical knowledge model on SAGE].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Bin-fei; Ye, Feng; Lv, Xu-dong

    2009-01-01

    As an methodology for promoting the quality and efficiency of health care, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have gained much improvement. The knowledge base (KB) plays an important role in DSS. For CDSSs, the construction of KB means modeling the medical knowledge based on a suitable model. This study analyzes the SAGE model, then implements it on knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and improves the SAGE to enhance its expression ability. The model is constructed as the KB in CDSS, and be applied in hospital. The evaluation result of CDSS reveals that the SAGE model should be useful in clinical application. Finally, this study propounds some points yet to be improved in the SAGE.

  1. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    PubMed

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.

  2. Chest surgical disorders in ancient Egypt: evidence of advanced knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Weder, Walter

    2012-03-01

    The ancient Egyptians laid the foundation for the development of the earliest recorded systems of medical treatment. Many specialties such as gynecology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and chest disorders were subject to diagnosis, which were followed by an appropriate treatment. Here, we elucidate the remarkable level of their knowledge and understanding of anatomy and physiology in the field of chest medicine. Furthermore, we look at how ancient Egyptian physicians came to a diagnosis and treatment based on the thoracic cases in the Edwin Smith papyrus.

  3. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored <60%. To assess the number of teaching hours dedicated to sleep medicine in the undergraduate curricula, the organizers of the major courses on sleep disorders were contacted to obtain the curricula for those courses and to determine the obstacles to education. Results A total of 348 students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of

  4. Medication communication through documentation in medical wards: knowledge and power relations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Health professionals communicate with each other about medication information using different forms of documentation. This article explores knowledge and power relations surrounding medication information exchanged through documentation among nurses, doctors and pharmacists. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in 2010 in two medical wards of a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Data collection methods included participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings, document retrieval and video reflexive focus groups. A critical discourse analytic framework was used to guide data analysis. The written medication chart was the main means of communicating medication decisions from doctors to nurses as compared to verbal communication. Nurses positioned themselves as auditors of the medication chart and scrutinised medical prescribing to maintain the discourse of patient safety. Pharmacists utilised the discourse of scientific judgement to guide their decision-making on the necessity of verbal communication with nurses and doctors. Targeted interdisciplinary meetings involving nurses, doctors and pharmacists should be organised in ward settings to discuss the importance of having documented medication information conveyed verbally across different disciplines. Health professionals should be encouraged to proactively seek out each other to relay changes in medication regimens and treatment goals.

  5. [Audit: medical record documentation among advanced cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Perceau, Elise; Chirac, Anne; Rhondali, Wadih; Ruer, Murielle; Chabloz, Claire; Filbet, Marilène

    2014-02-01

    Medical record documentation of cancer inpatients is a core component of continuity of care. The main goal of the study was an assessment of medical record documentation in a palliative care unit (PCU) using a targeted clinical audit based on deceased inpatients' charts. Stage 1 (2010): a clinical audit of medical record documentation assessed by a list of items (diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, power of attorney directive, advance directives). Stage 2 (2011): corrective measures. Stage 3 (2012): re-assessment with the same items' list after six month. Forty cases were investigated during stage 1 and 3. After the corrective measures, inpatient's medical record documentation was significantly improved, including for diagnosis (P = 0.01), diseases extension and treatment (P < 0.001). Our results highlighted the persistence of a weak rate of medical record documentation for advanced directives (P = 0.145).

  6. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    PubMed

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  7. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte

    2015-09-15

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities.

  8. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  9. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  10. Alzheimer's disease: research advances and medical reality.

    PubMed

    Seiguer, Erica

    2005-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease was the eighth-leading cause of death in 2001. There is no cure and no effective treatment. Alzheimer's disease presents policy-makers with several challenges, including the level of funding and direction of federally funded research, as well as the cost pressures on Medicare and Medicaid of long-term care. These challenges will increase in intensity as demographic changes, particularly the aging of baby boomers, take hold. Better prevention of Alzheimer's, advances in therapy, and appropriate care modalities will likely require significant investment.

  11. Astronomy helps advance medical diagnosis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Effective treatment of cancer relies on the early detection and removal of cancerous cells. Unfortunately, this is when they are hardest to spot. In the case of breast cancer, now the most prevalent form of cancer in the United Kingdom, cancer cells tend to congregate in the lymph nodes, from where they can rapidly spread throughout the rest of the body. Current medical equipment can give doctors only limited information on tissue health. A surgeon must then perform an exploratory operation to try to identify the diseased tissue. If that is possible, the diseased tissue will be removed. If identification is not possible, the doctor may be forced to take away the whole of the lymphatic system. Such drastic treatment can then cause side effects, such as excessive weight gain, because it throws the patient's hormones out of balance. Now, members of the Science Payloads Technology Division of the Research and Science Support Department, at ESA's science, technology and engineering research centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, have developed a new X-ray camera that could make on-the-spot diagnoses and pinpoint cancerous areas to guide surgeons. Importantly, it would be a small device that could be used continuously during operations. "There is no photography involved in the camera we envisage. It will be completely digital, so the surgeon will study the whole lymphatic system and the potentially cancerous parts on his monitor. He then decides which parts he removes," says Dr. Tone Peacock, Head of the Science Payloads Technology Division. The ESA team were trying to find a way to make images using high-energy X-rays because some celestial objects give out large quantities of X-rays but little visible light. To see these, astronomers need to use X-ray cameras. Traditionally, this has been a bit of a blind spot for astronomers. ESA's current X-ray telescope, XMM-Newton, is in orbit now, observing low energy, so-called 'soft' X-rays. European scientists have always wanted to

  12. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOODIAN, HOSSEIN; EGHTESADI, RAZIE; GHAREGHANI, ATEFE; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs) and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62) in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14) using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001). Results The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5%) students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4) (p≤0.001). Conclusion The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms. PMID:27382582

  13. Recent advances in the medical treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vorobiof, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the systemic therapy of breast cancer (early and advanced) has changed considerably. For the past 40-50 years, and since the discovery and further therapeutic use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, breast cancer treatment has become the model for the development and success of tailored medical treatment. Much still needs to be done in improving outcomes for all patients with breast cancer, and especially for those who have advanced breast cancer, a challenging area for medical oncologists. Ongoing international clinical trials are currently evaluating new therapeutic approaches and identifying specific biological subsets that could determine a patient's ability to respond to particular chemotherapeutic drugs.

  14. Evaluation of the Unified Medical Language System as a Medical Knowledge Source

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Oliver; Burgun, Anita; Botti, Geneviève; Fieschi, Marius; Beux, Pierre Le; Kohler, François

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The authors evaluated the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a medical knowledge source for the representation of medical procedures in the MAOUSSC system. Design: MAOUSSC, a multiaxial coding system, was used for the representation of 1500 procedures from 15 clinical specialties, using UMLS concepts (augmented by full sources for three new vocabularies being added to the UMLS) and relationships whenever possible. Evaluation criteria for the UMLS included (1) completeness of representation of concepts and of inter-concept relationships, (2) consistency in the categorization of both concepts and inter-concept relationships, and (3) usability, including adaptability of the UMLS to a foreign language (French), its suitability to a geographic region with different medical practices than the USA, and issues relative to the annual update changes in the test vocabularies. Results: During the MAOUSSC trial, the number of missing concepts or relationships identified in the augmented UMLS sources was deemed to be inconsequential relative to overall project goals. “Missing” UMLS inter-concept relationships were identified, although they were small in number. Some inconsistencies in the UMLS were noted, especially in the area of hierarchic relationships. Conclusion: After UMLS was used for five years as a knowledge source for representing 1500 complex medical procedures in MAOUSSC, its value is considered significant. Future editions of the UMLS are expected to improve representation of inter-concept relationships and global consistency. PMID:9452987

  15. Impact of Standardized New Medication Education Program on Postdischarge Patients' Knowledge and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tammie R; Coke, Lola

    2016-10-01

    This study, implemented on 2 medical-surgical units, evaluated the impact of a standardized, evidence-based new medication education program. Outcomes evaluated included patient postdischarge knowledge of new medication purpose and side effects, patient satisfaction with new medication, and Medicare reimbursement earn-back potential. As a result, knowledge scores for new medication purpose and side effects were high post intervention. Patient satisfaction with new medication education increased. Value-based purchasing reimbursement earn-back potential improved.

  16. A multi-agent intelligent environment for medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Rosa M; Flores, Cecilia D; Silvestre, André M; Seixas, Louise J; Ladeira, Marcelo; Coelho, Helder

    2003-03-01

    AMPLIA is a multi-agent intelligent learning environment designed to support training of diagnostic reasoning and modelling of domains with complex and uncertain knowledge. AMPLIA focuses on the medical area. It is a system that deals with uncertainty under the Bayesian network approach, where learner-modelling tasks will consist of creating a Bayesian network for a problem the system will present. The construction of a network involves qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative part concerns the network topology, that is, causal relations among the domain variables. After it is ready, the quantitative part is specified. It is composed of the distribution of conditional probability of the variables represented. A negotiation process (managed by an intelligent MediatorAgent) will treat the differences of topology and probability distribution between the model the learner built and the one built-in in the system. That negotiation process occurs between the agents that represent the expert knowledge domain (DomainAgent) and the agent that represents the learner knowledge (LearnerAgent).

  17. Advances in medical treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mareomi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Shigematsu, Yuji

    2014-07-01

    We reviewed the natural history of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The effect of medical treatments on natural history, left ventricular (LV) functions and LV remodeling was also evaluated. Sudden cardiac death and end-stage heart failure are the most serious complications of HCM. Age <30 years and a family history of sudden premature death are risk factors for sudden cardiac death in HCM patients. End-stage heart failure is not a specific additional phenomenon observed in patients with HCM, but is the natural course of the disease in most of those patients. After the occurrence of heart failure, the progression to cardiac death is very rapid. Young age at diagnosis, a family history of HCM, and greater wall thickness are associated with a greater likelihood of developing end-stage heart failure. Neither beta-blockers nor calcium antagonists can prevent this transition. The class Ia antiarrhythmic drugs, disopyramide and cibenzoline are useful for the reduction of LV pressure gradient. Unlike disopyramide, cibenzoline has little anticholinergic activity; therefore, this drug can be easily adapted to long-term use. In addition to the reduction in LV pressure gradient, cibenzoline can improve LV diastolic dysfunction, and induce regression of LV hypertrophy in patients with HCM. A decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration through the activation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger associated with cibenzoline therapy is likely to be closely related with the improvement in HCM-related disorders. It is possible that cibenzoline can prevent the progression from typical HCM to end-stage heart failure.

  18. 'Medical Knowledge' and 'Tradition' of Colonial Korea: Focused on Kudo's "Gynecology"-based Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang Hee

    2013-08-01

    This article attempts to illuminate the ways in which Kudo's medical knowledge based on 'gynecological science' constructed the cultural 'traditions' of colonial Korea. Kudo appears to have been quite an influential figure in colonial Korea in that his writings on the relationship between women's crime, gynecological science and the Chosŏn society granted a significant amount of intellectual authority. Here, I examine Kudo's position within colonial Korea as a producer and propagator of medical knowledge, and then see how women's bodies were understood according to his gynecological knowledge. It also traces the ways in which Kudo's gynecological knowledge represents Chosŏn society and in turn invents the 'traditions' of Chosŏn. Kudo's knowledge of "gynecology" which had been formed while it traveled the states such as Japan, Germany and France served as an important reference for his representation of colonial Korean society. Kudo was a proponent of biological evolution, particularly the rules of 'atavism' put forth by the criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, and argued that an unique social environment caused 'alteration of sexual urges' and primitive cruelty in Chosŏn women. According to Kudo, The social environment was none other than the practice of 'early marriage,' which went against the physiology of women. To Kudo, 'early marriage' was an old 'tradition' of Chosŏn and the cause of heinous crimes, as well as an unmistakable indicator of both the primitiveness and savageness of Chosŏn. While Lombroso considered personal factors such as stress as the cause of women's crimes, Kudo saw Chosŏn women's crimes as a national characteristic. Moreover, he compared the occurrence rate of husband murders by provinces, based on which he categorized the northern population of Chosŏn as barbaric Manchurian and the southern population as the superior Japanese, a combination of racism and scientific knowledge. Kudo's writings provide an insight into the

  19. [Psychiatric advance directives--medical models into psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Mautner, Sigal; Lachman, Max; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Since the year 2005, in the field of general medicine, the legislature in Israel determined ways to implement medically advanced directives according to the power of the law. Different states in the world had implemented parallel legislation for patients who suffer from mental illness. Psychiatric Advance Directives is a legitimate document which is valid in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, England and in 25 countries in the U.S.A. Psychiatric advance directives (PAD's) allow competent persons, through advance instructions, to state their preferences for future mental health treatment in the event of an incapacitating psychiatric crisis. Self Determination Theory, Self Care and Autonomy are dominant supportive approaches in the creation of Psychiatric Advance Directives. Research conducted on psychiatric advance directives shows positive potential benefits for mental health clients, therapists and psychiatrists. More research in that area must be conducted. Psychiatric advance directives are currently developed and implemented with the cooperation of the Tauber Foundation and the Beer Sheva Mental Health Center. This is the first step in learning of effective ways to use this intervention in Israel and change perceptions toward a positive connection between medical efficiency and client preferences.

  20. Recent advances in our knowledge of Australian anisakid nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh

    2014-01-01

    Anisakidosis is an emerging infection associated with a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans caused by members of the family Anisakidae. Anisakid nematodes have a cosmopolitan distribution and infect a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates during their life cycles. Since the first report of these parasites in humans during the early 60s, anisakid nematodes have attracted considerable attention as emerging zoonotic parasites. Along with rapid development of various molecular techniques during last several decades, this has caused a significant change in the taxonomy and systematics of these parasites. However, there are still huge gaps in our knowledge on various aspects of the biology and ecology of anisakid nematodes in Australia. Although the use of advanced morphological and molecular techniques to study anisakids had a late start in Australia, great biodiversity was found and unique species were discovered. Here an updated list of members within the family and the current state of knowledge on Australian anisakids will be provided. Given that the employment of advanced techniques to study these important emerging zoonotic parasites in Australia is recent, further research is needed to understand the ecology and biology of these socio economically important parasites. After a recent human case of anisakidosis in Australia, such understanding is crucial if control and preventive strategies are to be established in this country. PMID:25180162

  1. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  2. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  3. Knowledge-based topographic feature extraction in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, JianZhong; Khair, Mohammad M.

    1995-08-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging often contains variations of patient anatomies, camera mispositioning, or other imperfect imaging condiitons. These variations contribute to uncertainty about shapes and boundaries of objects in images. As the results sometimes image features, such as traditional edges, may not be identified reliably and completely. We describe a knowledge based system that is able to reason about such uncertainties and use partial and locally ambiguous information to infer about shapes and lcoation of objects in an image. The system uses directional topographic features (DTFS), such as ridges and valleys, labeled from the underlying intensity surface to correlate to the intrinsic anatomical information. By using domain specific knowledge, the reasoning system can deduce significant anatomical landmarks based upon these DTFS, and can cope with uncertainties and fill in missing information. A succession of levels of representation for visual information and an active process of uncertain reasoning about this visual information are employed to realiably achieve the goal of image analysis. These landmarks can then be used in localization of anatomy of interest, image registration, or other clinical processing. The successful application of this system to a large set of planar cardiac images of nuclear medicine studies has demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy.

  4. Self-monitoring and its relationship to medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Meghan M; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J; Eva, Kevin W

    2012-08-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific problem with which one is faced). Indeed, previous research has shown that, when responding to both short answer and multiple choice questions, individuals are able to assess the likelihood of answering questions correctly on a moment-by-moment basis, even though they are not able to generate an accurate self-assessment of overall performance on the test. These studies, however, were conducted in the context of low-stakes tests of general "trivia". The purpose of the present study was to further this line of research by investigating the relationship between self-monitoring and performance in the context of a high stakes test assessing medical knowledge. Using a recent administration of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I, we examined three measures intended to capture self-monitoring: (1) the time taken to respond to each question, (2) the number of questions a candidate flagged as needing to be considered further, and (3) the likelihood of changing one's initial answer. Differences in these measures as a function of the accuracy of the candidate's response were treated as indices of each candidate's ability to judge his or her likelihood of responding correctly. The three self-monitoring indices were compared for candidates at three different levels of overall performance on the exam. Relative to correct responses, when examinees initially responded incorrectly, they spent more time answering the question, were more likely to flag the question for future consideration, and were more likely to change their answer before committing to a final answer. These measures of self-monitoring were modulated by

  5. Health care in its right mind: medical harm and the knowledge revolution part one--the state of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Wendell W

    2012-01-01

    The "Tao of Medicine" is patient-centeredness and is most succinctly summarized by W.W. Mayo, MD, as, "the best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered, and in order that the sick may have the benefit of advancing knowledge, union of forces is necessary". This calling, also known by its more familiar designation, the Art of Medicine, is true for all times and all places, serving as our ideal, our law and our conscience. It, therefore, meets the definition of a universal. It is only a culture of safety that will support the Art of Medicine and sustain improvement within the deeply complex, tightly coupled and highly contextual world of health care delivery.

  6. [Mining medical knowledge from time-oriented clinical data using existing clinical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Shahar, Y; Moskovitich, R; Klimov, D

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of clinicaL data accumulating over time from multipLe sources, regarding a group of patients, can lead to muLtiple insights. In particular, such an analysis enables: (a) the discovery of temporal patterns repeating above a certain threshold frequency, thus essentially creating clusters of different behaviors over time of various patient sub-groups; and (b) detection amongst the temporal patterns, some of which, together with additional patient data, such as demographic data, might be able to predict future cLinically significant outcomes, such as renal dysfunction in the case of a diabetes patient. The analysis of temporal data is even more efficient when it includes not only time-stamped, point-based raw data, but also time intervals (periods) during which certain context-sensitive, abstract interpretations of the data hold, such as a period of moderate anemia instead of a series of hemoglobin values; or a degradation in liver functions, instead of a series of different enzyme values. Such an interpretation naturally requires an explicit representation of the medical knowledge involved, in a medical knowledge base, in a manner that supports automated computational tools. In this survey, we briefly introduce several of the innovative computational methods developed in our research center, for the purpose of the multivariate analysis of time-oriented clinical data. We mainly demonstrate the use of tools for exploration and knowledge discovery which are intended for use by a cLinicaL user at the point of care, and by cLinical researchers or heaLthcare policy makers. *

  7. Advanced Imaging and Robotics Technologies for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamune, Ken; Hong, Jaesung

    2011-10-01

    Due to the importance of surgery in the medical field, a large amount of research has been conducted in this area. Imaging and robotics technologies provide surgeons with the advanced eye and hand to perform their surgeries in a safer and more accurate manner. Recently medical images have been utilized in the operating room as well as in the diagnostic stage. If the image to patient registration is done with sufficient accuracy, medical images can be used as "a map" for guidance to the target lesion. However, the accuracy and reliability of the surgical navigation system should be sufficiently verified before applying it to the patient. Along with the development of medical imaging, various medical robots have also been developed. In particular, surgical robots have been researched in order to reach the goal of minimal invasiveness. The most important factors to consider are determining the demand, the strategy for their use in operating procedures, and how it aids patients. In addition to the above considerations, medical doctors and researchers should always think from the patient's point of view. In this article, the latest medical imaging and robotic technologies focusing on surgical applications are reviewed based upon the factors described in the above.

  8. Couching for cataract: advanced medical achievements of China in 1976?

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2011-01-01

    Cataracts have been a common disease in China for centuries. As early as the Tang dynasty, physicians of Chinese medicine had developed 'jin pi shu', a method of couching, to cure the disease. In 1976, a new method, invented by Tang Youzhi, was acknowledged as one of the most advanced medical achievements in communist China. This paper explores the significance of Tang's method for Mao Zedong's China. Tang's method achieved two goals set by Chairman Mao for medical and health policies: to serve rural China and to integrate Chinese and Western medicine.

  9. Advancing Information and Communication Technology Knowledge for Undergraduate Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is a dynamic profession; for registered nurses their role is increasingly requiring greater information process understanding and the effective management of information to ensure high quality safe patient care. This paper outlines the design and implementation of Systems of eCare. This is a course which advances information and communication technology knowledge for undergraduate nursing students within a Faculty of Health and Wellbeing appropriately preparing nurses for their professional careers. Systems of eCare entwines throughout the three year programme mapping to the curriculum giving meaning to learning for the student. In conclusion comments from students convey their appreciation of the provision of this element of the undergraduate programme. PMID:24199114

  10. Recent advances in the medical treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vorobiof, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the systemic therapy of breast cancer (early and advanced) has changed considerably. For the past 40–50 years, and since the discovery and further therapeutic use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, breast cancer treatment has become the model for the development and success of tailored medical treatment. Much still needs to be done in improving outcomes for all patients with breast cancer, and especially for those who have advanced breast cancer, a challenging area for medical oncologists. Ongoing international clinical trials are currently evaluating new therapeutic approaches and identifying specific biological subsets that could determine a patient’s ability to respond to particular chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:27990275

  11. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities. PMID:26451243

  12. [Recent advances in medical and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Akira; Koganei, Kazutaka; Tatsumi, Kenji; Futatsuki, Ryo; Kuroki, Hirosuke; Yamada, Kyoko; Arai, Katsuhiko; Fukushima, Tsuneo

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in both medical and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis have been remarkable. Changes in medical treatment are mainly good results of therapy with the anti-TNF-α antibody, tacrolimus, and those in surgical treatment are an expansion of the surgical indications to include patients with intractable disease, such as treatment refractoriness and chronic corticosteroid dependence, by a better postoperative clinical course after pouch surgery, improred selection of surgical procedures and the timing of surgery in elderly patients. To offer the optimal treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis, new medical therapies should be analyzed from the standpoint of the efficacy and limitations of effect. Long postoperative clinical course of surgical patients including colitic cancer, prevention of postoperative complications should be also analyzed.

  13. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema

    Tijana Rajh

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  14. Nursing, Pharmacy, and Prescriber Knowledge and Perceptions of High-Alert Medications in a Large, Academic Medical Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-alert medications pose a greater risk of causing significant harm to patients if used in error. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals define institution-specific high-alert medications and implement processes to ensure safe medication use. Method: Nursing, pharmacy, and prescribers were asked to voluntarily complete a 34-question survey to assess their knowledge, experience, and perceptions regarding high-alert medications in an academic hospital. Results: The majority of respondents identified the organization’s high-alert medications, the consequences of an error involving a high-alert medication, and the reversal agent. Most of the risk-reduction strategies within the institution were viewed as being effective by respondents. Forty-five percent of the respondents utilized a high-alert medication in the previous 24 hours. Only 14.2% had experienced an error with a high-alert medication in the previous 12 months, with 46% being near misses. The survey found the 5 rights for medication administration were not being utilized consistently. Respondents indicated that work experience or hospital orientation is the preferred learning experience for high-alert medications. Conclusions: This study assessed all disciplines involved in the medication use process. Perceptions about high-alert medications differ between disciplines. Ongoing discipline-specific education is required to ensure that individuals accept accountability in the medication use process and to close knowledge gaps on high-alert medications and risk-reduction strategies. PMID:26446747

  15. Medical knowledge in Hebrew: manuscripts and early printed books.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Navas, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a short survey of the Hebrew textual production on medical literature during the Middle Ages in the West. It explores diverse trends in the writing and diffusion of medical texts from the creation of the Hebrew medical corpus, as well as the fortuna that the transmission of this genre had after the introduction of printing.

  16. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  17. [Application of advanced engineering technologies to medical and rehabilitation fields].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Masakatsu

    2012-07-01

    The words "Japan syndrome" can now be heard increasingly through the media. Facing the approach of an elderly-dominated society, Robot Technology(RT)is expected to play an important role in Japan's medical, rehabilitation, and daily support fields. The industrial robot, which has already spread through the world with a great success in certain isolated environments by doing the work which is specialized for the thing with the hard known characteristic. By comparison, in the medical and rehabilitation fields, environments always change intricately, and individual characteristics differ from person to person. Furthermore, there are many times when a robot will be asked to directly interact with people. Moreover, the relation between a robot and a person turns into a relation which should involve contact flexibly according to a situation, and also turns into a relation which should avoid contact. In our group, we have so far developed practical rehabilitation and medical robots which can respond to difficulties such as environmental change and individual specificity. In developing rehabilitation robots, it is especially important to consider intuitive operability and individual differences. In addition, in developing medical robots, it is important to replace the experimental knowledge of surgeons to the mechanical quantitative properties. In this article, we introduce some practical examples of rehabilitation and medical robots interweaving several detailed technologies we have so far developed.

  18. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  19. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  20. Using a Quasi-Experimental Research Design to Assess Knowledge in Continuing Medical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…

  1. Medical and surgical therapy for advanced chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Word, Ronnie

    2010-12-01

    Venous ulceration is the most serious consequence of chronic venous insufficiency. The disease has been known for more than 3.5 millennia with wound care centers established as early as 1500 bc. Unfortunately, still today it is a very poorly managed medical condition by most physicians despite that a great deal has been learned about the pathogenesis and treatment for venous ulcerations. We find that many wound care clinics treat the wound and not the cause of the problem. In this article, we review the basic pathophysiology of advanced chronic venous insufficiency and review the most up-to-date information with regard to medical therapy and different options of surgical therapy to address the underlying venous pathology responsible for chronic ulcers.

  2. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  3. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  4. Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

  5. Does the patients’ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    PubMed Central

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M.; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients’ knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients’ educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients’ medication knowledge and the pharmacists’ performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants’ education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications’ side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous

  6. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sprawls, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  7. Recent advances in the medical treatment of Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleseriu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cushing's disease is a condition of hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. While rare, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which suggests that early and aggressive intervention is required. The primary, definitive therapy for patients with Cushing's disease in the majority of patients is pituitary surgery, generally performed via a transsphenoidal approach. However, many patients will not achieve remission or they will have recurrences. The consequences of persistent hypercortisolism are severe and, as such, early identification of those patients at risk of treatment failure is exigent. Medical management of Cushing's disease patients plays an important role in achieving long-term remission after failed transsphenoidal surgery, while awaiting effects of radiation or before surgery to decrease the hypercortisolemia and potentially reducing perioperative complications and improving outcome. Medical therapies include centrally acting agents, adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors and glucocorticoid receptor blockers. Furthermore, several new agents are in clinical trials. To normalize the devastating disease effects of hypercortisolemia, it is paramount that successful patient disease management includes individualized, multidisciplinary care, with close collaboration between endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and general surgeons. This commentary will focus on recent advances in the medical treatment of Cushing's, with a focus on newly approved ACTH modulators and glucocorticoid receptor blockers.

  8. Use of a continuing medical education course to improve fellows' knowledge and skills in esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Pandolfino, J E; Komanduri, S; Hirano, I; Cohen, E R; Wayne, D B

    2011-08-01

    Advanced esophageal endoscopic procedures such as stricture dilation, hemostasis tools, and stent placement as well as high-resolution manometry (HRM) interpretation are necessary skills for gastroenterology fellows to obtain during their training. Becoming proficient in these skills may be challenging in light of higher complication rates compared with diagnostic procedures and infrequent opportunities to practice these skills. Our aim was to determine if intensive training during a continuing medical education (CME) course boosts the knowledge and skills of gastroenterology fellows in esophageal diagnostic test interpretation and performance of therapeutic procedures. This was a pretest-posttest design without a control group of a simulation-based, educational intervention in esophageal stricture balloon dilation and HRM interpretation. The participants were 24 gastroenterology fellows from 21 accredited US training programs. This was an intensive CME course held in Las Vegas, Nevada from August 7 to August 9, 2009. The research procedure had two phases. First, the subjects were measured at baseline (pretest) for their knowledge and procedural skill. Second, the fellows received 6 hours of education sessions featuring didactic content, instruction in HRM indications and interpretation, and deliberate practice using an esophageal stricture dilation model. After the intervention, all of the fellows were retested (posttest). A 17-item checklist was developed for the esophageal balloon dilation procedure using relevant sources, expert opinion, and rigorous step-by-step procedures. Nineteen representative HRM swallow studies were obtained from Northwestern's motility lab and formed the pretest and posttest in HRM interpretation. Mean scores on the dilation checklist improved 81% from 39.4% (standard deviation [SD]= 33.4%) at pretest to 71.3% (SD = 29.5%) after simulation training (P < 0.001). HRM mean examination scores increased from 27.2% (SD = 16.4%) to 46.5% (SD

  9. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  10. Medical and psychology students' knowledge and attitudes regarding aging and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Rachel J; Zweig, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and sexuality, and contact with elders. The current study found that psychology students demonstrated greater aging knowledge than medical students; however, both groups showed gaps in knowledge about sexuality. Married students had greater academic/clinical exposure and greater knowledge about aging but less permissive attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Generally, knowledge about aging was the strongest correlate of knowledge about sexuality. Level of knowledge about sexuality was not associated with attitudes. Attitudes toward sexuality and aging may be more strongly tied to demographic variables reflective of religious beliefs or adherence to sociocultural norms.

  11. Biopiracy and the ethics of medical heritage: the case of India's traditional knowledge digital library'.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2012-09-01

    Medical humanities have a central role to play in combating biopiracy. Medical humanities scholars can articulate and communicate the complex structures of meaning and significance which human beings have invested in their ways of conceiving health and sickness. Such awareness of the moral significance of medical heritage is necessary to ongoing legal, political, and ethical debates regarding the status and protection of medical heritage. I use the Indian Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a case study of the role of medical humanities in challenging biopiracy by deepening our sense of the moral value of medical heritage.

  12. Knowledge Based Components of Expertise in Medical Diagnosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    the psychology of reason- irg have been mirrored in artificial intelligence re- search which has shown an evolution from systems in which knowledge...that is. hypertrophies. An example protocol showing this argument ap- plied to left atrial enlargement and prominent pulmon - ary vasculature (the x...art of artificial intelligence, Themes and case studies of knowledge engineering. Proceedings IJCAI-5, 1977, 1014-1029. Fikes, R. A heuristic pro m

  13. The effects of human interest framing in television news coverage of medical advances.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2013-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed the increasing dissemination of information on medical advances such as new medical treatments and prevention/diagnosis technologies through television news. To engage lay audiences with complex information, medical journalists often personalize news stories about medical advances by exemplifying individual patients and their personal experiences. This study investigates the effects of this journalistic technique, which is referred to as human interest framing, on audiences. The results of an experiment provide empirical evidence that the human interest framing of medical news stories can increase audiences' involvement in those stories and facilitate their positive perception of medical advances.

  14. Medication knowledge of patients hospitalized for heart failure at admission and after discharge

    PubMed Central

    Custodis, Florian; Rohlehr, Franziska; Wachter, Angelika; Böhm, Michael; Schulz, Martin; Laufs, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Background A substantial aspect of health literacy is the knowledge of prescribed medication. In chronic heart failure, incomplete intake of prescribed drugs (medication non-adherence) is inversely associated with clinical prognosis. Therefore, we assessed medication knowledge in a cohort of patients with decompensated heart failure at hospital admission and after discharge in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred and eleven patients presenting at the emergency department with acute decompensated heart failure were included (mean age 78.4±9.2, 59% men) in the study. Patients’ medication knowledge was assessed during individual interviews at baseline, course of hospitalization, and 3 months after discharge. Individual responses were compared with the medical records of the referring general practitioner. Results Median N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide plasma concentration in the overall population at baseline was 4,208 pg/mL (2,023–7,101 pg/mL [interquartile range]), 20 patients died between the second and third interview. The number of prescribed drugs increased from 8±3 at baseline to 9±3 after 3 months. The majority of patients did not know the correct number of their drugs. Medication knowledge decreased continuously from baseline to the third interview. At baseline, 37% (n=41) of patients stated the correct number of drugs to be taken, whereas only 18% (n=16) knew the correct number 3 months after discharge (P=0.008). Knowledge was inversely related to N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels. Conclusion Medication knowledge of patients with acute decompensated heart failure is poor. Despite care in a university hospital, patients’ individual medication knowledge decreased after discharge. The study reveals an urgent need for better strategies to improve and promote the knowledge of prescribed medication in these very high-risk patients. PMID:27877025

  15. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  16. Preservice School Personnel's Knowledge of Stimulant Medication and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…

  17. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS.

  18. Medical Advances and Racial/ethnic Disparities in Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Neugut, Alfred I.; Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Liao, Yuyan; Desai, Manisha; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although advances in early detection and treatment of cancer improve overall population survival, these advances may not benefit all population groups equally, and may heighten racial/ethnic (R/E) differences in survival. METHODS We identified cancer cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, who were ≥ 20 years and diagnosed with one invasive cancer in 1995–1999 (n=580,225). We used 5-year relative survival rates (5Y-RSR) to measure the degree to which mortality from each cancer is amenable to medical interventions (amenability index). We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate survival differences between each R/E minority group relative to whites, by the overall amenability index, and three levels of amenability (non-amenable, partly and mostly amenable cancers, corresponding to cancers with 5Y-RSR <40%, 40–69% and ≥ 70%, respectively), adjusting for gender, age, disease stage and county-level poverty concentration. RESULTS As amenability increased, R/E differences in cancer survival increased for African Americans, American Indians/Native Alaskans and Hispanics relative to whites. For example, the hazard rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for African Americans vs. whites from non-amenable, partly amenable and mostly amenable cancers were 1.05 (1.03, 1.07), 1.38 (1.34,1.41), and 1.41 (1.37, 1.46), respectively. Asians/Pacific Islanders had similar or longer survival relative to whites across amenability levels; however, several subgroups experienced increasingly poorer survival with increasing amenability. CONCLUSIONS Cancer survival disparities for most R/E minority populations widen as cancers become more amenable to medical interventions. Efforts in developing cancer control measures must be coupled with specific strategies for reducing the expected disparities. PMID:19789367

  19. Knowledge-Based Coalition Planning and Operations for Medical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    This paper will investigate the characteristics of women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer , features of cancer tissue on X-ray/MRI/PET images...of cervical cancer at Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute (Melbourne). These techniques will require an advanced software platform to store and retrieve

  20. Self-Monitoring and Its Relationship to Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Meghan M.; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J.; Eva, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific…

  1. Friends of the National Library of Medicine - How You Can Help the Library Extend Medical Knowledge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... Michael Spencer, NIH How You Can Help the Library Extend Medical Knowledge You can be a part ...

  2. Stroke: advances in medical therapy and acute stroke intervention.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.

  3. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical features, diagnosis and medical treatment: advances.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Jensen, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) comprise with gastrointestinal carcinoids, the main groups of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Although these two groups of GI-NETs share many features including histological aspects; over-/ectopic expression of somatostatin receptors; the ability to ectopically secrete hormones/peptides/amines which can result in distinct functional syndromes; similar approaches used for tumor localization and some aspects of treatment, it is now generally agreed they should be considered separate. They differ in their pathogenesis, hormonal syndromes produced, many aspects of biological behaviour and most important, in their response to certain anti-tumour treatment (chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapies). In this chapter the clinical features of the different types of pNETs will be considered as well as aspects of their diagnosis and medical treatment of the hormone-excess state. Emphasis will be on controversial areas or recent advances. The other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, because they are covered in other chapters in this volume.

  4. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical features, diagnosis and medical treatment: advances

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) comprise with gastrointestinal carcinoids, the main groups of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Although these two groups of GI-NETs share many features including histological aspects; over-/ectopic expression of somatostatin receptors; the ability to ectopically secrete hormones/peptides/amines which can result in distinct functional syndromes; similar approaches used for tumor localization and some aspects of treatment, it is now generally agreed they should be considered separate. They differ in their pathogenesis, hormonal syndromes produced, many aspects of biological behavior and most important, in their response to certain anti-tumor treatment (chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapies). In this chapter the clinical features of the different types of pNETs will be considered as well as aspects of their diagnosis and medical treatment of the hormone-excess state. Emphasis will be on controversial areas or recent advances. The other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, because they are covered in other chapters in this volume. PMID:23582916

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and predictors of advance directive discussions of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Amy R; Hausman, Alice J; Higgins, Patricia A; Burant, Christopher J

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences regarding advance directives. A secondary purpose was to examine predictors of advance directive discussions between nurses and patients. Seven-hundred and nineteen respondents, randomly selected from a list of registered nurses in the state of Ohio, completed mailed questionnaires. Descriptive t test, chi-square, and logistic regression statistics were used in the data analyses. The respondents were knowledgeable and possessed positive attitudes about advance directives. Higher self-perceived confidence in advance directive discussion skills and the experience of caring for at least one patient with a current advance directive were found to be significant predictors of advance directive discussions. These findings suggest that experience with advance directives documents is critical for nurses' comfort and that developing interventions to further nurses' confidence in their discussion skills may increase advance directive discussions.

  6. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353

  7. Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Medical Professionalism among Students and Junior Doctors in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688

  8. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Errea, Renato A.; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D.; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A.; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  9. A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.

  10. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards Epilepsy amongst Medical Students in Uyo, Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekeh, Bertha C.; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. PMID:26556558

  11. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  12. Innovative Computer-based Medical Knowledge Resources for Primary Care (SIG MED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Polin P.; McCain, Katherine

    2000-01-01

    Describes three innovative projects for a proposed session that address the information needs of primary care physicians: a standardized assessment method for information systems to integrate knowledge resources into clinical practice; a Web-based resource with clinical medical information from primary medical literature; and videotaped medical…

  13. Knowledge of Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians About Opiate Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shine, Daniel, Demas, Penelope

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire concerning knowledge of opiate abuse and attitudes about abusers was administered to 94 randomly selected physicians and medical students at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City. The results indicated that physicians might benefit from improved teaching in the area of opiate abuse. (Author/MLW)

  14. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  16. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  17. Staff Knowledge of the Side Effects of Anti-Psychotic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fretwell, Christine; Felce, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anti-psychotic medications are widely prescribed to people with intellectual disabilities and have a range of negative side effects. The aim was to identify the level of knowledge of anti-psychotic medications and their side effects among key carers or home managers of adults with intellectual disabilities living in residential group…

  18. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    PubMed

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  19. Unsupervised knowledge discovery in medical databases using relevance networks.

    PubMed Central

    Butte, A. J.; Kohane, I. S.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing amounts of data exist in medical databases. When multiple variables are measured for each case in a data set, there exists an underlying relationship between all pairs of variables, some highly correlated and some not. This report describes a technique that creates networks of related variables, or relevance networks, by dropping links with either too weak correlation or too few data points to defend the relationship. The paper describes how applying this methodology to the domain of laboratory results allows the generation of meaningful relations between types of laboratory tests. These relations could be used as the basis of further exploratory research. PMID:10566452

  20. Unsupervised knowledge discovery in medical databases using relevance networks.

    PubMed

    Butte, A J; Kohane, I S

    1999-01-01

    Increasing amounts of data exist in medical databases. When multiple variables are measured for each case in a data set, there exists an underlying relationship between all pairs of variables, some highly correlated and some not. This report describes a technique that creates networks of related variables, or relevance networks, by dropping links with either too weak correlation or too few data points to defend the relationship. The paper describes how applying this methodology to the domain of laboratory results allows the generation of meaningful relations between types of laboratory tests. These relations could be used as the basis of further exploratory research.

  1. Knowledge based acquisition of rules for medical diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Drastal, G.A.; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Medical consultation systems in the expert framework contain rules written under the guidance of expert physicians. The authors present a methodology and preliminary implementation of a system which learns compiled rule chains from positive case examples of a diagnostic class and negative examples of alternative diagnostic classes. Rule acquisition is guided by the constraints of physiological process models represented in the system. Evaluation of the system is proceeding in the area of glaucoma diagnosis, and an example of an experiment in this domain is included. 9 references.

  2. High-fidelity medical simulation training improves medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels in septic shock resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Vattanavanit, Veerapong; Kawla-ied, Jarernporn; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2017-01-01

    Background Septic shock resuscitation bundles have poor compliance worldwide partly due to a lack of knowledge and clinical skills. High-fidelity simulation-based training is a new teaching technology in our faculty which may improve the performance of medical students in the resuscitation process. However, since the efficacy of this training method in our institute is limited, we organized an extra class for this evaluation. Purpose The aim was to evaluate the effect on medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels after the high-fidelity medical simulation training in septic shock management. Methods A retrospective study was performed in sixth year medical students during an internal medicine rotation between November 2015 and March 2016. The simulation class was a 2-hour session of a septic shock management scenario and post-training debriefing. Knowledge assessment was determined by a five-question pre-test and post-test examination. At the end of the class, the students completed their confidence evaluation questionnaire. Results Of the 79 medical students, the mean percentage score ± standard deviation (SD) of the post-test examination was statistically significantly higher than the pre-test (66.83%±19.7% vs 47.59%±19.7%, p<0.001). In addition, the student mean percentage confidence level ± SD in management of septic shock was significantly better after the simulation class (68.10%±12.2% vs 51.64%±13.1%, p<0.001). They also strongly suggested applying this simulation class to the current curriculum. Conclusion High-fidelity medical simulation improved the students’ knowledge and confidence in septic shock resuscitation. This simulation class should be included in the curriculum of the sixth year medical students in our institute. PMID:28053558

  3. Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitudes Regarding Medical Ethics: How Do Faculty and Housestaff Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…

  4. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  5. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    PubMed

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  6. Ethics and the politics of advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-04-01

    The politics of academia involve intricate human relationships that are political in nature as nurse leaders and scholars struggle to advance nursing science with complex leading-following situations. This article begins a dialogue of considering potential meanings for what it means to be political within competing interest groups in academia, and within the discipline of nursing. What is most important in the struggle for identity and what possibilities surface when potential competing interests in academia collide? The ethical tenets of humanbecoming and the leading-following model are used to illustrate issues surrounding academic integrity and possibilities for the advancement of nursing scholarship in future generations.

  7. [Current knowledge among students of the Silesian Medical Academy about the importance and role of medical care funds].

    PubMed

    Tyrpień, Mirosław; Jaskólecki, Henryk; Steplewski, Zygmunt; Miarczyńska-Jończyk, Halina; Woźniak, Joanna; Malara, Beata

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was verification and comparison of the present state of knowledge among the students of different departments and years of study. The questions concerned the role of Medical Care Funds in the up-to-now healthcare system and the patient's rights as far as the students' future professions as doctors, dentists, healthcare managers and medical rescuers is concerned. The questionnaire included 15 questions referring to the problem of functioning of the medical care institutions after the reform of healthcare services introduced in 1999. Distinct from most of the published works of this kind, the authors adopted a uniform "assessment" method following the principles of didactic measurement. The researchers calculated: Range, Modal, Mediana, Arithmetic Average, Variance, Standard Deviation, Easiness of the Task, Difficulty of the Task, Skip Fraction, the Task's Differentiating Power, Reliability Coefficient of the Test. The calculation was conducted with the use of the Excel programme modified by the researchers to suit the needs of didactic measurement. The survey included 104 students of the 3rd year of Dental Department, 116 of the students 4th year of Dental Department, 31 students of Bachelor's Medical Rescue Studies by the Medical Department in Zabrze, 18 students of Post-Graduate Management and Administration in Healthcare by the Medical Department in Zabrze and Silesian Technical University, 151 4th year students of the Medical Department in Zabrze and 121 6th year students of the Medical Department in Zabrze. It has been proved that between the particular groups there are significant differences as far as the students' knowledge is concerned ("the healthcare managers" demonstrated quite a high knowledge ratio). And that the questions were at different difficulty levels depending on the branch and year of study represented by the respondents.

  8. Patient knowledge and pulmonary medication adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ann Hsu-An; Kendrick, Jennifer G; Wilcox, Pearce G; Quon, Bradley S

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Patient knowledge of lung function (ie, forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]% predicted) and the intended benefits of their prescribed pulmonary medications might play an important role in medication adherence, but this relationship has not been examined previously in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods All patients diagnosed with CF and without prior lung transplantation were invited to complete knowledge and self-reported medication adherence questionnaires during routine outpatient visits to the Adult CF Clinic, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada from June 2013 to August 2014. Results A total of 142 out of 167 (85%) consecutive adults attending CF clinic completed patient knowledge and medication adherence survey questionnaires. Sixty-four percent of the patients recalled their last FEV1% predicted value within 5%, and 70% knew the intended benefits of all their prescribed medications. Self-reported adherence rates were highest for inhaled antibiotics (81%), azithromycin (87%), and dornase alpha (76%) and lowest for hypertonic saline (47%). Individuals who knew their FEV1% predicted value within 5% were more likely to self-report adherence to dornase alpha (84% vs 62%, P=0.06) and inhaled antibiotics (88% vs 64%, P=0.06) compared to those who did not, but these associations were not statistically significant. There were no significant associations observed between patient knowledge of intended medication benefits and self-reported medication adherence. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, disease- and treatment-related knowledge was not associated with self-reported medication adherence. This suggests other barriers to medication adherence should be targeted in future studies aiming to improve medication adherence in adults with CF.

  9. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  10. Additional Degree Required? Advanced Subject Knowledge and Academic Librarianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Since the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) first published its terminal degree statement in 1975, the topic of librarians and advanced subject degrees has been controversial, and research on the topic has remained limited. Based on data gathered from two major online job sites as well as library and information science programs…

  11. Advancing landscape change research through the incorporation of Inupiaq knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Brower, Ronald H.

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is a valuable but under-used source of information relevant to landscape change research. We interviewed Iñupiat elders, hunters, and other knowledge-holders in the villages of Barrow and Atqasuk on the western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to gain further insight into the processes governing the ubiquitous lakes and the dynamics of landscape change in this region of continuous permafrost. The interviews provided a suite of information related to lakes and associated drained lake basins, as well as knowledge on landforms, environmental change, human events, and other phenomena. We were able to corroborate many observations independently and verify the timing of several large and significant lake drainage events using either aerial photography or remotely sensed time series. Data collected have been incorporated into a geodatabase to develop a multi-layer Geographic Information System that will be useful for local and scientific communities. This research demonstrates that indigenous knowledge can reveal a new understanding of landscape changes on the Arctic Coastal Plain in general and on lake processes in particular. We advocate ongoing, community-oriented research throughout the Arctic as a means of assessing and responding to the consequences of rapid environmental change.

  12. ['How Much Sex do Medical Studies Need?' - A Survey of the Knowledge and Interest in Sexual Medicine of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Nieder, Timo Ole; Scherbaum, Norbert; Briken, Peer

    2014-12-01

    Background: Because of the increasing need for medical care of problems concerning human sexuality, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2010 suggested to include sexual medicine in the current curricula of medical studies. Based on the ISSM's suggestions sexual medicine should be taught on a multidisciplinary basis throughout the whole study process. Furthermore, health care providers have repeatedly indicated that they have lacking knowledge concerning sexual medicine and patients have criticized that their health care providers only infrequently address their sexuality. Methods: 404 medical students from 2 German university medical centers answered an online questionnaire assessing the quality of sexual medicine education. The students were asked about their interest in and their knowledge about different issues concerning human sexuality in the following 4 domains: Sexual development, Sexual behavior, Sexual physiology and psychology, Sexual medicine and therapy of sexual disorders. Results: The great majority of students were interested in education about sexual medicine within medical studies, whereby most students were of the opinion that sexual medicine should be included in the already existing subjects. Furthermore, students mostly evaluated the current quality of sexual medicine education as insufficient and more than half of the students thought that they do not have enough knowledge about human sexuality for their future profession as medical health care providers. On average the students correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions, however they showed some knowledge gaps especially in the domains of sexual development and sexual physiology and psychology. Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that medical students have lacking knowledge concerning important parts of human sexuality but at the same time express great interest in the field. Therefore, in Germany more structured educational programs in sexual

  13. Attitude and knowledge of hearing loss among medical doctors selected to initiate a residency in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J

    2009-03-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results.

  14. Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASE (trademark)) Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM...Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM) Guidelines 5a

  15. Collaborative work and medical talk: opportunities for learning through knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Line Lundvoll; Ludvigsen, Sten R

    2010-01-01

    Teleconsultations provide new opportunities for learning in medical settings. This study explores the conditions under which learning among physicians takes place. The empirical context is 47 real-time video conferences carried out to examine collaborative work and the medical talk involved. Sixteen of the observations were consultations wherein general practitioners (GPs) and specialists shared knowledge with the purpose of solving a medical problem related to a patient under treatment. In this exploratory study, the learning opportunities are seen as what medical practitioners with different types of expertise achieve through interaction while working with patients over periods of time. The analysis of medical talk in consultations shows that collaborative work among GPs and specialists creates a shared understanding of the patient's clinical history and treatment trajectory. As knowledge is demanded and attributed and gaps of knowledge become shared, consultations create a work tool that expands the medical work and talk. Collaborative work in and between different levels of the health care service expands knowledge, creates opportunities for learning in everyday settings, and improves the quality of knowledge distribution in the health care system.

  16. Negotiating science and experience in medical knowledge: gynaecologists on endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyses the gynaecological literature on endometriosis, particularly endometriosis classification, to evaluate the epistemological concepts it uses. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on a sample of gynaecological literature published between 1985 and 2000, a period that witnessed the explosion of both evidence-based and patient-centred models of medicine, with their dwelling emphases on science and experience. It was found that the discourse of science is used strategically in this literature as a formal epistemology to lend weight to authors' claims and to guide medical thinking and research. However, gynaecologists also use the notion of experience to assert their own credibility and to question the credibility of other experts. In fact, accounts of their own experience and the experiential accounts of their patients are foundational to gynaecologists' claims-making activities, including their engagement with scientific research.

  17. Clinical and basic science teachers' opinions about the required depth of biomedical knowledge for medical students.

    PubMed

    Koens, Franciska; Custers, Eugène J F M; ten Cate, Olle T J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether basic scientists and physicians agree on the required depth of biomedical knowledge of medical students at graduation. A selection of basic science and clinical teachers rated the relevance of biomedical topics for students at graduation, illustrated by 80 example items. The items were derived from ten organ systems and designed at four levels: clinical, organ, cellular and molecular. Respondents were asked to identify for each item to what extent recently graduated medical students should have knowledge about it. In addition, they were asked to indicate whether the content of the item should be included in the medical curriculum. Analysis showed that basic scientists and physicians do not diverge at the clinical level. At the organ, cellular and molecular levels however, basic scientists judge that medical students should have more active knowledge. As expected, basic scientists also indicate that more deep level content should be included. Explanations for this phenomenon will be discussed.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of doctors on medical ethics in a teaching hospital, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Brogen, Akoijam S; Rajkumari, Bishwalata; Laishram, Jalina; Joy, Akoijam

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge of and attitudes to, medical ethics among doctors in the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur. It also looked at the association between levels of knowledge and selected variables. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to all doctors working in RIMS, Imphal between September and October 2007. 315 of 440 (71.6%) doctors contacted, responded. 62.2% of respondents (196) were below 35 years of age. 22.5% (71) were faculty members. 98.7% (311) had heard of the Code of Medical Ethics but only 188 (59.7%) had read it, even in part. 69.2% (218) felt that the undergraduate curriculum on medical ethics was not adequate. 10.5% (33) could describe what medical professionalism meant. Knowledge of medical ethics was higher among those who were over 35 years of age, those who graduated before 1999 and those having higher educational qualifications. The doctors in this survey lacked adequate and detailed knowledge on the code of ethics, though most of them had read it once. There is a need to sensitise doctors on medical ethics and professionalism.

  19. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF PARENTS ON THE USE OF COUGH AND COLD MEDICATIONS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Yong, Chew Chin; Islahudin, Farida; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and perception of parents on the use of cough and cold medications in children. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged < or =6 years in selected kindergartens. The overall knowledge of the parents (n=248) was satisfactory with a mean score of 5.87 +/- 1.70 (from a total of 10) and the overall attitude was positive with a mean score of 41.15 +/- 6.72 (from a total of 50). Ten percent of parents admitted administering cough and cold medications in children aged <2 years. Age of the parents, education level and monthly income were found to significantly influence knowledge level (p<0.05). Spearman's rank-order correlation between knowledge and attitude scores showed a statistically significant positive linear relationship (r(s), = 0.290, p<0.05). The study provides some insights into the use of cough and cold medications in children from the parents' perspectives.

  20. Unsupervised method for extracting machine understandable medical knowledge from a large free text collection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Das, Amar K; Garber, Alan M

    2009-11-14

    Definitions of medical concepts (e.g diseases, drugs) are essential background knowledge for researchers, clinicians and health care consumers. However, the rapid growth of biomedical research requires that such knowledge continually needs updating. To address this problem, we have developed an unsupervised pattern learning approach that extracts disease and drug definitions from automatically structured randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts. In addition, each extracted definition is semantically classified without relying on external medical knowledge. When used to identify definitions from 100 manually annotated RCT abstracts, our medical definition knowledge base has precision of 0.97, recall of 0.93, F1 of 0.94 and semantic classification accuracy of 0.96.

  1. Knowledge, Models and Tools in Support of Advanced Distance Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    authoring iRides simulations and training, Rivets , is a fast C++ program that has been compiled for three Unix-type operating systems: Linux, Silicon...School instructors to introduce core concepts of the tool in advance of teaching about expected value theory. 4.0 Rivets -Linux-based Authoring of...Simulations and Instruction Functioning versions of Rivets , a descendent of the classic RIDES program have been developed for Linux and for the Macintosh

  2. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists’ health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. Conclusions This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such

  3. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  4. [Books and medical knowledge in the ancient world].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Guglielmo

    2002-01-01

    Books have been used by medici in Antiquity - different kind of books for different kind of medici. Galen is the best example of a medicus with a strong interest not only in theoretical medicine, but also in a material crafting of the books, as well as in the making of the text. But he is an exception. Books in late Antiquity came in two different formats: the codex and the rotulus. The former was to be the one to survive: by the late IV century A.D., rotuli - difficult to handle and to read - had virtually disappeared. Codices were diffused in medical milieux, as well as in other milieux where culture was popularized (e.g. Christianity), probably because they were more user-friendly and manageable even for a non-cultivated public. Codices were used for practical purposes and for practical therapeutics, and allowed the reader to write on margins, thus enhancing their practical usefulness. On the contrary, books had a scanty use for didactic purposes, learning from the voice of the magister being the privileged form of transmission.

  5. Knowledge Discovery in Medical Mining by using Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivathsa, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Medical Data mining could be thought of as the search for relationships and patterns within the medical data, which facilitates the acquisition of useful knowledge for effective medical diagnosis. Consequently, the predictability of disease will become more effective and the early detection of disease certainly facilitates an increased exposure to required patient care with focused treatment, economic feasibility and improved cure rates. So, the present investigation is carried on medical data(PIMA) using DM and GA based Neural Network technique and the results predict that the methodology is not only reliable but also helps in furthering the scope of the subject.

  6. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

  7. Advances in the medical management of paediatric IBD.

    PubMed

    Aloi, Marina; Nuti, Federica; Stronati, Laura; Cucchiara, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    IBD includes two classic entities, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and a third undetermined form (IBD-U), characterized by a chronic relapsing course resulting in a high rate of morbidity and impaired quality of life. Children with IBD are vulnerable in terms of growth failure, malnutrition and emotional effects. The aims of therapy have now transitioned from symptomatic control to the achievement of mucosal healing and deep remission. This type of therapy has been made possible by the advent of disease-modifying drugs, such as biologic agents, which are capable of interrupting the inflammatory cascade underlying IBD. Biologic agents are generally administered in patients who are refractory to conventional therapies. However, there is growing support that such agents could be used in the initial phases of the disease, typically in paediatric patients, to interrupt and cease the inflammatory process. Until several years ago, most therapeutic programmes in paediatric patients with IBD were borrowed from adult trials, whereas paediatric studies were often retrospective and uncontrolled. However, guidelines on therapeutic management of paediatric IBD and controlled, prospective, randomized trials including children with IBD have now been published. Here, the current knowledge concerning treatment options for children with IBD are reported. We also highlight the effectiveness and safety of new therapeutic advances in these paediatric patients.

  8. Knowledge of Palliative Care Among Medical Interns in a Tertiary Health Institution in Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Daniel Chukwunyere; Singh, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Palliative care is the proactive care which seeks to maximize quality of life for people and families facing life-threatening illnesses. Objectives: To ascertain the existing knowledge of palliative care among medical interns and determine the effect of a structured educational intervention on improvement of their knowledge levels. Subjects and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, interventional study with a one group pre- and post-test design involving medical interns rotating through the various departments of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling method. The interns completed a pre- and a post-test assessment following a structured educational intervention for the evaluation of knowledge of palliative care. Knowledge was evaluated by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: A total number of 49 medical interns were recruited, among whom were 41 males and 8 females. Their ages ranged from 21 to 36 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.14) years. In the pretest, 11/49 (22.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge level of palliative care; however, in the postintervention, only 2/49 (4.1%) of the respondents had poor knowledge. Similarly, good knowledge levels appreciated from 9/49 (18.4%) to 14/49 (28.6%) while very good knowledge increased from 10/49 (20.4%) to 19/49 (38.8%). This effect was statistically significant (Chi-square test 11.655 df = 3, P = 0.009). Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of palliative care among the interns due to ignorance. Following an educational intervention, the knowledge levels appreciated significantly. Palliative care should be part of the medical curriculum. PMID:27559266

  9. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals-Iran.

    PubMed

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-11-01

    Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians' competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students' curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject.The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05.Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%-52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%-63.55%) had not heard the term "medical professionalism" before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67.The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to have a proper knowledge of

  10. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals—Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians’ competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students’ curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject. The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05. Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%–52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%–63.55%) had not heard the term “medical professionalism” before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67. The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to

  11. A Learning Framework for Knowledge Building and Collective Wisdom Advancement in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yongcheng; Zhu, Zhiting

    2007-01-01

    This study represents an effort to construct a learning framework for knowledge building and collective wisdom advancement in a virtual learning community (VLC) from the perspectives of system wholeness, intelligence wholeness and dynamics, learning models, and knowledge management. It also tries to construct the zone of proximal development (ZPD)…

  12. Knowledge and attitude of medical science students toward hepatitis B and C infections.

    PubMed

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons.

  13. MO-FG-BRC-00: Joint AAPM-ESTRO Symposium: Advances in Experimental Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Berbeco, Ross; Ionascu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Experimental research in medical physics has expanded the limits of our knowledge and provided novel imaging and therapy technologies for patients around the world. However, experimental efforts are challenging due to constraints in funding, space, time and other forms of institutional support. In this joint ESTRO-AAPM symposium, four exciting experimental projects from four different countries are highlighted. Each project is focused on a different aspect of radiation therapy. From the USA, we will hear about a new linear accelerator concept for more compact and efficient therapy devices. From Canada, we will learn about novel linear accelerator target design and the implications for imaging and therapy. From France, we will discover a mature translational effort to incorporate theranostic nanoparticles in MR-guided radiation therapy. From Germany, we will find out about a novel in-treatment imaging modality for particle therapy. These examples of high impact, experimental medical physics research are representative of the diversity of such efforts that are on-going around the globe. J. Robar, Research is supported through collaboration with Varian Medical Systems and Brainlab AGD. Westerly, This work is supported by the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. COI: NONEK. Parodi, Part of the presented work is supported by the DFG (German Research Foundation) Cluster of Excellence MAP (Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics) and has been carried out in collaboration with IBA.

  14. Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Undergraduate Medical Students in Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5th year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. Conclusion It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers. PMID:26436029

  15. Advanced software development workstation. Knowledge base design: Design of knowledge base for flight planning application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    The development process of the knowledge base for the generation of Test Libraries for Mission Operations Computer (MOC) Command Support focused on a series of information gathering interviews. These knowledge capture sessions are supporting the development of a prototype for evaluating the capabilities of INTUIT on such an application. the prototype includes functions related to POCC (Payload Operation Control Center) processing. It prompts the end-users for input through a series of panels and then generates the Meds associated with the initialization and the update of hazardous command tables for a POCC Processing TLIB.

  16. Advancing medical-surgical nursing practice: improving management of the changing patient condition.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Heidi; Plylar, Peggy; Krugman, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Higher patient acuities and more novice nurses on medical-surgical units have Educators focused on achieving positive outcomes with changes in patient condition. An educational program was developed to enhance nurses' knowledge, skill, and confidence in assessing hemodynamics, recognizing early signs of instability, and administering vasoactive medications. The program was successful with significant knowledge improvement as well as an increased use of the Medical Emergency Team while maintaining a low number of code calls.

  17. Disciplined doctors: the electronic medical record and physicians' changing relationship to medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam

    2012-04-01

    This study explores the effects of the electronic medical record (EMR) on the power of the medical profession. It is based on twenty-five in-depth interviews with administrators and physicians across three departments of a large, U.S. integrated health system, as well as ethnographic observation, all of which took place between September of 2009 and December of 2010. While scholarship on professional power has tended toward the opposite poles of professional dominance and deprofessionalization or proletarianization, I find that doctors' interactions with the EMR reconcile these perspectives by making physicians' professional identities consistent with their subordination to bureaucratic authority. After examining the electronic medical record as a disciplinary technology, the paper analyzes variation in the extent to which practitioners' professional identities are reconciled with bureaucratic subordination across the different departments studies.

  18. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed...

  19. [The informed patient and medical knowledge: a virtual ethnography study of Facebook communities of the infirm].

    PubMed

    Pereira Neto, André; Barbosa, Letícia; Silva, Adriano da; Dantas, Monica Lucia Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Today's world has brought the emergence of the "informed patient:" someone who becomes well-informed about his or her medical condition through extensive research and information-sharing on the Internet. The article explores the following question: Do informed patients foster citizen empowerment or do they expand the command of existing biomedical knowledge? Using virtual ethnography, an exploratory study was conducted on three online Facebook groups of people with diabetes, hepatitis C, and Aids. Findings suggest points of tension between Facebook members and their healthcare providers. It may be that the empowerment fostered by the Internet and the validity of current medical knowledge are not mutually exclusive.

  20. Knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics among physician residents of University of Alexandria Hospitals, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Ghanem, M A; Kassem, A

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics of physician residents at university hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for knowledge and perceptions and a checklist for observations of doctor-patient interactions in the outpatient setting. Only 18.0% ofthe 128 participating residents had obtained their knowledge from their medical education and 29.9% were dissatisfied with the roles played by the ethics committee. Most of the residents had satisfactory knowledge and 60.2% had satisfactory perceptions regarding ethical issues. The lowest perception score was in the domain of disclosing medical errors. Only 48.0% of the residents were compliant with the principles of medical ethics in practice and 52.0% of patients were dissatisfied with their treating physicians. The study identified areas of unsatisfactory knowledge and practices towards ethical issues so as to devise means to sensitize residents to these issues and train them appropriately.

  1. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Palmer, M V

    2014-11-01

    Fifty years ago, bacteria in the genus Brucella were known to cause infertility and reproductive losses. At that time, the genus was considered to contain only 3 species: Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis. Since the early 1960s, at least 7 new species have been identified as belonging to the Brucella genus (Brucella canis, Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella microti, Brucella neotomae, Brucella ovis, and Brucella pinnipedialis) with several additional new species under consideration for inclusion. Although molecular studies have found such high homology that some authors have proposed that all Brucella are actually 1 species, the epidemiologic and diagnostic benefits for separating the genus based on phenotypic characteristics are more compelling. Although pathogenic Brucella spp have preferred reservoir hosts, their ability to infect numerous mammalian hosts has been increasingly documented. The maintenance of infection in new reservoir hosts, such as wildlife, has become an issue for both public health and animal health regulatory personnel. Since the 1960s, new information on how Brucella enters host cells and modifies their intracellular environment has been gained. Although the pathogenesis and histologic lesions of B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis in their preferred hosts have not changed, additional knowledge on the pathology of these brucellae in new hosts, or of new species of Brucella in their preferred hosts, has been obtained. To this day, brucellosis remains a significant human zoonosis that is emerging or reemerging in many parts of the world.

  2. Knowledge of medical doctors in Turkey about the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic health.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Zekeriya; Alkan, Banu Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and systemic health (SH) is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of both. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in Turkey with regard to the association between PD and SH. This study was carried out using self-reported questionnaires that were sent to medical doctors who work at various universities and public and private hospitals in different cities in Turkey. The questionnaires consisted of questions about the demographic information of the medical doctors, as well as the knowledge of those doctors about the relationship between PD and SH. In total, 1,766 responses were received and 90.8% of the participants agreed that there was a relationship between PD and SH. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent systemic disease (66.8%) known to be related to PD. Of the participants, 56.5% of the medical doctors referred their patients to periodontists for different reasons. Gingival bleeding was the most frequent reason for patient referrals, with 44% of doctors giving such referrals. Doctors who worked in basic medical sciences were significantly less aware of the relationship between PD and SH than the doctors in other specialties. Although the vast majority of the medical doctors reported that they knew the relationship between PD and SH, the findings of this study showed that this awareness was not supported by precise knowledge, and often failed to translate into appropriate clinical practice.

  3. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mohorn, Phillip L.; Haney, Jason S.; Phillips, Cynthia M.; Lu, Z. Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated. PMID:27899836

  4. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  5. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  6. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem (“Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb”) of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17th century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  7. The networks from medical knowledge and clinical practice have small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachimori, Yutaka; Iwanaga, Hiroaki; Tahara, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Here, we constructed and analyzed a network (henceforth, “medical knowledge network”) derived from a commonly used medical text. We show that this medical knowledge network has small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical features. We then constructed a network from data from a hospital information system that reflected actual clinical practice and found that this network also had small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical features. Moreover, we found that both the diagnosis frequency distribution of the hospital network and the diagnosis degree distribution of the medical knowledge network obeyed a similar power law. These findings suggest that the structure of clinical practice may emerge from the mutual influence of medical knowledge and clinical practice, and that the analysis of a medical knowledge network may facilitate the investigation of the characteristics of medical practice.

  8. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  9. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  10. Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

  11. Enhancing Nursing Students' Medication Knowledge: The Effect of Learning Materials Delivered by Short Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using mobile phone short message service (SMS) to enhance knowledge of medications among nursing students. A quasi-experimental design was used. A convenience sample of 111 nursing students who were taking a pharmacology course at a university in southern Taiwan received an invitation to…

  12. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  13. Medical Students' Personal Knowledge, Searching Proficiency, and Database Use in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between personal knowledge in a domain and online searching proficiency in that domain, and the relationship between searching proficiency and database-assisted problem-solving performance based on a study of medical students. Search results, selection of terms, and efficiency were found to be related to problem-solving…

  14. Development of a Scale to Measure Laypersons' Beliefs about Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Wheeler, Denna L.; Laster, Bonnie B.; McGaugh, Miriam; Morse, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature on participatory health care suggests that, though many patients desire basic information, a substantial number prefer a passive role. This variability is explored as a function of laypersons' beliefs about the nature of medical knowledge, referred to as epistemological beliefs, through the evaluation of a newly-developed…

  15. Prescribing knowledge and skills of final year medical students in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, K.A.; Bello, J.A.; Ayorinde, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge of final year medical students in Nigeria, about good prescribing and the application of this knowledge to their prescribing skills. Materials and Methods: Thirty four final year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM), Ikeja, were interviewed with a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the principles of good prescribing. They were also requested to write a prescription, based on a paediatric clinical scenario of malaria and upper respiratory tract infection. The prescription was used to assess their prescribing skills. Results: Thirty one (91.18%) students knew that rational prescribing involved prescribing correct dosage of an appropriate medicine formulation. Factors considered important by the students to prescribe rationally were: Potential benefit: risk ratio of a medicine - 33 (97.06%); good knowledge of pharmacology - 29 (85.29%) and pathophysiology of the disease to be treated - 24 (70.59%); and safety of an alternative medicine to be used - 24 (70.59%). An average of 3.71 medicines was prescribed for a child suspected to have malaria. Antimalarials (38.24%) and paracetamol (20%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines. The name and signature of the prescriber were available in 51.61% and 58.06% prescriptions, respectively. Less than 50% prescriptions had the name, case file number, age and gender of the patient. Conclusion: The final year medical students of LASUCOM would require theoretical and practical teaching of principles of rational prescribing to improve their prescribing knowledge and skills. PMID:21279180

  16. Today's medical knowledge. Evolution of data exchange between tradition and globalization.

    PubMed

    Paparo, Francesco; Francesco, Paparo; Giovannetti, Filippo; Filippo, Giovannetti; Caratelli, Roberto; Roberto, Caratelli; Cascone, Piero; Piero, Cascone

    2006-05-01

    The authors historically review bibliographic research concepts and define globalization in time. Moreover, recent free online data exchange is important in terms of medical progress, scientific updating and patient-care improving. In the author's opinion, data globalization is favoring medical knowledge flow even more. The concept of a traditional library has radically changed over time, gradually missing their pivotal role in research activity. To date, the birth of the Internet and its sudden development has given a great boost to the spread of worldwide information, quickly and cheaply. Nevertheless, besides the advantages, the Internet also hides misleading risks. In this paper, the professional Medline source is compared to common Internet sources. The authors state that Internet sources have a great importance in the spread of medical knowledge. They conclude, however, that the risk of too much available information could lead to a decrease in quality.

  17. Combining Task Execution and Background Knowledge for the Verification of Medical Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommersom, Arjen; Groot, Perry; Lucas, Peter; Balser, Michael; Schmitt, Jonathan

    The use of a medical guideline can be seen as the execution of computational tasks, sequentially or in parallel, in the face of patient data. It has been shown that many of such guidelines can be represented as a 'network of tasks', i.e., as a number of steps that have a specific function or goal. To investigate the quality of such guidelines we propose a formalization of criteria for good practice medicine a guideline should comply to. We use this theory in conjunction with medical background knowledge to verify the quality of a guideline dealing with diabetes mellitus type 2 using the interactive theorem prover KIV. Verification using task execution and background knowledge is a novel approach to quality checking of medical guidelines.

  18. Physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding management of medications in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Jaber, D; Albsoul-Younes, A; Wazaify, M

    2014-02-11

    To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P < 0.05). Female physicians scored better than males, and fellows scored better than other groups for knowledge. Most physicians' attitudes and practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area.

  19. Knowledge about cancer screening among medical students and internal medicine residents in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; García-Aceituno, Luis; Villa, Antonio R; Perfecto-Arroyo, Miguel; Rojas-Flores, Miriam; León-Rodríguez, Eucario

    2010-12-01

    It is extremely important that physicians are aware of cancer screening precise indications. We sought to explore its knowledge among Mexican medical students and internal medicine residents. Students and residents completed a questionnaire-based survey about breast, cervical, colon, and prostate cancer screening. Four hundred fifty-one individuals answered the survey: 64.52% students and 35.48% residents. Mean knowledge score was 63.97 ± 14.97. Residents scored higher than students (p = 0.0001). No difference in the education concerning cervical and colon cancer screening was found. Knowledge of screening guidelines is suboptimal among medical students and residents. Further efforts should be targeted to educational and training programs in this country.

  20. Science attitudes and knowledge among preclinical medical students in Pokhara, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Upadhyay, Dinesh K; Subish, P; Mishra, Pranaya

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge of science and the scientific method are important in learning about and using evidence-based medicine in practice. Courses in research methodology have been introduced for both medical students and practicing doctors. In Pokhara, the basic science subjects are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Studies on students' attitudes towards and knowledge of science are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Hence the study was carried out to obtain information on students' attitude towards and knowledge of science and scientific methodology among preclinical medical students and note the association, if any, of students' attitudes and their demographic characteristics. The study was carried out in March 2005 among the students of the first four semesters at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using a questionnaire developed by Hren and coworkers. Two hundred and twenty students (overall response rate 73.3%) successfully completed the questionnaire. Seventy-five respondents were Nepalese, 115 were Indians, 27 were Sri Lankans and 3 belonged to other nationalities. The X +/- SD total attitude score was 147.4 +/- 10.8 (neutral score 135). The X +/- SD scores on the subscales, value of science to humanity, value of scientific methodology and value of science to medicine were 51.3 +/- 5.4, 39.6 +/- 3.7 and 58.5 +/- 5.9 (neutral scores were 36, 51 and 48 respectively). The knowledge score measured using a set of 8 multiple choice questions was 3.3 +/- 1.4. The attitude scores were lower and the knowledge score was comparable to that reported previously in a study in Croatia but higher than that reported from Southeast Europe.

  1. A vertically integrated geriatric curriculum improves medical student knowledge and clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients.

  2. Medication-indication knowledge bases: a systematic review and critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tran H; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medication-indication information is a key part of the information needed for providing decision support for and promoting appropriate use of medications. However, this information is not readily available to end users, and a lot of the resources only contain this information in unstructured form (free text). A number of public knowledge bases (KBs) containing structured medication-indication information have been developed over the years, but a direct comparison of these resources has not yet been conducted. Material and Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all medication-indication KBs and critically appraised these resources in terms of their scope as well as their support for complex indication information. Results We identified 7 KBs containing medication-indication data. They notably differed from each other in terms of their scope, coverage for on- or off-label indications, source of information, and choice of terminologies for representing the knowledge. The majority of KBs had issues with granularity of the indications as well as with representing duration of therapy, primary choice of treatment, and comedications or comorbidities. Discussion and Conclusion This is the first study directly comparing public KBs of medication indications. We identified several gaps in the existing resources, which can motivate future research. PMID:26335981

  3. 75 FR 48356 - Advancing the Development of Medical Products Used In the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing the Development of Medical Products Used In the... ``Advancing the Development of Medical Products Used in the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Neglected... the development of medical products (drugs, biological products, and medical devices) used in...

  4. Knowledge and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine among medical students in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2 %), acupuncture (80.8 %), hypnosis (78.8 %), body-based practices including massage (77 %) and meditation (65.2 %), respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p < 0.05). Females and first year students, generally had more positive attitudes. A larger proportion of female students compared to male students reported that a doctor should be knowledgeable about CAM (p = 0.001), and this knowledge would be helpful in their future professional lives (p = 0.015). Positive attitudes towards and willingness to receive training declined as the number of years spent in the faculty of medicine increased. Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards. PMID:22862993

  5. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M. J.; Barnett, G. O.; Morgan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807600

  6. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  7. Culture care theory: a major contribution to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and practices.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Madeleine

    2002-07-01

    This article is focused on the major features of the Culture Care Diversity and Universality theory as a central contributing theory to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and to use the findings in teaching, research, practice, and consultation. It remains one of the oldest, most holistic, and most comprehensive theories to generate knowledge of diverse and similar cultures worldwide. The theory has been a powerful means to discover largely unknown knowledge in nursing and the health fields. It provides a new mode to assure culturally competent, safe, and congruent transcultural nursing care. The purpose, goal, assumptive premises, ethnonursing research method, criteria, and some findings are highlighted.

  8. Pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of medication for termination of pregnancy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Kate; Footman, Katharine; Akora, Vitalis; Liambila, Wilson; Ngo, Thoai D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of abortion information and methods in Kenya. Methods In 2013 we interviewed 235 pharmacy workers in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu about the medical abortion services they provide. We also used mystery clients, who made 401 visits to pharmacies to collect first-hand information on abortion practices. Results The majority (87.5%) of pharmacy workers had heard of misoprostol but only 39.2% had heard of mifepristone. We found that pharmacy workers had limited knowledge of correct medical abortion regimens, side effects and complications and the legal status of abortion drugs. 49.8% of pharmacy workers reported providing abortion information to clients and 4.3% reported providing abortion methods. 75.2% of pharmacies referred mystery clients to another provider, though 64.2% of pharmacies advised mystery clients to continue with their pregnancy. Pharmacy workers reported that they were experiencing demand for abortion services from clients. Conclusions Pharmacy workers are important providers of information and referrals for women seeking abortion, however their medical abortion knowledge is limited. Training pharmacy workers on medical abortion may improve the quality of information provided and access to safe abortion. PMID:26869694

  9. Managing knowledge and technology to foster innovation at the Ohio State University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Cain, Timothy J; Rodman, Ruey L; Sanfilippo, Fred; Kroll, Susan M

    2005-11-01

    Biomedical knowledge is expanding at an unprecedented rate-one that is unlikely to slow anytime in the future. While the volume and scope of this new knowledge poses significant organizational challenges, it creates tremendous opportunities to release and direct its power to the service of significant goals. The authors explain how the Center for Knowledge Management at The Ohio State University Medical Center, created during the academic year 2003-04, is doing just that by integrating numerous resource-intensive, technology-based initiatives-including personnel, services and infrastructure, digital repositories, data sets, mobile computing devices, high-tech patient simulators, computerized testing, and interactive multimedia-in a way that enables the center to provide information tailored to the needs of students, faculty and staff on the medical center campus and its surrounding health sciences colleges. The authors discuss how discovering, applying, and sharing new knowledge, information assets, and technologies in this way is a collaborative process. This process creates open-ended opportunities for innovation and a roadmap for working toward seamless integration, synergy, and substantial enhancement of the academic medical center's research, educational, and clinical mission areas.

  10. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  11. Advanced Medical Technology Capacity Building and the Medical Mentoring Event: A Unique Application of SOF Counterinsurgency Medical Engagement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Dan; Tate, Charmaine; Wey, Pierre-Francois; Batjom, Emmanuel; Nicholas, Thomas A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) is a military commander?s tool developed during the Vietnam War to gain access to and positively influence an indigenous population through the provision of direct medical care provided by military medical personnel, particularly in Counter Insurgency Operations (COIN). An alternative to MEDCAPs is the medical seminar (MEDSEM). The MEDSEM uses a Commander?s military medical assets to share culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population in order to create a sustainable training resource for the local population?s health system. At the heart of the MEDSEM is the ?train the trainer? concept whereby medical information is passed to indigenous trainers who then pass that information to an indigenous population. The MEDSEM achieves the Commander?s objectives of increasing access and influence with the population through a medical training venue rather than direct patient care. Previous MEDSEMS conducted in Afghanistan by military forces focused on improvement of rural healthcare through creation of Village Health Care Workers. This model can also be used to engage host nation (HN) medical personnel and improve medical treatment capabilities in population centers. The authors describe a modification of the MEDSEM, a Medical Mentorship (MM), conducted in November 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan, at the Afghan National Army (ANA) National Medical Hospital. This training was designed to improve intubation skills in Afghan National Army Hospitals by ANA medical providers, leave residual training capability, and build relationships within the institution that not only assist the institution, but can also be leveraged to foster Commanders? objectives, such as health and reconstruction initiatives and medical partnering for indigenous corps and medical forces described below. Methods We, the authors, developed a culturally appropriate endotracheal intubation training package including a Dari and

  12. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  13. Physician assisted suicide: knowledge and views of fifth-year medical students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More than a third of the students viewed PAS in certain situations to be ethically acceptable whereas a smaller proportion thought that it should be legal. Compared with German physicians the medical students taking part in this study were less opposed to PAS. The majority perceived the undergraduate training concerning ethical aspect of assisted death as deficient.

  14. Correlation between Knowledge, Experience and Common Sense, with Critical Thinking Capability of Medical Faculty's Students at Indonesia Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeak, Bernadetha

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…

  15. Mother's Health Knowledge and Its Links with the Illness and Medical Care of Their Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patra, Shraboni; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The level of mother's health knowledge influences not only her health, but also significantly predicts her children's health and medical care, and spending on medical care. This relationship has not yet been empirically assessed in India. The purpose of this paper is to measure the level of health knowledge of mothers in India and its…

  16. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace...

  17. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace...

  18. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  19. Intelligent Physiologic Modeling: An Application of Knowledge Based Systems Technology to Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Kunstaetter, Robert

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes the design and implementation of a knowledge based physiologic modeling system (KBPMS) and a preliminary evaluation of its use as a learning resource within the context of an experimental medical curriculum -- the Harvard New Pathway. KBPMS possesses combined numeric and qualitative simulation capabilities and can provide explanations of its knowledge and behaviour. It has been implemented on a microcomputer with a user interface incorporating interactive graphics. The preliminary evaluation of KBPMS is based on anecdotal data which suggests that the system might have pedagogic potential. Much work remains to be done in enhancing and further evaluating KBPMS.

  20. The politics of healthcare informatics: knowledge management using an electronic medical record system.

    PubMed

    Bar-Lev, Shirly

    2015-03-01

    The design and implementation of an electronic medical record system pose significant epistemological and practical complexities. Despite optimistic assessments of their potential contribution to the quality of care, their implementation has been problematic, and their actual employment in various clinical settings remains controversial. Little is known about how their use actually mediates knowing. Employing a variety of qualitative research methods, this article attempts an answer by illustrating how omitting, editing and excessive reporting were employed as part of nurses' and physicians' political efforts to shape knowledge production and knowledge sharing in a technologically mediated healthcare setting.

  1. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known physical hazard responsible for photoaging, photoallergic, and phototoxic reactions as well as carcinogenesis, including life-threatening melanomas (1,2). Overexposure to both natural and artificial UV radiation is a public health concern. 30% of cancers diagnosed worldwide are skin cancers. Approximately three million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132 000 new cases of melanomas are diagnosed globally each year (3). Sunburns, especially in childhood, are a very important risk factor for melanomas. Several studies demonstrated a positive association between sunbed use and an increased incidence of malignant melanoma (4). Current medical and cosmetology students will soon be knowledge providers about the risks of excessive exposure to UV radiation and prophylaxis of its consequences. Our aim was to evaluate their knowledge about the side effects of ultraviolet radiation and tanning behaviors. Details on the knowledge and habits of students were obtained during classes at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. With approval from the Institutional Bioethical Committee, a 41-question anonymous survey was conducted in the spring of 2012 among 190 medical (1-6 year) and cosmetology students (1-5 year). The mean age of the study group was 22.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 2.4 years), range 19-28 years. The survey was composed of closed and open-ended questions prepared by the authors. The first part of the form included demographic data: gender, age, degree course, and school year. The students were also asked about their reaction to sunlight, sunburns in childhood, and personal and family history of skin cancers or dysplastic nevus syndrome. The factual section of the survey contained questions evaluating responder knowledge about sunbeds and risk of UV radiation as well as their personal tanning habits. The open-ended questions asked responders to provide definitions of: skin phototype, sun protection factor

  2. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  3. Effect of a medical care evaluation program on physician knowledge and performance.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J A; Sandlow, L J; Bashook, P G

    1984-01-01

    A model program designed to increase the educational value of medical care evaluation committee meetings was studied to determine its effect on the knowledge and clinical performance of participating physicians. The members of hospital committees in which the program was successfully implemented showed a statistically significant gain in knowledge of the topics discussed by their committees. In addition, several members made substantial changes in their patient care practices. These changes resulted not so much from the acquisition of new medical information as from a rethinking of patient management strategies, stimulated by peer discussion during committee meetings. A structure that encourages such discussions can be incorporated in other types of patient-care-oriented committee activities as well.

  4. Developing Knowledge Representation in Emergency Medical Assistance by Using Semantic Web Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manica, Heloise; Rocha, Cristiano C.; Todesco, José Leomar; Dantas, M. A. R.

    In this research, a knowledge-based architecture for a mobile emergency medical assistance system is presented. It is based on the France SAMU model and dopts the ontology and mobile computing approaches. The contribution is characterized for providing routines and medical protocol specifications for specialists through the use of their natural language, collecting elements from this language to develop an ontology domain, and using a semantic cache for an enhanced utilization of mobile devices. A prototype of the proposal was implemented in order to support specialists during a day-to-day basis considering knowledge engineering aided by mobile computing techniques. These differentiated characteristics have proved to be successfully at early experiments utilizing the implemented prototype.

  5. Reconfiguring or reproducing intra-professional boundaries? Specialist expertise, generalist knowledge and the 'modernization' of the medical workforce.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael

    2009-04-01

    Efforts to 'modernize' the clinical workforce of the English National Health Service have sought to reconfigure the responsibilities of professional groups in pursuit of more effective, joined-up service provision. Such efforts have met resistance from professions eager to protect their jurisdictions, deploying legitimacy claims familiar from the insights of the sociology of professions. Yet to date few studies of professional boundaries have grounded these insights in the specific context of policy challenges to the inter- and intra-professional division of labour, in relation to the medical profession and other health-related occupations. In this paper we address this gap by considering the experience of newly instituted general practitioners with a special interest (GPSIs) in genetics, introduced to improve genetics knowledge and practice in primary care. Using qualitative data from four comparative case studies, we discuss how an established intra-professional division of labour within medicine-between clinical geneticists and general practitioners-was opened, negotiated and reclosed in these sites. We discuss the contrasting attitudes towards the nature of genetics knowledge and its application of GPSIs and geneticists, and how these were used to advance conflicting visions of what the nascent GPSI role should involve. In particular, we show how the claims to knowledge of geneticists and GPSIs interacted with wider policy pressures to produce a rather more conservative redistribution of power and responsibility across the intra-professional boundary than the rhetoric of modernization might suggest.

  6. Advance medical directives: a proposed new approach and terminology from an Islamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Baharoon, Salim; Al Sayyari, Abdullah; Al-Ahmad, Ghiath

    2013-05-01

    Advance directives are specific competent consumers' wishes about future medical plans in the event that they become incompetent. Awareness of a patient's autonomy particularly, in relation to their right to refuse or withdraw treatment, a right for the patient to die from natural causes and interest in end of life issues were among the main reasons for developing and legalizing advance medical directives in developed countries. However, in many circumstances cultural and religious aspects are among many factors that can hamper implementation of advance directives. Islam and Muslims in general have a good understanding of death and dying. Islam allows the withholding or withdrawal of treatments in some cases where the intervention is considered futile. However, there is lack of literature and debate about such issues from an Islamic point of view. This article provides the Islamic perspective with regards to advance medical directive with the hope that it will generate more thoughts and evoke further discussion on this important topic.

  7. Advancing Social Work Curriculum in Psychopharmacology and Medication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rosemary L.; Bentley, Kia J.; Walsh, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed current literature and curriculum resources on psychopharmacology and social work. They argue that baccalaureate and master of social work courses need to routinely include more in-depth knowledge on psychopharmacology and provide a more critical social work-focused approach to this content due to the increasing complexity of…

  8. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-17

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention.

  9. Problem focused knowledge navigation: implementing the problem focused medical record and the O-HEAP note.

    PubMed

    Meyers, K C; Miller, H J; Naeymi-Rad, F

    1998-01-01

    The current organization of most Computerized Medical Records (CMR) is based on the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) and the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) note. The organizational structure of the POMR and especially the SOAP note, does not allow for optimal use of computer capabilities in the follow up note. Since follow up visits are the most common office visit by far, this is a major flaw in the CMR. The authors propose a Problem Focused Medical Record and the OHEAP (Orientation, History, Exam, Assessment and Plan) note to resolve this problem. OHEAP starts with a powerful orientation structure that brings forward the timeline, last Assessment and Plan, and Plan Results for each problem along with the patient's historical tables as the starting point of every follow up visit. The Assessment and Plan portion brings problem specific differential diagnoses and their workups along with other relevant tables such as expert systems, treatments, instructions, medical literature or pathways. This leads to Problem Focused Knowledge Navigation that brings powerful efficiencies to the CMR. By recognizing the true workflow in the longitudinal diagnosis and management of any medical problem, the efficiency of the CMR is maximized. OHEAP allows for optimal use of both personal and external data elements in the medical record. Its powerful orientation attributes minimize the time spent in analyzing the current status of the problem while its connections to problem specific databases help resolve the problem.

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, among medical doctors. Data was collected from consenting individuals in the age group of 25-65 years by convenience sampling method. A semi-structured, pretested, questionnaire designed to assess KAP regarding whole body donation was provided to the study population (n = 106); 97 individuals returned the completed questionnaire. Results showed that 8% of the medical professionals were unaware of the term body donation and 85% believed that donated bodies were misused. A large proportion of the respondents did not know about the authority that oversaw body donation, or its criteria for accepting donated bodies and diseases for which bodies were screened before acceptance. Only 22% of polled physicians were willing to donate their bodies for medical education, but 68% expected the public to do the same. While only 7% had already registered their own names for body donation, 64% were not aware of any known person having registered and 72% indicated that their decision would not be influenced even if they knew of friends who had registered. These results suggest that educating medical students and professionals regarding the altruistic act of body donation is as important as educating the general public.

  11. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical... replacement of a lost or destroyed medical certificate must be made: (1) By letter to the Department...

  12. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... place and date of the medical exam, name of the Airman Medical Examiner (AME), and the circumstances... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or...

  13. Knowledge-based image understanding and classification system for medical image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Gaborski, Roger S.; Acharya, Raj S.

    2002-05-01

    With the advent of Computer Radiographs(CR) and Digital Radiographs(DR), image understanding and classification in medical image databases have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based image understanding and classification system for medical image databases. An object-oriented knowledge model has been introduced and the idea that content features of medical images must hierarchically match to the related knowledge model is used. As a result of finding the best match model, the input image can be classified. The implementation of the system includes three stages. The first stage focuses on the match of the coarse pattern of the model class and has three steps: image preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network classification. Once the coarse shape classification is done, a small set of plausible model candidates are then employed for a detailed match in the second stage. Its match outputs imply the result models might be contained in the processed images. Finally, an evaluation strategy is used to further confirm the results. The performance of the system has been tested on different types of digital radiographs, including pelvis, ankle, elbow and etc. The experimental results suggest that the system prototype is applicable and robust, and the accuracy of the system is near 70% in our image databases.

  14. Advances in Vitiligo: An Update on Medical and Surgical Treatments.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Alexander B; Sideris, Andrew; Hadi, Ali; Elbuluk, Nada

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is one of the most common cutaneous disorders of depigmentation. Although its underlying causes are still being studied and no definitive cure currently exists, recent research has provided insight into pathogenic mechanisms and new treatment options. Objective: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the medical and surgical therapies for vitiligo with emphasis on the most recent treatment modalities. Design: This review was conducted through a literature search using PubMed and the National institutes of Health's clinicalTrials.gov databases from January 2010 to July 2015. This yielded 86 studies, 12 of which were excluded, and 74 of which were reviewed. Results: Recent studies and ongoing clinical trials indicate that there are many promising new medical and surgical treatment modalities for this chronic condition. Conclusion: A combination of traditional and newer treatments may work synergistically to provide additional improvement in patients' disease state and quality of life.

  15. Advances in Vitiligo: An Update on Medical and Surgical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Alexander B.; Sideris, Andrew; Hadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is one of the most common cutaneous disorders of depigmentation. Although its underlying causes are still being studied and no definitive cure currently exists, recent research has provided insight into pathogenic mechanisms and new treatment options. Objective: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the medical and surgical therapies for vitiligo with emphasis on the most recent treatment modalities. Design: This review was conducted through a literature search using PubMed and the National institutes of Health’s clinicalTrials.gov databases from January 2010 to July 2015. This yielded 86 studies, 12 of which were excluded, and 74 of which were reviewed. Results: Recent studies and ongoing clinical trials indicate that there are many promising new medical and surgical treatment modalities for this chronic condition. Conclusion: A combination of traditional and newer treatments may work synergistically to provide additional improvement in patients’ disease state and quality of life. PMID:28210378

  16. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. PMID:27579002

  17. [Research advances on medical genetics in China in 2015].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanfeng; Han, Yubo; Cao, Pengbo; Meng, Jinfeng; Li, Haibei; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Guangfu; Yang, Yong; Wu, Lingqian; Ping, Jie; Zhou, Gangqiao

    2016-05-01

    Steady progress has been achieved in the medical genetics in China in 2015, as numerous original researches were published in the world's leading journals. Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to various fields of medical genetics, such as pathogenicity of rare diseases, predisposition of common diseases, somatic mutations of cancer, new technologies and methods, disease-related microRNAs (miRNAs), disease-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), disease-related competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), disease-related RNA splicing and molecular evolution. In these fields, Chinese scientists have gradually formed the tendency, from common variants to rare variants, from single omic analyses to multipleomics integration analyses, from genetic discovery to functional confirmation, from basic research to clinical application. Meanwhile, the findings of Chinese scientists have been drawn great attentions of international peers. This review aims to provide an overall picture of the front in Chinese medical genetics, and highlights the important findings and their research strategy.

  18. Relationship between patients’ knowledge and medication adherence among patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Dudek, Krzysztof; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge on arterial hypertension (AH) and its management, and adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. Methods The study included 233 patients diagnosed with AH and treated with hypotensive drugs for at least 1 year. The 8-item © Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) were used. Results Sixty-three percent of the patients had a low level of knowledge on AH, with the smallest proportion of correct answers provided for items related to non-pharmaceutical treatment, diet, hypertension definition, and drug adherence. When compared to patients with a high level of knowledge, those with a low knowledge had lower scores in the MMAS (6.45±1.45 vs 7.08±1.04; P=0.038). Multiple-factor analysis showed that statistically significant independent determinants of good adherence included a high level of knowledge (β=0.208; P=0.001), non-pharmaceutical treatment (β=0.182; P=0.006), and frequent blood pressure measurements (β=0.183; P=0.004). The most significant factor in MMAS was knowledge in the “drug adherence” domain (ρ=0.303; P<0.001). Conclusion Patients’ knowledge on hypertension is a significant independent determinant of good adherence. Other independent determinants include non-pharmaceutical treatment and regular blood pressure measurements. Implication for practice The identification of knowledge deficits as a factor contributing to lack of adherence and poor hypertension control remains a key challenge for multidisciplinary team caring for patients with hypertension. PMID:27994443

  19. Towards Advancing Knowledge Translation of AAC Outcomes Research for Children and Youth with Complex Communication Needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E; Shepherd, Tracy; Renzoni, Anne Marie; Anderson, Colleen; Barber, Mary; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Ward, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The production of new knowledge in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) requires effective processes to leverage the different perspectives of researchers and knowledge users and improve prospects for utilization in clinical settings. This article describes the motivation, planning, process, and outcomes for a novel knowledge translation workshop designed to influence future directions for AAC outcomes research for children with complex communication needs. Invited knowledge users from 20 pediatric AAC clinics and researchers engaged in the collaborative development of research questions using a framework designed for the AAC field. The event yielded recommendations for research and development priorities that extend from the early development of language, communication, and literacy skills in very young children, to novel but unproven strategies that may advance outcomes in transitioning to adulthood.

  20. Medical students' knowledge of indications for imaging modalities and cost analysis of incorrect requests, shiraz, iran 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Jalli, Reza; Danaei, Mina; Khajavian, Shiva; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent) using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20). In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%). The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff) and $205581 (private tariff). Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  1. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  2. Knowledge of Childhood Autism and Challenges of Management among Medical Doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eseigbe, E E; Nuhu, F T; Sheikh, T L; Eseigbe, P; Sanni, K A; Olisah, V O

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants) attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4%) were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ≥15) was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P < 0.05), while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15) was significant among general practitioners (P < 0.05). The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4) while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2). Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism.

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of malaysian medical and pharmacy students towards human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Hesham H; Saat, Nur Zakiah N Mohd; Abd Manan, Dahlia Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and oncogenic HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. However, HPV vaccination is already available as the primary preventive method against cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of HPV vaccination among Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) students. This study was conducted from March until August 2009. Pre-tested and validated questionnaires were filled by the third year UKM (n=156) and UM (n=149) students from medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculties. The results showed that the overall level of knowledge on HPV infection, cervical cancer and its prevention among respondents was high and the majority of them had positive attitude towards HPV vaccination. Medical students had the highest level of knowledge (p<0.05). Very few students (3.6%) had already taken the vaccine with no significant difference between the two Universities (p=0.399). In conclusion, the knowledge and attitude of the respondents were high and positive, respectively. Only few students took HPV vaccination. Thus, more awareness campaigns and HPV vaccination services should be provided at universities' campuses with the price of the HPV vaccine reduced for the students.

  4. Model-based formalization of medical knowledge for context-aware assistance in laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The increase of technological complexity in surgery has created a need for novel man-machine interaction techniques. Specifically, context-aware systems which automatically adapt themselves to the current circumstances in the OR have great potential in this regard. To create such systems, models of surgical procedures are vital, as they allow analyzing the current situation and assessing the context. For this purpose, we have developed a Surgical Process Model based on Description Logics. It incorporates general medical background knowledge as well as intraoperatively observed situational knowledge. The representation consists of three parts: the Background Knowledge Model, the Preoperative Process Model and the Integrated Intraoperative Process Model. All models depend on each other and create a concise view on the surgery. As a proof of concept, we applied the system to a specific intervention, the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

  5. Voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide: knowledge and attitudes of Dutch medical students.

    PubMed

    Muller, M T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Kriegsman, D M; van der Wal, G

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the study was to gain insight into the knowledge of and attitudes towards voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide (EEDAS) of Dutch medical students, and to determine whether knowledge and attitudes change after a 1-day informative conference about EDAS. Data were collected by means of two self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaire 1 had to be completed before the start of the conference and questionnaire 2 after the conference. In both questionnaires, students were asked by means of two open-ended questions to define euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide. They were also asked to indicate which of eight statements met with the requirements for prudent practice. Finally, the students were asked to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of seven statements about attitudes towards EDAS. To determine if a selection occurred among students who returned both questionnaires, their background characteristics, and knowledge and attitudes towards EDAS were compared with those who returned only the first questionnaire. Forty-seven students returned only the first questionnaire, while both questionnaires were returned by 137 students. No differences were found between students who returned both questionnaires and those who returned only the first questionnaire with regard to age, religion, knowledge of and attitudes towards EDAS. Students' knowledge of the definitions of EDAS and the requirements for prudent practice improved significantly. Students' reactions to the statements on attitudes towards EDAS showed that a large majority had a fairly positive attitude towards EDAS. There was no significant difference before and after the conference. Male students and students with a religion were more opposed to EDAS than female students and students without a religion. The fact that the students' knowledge of EDAS improved after a 1-day conference does not imply sufficient understanding of the issue. Because EDAS is allowed only under

  6. Efficacy of HBM-Based Dietary Education Intervention on Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Dini-Talatappeh, Hossein; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Using various models of behavior change, a number of studies in the area of nutrition education have confirmed that nutrition habits and behaviors can be improved. Objectives This study sought to determine the effects of education on patterns of dietary consumption among medical students at the military university of Tehran, with a view to correcting those patterns. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 242 medical students from the Military University of Tehran were chosen by convenience sampling and then divided into control (n = 107) and intervention groups (n = 135) by block randomization. The self-administered questionnaire involving six categories of item (knowledge, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived threats, self-efficacy and behavior) has been validated (Cronbach alpha > 0.7 for each). Results Following the educational intervention, the mean score of knowledge, health belief model (HBM) structure, and behavior of students in relation to healthy patterns of food intake increased significantly (P < 0.05). The mean pre-intervention knowledge score was 6.76 (1.452), referring to threats to HBM constructs including perceived threat 2.93 (1.147), perceived benefits 7.28 (1.07), perceived barriers 5.44 (1.831), self- efficacy 4.28 (1.479), and behavior 8.84 (2.527). The post-intervention scores all improved as follows: knowledge 8.3 (1.503), perceived threats 3.29 (1.196), perceived benefits 7.71 (0.762), perceived barriers 5.9 (1.719), self- efficacy 4.6 (1.472), and behavior 9.45 (2.324). This difference in mean scores for knowledge, health belief structures and employee behavior before and after educational intervention was significant (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions The significant improvement in the experimental group’s mean knowledge, HBM structures , and behavior scores indicates the positive effect of the intervention. PMID:28210498

  7. Tremor reduction by subthalamic nucleus stimulation and medication in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Blahak, Christian; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Grips, Eva; Weigel, Ralf; Hennerici, Michael G; Krauss, Joachim K

    2007-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has proved to be effective for tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the recent studies used only clinical data to analyse tremor reduction. The objective of our study was to quantify tremor reduction by STN DBS and antiparkinsonian medication in elderly PD patients using an objective measuring system. Amplitude and frequency of resting tremor and re-emergent resting tremor during postural tasks were analysed using an ultrasound-based measuring system and surface electromyography. In a prospective study design nine patients with advanced PD were examined preoperatively off and on medication, and twice postoperatively during four treatment conditions: off treatment, on STN DBS, on medication, and on STN DBS plus medication. While both STN DBS and medication reduced tremor amplitude, STN DBS alone and the combination of medication and STN DBS were significantly superior to pre- and postoperative medication. STN DBS but not medication increased tremor frequency, and off treatment tremor frequency was significantly reduced postoperatively compared to baseline. These findings demonstrate that STN DBS is highly effective in elderly patients with advanced PD and moderate preoperative tremor reduction by medication. Thus, with regard to the advanced impact on the other parkinsonian symptoms, STN DBS can replace thalamic stimulation in this cohort of patients. Nevertheless, medication was still effective postoperatively and may act synergistically. The significantly superior efficacy of STN DBS on tremor amplitude and its impact on tremor frequency in contrast to medication might be explained by the influence of STN DBS on additional neural circuits independent from dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  8. Medical advances in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ducloy-Bouthors, Anne-Sophie; Susen, Sophie; Wong, Cynthia A; Butwick, Alex; Vallet, Benoit; Lockhart, Evelyn

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Recent advances in the management of severe bleeding for trauma patients may provide insight into PPH management, but must be applied with caution considering the significant differences between trauma and obstetric patients. In this review, we summarized evidence for current management strategies for patients with major obstetric hemorrhage, including (1) rapid laboratory assessment of coagulopathy, (2) early transfusion of plasma and high plasma-to-red blood cell transfusion ratios in massive PPH, and (3) use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in the setting of PPH complicated by coagulopathy.

  9. Establishment and Implementation of a Required Medication Therapy Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Griend, Joseph Vande

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students’ self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services. PMID:28381896

  10. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing.

  11. Assessment of knowledge and perceptions toward generic medicines among basic science undergraduate medical students at Aruba

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P. Ravi; Herz, Burton L.; Dubey, Arun K.; Hassali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent’s agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups. Conclusions: There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents’ level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years. PMID:28031604

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global problem. Health professionals are poorly prepared in weight management, which has an effect on their attitudes and management skills with regard to overweight and obese patients. Aim and setting To assess the knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 48 medical practitioners at Odi Hospital between 01 October and 31 October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitudes and management skills in weight management. The SPSS® statistical software (Version 22) was used for data analysis. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Fifty medical practitioners were recruited, 48 consented to participate and 28 (58.3%) were male. Their categories were community service doctors (3), medical officers (21), registrars (22) and others (2). Thirty-seven (77.1%) never received training in weight management (p < 0.001). Thirty-two (66.7%) regarded weight management as not confined to a dietician (p < 0.001) and 27 (56.2%) regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful (p = 0.004). Forty-seven (97.9%) provided lifestyle modifications and 43 (89.6%) involved the patient’s family in weight management (p < 0.001). More non-registrars [14 (77.8%)] than registrars [8 (38.1%)] measured the body mass index (BMI) routinely (p = 0.013). Conclusion Few medical practitioners received training in weight management. They regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful and lacked confidence in the same owing to lack of training. They provided lifestyle modifications and involved the patient’s family in weight management. Non-registrars measured the BMI routinely. There is a need for training in weight management at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. PMID:28155319

  13. A Research Agenda to Advance the Coordination of Care for General Medical and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Amity E; Rubinsky, Anna D; Fernandez, Anne C; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-04-01

    The separation of addiction care from the general medical care system has a negative impact on patients' receipt of high-quality medical care. Clinical and policy-level strategies to improve the coordination of addiction care and general medical care include identifying and engaging patients with unhealthy substance use in general medical settings, providing effective chronic disease management of substance use disorders in primary care, including patient and family perspectives in care coordination, and implementing pragmatic models to pay for the coordination of addiction and general medical care. This Open Forum discusses practice and research recommendations to advance the coordination of general medical and addiction care. The discussion is based on the proceedings of a national meeting of experts in 2014.

  14. Medical Student Attitudes Toward Communication Skills Training and Knowledge of Appropriate Provider-Patient Communication: A Comparison of First-Year and Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Bylund, Carma; Ware, Jennifer; Parker, Patricia; Query, Jim L; Baile, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Drawing upon Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives as a theoretical framework, this study examines attitudes toward communication skills training, knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, and confidence communicating with patients between first-year and fourth-year medical students at a large medical school in the southern United States. The study findings indicate that fourth-year medical students do not differ from first-year medical students in terms of attitudes towards communication skills training or knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, but they have significantly higher confidence scores about communicating with patients. In addition, positive attitudes towards communication skills training are significantly related to perceived importance of communication skills and confidence when communicating with patients. Finally, female medical students have more positive attitudes towards communication skills training than male medical students. The implications of the study findings and directions for future research are also discussed.

  15. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  16. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  17. Managing proposals and evaluations of updates to medical knowledge: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Anselma, Luca; Bottrighi, Alessio; Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The process of keeping up-to-date the medical knowledge stored in relational databases is of paramount importance. Since quality and reliability of medical knowledge are essential, in many cases physicians' proposals of updates must undergo experts' evaluation before possibly becoming effective. However, until now no theoretical framework has been provided in order to cope with this phenomenon in a principled and non-ad hoc way. Indeed, such a framework is important not only in the medical domain, but in all Wikipedia-like contexts in which evaluation of update proposals is required. In this paper we propose GPVM (General Proposal Vetting Model), a general model to cope with update proposal⧹evaluation in relational databases. GPVM extends the current theory of temporal relational databases and, in particular, BCDM - Bitemporal Conceptual Data Model - "consensus" model, providing a new data model, new operations to propose and accept⧹reject updates, and new algebraic operators to query proposals. The properties of GPVM are also studied. In particular, GPVM is a consistent extension of BCDM and it is reducible to it. These properties ensure consistency with most relational temporal database frameworks, facilitating implementation on top of current frameworks and interoperability with previous approaches.

  18. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    PubMed

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  19. Patients' Knowledge About Analgesic-Antipyretic Medications Purchased in Community Pharmacies: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Grézy-Chabardès, Claire; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Dupouy, Julie; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Oustric, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the level of knowledge about paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen, and aspirin of subjects who purchased nonprescription medications containing one of these drugs. We conducted this cross-sectional descriptive study in 42 community pharmacies located in southwestern France between July and November 2013. A six-item self-administered questionnaire was used. Participants were asked to identify the active ingredient contained in 14 brand-name analgesic-antipyretics, to state the maximum daily dose of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin, the recommended first-line analgesic, and precautions of use or contraindications for paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin. Among 576 participants, the identification of paracetamol ranged from 58% (for Dafalgan or Efferalgan) to 90% (for Doliprane), the identification of ibuprofen from 34% (for Nureflex) to 63% (for Nurofen), and the identification of aspirin was 70% (for Aspegic). The maximum recommended daily dose of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin was known by 58.3%, 17.7%, and 19.3% of participants, respectively, whereas 6.8%, 17.2%, and 13.2% stated supratherapeutic daily doses. Paracetamol was correctly stated as the first-line analgesic-antipyretic by 76.2% of participants. Knowledge on major precautions of use or contraindications was poor (45.8% and 53.6% for ibuprofen and aspirin use during pregnancy, and 14.1% for concurrent use of anticoagulants and ibuprofen). Purchasers of nonprescription analgesic-antipyretics had poor knowledge on the medication they purchased.

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population.

    PubMed

    Alfouzan, Najd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  1. The current format and ongoing advances of medical education in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gishen, Kriya; Ovadia, Steven; Arzillo, Samantha; Avashia, Yash; Thaller, Seth R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the current system of medical education along with the advances that are being made to support the demands of a changing health care system. American medical education must reform to anticipate the future needs of a changing health care system. Since the dramatic transformations to medical education that followed the publication of the Flexner report in 1910, medical education in the United States has largely remained unaltered. Today, the education of future physicians is undergoing modifications at all levels: premedical education, medical school, and residency training. Advances are being made with respect to curriculum design and content, standardized testing, and accreditation milestones. Fields such as plastic surgery are taking strides toward improving resident training as the next accreditation system is established. To promote more efficacious medical education, the American Medical Association has provided grants for innovations in education. Likewise, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlined 6 core competencies to standardize the educational goals of residency training. Such efforts are likely to improve the education of future physicians so that they are able to meet the future needs of American health care.

  2. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  3. Advances in medical revascularisation treatments in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Asadi, H; Yan, B; Dowling, R; Wong, S; Mitchell, P

    2014-01-01

    Urgent reperfusion of the ischaemic brain is the aim of stroke treatment and there has been ongoing research to find a drug that can promote vessel recanalisation more completely and with less side effects. In this review article, the major studies which have validated the use and safety of tPA are discussed. The safety and efficacy of other thrombolytic and anticoagulative agents such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, ancrod, tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide, and argatroban are also reviewed. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are both plasminogen activators with higher fibrin affinity and longer half-life compared to alteplase. They have shown greater reperfusion rates and improved functional outcomes in preliminary studies. Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor used as an adjunct to intravenous tPA and showed higher rates of complete recanalisation in the ARTTS study with further studies which are now ongoing. Adjuvant thrombolysis techniques using transcranial ultrasound are also being investigated and have shown higher rates of complete recanalisation, for example, in the CLOTBUST study. Overall, development in medical therapies for stroke is important due to the ease of administration compared to endovascular treatments, and the new treatments such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, and adjuvant sonothrombolysis are showing promising results and await further large-scale clinical trials.

  4. Clinical trials update: Medical management of advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Major, Maureen A

    2003-12-01

    Selection of treatment for metastatic breast cancer depends on several factors: the status of estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors on breast cancer cells and the expression levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. The presence of estrogen or progesterone receptors typically indicates slower-growing tumors that may be amenable to hormonal manipulation, which provides significant disease control while offering a better toxicity profile than conventional chemotherapy. The understanding of hormonal therapies in patients with postmenopausal metastatic breast cancer has advanced greatly in the past several decades. Aromatase inhibitors, although used initially as second-line therapy, recently have proved to be as effective as tamoxifen, if not superior to it, as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. New data also suggest that letrozole provides significantly better objective responses than anastrozole as second-line therapy. Exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, is an effective third-line therapy. Fulvestrant, an estrogen receptor antagonist with no known agonist effect, provides a new option for hormonal therapy. For patients with metastatic breast cancer and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 on tumor cells, the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab is the preferred option, either in combination with paclitaxel as first-line treatment, or as a single agent for second-line therapy. By extending the sequence of hormonal therapy, disease progression and the need for chemotherapy may be significantly delayed, potentially extending patient survival rates and improving quality of life.

  5. Advances in wearable technology and its medical applications.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of monitoring individuals in the home and community settings was introduced more than 50 years ago, when Holter monitoring was proposed (in the late 1940s) and later adopted (in the 1960s) as a clinical tool. However, technologies to fully enable such vision were lacking and only sporadic and rather obtrusive monitoring techniques were available for several decades. Over the past decade, we have witnessed a great deal of progress in the field of wearable sensors and systems. Advances in this field have finally provided the tools to implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. These technologies provide the tools to achieve early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are focused on the development of systems enabling clinical applications. The current focus on developing and deploying wearable systems targeting specific clinical applications has the potential of leading to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years.

  6. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  7. Estimating personalized risk ranking using laboratory test and medical knowledge (UMLS).

    PubMed

    Patil, Meru A; Bhaumik, Sandip; Paul, Soubhik; Bissoyi, Swarupananda; Roy, Raj; Ryu, Seungwoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Concept Graph Engine (CG-Engine) that generates patient specific personalized disease ranking based on the laboratory test data. CG-Engine uses the Unified Medical Language System database as medical knowledge base. The CG-Engine consists of two concepts namely, a concept graph and its attributes. The concept graph is a two level tree that starts at a laboratory test root node and ends at a disease node. The attributes of concept graph are: Relation types, Semantic types, Number of Sources and Symmetric Information between nodes. These attributes are used to compute the weight between laboratory tests and diseases. The personalized disease ranking is created by aggregating the weights of all the paths connecting between a particular disease and contributing abnormal laboratory tests. The clinical application of CG-Engine improves physician's throughput as it provides the snapshot view of abnormal laboratory tests as well as a personalized disease ranking.

  8. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750.

  9. Intelligent technique for knowledge reuse of dental medical records based on case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong-Xiao; Liang, Chang-Yong; Li, Xing-Guo; Yang, Shan-Lin; Zhang, Pei

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of both information technology and the management of modern medical regulation, the generation of medical records tends to be increasingly intelligent. In this paper, Case-Based Reasoning is applied to the process of generating records of dental cases. Based on the analysis of the features of dental records, a case base is constructed. A mixed case retrieval method (FAIES) is proposed for the knowledge reuse of dental records by adopting Fuzzy Mathematics, which improves similarity algorithm based on Euclidian-Lagrangian Distance, and PULL & PUSH weight adjustment strategy. Finally, an intelligent system of dental cases generation (CBR-DENT) is constructed. The effectiveness of the system, the efficiency of the retrieval method, the extent of adaptation and the adaptation efficiency are tested using the constructed case base. It is demonstrated that FAIES is very effective in terms of reducing the time of writing medical records and improving the efficiency and quality. FAIES is also proven to be an effective aid for diagnoses and provides a new idea for the management of medical records and its applications.

  10. Addressing gaps in physician knowledge regarding transgender health and healthcare through medical education

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Deborah; Rountree-James, Marina; Whetter, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgender people (those people whose sex at birth does not “match” their felt gender identity) are a priority group for healthcare as they experience high rates of discrimination and related illnesses. Despite this, there is a trend of poor healthcare access for trans people due, in large part, to the denial of care on the part of physicians. A small body of literature is beginning to suggest that this denial of care may be due to a lack of physician knowledge as well as, in some cases, to transphobia. There is a dearth of research in Canada, however, exploring whether and/or how knowledge gaps create barriers to quality care, and whether medical education can attend to these gaps while and through addressing gender normativity. Methods To fill these gaps in the literature, we undertook a qualitative study with 30 trans identified people and 11 physicians (N=41) in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Methods included semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Data were transcribed and analyzed with NVivo qualitative data software using iterative methods. Results An overwhelming finding of this study was a lack of physician knowledge, as reported both by trans people and by physicians, that resulted in a denial of trans-specific care and also impacted general care. Transphobia was also identified as a barrier to quality care by both trans people and physicians. Physicians were open to learning more about trans health and healthcare. Conclusions The findings suggest a pressing need for better medical education that exposes students to basic skills in trans health so that they can become competent in providing care to trans people. This learning must take place alongside anti-transphobia education. Based on these findings, we suggest key recommendations at the close of the paper for providing quality trans health curriculum in medical education. PMID:28344694

  11. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT®. Results: Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Conclusions: Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. PMID:27057381

  12. Factors influencing medication knowledge and beliefs on warfarin adherence among patients with atrial fibrillation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shujuan; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Xianpei; Gao, Chuanyu; Qin, Yuhua; Cai, Haixia; Chen, Boya; Cao, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin is often used for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the factors affecting patient adherence to warfarin therapy have not been fully understood. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in AF patients undergoing warfarin therapy at least 6 months prior to the study. The clinical data collected using questionnaires by phone interviews included the following: 1) self-reported adherence measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8©; 2) beliefs about medicines surveyed by Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ); and 3) drug knowledge as measured by the Warfarin Related Knowledge Test (WRKT). Demographic and clinical factors associated with warfarin adherence were identified using a logistic regression model. Results Two hundred eighty-eight patients completed the survey and 93 (32.3%) of them were classified as nonadherent (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 score <6). Major factors predicting warfarin adherence included age, cardiovascular disorders, WRKT, and BMQ; WRKT and BMQ were independently correlated with adherence to warfarin therapy by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Adherents were more likely to have greater knowledge scores and stronger beliefs in the necessity of their specific medications ([odds ratio {OR} =1.81, 95% confidence interval {CI} =1.51–2.15] and [OR =1.17, 95% CI =1.06–1.29], respectively). Patients with greater concerns about adverse reactions and more negative views of general harm were more likely to be nonadherent ([OR =0.76, 95% CI =0.69–0.84] and [OR =0.82, 95% CI =0.73–0.92], respectively). Conclusion BMK and WRKT are related with patient behavior toward warfarin adherence. BMQ can be applied to identify patients at increased risk of nonadherence. PMID:28223782

  13. Knowledge-Based Analysis And Understanding Of 3D Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Juvvadi, Sridhar

    1988-06-01

    The anatomical three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging modalities, such as X-ray CT and MRI, have been well recognized in the diagnostic radiology for several years while the nuclear medicine modalities, such as PET, have just started making a strong impact through functional imaging. Though PET images provide the functional information about the human organs, they are hard to interpret because of the lack of anatomical information. Our objective is to develop a knowledge-based biomedical image analysis system which can interpret the anatomical images (such as CT). The anatomical information thus obtained can then be used in analyzing PET images of the same patient. This will not only help in interpreting PET images but it will also provide a means of studying the correlation between the anatomical and functional imaging. This paper presents the preliminary results of the knowledge based biomedical image analysis system for interpreting CT images of the chest.

  14. An expert-guided decision tree construction strategy: an application in knowledge discovery with medical databases.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y. S.; King, P. H.; Higgins, M. S.; Pierce, D.; Patel, N. P.

    1997-01-01

    With the steady growth in electronic patient records and clinical medical informatics systems, the data collected for routine clinical use have been accumulating at a dramatic rate. Inter-disciplinary research provides a new generation of computation tools in knowledge discovery and data management is in great demand. In this study, an expert-guided decision tree construction strategy is proposed to offer an user-oriented knowledge discovery environment. The strategy allows experts, based on their expertise and/or preference, to override inductive decision tree construction process. Moreover, by reviewing decision paths, experts could focus on subsets of data that may be clues to new findings, or simply contaminated cases. PMID:9357618

  15. The Digital Anatomist Distributed Framework and Its Applications to Knowledge-based Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The domain of medical imaging is anatomy. Therefore, anatomic knowledge should be a rational basis for organizing and analyzing images. The goals of the Digital Anatomist Program at the University of Washington include the development of an anatomically based software framework for organizing, analyzing, visualizing and utilizing biomedical information. The framework is based on representations for both spatial and symbolic anatomic knowledge, and is being implemented in a distributed architecture in which multiple client programs on the Internet are used to update and access an expanding set of anatomical information resources. The development of this framework is driven by several practical applications, including symbolic anatomic reasoning, knowledge based image segmentation, anatomy information retrieval, and functional brain mapping. Since each of these areas involves many difficult image processing issues, our research strategy is an evolutionary one, in which applications are developed somewhat independently, and partial solutions are integrated in a piecemeal fashion, using the network as the substrate. This approach assumes that networks of interacting components can synergistically work together to solve problems larger than either could solve on its own. Each of the individual projects is described, along with evaluations that show that the individual components are solving the problems they were designed for, and are beginning to interact with each other in a synergistic manner. We argue that this synergy will increase, not only within our own group, but also among groups as the Internet matures, and that an anatomic knowledge base will be a useful means for fostering these interactions. PMID:9147337

  16. Medical students' learning from patient-led teaching: experiential versus biomedical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group interviews. Analysis was based on a prior developed model of the characteristics of learning from patient instructors. The authors used this model as sensitizing concepts for the analysis of data while at the same time being open to new insights by constant comparison of old and new findings. Results showed a negotiation both between and within the students of the importance of patients' experiential knowledge versus scientific biomedical knowledge. On one hand students appreciated the experiential learning environment offered in the PI-led sessions representing a patient-centred approach, and acknowledged the importance of the PIs' individual perspectives and experiential knowledge. On the other hand, representing the scientific biomedical perspective and traditional step-by step teaching, students expressed unfamiliarity with the unstructured experiential learning and scepticism regarding the credibility of the patients' knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of the complexity of involving patients as teachers in healthcare education and initiates a discussion on how to complement faculty-led teaching with patient-led teaching involving varying degrees of patient autonomy in the planning and delivering of the teaching.

  17. The Impact of Pediatric Palliative Care Education on Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Przysło, Łukasz; Kędzierska, Bogna; Stolarska, Małgorzata; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC) issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM) and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN) were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final analysis, authors qualified 375 double forms filled in correctly (320 FM and 55 DN). Before the programme, students' knowledge assessed on 0–100-point scale was low (FM: median: 43.35 points; 25%–75%: (40p–53.3p); DN: 26.7p; 13.3p–46.7p), and, in addition, there were differences (P < 0.001) between both faculties. Upon completion of the programme, significant increase of the level of knowledge in both faculties was noted (FM: 80p; 73.3–100; DN: 80p; 66.7p–80p). Participation in the programme changed declared attitudes towards some aspects of withholding of special procedures, euthanasia, and abortion. Both groups of students positively evaluated the programme. Conclusions. This study identifies medical students' limited knowledge of PPC. Educational intervention changes students' attitudes to the specific end-of-life issues. There is a need for palliative care curricula evaluation. PMID:24501581

  18. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  19. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Among Dental and Medical Students in Eastern India – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Harish; Behura, Shyam Sundar; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Nishat, Roquaiya; Dash, Kailash C.; Mohiddin, Gouse

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices among dental and medical students in a Health care centre at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty BDS and MBBS students each from Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences and Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences of KIIT University, Bhubaneswar respectively, were invited to participate in this survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire in English comprising 27 questions, which was designed to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices. The obtained data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 software. Results: On comparison of the scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice, the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among dental students than medical students. The study also showed that female students (both dental and medical) had better oral health knowledge and showed better oral health practices than male students. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test showed that, although dental students had better knowledge and attitude towards oral health, there was a lack of adequate practice among them. Conclusion: Further emphasis on oral health is necessary in undergraduate training to improve oral health knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental and medical students as they will act as role models for oral health education among individuals and community at large. PMID:28316951

  20. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  1. Comparison of Knowledge Scores of Medical Students in Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Curriculum on Public Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurpinar, Erol; Musal, Berna; Aksakoglu, Gazanfer; Ucku, Reyhan

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to compare the knowledge scores of medical students in Problem-based Learning and traditional curriculum on public health topics. Methods: We planned a cross-sectional study including the fifth and sixth year medical students of Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey. The fifth year students (PBL group, n = 56)…

  2. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  3. Dentists’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Treating Patients Taking Oral Antithrombotic Medications – A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bagadia, Ritvi K; Mohan, Anusha; Kandaswamy, Eswar; Chandrasekaran, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction India lists high on patients suffering from diabetes, hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction. Hence, a large proportion of the population is on long term Oral Antithrombotic Medications (OAM). Though several guidelines exist on dental management of these patients, previous surveys have shown variation among the dentists. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists in Chennai, India, towards dental management of patients taking OAM using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods The survey was conducted among 256 dentists in Chennai, India using a printed questionnaire containing 16 questions, at their university location. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Of the final population of dentists who were included in the survey (n =212), majority of them were aware about drugs such as warfarin and aspirin compared to other newer drugs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban). Most participants took physician’s opinion before proceeding with any invasive dental procedure and thromboembolic events were their major concern while treating patients on OAM. Conclusion The survey revealed dentists are knowledgeable about management of patients on OAM. However, they tend to overestimate the bleeding risk, thus being cautious in their treatment approach. Based on the results of the study, the authors suggest that continuing dental education programs and further training on management of such medically complex patients will be beneficial in order to provide optimum dental care to people taking OAM. PMID:28274053

  4. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Alice; McCarthy, Geraldine; Weathers, Elizabeth; Friedman, M Isabel; Gallo, Katherine; Ehrenfeld, Mally; Chan, Sophia; Li, William H C; Poletti, Piera; Zanotti, Renzo; Molloy, D William; McGlade, Ciara; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Itzhaki, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Nurses' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  5. What and How Advanced Medical Students Learn from Reasoning through Multiple Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshuizen, H. P. A.; van de Wiel, M. W. J.; Schmidt, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article concerns the questions what and how fourth-year medical students can learn from a series of cases that have a similar underlying problem. This question is crucial in the theoretical sense as it looks at mechanisms of updating and improving knowledge structures, which are conjectured to consist of "illness…

  6. Encountering Challenges with the EU Regulation on Advance Therapy Medical Products.

    PubMed

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-12-01

    This article aims at analysing how well the Advanced Therapy Medical Product Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 (ATMP Regulation) meets the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMES), academia and public tissue establishments developing advanced therapy medical products (ATMPS). Benefits and shortcomings of the ATMP Regulation are identified, and possible amendments are proposed to accelerate the translation of research into advanced therapies and to facilitate the commercialisation of ATMPS whilst ensuring safety. It was set up as a lex specialis to ensure the free movement of ATMPS within the EU in order to facilitate their access to the internal market and to foster the competitiveness of European pharmaceutical companies, while guaranteeing the highest level protection of public health. Since the adoption of the ATMP Regulation in late 2008, only 5 ATMPS have been granted marketing authorisations thus far. Hence, there is a need to analyse whether the ATMP Regulation meets its objectives.

  7. SHRIF, a General-Purpose System for Heuristic Retrieval of Information and Facts, Applied to Medical Knowledge Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findler, Nicholas V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes SHRIF, a System for Heuristic Retrieval of Information and Facts, and the medical knowledge base that was used in its development. Highlights include design decisions; the user-machine interface, including the language processor; and the organization of the knowledge base in an artificial intelligence (AI) project like this one. (57…

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  9. Impact of advanced autonomous non-medical practitioners in emergency care: protocol for a scoping study

    PubMed Central

    Sujan, Mark; Howard-Franks, Hannah; Swann, Garry; Soanes, Kirsti; Pope, Catherine; Crouch, Robert; Staniszewska, Sophie; Maxwell, Elaine; Huang, Huayi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency care services are looking for new models of care delivery to deal with changing patient demographics and increased pressures. It has been suggested that advanced non-medical practitioners might be valuable for delivering such new models of care. However, it is not clear what the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care is. This scoping study addresses the following research question: What is known from the literature about the different types of impact of the deployment of advanced (autonomous) non-medical practitioners in emergency care? Methods and analysis A scoping study will be undertaken to examine and map the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care. The scoping study follows the methodology proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. Searches will be carried out on databases of peer-reviewed literature and other sources to systematically identify and characterise the literature. Papers will be screened using a 2-stage process to identify the most relevant literature. Papers will be screened by title and abstract, followed by full-text review. Data abstraction and synthesis will be performed using a narrative thematic analysis. Ethics and dissemination We will communicate the findings to Health Education England, NHS Improvement and the Royal College of Emergency Medicine through existing links provided by members of the project team. We anticipate that the findings will also be of interest to other similar organisations internationally. By identifying gaps in the research literature, we anticipate that the study will generate recommendations for informing future high-quality research studies about the impact of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care as well as in other settings. The research findings will be submitted for publication to relevant peer-reviewed journals as well as professional magazines. The scoping study uses only previously published

  10. ‘A Most Protean Disease’: Aligning Medical Knowledge of Modern Influenza, 1890–1914

    PubMed Central

    Bresalier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article reconstructs the process of defining influenza as an infectious disease in the contexts of British medicine between 1890 and 1914. It shows how professional agreement on its nature and identity involved aligning different forms of knowledge produced in the field (public health), in the clinic (metropolitan hospitals) and in the laboratory (bacteriology). Two factors were crucial to this process: increasing trust in bacteriology and the organisation of large-scale collective investigations into influenza by Britain’s central public authority, the Medical Department of the Local Government Board. These investigations integrated epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological evidence into a new definition of influenza as a specific infection, in which a germ – Bacillus influenzae – was determined as playing a necessary but not sufficient role in its aetiology, transmission and pathogenesis. In defining ‘modern influenza’, bacteriological concepts and techniques were adapted to and selectively incorporated into existing clinical, pathological and epidemiological approaches. Mutual alignment thus was crucial to its construction and, more generally, to shaping developing relationships between laboratory, clinical and public health medicine in turn-of-the-century Britain. While these relationships were marked by tension and conflict, they were also characterised by important patterns of convergence, in which the problems, interests and practices of public health professionals, clinicians and laboratory pathologists were made increasingly commensurable. Rather than retrospectively judge the late nineteenth-century definition of influenza as being based on the wrong microbe, this article argues for the need to examine how it was established through a particular alignment of medical knowledge, which then underpinned medical approaches to the disease up to and beyond the devastating 1918–19 pandemic. PMID:23112382

  11. Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

    2013-01-01

    Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

  12. Knowledge discovery from data as a framework to decision support in medical domains

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge discovery from data (KDD) is a multidisciplinary discipline which appeared in 1996 for “non trivial identifying of valid, novel, potentially useful, ultimately understandable patterns in data”. Pre-treatment of data and post-processing is as important as the data exploitation (Data Mining) itself. Different analysis techniques can be properly combined to produce explicit knowledge from data. Methods Hybrid KDD methodologies combining Artificial Intelligence with Statistics and visualization have been used to identify patterns in complex medical phenomena: experts provide prior knowledge (pK); it biases the search of distinguishable groups of homogeneous objects; support-interpretation tools (CPG) assisted experts in conceptualization and labelling of discovered patterns, consistently with pK. Results Patterns of dependency in mental disabilities supported decision-making on legislation of the Spanish Dependency Law in Catalonia. Relationships between type of neurorehabilitation treatment and patterns of response for brain damage are assessed. Patterns of the perceived QOL along time are used in spinal cord lesion to improve social inclusion. Conclusion Reality is more and more complex and classical data analyses are not powerful enough to model it. New methodologies are required including multidisciplinarity and stressing on production of understandable models. Interaction with the experts is critical to generate meaningful results which can really support decision-making, particularly convenient transferring the pK to the system, as well as interpreting results in close interaction with experts. KDD is a valuable paradigm, particularly when facing very complex domains, not well understood yet, like many medical phenomena.

  13. Origination of Medical Advance Directives Among Nursing Home Residents With and Without Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xueya; Cram, Peter; Li, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nursing home residents with serious mental illness need a high level of general medical and end-of-life services. This study tested whether persons with serious mental illness are as likely as other nursing home residents to make informed choices about treatments through medical advance care plans. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted with data from a 2004 national survey of nursing home residents with serious mental illness (N=1,769) and without (N=11,738). Bivariate and multivariate analyses determined differences in documented advance care plans, including living wills; “do not resuscitate” and “do not hospitalize” orders; and orders concerning restriction of feeding tube, medication, or other treatments. Results The overall rates of having any of the four advance care plans were 57% and 68% for residents with and without serious mental illness, respectively (p<.001). Residents with serious mental illness also showed lower rates for individual advance care plans. In a multivariate analysis that adjusted for resident and facility characteristics (N=1,174 nursing homes) as well as survey procedures, serious mental illness was associated with a 24% reduced odds of having any advance directives (adjusted odds ratio=.76, 95% confidence interval=.66–.87, p<.001). Similar results were found for individual documented plans. Conclusions Among U.S. nursing home residents, those with serious mental illness were less likely than others to have written medical advance directives. Future research is needed to help understand both resident factors (such as inappropriate behaviors, impaired communication skills, and disrupted family support) and provider factors (including training, experience, and attitude) that underlie this finding. PMID:21209301

  14. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  15. Effects of a patient’s name and image on medical knowledge acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Guajardo, Jesus R.; Petershack, Jean A.; Caplow, Julie A.; Littlefield, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether there are differences in medical students’ (MS) knowledge acquisition after being provided a virtual patient (VP) case summary with a patient’s name and facial picture included compared to no patient’s name or image. Method 76 MS from four clerkship blocks participated. Blocks one and three (Treatment group) were provided case materials containing the patient’s name and facial picture while blocks two and four (Control group) were provided similar materials without the patient’s name or image. Knowledge acquisition was evaluated with a multiple-choice-question examination (CQA_K). Results Treatment group CQA_K scores were 64.6% (block one, n = 18) and 76.0% (block three, n = 22). Control group scores were 71.7%, (block two, n = 17) and 68.4% (block four, n = 19). ANOVA F-test among the four block mean scores was not significant; F (3, 72) = 1.68, p = 0.18, η2=0.07. Only 22.2% and 27.3% of the MS from blocks one and three respectively correctly recalled the patient’s name while 16.7% and 40.9% recalled the correct final diagnosis of the patient. Conclusions These results suggest that including a patient’s name and facial picture on reading materials may not improve MS knowledge acquisition. Corroborating studies should be performed before applying these results to the design of instructional materials. PMID:27004072

  16. Critical feminist narrative inquiry: advancing knowledge through double-hermeneutic narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Pitre, Nicole Y; Kushner, Kaysi E; Raine, Kim D; Hegadoren, Kathy M

    2013-01-01

    Critical feminist narrative inquiry is informed by the theoretical triangulation of critical, feminist, and symbolic interactionist perspectives. We first locate this approach within narrative research and identify the epistemological underpinnings and assumptions supporting this innovative methodology. The analytic and interpretive objectives and processes involved to achieve a double-hermeneutic narrative analysis are detailed. We conclude by proposing that this novel approach is suitable to advance knowledge about the nature and context of individual experiences, to expose circumstances leading to social injustice and health inequities, and ultimately to contribute to improved health outcomes for traditionally silenced, marginalized, or vulnerable populations.

  17. [Theory and Practice of the Constructive Jigsaw Method in Advancing Domain Knowledge and Skills in Parallel].

    PubMed

    Masukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Sciences constitute a rapidly expanding discipline that focuses on the learning potential of humans. In this paper, I will discuss the particular learning mechanism involved in the concomitant advancement of domain knowledge and 21st century skills, as well as the Constructive Jigsaw Method of knowledge construction through collaboration-that is, collaborative problem solving. An especially important focus on knowledge construction separates routine experts from adaptive experts. While routine experts develop a core set of skills that they apply throughout their lives with increasing efficiency, adaptive experts are much more likely to change their core skills and continually expand the depth of their expertise. This restructuring of core ideas and skills may reduce their efficiency in the short run but make them more flexible in the long run. The Constructive Jigsaw Method employs a learning mechanism that encourages the development of adaptive experts. Under this method, students first study a piece of material in an expert group. One member from each of several expert groups then joins a new study group, a jigsaw group. The members of this new group then combine what they have learned, creating new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the concept through collaboration, communication, and innovation.

  18. NLP techniques associated with the OpenGALEN ontology for semi-automatic textual extraction of medical knowledge: abstracting and mapping equivalent linguistic and logical constructs.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, M B; Roberts, A; Rector, A L

    2000-01-01

    This research project presents methodological and theoretical issues related to the inter-relationship between linguistic and conceptual semantics, analysing the results obtained by the application of a NLP parser to a set of radiology reports. Our objective is to define a technique for associating linguistic methods with domain specific ontologies for semi-automatic extraction of intermediate representation (IR) information formats and medical ontological knowledge from clinical texts. We have applied the Edinburgh LTG natural language parser to 2810 clinical narratives describing radiology procedures. In a second step, we have used medical expertise and ontology formalism for identification of semantic structures and abstraction of IR schemas related to the processed texts. These IR schemas are an association of linguistic and conceptual knowledge, based on their semantic contents. This methodology aims to contribute to the elaboration of models relating linguistic and logical constructs based on empirical data analysis. Advance in this field might lead to the development of computational techniques for automatic enrichment of medical ontologies from real clinical environments, using descriptive knowledge implicit in large text corpora sources.

  19. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-02

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  20. Improving medical graduates’ training in palliative care: advancing education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Head, Barbara A; Schapmire, Tara J; Earnshaw, Lori; Chenault, John; Pfeifer, Mark; Sawning, Susan; Shaw, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual) of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients. PMID:26955298

  1. Improving medical graduates' training in palliative care: advancing education and practice.

    PubMed

    Head, Barbara A; Schapmire, Tara J; Earnshaw, Lori; Chenault, John; Pfeifer, Mark; Sawning, Susan; Shaw, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual) of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients.

  2. Military medical advances resulting from the conflict in Korea, Part II: Historic clinical accomplishments.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    Throughout the recorded history of civilization, there has been armed conflict. Warfare has been associated with advances in care for the wounded. Many of these advances when shown effective on the battlefield become incorporated into civilian health care. It is a laboratory where there is unfortunately much clinical material and presents opportunity for the creative, curious, and innovative. This article reviews the medical advances that resulted from the Korean War. There were notable advances in neurosurgery, vascular surgery, and plastic surgery. Tools from prior wars were rediscovered, dusted off, and used to stop combat losses from psychiatric trauma. A treatment was developed for cleft lip by a plastic surgeon, thus giving hope to young lives. War is a disruptive, destructive, and harrowing experience--but can lead to improvements in care for the wounded and these developments can improve the lives of people everywhere.

  3. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  4. Assessing the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica J; Di Loreto, Luciano; Kara, Alim; Yu, Kavan; Mattia, Alicia; Soave, David; Weyman, Karen; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Objective : We assessed the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after a 1-hour educational intervention. Methods : A mixed-methods approach was used with a 52-item cross-sectional paper survey and 1 focus group of third-year medical students. The views of these medical students towards chiropractic were assessed previously in their second-year of medical school. ANOVA and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to assess between-group differences between the medical students' views before and after the educational intervention. The constant comparative method for analyzing qualitative data was used to identify emergent themes from the focus group transcript. Results : Of 112 third-year medical students, 58 completed the survey (51.7% response rate). The focus group consisted of 6 medical students. Self-reported understanding of chiropractic and number of attitude-positive responses were significantly higher in the group after the educational session. The average number of correct responses assessing knowledge on chiropractic also was significantly higher. Focus group themes were that medical students wanted exposure to chiropractic in clinical settings, had negative attitudes towards chiropractic formed from hidden curriculum, had concerns regarding evidence and safety of chiropractic, and thought that timing of the session on chiropractic was too late in the curriculum. Conclusions : The attitudes and knowledge of medical students towards chiropractic improved immediately after a 1-hour educational intervention. Formally educating medical students on chiropractic may help minimize hidden curriculum issues regarding chiropractic, as identified by the medical students, and facilitate collaboration between medical and chiropractic providers.

  5. Advances in medical education and practice: student perceptions of the flipped classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramnanan, Christopher J; Pound, Lynley D

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom (FC) approach to teaching has been increasingly employed in undergraduate medical education in recent years. In FC applications, students are first exposed to content via online resources. Subsequent face-to-face class time can then be devoted to student-centered activities that promote active learning. Although the FC has been well received by students in other contexts, the perceptions of medical students regarding this innovation are unclear. This review serves as an early exploration into medical student perceptions of benefits and limitations of the FC. Medical students have generally expressed strong appreciation for the pre-class preparation activities (especially when facilitated by concise, readily accessed online tools) as well as for interactive, engaging small group classroom activities. Some students have expressed concerns with the FC and noted that suboptimal student preparation and insufficient direction and structure during active learning sessions may limit the student-centered benefits. Although students generally perceive that FC approaches can improve their learning and knowledge, this has not been conclusively shown via performances on assessment tools, which may be related to caveats with the assessment tools used. In any case, lifelong self-directed learning skills are perceived by medical students to be enhanced by the FC. In conclusion, medical students have generally expressed strong satisfaction with early applications of the FC to undergraduate medical education, and generally prefer this method to lecture-based instruction.

  6. Advances in medical education and practice: student perceptions of the flipped classroom

    PubMed Central

    Ramnanan, Christopher J; Pound, Lynley D

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom (FC) approach to teaching has been increasingly employed in undergraduate medical education in recent years. In FC applications, students are first exposed to content via online resources. Subsequent face-to-face class time can then be devoted to student-centered activities that promote active learning. Although the FC has been well received by students in other contexts, the perceptions of medical students regarding this innovation are unclear. This review serves as an early exploration into medical student perceptions of benefits and limitations of the FC. Medical students have generally expressed strong appreciation for the pre-class preparation activities (especially when facilitated by concise, readily accessed online tools) as well as for interactive, engaging small group classroom activities. Some students have expressed concerns with the FC and noted that suboptimal student preparation and insufficient direction and structure during active learning sessions may limit the student-centered benefits. Although students generally perceive that FC approaches can improve their learning and knowledge, this has not been conclusively shown via performances on assessment tools, which may be related to caveats with the assessment tools used. In any case, lifelong self-directed learning skills are perceived by medical students to be enhanced by the FC. In conclusion, medical students have generally expressed strong satisfaction with early applications of the FC to undergraduate medical education, and generally prefer this method to lecture-based instruction. PMID:28144171

  7. Knowledge Style Profiling: An Exploration of Cognitive, Temperament, Demographic and Organizational Characteristics among Decision Makers Using Advanced Analytical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Vincent A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the possibilities of identifying knowledge style factors that could be used as central elements of a professional business analyst's (PBA) performance attributes at work for those decision makers that use advanced analytical technologies on decision making tasks. Indicators of knowledge style were…

  8. The effects of advance organizer and prerequisite knowledge passages on the learning and retention of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Vivian C.

    Fifty-five ninth-grade science students participated in this study which compared the effects of two pretreatments, an advance organizer and a prerequisite knowledge passage, on learning and retention measured at low (knowledge and comprehension) and high (application and analysis) levels of the cognitive domain. The effectiveness of the pretreatments was measured by a framework test and a prerequisite knowledge test prior to the beginning of instruction. An analysis of covariance, with IQ as the covariate, was performed on the framework test and the prerequisite knowledge test. It was found that the advance organizer group performed significantly better than the prerequisite knowledge group (p < 0.001) on the first framework test, and the prerequisite knowledge group performed significantly better (p < 0.001) than the advance organizer group on the prerequisite knowledge test. These results provide evidence that both passages were read and understood by the students and that the passages had their intended effects as preinstructional treatments. An analysis of covariance, with IQ as the covariate, was performed on the low-level questions, high-level questions, and total score for the posttest and retention test. The group means for the two question levels and the total score were not found to be significantly different (p > 0.05) for either the posttest or retention test. The results of this study do not provide evidence that an advance organizer facilitates learning and retention more than a preinstructional treatment that concentrates on developing prerequisite knowledge.

  9. M-health medical video communication systems: an overview of design approaches and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Panayides, A S; Pattichis, M S; Constantinides, A G; Pattichis, C S

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the new, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, combined with wide deployment of 4G wireless networks, will provide significant support toward the adoption of mobile-health (m-health) medical video communication systems in standard clinical practice. For the first time since the emergence of m-health systems and services, medical video communication systems can be deployed that can rival the standards of in-hospital examinations. In this paper, we provide a thorough overview of today's advancements in the field, discuss existing approaches, and highlight the future trends and objectives.

  10. Knowledge and Awareness of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia among Registered Medical Practitioners in Tamil Nadu: Are They Suboptimal?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Shanthi; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of people with FH are undiagnosed and under treated. Aim To determine awareness, knowledge and practices of registered medical practitioners regarding FH in India. Materials and Methods Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH. Results A total of 133 physicians were surveyed, 27.9% perceived themselves to have above average familiarity with FH and 71.4% correctly described FH. 41.4% of physicians were unaware and unsure whether they had FH patients under their care. The awareness of specific aspects of FH were as follows: heritability 35.3%, prevalence 31.6%, typical lipid profile 34.6%, CVD relating to FH13.5%, genetic testing 33.1%, cascade screening 41.4%, preventive, management and referral services for FH 12.8%, 49.6% of them thought that the age for screening young people for FH should be 13 to 18 years. 84.2% selected GP’s as the most effective health care provider for the early detection and care of FH as being useful. 69.2% selected interpretive commenting on lipid profile to highlight patients at risk of FH. 91.7% and 19.5% of physicians identified statins as monotherapy and statin with ezetimibe as combination therapy for FH, respectively. Conclusion The study identified substantial deficit in the awareness and knowledge of FH among primary care physicians in Tamil Nadu. Extensive and continuous medical education programs are required to close the gap in coronary prevention. PMID:27437273

  11. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  12. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  13. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  14. [Advances in medical care for extremely low birth weight infants worldwide].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhang, Qian-Shen

    2013-08-01

    Dramatic advances in neonatal medicine over recent decades have resulted in decreased mortality and morbidity rates for extremely low birth weight infants. However, the survival of these infants is associated with short- and long-term morbidity, including severe intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. This article reviewed the latest advances in the medical care for extremely low birth weight infants including survival rate, ethical issues and short- and long-term morbidity, domestically and abroad.

  15. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  16. Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation vs Best Medical Therapy for Patients With Advanced Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Frances M.; Follett, Kenneth; Stern, Matthew; Hur, Kwan; Harris, Crystal; Marks, William J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Sagher, Oren; Reda, Domenic; Moy, Claudia S.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Burchiel, Kim; Hogarth, Penelope; Lai, Eugene C.; Duda, John E.; Holloway, Kathryn; Samii, Ali; Horn, Stacy; Bronstein, Jeff; Stoner, Gatana; Heemskerk, Jill; Huang, Grant D.

    2010-01-01

    Context Deep brain stimulation is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD), although there are few randomized trials comparing treatments, and most studies exclude older patients. Objective To compare 6-month outcomes for patients with PD who received deep brain stimulation or best medical therapy. Design, Setting, and Patients Randomized controlled trial of patients who received either deep brain stimulation or best medical therapy, stratified by study site and patient age (<70 years vs ≥70 years) at 7 Veterans Affairs and 6 university hospitals between May 2002 and October 2005. A total of 255 patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage ≥2 while not taking medications) were enrolled; 25% were aged 70 years or older. The final 6-month follow-up visit occurred in May 2006. Intervention Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (n=60) or globus pallidus (n=61). Patients receiving best medical therapy (n=134) were actively managed by movement disorder neurologists. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was time spent in the “on” state (good motor control with unimpeded motor function) without troubling dyskinesia, using motor diaries. Other outcomes included motor function, quality of life, neurocognitive function, and adverse events. Results Patients who received deep brain stimulation gained a mean of 4.6 h/d of on time without troubling dyskinesia compared with 0 h/d for patients who received best medical therapy (between group mean difference, 4.5 h/d [95% CI, 3.7-5.4 h/d]; P<.001). Motor function improved significantly (P<.001) with deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy, such that 71% of deep brain stimulation patients and 32% of best medical therapy patients experienced clinically meaningful motor function improvements (≥5 points). Compared with the best medical therapy group, the deep brain stimulation group experienced significant improvements in the summary measure of quality of life and on 7 of 8 PD

  17. Integrated Medical Information Technology System (IMITS): Information and Clinical Technologies for the Advancement of Healthcare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-31

    Communications in Medicine ( DICOM ) standard interfaces allow communication between the DRDWA and various PACS vendors throughout the Air Force. This...Final Report: FY05 IMITS: Information and Clinical Technologies for the Advancement of Healthcare Page 15  DICOM standardization ensures...interoperability with all existing DICOM capable imaging repositories and future additions to the Air Force medical imaging initiative. The Air Force maintains a

  18. Advanced search of the electronic medical record: augmenting safety and efficiency in radiology.

    PubMed

    Zalis, Michael; Harris, Mitchell

    2010-08-01

    The integration of electronic medical record (EMR) systems into clinical practice has been spurred by general consensus and recent federal incentives and is set to become a standard feature of clinical practice in the US. We discuss how the addition of advanced search capabilities to the EMR can improve the radiologist's ability to integrate contextual data into workflows associated with both for diagnostic and interventional procedures.

  19. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  20. Living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home.

    PubMed

    Fex, Angelika; Flensner, Gullvi; Ek, Anna-Christina; Söderhamn, Olle

    2011-12-01

    Living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home An increased number of chronically ill adults perform self-care while using different sorts of advanced medical technology at home. This hermeneutical study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home. Eleven next of kin to adults performing self-care at home, either using long-term oxygen from a cylinder or ventilator, or performing peritoneal or haemodialysis, were interviewed. The qualitative interviews were analysed using a Gadamerian methodology. The main interpretation explained the meaning as rhythmical patterns of connectedness versus separation, and of sorrow versus reconciliation. Dependence on others was shown in the need for support from healthcare professionals and significant others. In conclusion, next of kin took considerable responsibility for dependent-care. All next of kin were positive to the idea of bringing the technology home, even though their own needs receded into the background, while focusing on the best for the patient. The results were discussed in relation to dependent-care and transition, which may have an influence on the self-care of next of kin and patients. The study revealed a need for further nursing attention to next of kin in this context.

  1. Medical knowledge and the improvement of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy: A case study from Transylvania (1770–1830)

    PubMed Central

    Sechel, Teodora Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars. The Transylvanian case study shows how both codified medical language and ordinary language were constructed and enriched by a large number of medical books and brochures. The publication of medical literature in Central European vernacular languages in order to popularise new medical knowledge was a comprehensive programme, designed on the one hand by intellectual, political and religious elites who urged the improvement of the fatherland and the promotion of the common good by perfecting the arts and sciences. On the other hand, the imperial administration’s initiatives affected local forms of medical knowledge and the construction of vernacular languages. In the eighteenth century, the construction of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy took on a significant political character. However, in the process of building of the scientific and medical vocabulary, the main preoccupation was precision, clarity and accessibility of the neologisms being invented to encompass the medical phenomena being described. In spite of political conflicts among the ‘nations’ living in Transylvania, physicians borrowed words from German, Hungarian and Romanian. Thus they elevated several words used in everyday language to the upper social stratum of language use, leading to the invention of new terms to describe particular medical practices or phenomena. PMID:22595134

  2. New Players for Advanced Prostate Cancer and the Rationalisation of Insulin-Sensitising Medication

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Jennifer H.; Sarkar, Phoebe L.; Lubik, Amy A.; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are recognised risk factors for the development of some cancers and, increasingly, predict more aggressive disease, treatment failure, and cancer-specific mortality. Many factors may contribute to this clinical observation. Hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypoxia, ER stress, and inflammation associated with expanded adipose tissue are thought to be among the main culprits driving malignant growth and cancer advancement. This observation has led to the proposal of the potential utility of “old players” for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome as new cancer adjuvant therapeutics. Androgen-regulated pathways drive proliferation, differentiation, and survival of benign and malignant prostate tissue. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) exploits this dependence to systemically treat advanced prostate cancer resulting in anticancer response and improvement of cancer symptoms. However, the initial therapeutic response from ADT eventually progresses to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which is currently incurable. ADT rapidly induces hyperinsulinaemia which is associated with more rapid treatment failure. We discuss current observations of cancer in the context of obesity, diabetes, and insulin-lowering medication. We provide an update on current treatments for advanced prostate cancer and discuss whether metabolic dysfunction, developed during ADT, provides a unique therapeutic window for rapid translation of insulin-sensitising medication as combination therapy with antiandrogen targeting agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23573093

  3. How to achieve synergy between medical education and cognitive neuroscience? An exercise on prior knowledge in understanding.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Dirk J; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-05-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of prior knowledge in understanding plays a strategic role in both medical education and cognitive neuroscience it is used as a central element in our discussion. A critical condition for the acquisition of new knowledge is the existence of prior knowledge, which can be built in a mental model or schema. Formation of schemas is a central event in student-centered active learning, by which mental models are constructed and reconstructed. These theoretical considerations from cognitive psychology foster scientific discussions that may lead to salient issues and questions for research with cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how knowledge, insight and experience are established in the brain and to clarify their neural correlates. Recently, evidence has been obtained that new information processed by the hippocampus can be consolidated into a stable, neocortical network more rapidly if this new information fits readily into a schema. Opportunities for medical education and medical education research can be created in a fruitful dialogue within an educational multidisciplinary platform. In this synergetic setting many questions can be raised by educational scholars interested in evidence-based education that may be highly relevant for integrative research and the further development of medical education.

  4. New space technology advances knowledge of the remote polar regions. [Arctic and Antarctic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery is rapidly increasing man's knowledge of polar regions. Products compiled from this imagery at scales of 1:250,000, 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 are already providing valuable information to earth scientists working in Antarctica. Significant finds detected by these bench mark products were glaciological changes, advancement in ice fronts, discovery of new geographic features, and the repositioning of nunataks, islands, and ice tongues. Tests conducted in Antarctica have proven the feasibility of tracking Navy navigation satellites to establish ground control for positioning ERTS-1 imagery in remote areas. ERTS imagery coupled with satellite geodesy shows great promise and may prove to be the most practical and cost effective way to meet the small-scale cartographic requirements of the polar science community.

  5. Integrating knowledge across domains to advance the science of health behavior: overcoming challenges and facilitating success.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Grenen, Emily G; O'Connell, Mary; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hall, Kara L; Taber, Jennifer M; Vogel, Amanda L

    2017-03-01

    Health behaviors often co-occur and have common determinants at multiple levels (e.g., individual, relational, environmental). Nevertheless, research programs often examine single health behaviors without a systematic attempt to integrate knowledge across behaviors. This paper highlights the significant potential of cross-cutting behavioral research to advance our understanding of the mechanisms and causal factors that shape health behaviors. It also offers suggestions for how researchers could develop more effective interventions. We highlight barriers to such an integrative science along with potential steps that can be taken to address these barriers. With a more nuanced understanding of health behavior, redundancies in research can be minimized, and a stronger evidence base for the development of health behavior interventions can be realized.

  6. Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for Advancing Criminological Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2016-02-01

    The qualitative analysis of individual cases has a prominent place in the development of criminological theory, yet progression in the scientific study of crime has largely been viewed as a distinctly quantitative endeavor. In the process, much of the theoretical depth and precision supplied by earlier methods of criminological knowledge production have been sacrificed. The current work argues for a return to our criminological roots by supplementing quantitative analyses with the qualitative inspection of individual cases. We provide a specific example of a literature (i.e., criminal specialization/versatility) that has become increasingly quantitative and could benefit from the use of the proposed approach. We conclude by offering additional areas of research that might be advanced by our framework presented here.

  7. Theme section on mesophotic coral ecosystems: advances in knowledge and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Yossi; Eyal, Gal; Treibitz, Tali; Lesser, Michael P.; Appeldoorn, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The Second International Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems (MCEs) workshop was held in Eilat, Israel, October 26-31, 2014. Here we provide an account of: (1) advances in our knowledge of MCE ecology, including the central question of the potential vertical connectivity between MCEs and shallow-water reefs (SWRs), and that of the validity of the deep-reef refugia hypothesis (DRRH); (2) the contribution of the 2014 MCE workshop to the central question presented in (1), as well as its contribution to novel MCE studies on corals, sponges, fish, and crabs; and (3) gaps, priorities, and recommendations for future research stemming from the workshop. Despite their close proximity to well-studied SWRs, and the growing evidence of their importance, our scientific knowledge of MCEs is still in its infancy. During the last five years, we have witnessed an ever-increasing scientific interest in MCEs, expressed in the exponential increase in the number of publications studying this unique environment. The emerging consensus is that lower MCE benthic assemblages represent unique communities, either of separate species or genetically distinct individuals within species, and any significant support for the DRRH will be limited to upper MCEs. Determining the health and stability of MCEs, their biodiversity, and the degree of genetic connectivity among SWRs and MCEs, will ultimately indicate the ability of MCEs to contribute to the resilience of SWRs and help to guide future management and conservation strategies. MCEs deserve therefore management consideration in their own right. With the technological advancements taking place in recent years that facilitate access to MCEs, the prospects for exciting and innovative discoveries resulting from MCE research, spanning a wide variety of fields, are immense.

  8. Knowledge and attitude toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome among dental and medical undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health challenge. Unjustified calls for the isolation of patients with HIV infection might further constrain the potential for expansion of clinical services to deal with a greater number of such patients. This infectious illness can evoke irrational emotions and fears in health care providers. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among dental and medical students. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire dental and medical undergraduate students from two colleges was carried out using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage was used to present the data. Results: Ninety-eight percentage medical and dental undergraduate graduate students knew about HIV transmission in the hospital. Journals and internet were the leading source of information among both medical and dental undergraduates. The majority of respondents discussed HIV-related issues with their classmates. Surprisingly, 38% medical and 52% dental undergraduates think that HIV patient should be quarantined (isolation) to prevent the spread of infection. 68% medical and 60% dental undergraduates are willing to rendering dental/medical care to HIV-infected patients. Relatively large proportion (98%) of participants was willing to participate for HIV prevention program. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical and dental students is adequate, but the attitude needs improvement. Dental and medical students constitute a useful public health education resource. Comprehensive training, continuing education, and motivation will improve their knowledge and attitude, which enable them to provide better care to HIV patients. PMID:26538940

  9. USE AND KNOWLEDGE ON THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION -BOSNIAN AND HERZEGOVINIAN EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Begic, Nedim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Information technologies (IT) are becoming a tool without which further education of both medical students and doctors would not be possible. Aim: The aim of this paper was to analyze the use of IT in the prism of two systems, the old system and the Bologna system. Material and methods: Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students (2012/13–2015/16 generation) were analyzed. Results: The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant (p <0.05). About 92% of students of the old system and 98% of students of the Bologna system use computer in everyday work (only 36% of old system and 47% of the Bologna system are using “faculties” computers). The computer is used for entertainment, education, information (via Internet) and for communication (e-mail, chat, social networks) (68.5% of the old system and 84% of students of the Bologna system have chosen all 4 offered answers). MS Word and MS Power Point are significantly more used compared to the use of MS Excel in both systems (p <0.05). The knowledge necessary to use their computers student of both systems have acquired through individual work. Students feel that they need to improve knowledge of the treatment of sub-base (76% of students of the old system and 62% of students of the Bologna system). Having analyzed the generation of 2015/16, 84.5% of students of the Bologna system and 75% of students of the old system used smartphones or tablets. The purpose of using a smartphone is, in most cases for accessing the social networks. 77.4% of smartphone users of the Bologna system, or 73.3% of the users of the old system have installed an application from the medical field. We analyzed the opinions of the availability of online course content and the degree of computerization of the study process and the possibility of electronic access to the literature - the results are not at the appropriate level. Conclusion: Education in software solutions that are connected

  10. The Impact of Curriculum Design in the Acquisition of Knowledge of Oncology: Comparison Among Four Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Aalders, Wytze S; Bremers, André J A; Tio, René A; de Vries, Jakob

    2017-04-03

    Over the past 5 years, cancer has replaced coronary heart disease as the leading cause of death in the Netherlands. It is thus paramount that medical doctors acquire a knowledge of cancer, since most of them will face many patients with cancer. Studies, however, have indicated that there is a deficit in knowledge of oncology among medical students, which may be due not only to the content but also to the structure of the curriculum. In this study, we compared students' knowledge acquisition in four different undergraduate medical programs. Further, we investigated possible factors that might influence students' knowledge growth as related to oncology. The participants comprised 1440 medical students distributed over four universities in the Netherlands. To measure students' knowledge of oncology, we used their progress test results from 2007 to 2013. The progress test consists of 200 multiple-choice questions; this test is taken simultaneously four times a year by all students. All questions regarding oncology were selected. We first compared the growth of knowledge of oncology using mixed models. Then, we interviewed the oncology coordinator of each university to arrive at a better insight of each curriculum. Two schools showed similar patterns of knowledge growth, with a slight decrease in the growth rate for one of them in year 6. The third school had a faster initial growth with a faster decrease over time compared to other medical schools. The fourth school showed a steep decrease in knowledge growth during years 5 and 6. The interviews showed that the two higher-scoring schools had a more focused semester on oncology, whereas in the others, oncology was scattered throughout the curriculum. Furthermore, the absence of a pre-internship training program seemed to hinder knowledge growth in one school. Our findings suggest that curricula have an influence on students' knowledge acquisition. A focused semester on oncology and a pre-internship preparatory training

  11. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-10-01

    The Nuclear Energy Computational Fluid Dynamics Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-CAMS) system is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Utah State University (USU), and other interested parties with the objective of developing and implementing a comprehensive and readily accessible data and information management system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) verification and validation (V&V) in support of nuclear energy systems design and safety analysis. The two key objectives of the NE-CAMS effort are to identify, collect, assess, store and maintain high resolution and high quality experimental data and related expert knowledge (metadata) for use in CFD V&V assessments specific to the nuclear energy field and to establish a working relationship with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a CFD V&V database, including benchmark cases, that addresses and supports the associated NRC regulations and policies on the use of CFD analysis. In particular, the NE-CAMS system will support the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program, which aims to develop and deploy advanced modeling and simulation methods and computational tools for reliable numerical simulation of nuclear reactor systems for design and safety analysis. Primary NE-CAMS Elements There are four primary elements of the NE-CAMS knowledge base designed to support computer modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy arena as listed below. Element 1. The database will contain experimental data that can be used for CFD validation that is relevant to nuclear reactor and plant processes, particularly those important to the nuclear industry and the NRC. Element 2. Qualification standards for data evaluation and classification will be incorporated and applied such that validation data sets will result in well

  12. Military medical advances resulting from the conflict in Korea, Part I: Systems advances that enhanced patient survival.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    The Korean War started several years after the World War II had ended and no recognition of the threat or preparation was made for this possibility. The military and its medical service had been downsized after World War II and had to quickly ramp up to meet the surprise attack. The war provided the laboratory for trials and experimentation with the new technological developments of the era. The Korean conflict led to numerous advances in medical systems and patient care. The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital came of age, and was instrumental in saving many lives. Helicopters saw their first regular use as flying ambulances to take the injured to definitive care in a timely fashion. The national blood banking program was rapidly geared up and new techniques such as plastic bags for collection and delivery resulted. Body armor was developed that would allow mobility while offering protection and was widely used for the first time. Each of these systems improvements saved the lives of soldiers in combat and were soon to be used in the civilian sector to save and improve lives around the world.

  13. Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…

  14. Assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among medical and nursing students: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Methods: Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. Results: The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. Conclusion: There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups. PMID:27551407

  15. Global faculty development: lessons learned from the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) initiatives.

    PubMed

    Burdick, William P

    2014-08-01

    Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) faculty development programs have operated since 2001 and are designed to overcome many of the challenges inherent in global health collaborations, including alignment with local needs, avoiding persistent dependency, and development of trust. FAIMER fellowship programs, developed for midcareer faculty members in all health professions from around the world, share goals of strengthening knowledge and skills in education leadership, education methods, and project management and evaluation. Building community is another explicit goal that allows participants to support and learn from each other.The author recommends several practices for successful international collaborations based on 13 years of experience with FAIMER fellowships. These include using authentic education projects to maintain alignment with local needs and apply newly acquired knowledge and skills, teaching leadership across cultures with careful communication and adaptation of concepts to local environments, cultivating a strong field of health professions education to promote diffusion of ideas and advocate for policy change, intentionally promoting field development and leadership to reduce dependency, giving generously of time and resources, learning from others as much as teaching others, and recognizing that effective partnerships revolve around personal relationships to build trust. These strategies have enabled the FAIMER fellowship programs to stay aligned with local needs, reduce dependency, and maintain trust.

  16. Discovering knowledge on pediatric fluid therapy and dysnatremias from quantitative data found in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Pham, Steve L; Bickel, Jonathan P; Moritz, Michael L; Levin, James E

    2010-11-13

    It is accepted that intravenous fluid (IVF) therapy can result in hospital-acquired dysnatremias in pediatric patients, with associated morbidity and mortality. There is interest in improving IVF therapy to prevent dysnatremias, but the optimal approach is controversial. In this study, we develop Natremia Deviation and Intravenous Renderer (NaDIR), a tool that preprocesses large volumes of electronic medical record data obtained from an academic pediatric hospital in order to analyze (1) IVF therapy, (2) the epidemiology of dysnatremias, and (3) the impact of IVFs on changes in serum sodium (ΔS(Na)). We then applied NaDIR to 3,256 inpatient records over a 3 month period, which revealed (1) a 19.9% incidence of dysnatremias, (2) a significant increase in lengths of stay associated with dysnatremias, and (3) a novel linear relationship between ΔS(Na) and IVF tonicity. This demonstrates that EMR data that can be readily analyzed to discover epidemiologic and predictive knowledge.

  17. Medical student knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT prior to and after viewing ECT scenes from movies.

    PubMed

    Walter, Garry; McDonald, Andrew; Rey, Joseph M; Rosen, Alan

    2002-03-01

    We surveyed samples of medical students in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia, prior to their psychiatry placement, to ascertain views about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the effect on those views of watching ECT scenes in movies. A 26-item questionnaire was constructed by the authors and administered to the students. At set times during the questionnaire, students were asked to view five movie clips showing, or making reference to, ECT. The clips were from Return to Oz, The Hudsucker Proxy, Ordinary People, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Beverly Hillbillies. Ninety-four students participated in the study. Levels of knowledge about the indications, side effects, and mode of administration were poor, and attitudes were generally negative. Viewing the ECT scenes influenced attitudes toward the treatment; after viewing, one-third of the students decreased their support for ECT, and the proportion of students who would dissuade a family member or friend from having ECT rose from less than 10% to almost 25%.

  18. New Advanced Technologies to Provide Decentralised and Secure Access to Medical Records: Case Studies in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Bourquard, Karima; Boire, Jean-Yves; de Vlieger, Paul; Maigne, Lydia; Breton, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The main problem for health professionals and patients in accessing information is that this information is very often distributed over many medical records and locations. This problem is particularly acute in cancerology because patients may be treated for many years and undergo a variety of examinations. Recent advances in technology make it feasible to gain access to medical records anywhere and anytime, allowing the physician or the patient to gather information from an “ephemeral electronic patient record”. However, this easy access to data is accompanied by the requirement for improved security (confidentiality, traceability, integrity, ...) and this issue needs to be addressed. In this paper we propose and discuss a decentralised approach based on recent advances in information sharing and protection: Grid technologies and watermarking methodologies. The potential impact of these technologies for oncology is illustrated by the examples of two experimental cases: a cancer surveillance network and a radiotherapy treatment plan. It is expected that the proposed approach will constitute the basis of a future secure “google-like” access to medical records. PMID:19718446

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Senior Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bashawri, Jamil; Bakarman, Marwan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in medical students in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it evaluated their views on the incorporation of CAM in their medical syllabus. Methods. The study was conducted by selecting a cross-sectional sample of senior medical students in the Faculty of Medicine. A validated and reliable self-administered questionnaire was used to explore the knowledge, attitude, and benefits of CAM. It was distributed to a sample of 273 students. Results. The study included 242 students, making the response rate 88.6%. Only two-thirds of students (62.4%) were aware of acupuncture principles and only 17.4% recognized that chiropractic is associated with pain management. The knowledge of common herbs such as St. John's Wort, Echinacea, and Ginkgo biloba was limited among the students. Older students had a positive CAM attitude compared to younger students (p = 0.027). Conclusion. Students attitudes toward CAM learning were encouraging regardless of their limited knowledge on the subject. A high percentage of students agreed that CAM in combination with conventional therapy is beneficial in treating unusual cases, but the choice of CAM should be based on evidence. Furthermore, medical students are still reluctant to have CAM practitioners in their referral network. PMID:27066102

  20. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  1. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejuyigbe, Funmilayo F; Balogun, M R; Balogun, Balogun R; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Adegbola, Adebukola A

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among medical students of the University of Lagos. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 medical students sampled using stratified sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect relevant data. Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV vaccination. Inadequate information and high costs were the obstacles identified to receiving vaccine and recommending it to others. Older age and higher levels of study were significantly associated with good knowledge of HPV. Good knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively were significantly associated with full acceptance of vaccination. There is need for more education on cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination for the medical students via school teaching and other media, and inclusion of the HPV vaccine in the National Program on Immunization to improve access.

  2. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians

    PubMed Central

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Filho, Paulo Cesar; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. METHODS: A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire’s self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. RESULTS: The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. CONCLUSION: Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil. PMID:28273238

  3. Dental Hygiene, Dental, and Medical Students' OMFS/Hospital Dentistry-Related Knowledge/Skills, Attitudes, and Behavior: An Exploration.

    PubMed

    Munz, Stephanie M; Kim, Roderick Y; Holley, Tyler J; Donkersloot, John N; Inglehart, Marita R

    2017-02-01

    Engaging other health care providers in oral health-related activities and interprofessional care (IPC) could increase access to oral health care for underserved populations in the U.S. The aims of this study were to assess dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' intra- and interprofessional and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS)/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills, attitudes, and behavior; determine whether first and second year vs. third and fourth year cohorts' responses differed; and explore how intra- and interprofessional knowledge was related to interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional attitudes and behavior. Data were collected between April 2014 and May 2015 from 69 dental hygiene, 316 dental, and 187 medical students. Response rates across classes for the dental hygiene students ranged from 85% to 100%; 24% to 100% for the dental students; and 13% to 35% for the medical students. The results showed that the medical students had lower oral health-related and interprofessional knowledge and less positive attitudes about oral health-related behavior, IPE, and interprofessional teamwork than the dental hygiene and dental students. While third- and fourth-year medical students' interprofessional knowledge/skills and behavior were higher than those of first- and second-year students, the two groups' IPE-related and interprofessional attitudes did not differ. The students' knowledge correlated with their IPE and interprofessional communication-related skills and behavior, but not with their interprofessional attitudes. These dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' OMFS/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills and behavior increased over the course of their academic programs, while their IPE-related and intra- and interprofessional attitudes, especially for medical students, did not improve over time. OMFS and hospital dentistry units in medical centers offer distinctive opportunities for IPE and IPC. Utilizing these units

  4. Personal and organizational predictors of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to medical waste management in Mazandaran province (northern Iran).

    PubMed

    Jabbari, H; Farokhfar, M; Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Taghipour, H; Bakhshian, F; Rohane, S

    2012-07-01

    Medical waste management (MWM) is an important public health concern worldwide. Although physicians must participate in medical waste management, their personal and organizational predictors in this process are unknown. This study aimed to the determinants of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to MWM in eight hospitals of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A validated, reliable self-administered questionnaire was used including 30 questions about the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and personal and professional variables. Of a total of 200 physicians, 150 persons completed the questionnaire (response rate of 75%). The average score (± SD) for physicians' knowledge was 6.50 (± 1.50) out of 10, whereas those for attitudes and practices were 4.44 (± 0.88) and 4.02 (± 1.35) out of 5, respectively. Surgeons and orthopaedists had the lowest scores, whereas para-clinical specialists and internal medicine specialists had the highest scores. The score of knowledge showed significant differences among speciality groups and the various speciality groups' scores differed significantly only for knowledge (P = 0.024) and the mean of total KAP was significantly different between educational and non-educational hospitals (P < 0.05). As hospital type and physician speciality was related to the KAP concerning MWM, therefore it is recommend that all hospitals should develop appropriate protocols for medical waste management based on the this variables using a participatory process with teamwork and continuous training.

  5. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  6. What Do Physicians Believe About the Way Decisions Are Made? A Pilot Study on Metacognitive Knowledge in the Medical Context

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Paola; Perucca, Valeria; Riva, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition relative to medical decision making has been poorly investigated to date. However, beliefs about methods of decision making (metacognition) play a fundamental role in determining the efficiency of the decision itself. In the present study, we investigated a set of beliefs that physicians develop in relation to the modes of making decisions in a professional environment. The Solomon Questionnaire, designed to assess metacognitive knowledge about behaviors and mental processes involved in decision making, was administered to a sample of 18 emergency physicians, 18 surgeons, and 18 internists. Significant differences in metacognitive knowledge emerged among these three medical areas. Physicians’ self-reports about the decision process mirrored the peculiarities of the context in which they operate. Their metacognitive knowledge demonstrated a reflective attitude that is an effective tool during the decision making process. PMID:27247686

  7. A survey of attitudes, practices, and knowledge regarding drug-drug interactions among medical residents in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2017-04-05

    Background When prescribing medications, physicians should recognize clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To improve medication safety, it is important to understand prescribers' knowledge and opinions pertaining to DDIs. Objective To determine the current DDI information sources used by medical residents, their knowledge of DDIs, their opinions about performance feedback on co-prescription of interacting drugs. Setting Academic hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in Iran. Methods A questionnaire containing questions regarding demographic and practice characteristics, DDI information sources, ability to recognize DDIs, and opinions about performance feedback was distributed to medical residents of 22 specialties in eight academic hospitals in Iran. We analyzed their perception pertaining to DDIs, their performance on classifying drug pairs, and we used a linear regression model to assess the association of potential determinants on their DDI knowledge. Main Outcome Measure prescribers' knowledge and opinions pertaining to DDIs. Results The overall response rate and completion rate for 315 distributed questionnaires were 90% (n = 295) and 86% (n = 281), respectively. Among DDI information sources, books, software on mobile phone or tablet, and Internet were the most commonly-used references. Residents could correctly classify only 41% (5.7/14) of the drug pairs. The regression model showed no significant association between residents' characteristics and their DDI knowledge. An overwhelming majority of the respondents (n = 268, 95.4%) wished to receive performance feedback on co-prescription of interacting drugs in their prescriptions. They mostly selected information technology-based tools (i.e. short text message and email) as their preferred method of receiving feedback. Conclusion Our findings indicate that prescribers may have poor ability to prevent clinically relevant potential DDI occurrence, and they

  8. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  9. Recent advances in the development of Raman spectroscopy for deep non-invasive medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Pavel; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has recently undergone major advances in the area of deep non-invasive characterisation of biological tissues. The progress stems from the development of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) and renaissance of transmission Raman spectroscopy permitting the assessment of diffusely scattering samples at depths several orders of magnitude deeper than possible with conventional Raman spectroscopy. Examples of emerging applications include non-invasive diagnosis of bone disease, cancer and monitoring of glucose levels. This article reviews this fast moving field focusing on recent developments within the medical area.

  10. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  11. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    NE-KAMS knowledge base will assist computational analysts, physics model developers, experimentalists, nuclear reactor designers, and federal regulators by: (1) Establishing accepted standards, requirements and best practices for V&V and UQ of computational models and simulations, (2) Establishing accepted standards and procedures for qualifying and classifying experimental and numerical benchmark data, (3) Providing readily accessible databases for nuclear energy related experimental and numerical benchmark data that can be used in V&V assessments and computational methods development, (4) Providing a searchable knowledge base of information, documents and data on V&V and UQ, and (5) Providing web-enabled applications, tools and utilities for V&V and UQ activities, data assessment and processing, and information and data searches. From its inception, NE-KAMS will directly support nuclear energy research, development and demonstration programs within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS), the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), the Small Modular Reactors (SMR), and the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) programs. These programs all involve computational modeling and simulation (M&S) of nuclear reactor systems, components and processes, and it is envisioned that NE-KAMS will help to coordinate and facilitate collaboration and sharing of resources and expertise for V&V and UQ across these programs. In addition, from the outset, NE-KAMS will support the use of computational M&S in the nuclear industry by developing guidelines and recommended practices aimed at quantifying the uncertainty and assessing the applicability of existing analysis models and methods. The NE-KAMS effort will initially focus on supporting the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermal hydraulics (T/H) analysis for M&S of nuclear

  12. Comparison of advance medical directive inquiry and documentation for hospital inpatients in three medical services: implications for policy changes.

    PubMed

    Anunobi, Echezona; Detweiler, Mark B; Sethi, Roopa; Thomas, Reena; Lutgens, Brian; Detweiler, Jonna G

    2015-01-01

    Following the introduction of the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990, the Veterans Health Administration developed its own advance medical directive (AMD) policy, which most recently states that documentation is mandatory for all hospital patients in all settings. The object of this study was to assess the effectiveness of AMD documentation at a local Veterans Affairs Medical Center. AMD documentation was compared among three inpatient services: surgery, medicine, and psychiatry. Retrospective in nature, 594 inpatient cases were compared. Results revealed that, overall, the rate of AMD documentation was 37.7%. AMD documentation on surgery was statistically more frequent (45.6%) than for either medicine (33.2%) or psychiatry (34.5%). The difference between the numbers of days to AMD documentation for all three services was not statistically significant. While there was no statistically significant difference across gender, Caucasians had AMDs documented more frequently than African Americans (p < .001). Logistic regression reveals that social worker and physician intervention, not patient-specific variables, are the primary predictors of AMD incidence. Policy makers may need to consider the realities of hospital care, especially in emergency settings, and be more specific in the steps of implementation of the policy in the evenings, weekends, and holidays. True adherence to policy implementation may require hospital administrators to increase staff and educational efforts so that the concept of AMD communication and documentation is completely explained to all staff and patients. Policy should include an electronic record reminder that is renewed every 3 years and provisions for accommodating patients who arrive on weekends and holidays, with special awareness of the particular communication needs of minority groups. The study conclusions are that further inquiry is needed to understand these policy nuances to enable the Veterans Affairs Administration to

  13. Investigating Knowledge Management Status among Faculty Members of Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka Model in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Leila; Izadi, Azar; Jahani, Yunes; Okhovati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Education and research are two major functions of universities, which require proper and systematic exploitation of available knowledge and information. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge management status in an education system by considering the function of faculty members in creation and dissemination of knowledge. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge management status among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models in 2015. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 165 faculty members at the Kerman University of Medical Sciences, who were selected from seven faculties as weighted using a random stratified sampling method. The Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge management questionnaire consists of 26 questions in four dimensions of socialization, externalization, internalization, and combination. Scoring of questions was conducted using the five-point Likert scale. To analyze data, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were employed. Results The four dimensions in the Nonaka and Takeuchi model are based on optimal indicators (3.5), dimensions of combination, and externalization with an average of 3.3 were found in higher ranks and internalization and socialization had averages of 3.1 and 3. According to the findings of this study, the average knowledge management among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences was estimated to be 3.1, with a bit difference compared to the average. According to the results of t-tests, there was no significant relationship between gender and various dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). The findings of Kruskal-Wallis showed that there is no significant relationship between variables of age, academic rank, and type of faculty with regard to dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). In addition

  14. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH− trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH− trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration—a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH− and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study) and a block wherein PH− and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH− and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping. PMID:27199718

  15. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH- trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration-a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group's previous study) and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber's law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group's previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Medical Research amongst the Postgraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Purushottam A.; Bangal, Vidyadhar B.; Phalke, Deepak B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices towards health research amongst the postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of central India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from August to October 2012. A total of 116 postgraduate students were interviewed. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to health research were assessed using a predesigned, pretested and validated questionnaire. Results were analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions whenever appropriate. Results: In present study, the concept of research hypothesis was known to only 18.9% of the postgraduate students, whereas 17.2 and 21.5% students knew the full form of MEDLARS and MEDLINE respectively. Majority (91.4%) students believed that patient outcome improves with continued medical research and 70.7% are willing to participate in workshop for research methodology. Lack of time due to vast curriculum of postgraduate subjects (59.5%), lack of research curriculum (25%), and inadequate facilities (25.8%) were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusion: Postgraduate students have inadequate knowledge, but have positive attitudes towards health research. Postgraduate training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by postgraduate trainees. PMID:24791231

  17. Effect of the science teaching advancement through modeling physical science professional development workshop on teachers' attitudes, beliefs and content knowledge and students' content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Laura

    The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.

  18. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  19. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John; Arnott, James; Wright, Alyson

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  20. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    PubMed Central

    Abbiati, Milena; Baroffio, Anne; Gerbase, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods Students applying for medical school (N=311) completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01). Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile. PMID:27079886

  1. Advancing Competency-Based Medical Education: A Charter for Clinician-Educators.

    PubMed

    Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Van Melle, Elaine; Ten Cate, Olle; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Chan, Ming-Ka; Frank, Jason R; Snell, Linda S

    2016-05-01

    The International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators have been working since 2009 to promote understanding of competency-based medical education (CBME) and accelerate its uptake worldwide. This article presents a charter, supported by a literature-based rationale, which is meant to provide a shared mental model of CBME that will serve as a path forward in its widespread implementation.At a 2013 summit, the ICBME Collaborators laid the groundwork for this charter. Here, the fundamental principles of CBME and professional responsibilities of medical educators in its implementation process are described. The authors outline three fundamental principles: (1) Medical education must be based on the health needs of the populations served; (2) the primary focus of education and training should be the desired outcomes for learners rather than the structure and process of the educational system; and (3) the formation of a physician should be seamless across the continuum of education, training, and practice.Building on these principles, medical educators must demonstrate commitment to teaching, assessing, and role modeling the range of identified competencies. In the clinical setting, they must provide supervision that balances patient safety with the professional development of learners, being transparent with stakeholders about level of supervision needed. They must use effective and efficient assessment strategies and tools for basing transition decisions on competence rather than time in training, empowering learners to be active participants in their learning and assessment. Finally, advancing CBME requires program evaluation and research, faculty development, and a collaborative approach to realize its full potential.

  2. Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 1, Organizing Geometric Knowledge, Chapter 2, Concepts and Skills in Algebra. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This text is the first of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. The first chapter, devoted to organizing geometric knowledge, deals with the distinction…

  3. Mathematics Teachers' Development, Exploration, and Advancement of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching and Learning of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This article describes experiences from a professional development project designed to prepare in-service eighth-grade mathematics teachers to develop, explore, and advance technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) in the teaching and learning of Algebra I. This article describes the process of the participating teachers' mathematical…

  4. Brief Report: Knowledge and Confidence of Emergency Medical Service Personnel Involving Treatment of an Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wachob, David; Pesci, Louis J

    2016-12-01

    In order to best respond to an emergency situation, professionals need to have an understanding about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and techniques that will ensure proper care. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and confidence of EMS personnel on interacting and treating an individual with ASD. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), and Paramedics were surveyed on their knowledge of ASD; familiarity or experience with ASD, and level of comfort responding to emergencies involving an individual with ASD. The results found that autism-specific training and resources were associated with higher comfort levels, but not knowledge. It was also determined that newer and younger professionals had higher knowledge and comfort when compared to the more experienced and older professionals.

  5. Audience responses to television news coverage of medical advances: The mediating role of audience emotions and identification.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2015-08-01

    Exemplifying a real person in news stories has become a popular journalistic technique to describe an event or issue. With the frequent appearance of medical news reports in local television in recent years, this news presentation style is widely believed to help audiences better engage in and understand complex medical information and to influence their perceptions and judgments. In terms of television news coverage of medical advances, this study investigates how audiences respond to embedded human examples (mainly patients who experience benefits from the advances) and to overall news stories, and how such responses are related to their perception of portrayed medical advances. The experimental results indicate that news stories with a human example were more likely to intensify the audience's positive emotions than those without, which in turn influenced favorable perceptions of the described medical advance. In addition, the extent to which the audience identified with a human example (in particular, sympathy) mediated the relationship between the audience's involvement in the news story and its perception of the portrayed medical advance.

  6. Advances in drug delivery and medical imaging using colloidal lyotropic liquid crystalline dispersions.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Xavier; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2013-03-01

    The overarching goal of this feature article is to review the recent developments in the field of drug delivery specifically involving colloidal lyotropic liquid crystalline dispersions. The development of advanced particles for drug delivery applications is regarded as the next necessary step in the advancement of nanomedicine. An outline of the state of the art in preparation and application of self-assembled nanoparticles to drug delivery and medical imaging is presented. The basic concepts for controlling the nature of the internal structure of particles by tuning the self-assembly properties of small molecule amphiphiles is covered. Theranostics is an exciting emerging area for this colloidal material class, and the types of therapeutic compounds and medical imaging agents that can be incorporated as well as their methods of preparation are described. The stabilisation and biocompatibility of the colloidal dispersions are also discussed. Finally an overview of lesion-specific active and passive targeting is presented. Exploiting such a multi-functional drug delivery platform is essential to not only the next generation delivery of bioactive molecules but also in the creation of new diagnostic tools.

  7. Are expectations too high for transitioning adolescents with IBD? Examining adult medication knowledge and self-management skills

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Laurie N.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Lakin, Paul R.; Masciarelli, Lisa; Flier, Sarah N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Transition readiness assessment has focused attention on adolescent knowledge and skills, but data-driven benchmarks have not been established. Methods Patients with IBD, aged 25–55 years, attending an outpatient gastroenterology clinic, were recruited to complete a voluntary, confidential survey asking patients to recall medications and potential side effects, and to rate their degree of independence performing health maintenance tasks. Results The 141 respondents (48% response rate) had mean age of 36 years with median disease duration of 11 years. They were 60% female, 54% had Crohn’s disease, and 23% were diagnosed before age 18. Nearly all patients were fully independent answering doctor’s questions during the visit (93%) and scheduling office visits (92%). Excluding pharmacy pick up, full independence seen in only 57%, while 16% significantly delegated tasks. No differences by gender, disease type, medication class, age at disease onset, or disease duration were found across levels of self-management. Almost all (97%) respondents could recall medication name, while fewer were able to recall dose (63%) or frequency (65%). Side effect knowledge was poor; among 81 patients on a biologic or immunomodulator, only 17 (21%) cited cancer and 22 (27%) cited infection. Conclusions Adolescent IBD transition programs now have empiric data from this study about adult benchmarks for independence in self-management skills. Further research can establish which skills correlate with medication adherence and active collaboration with the medical team. This study also exposes important gaps in medication risk knowledge and may allow improved patient education for subgroups of adult IBD patients. PMID:27280748

  8. The consequences of using advanced physical assessment skills in medical and surgical nursing: A hermeneutic pragmatic study

    PubMed Central

    Zambas, Shelaine I.; Smythe, Elizabeth A.; Koziol-Mclain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to explore the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills on medical and surgical wards. Background Appropriate, accurate, and timely assessment by nurses is the cornerstone of maintaining patient safety in hospitals. The inclusion of “advanced” physical assessment skills such as auscultation, palpation, and percussion is thought to better prepare nurses for complex patient presentations within a wide range of clinical situations. Design This qualitative study used a hermeneutic pragmatic approach. Method Unstructured interviews were conducted with five experienced medical and surgical nurses to obtain 13 detailed narratives of assessment practice. Narratives were analyzed using Van Manen's six-step approach to identify the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills. Results The consequences of using advanced assessment skills include looking for more, challenging interpretations, and perseverance. The use of advanced assessment skills directs what the nurse looks for, what she sees, interpretation of the findings, and her response. It is the interpretation of what is seen, heard, or felt within the full context of the patient situation, which is the advanced skill. Conclusion Advanced assessment skill is the means to an accurate interpretation of the clinical situation and contributes to appropriate diagnosis and medical management in complex patient situations. Relevance to clinical practice The nurse's use of advanced assessment skills enables her to contribute to diagnostic reasoning within the acute medical and surgical setting. PMID:27607193

  9. Medical Knowledge Assessment by Hematology and Medical Oncology In-Training Examinations Are Better Than Program Director Assessments at Predicting Subspecialty Certification Examination Performance.

    PubMed

    Collichio, Frances A; Hess, Brian J; Muchmore, Elaine A; Duhigg, Lauren; Lipner, Rebecca S; Haist, Steven; Hawley, Janine L; Morrison, Carol A; Clayton, Charles P; Raymond, Marilyn J; Kayoumi, Karen M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2016-02-20

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System requires training programs to demonstrate that fellows are achieving competence in medical knowledge (MK), as part of a global assessment of clinical competency. Passing American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examinations is recognized as a metric of MK competency. This study examines several in-training MK assessment approaches and their ability to predict performance on the ABIM Hematology or Medical Oncology Certification Examinations. Results of a Hematology In-Service Examination (ISE) and an Oncology In-Training Examination (ITE), program director (PD) ratings, demographic variables, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) Certification Examination were compared. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses evaluated these assessment approaches as predictors of performance on the Hematology or Medical Oncology Certification Examinations. Hematology ISE scores were the strongest predictor of Hematology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.41) (passing odds ratio [OR], 1.012; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.015), and the Oncology ITE scores were the strongest predictor of Medical Oncology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.45) (passing OR, 1.013; 95 % CI, 1.011-1.016). PD rating of MK was the weakest predictor of Medical Oncology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.07) and was not significantly predictive of Hematology Certification Examination scores. Hematology and Oncology ITEs are better predictors of certification examination performance than PD ratings of MK, reinforcing the effectiveness of ITEs for competency-based assessment of MK.

  10. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

  11. Using an eye tracker during medication administration to identify gaps in nursing students' contextual knowledge: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Amster, Brian; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth; Fisher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    In this clinical simulation study using an eye-tracking device, 40% of senior nursing students administered a contraindicated medication to a patient. Our findings suggest that the participants who did not identify the error did not know that amoxicillin is a type of penicillin. Eye-tracking devices may be valuable for determining whether nursing students are making rule- or knowledge-based errors, a distinction not easily captured via observations and interviews.

  12. From cards to computers: the National Library of Medicine and the transmission of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, John

    2002-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the world's largest medical Library. Its collections total some 6 million items and NLM also sponsors a variety of key databases in the medical field. This article traces the history and the strategies of the Library from the origins until today.

  13. Antipsychotic Medication and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Knowledge and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rachel; Withers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotics are the most frequently prescribed psychotropic medication for people with intellectual disabilities. Many people are prescribed this medication for "challenging behaviours" without having had a formal diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Antipsychotics have been reported to have severe side-effect profiles, which can…

  14. The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

    2009-01-01

    This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

  15. Cultural Adaptation of a Survey to Assess Medical Providers’ Knowledge of and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shane D.; Rashidi, Vania; Banushi, Vilson H.; Barbhaiya, Namrata J.; Gashi, Valbona H.; Sarnquist, Clea; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers’ lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers’ knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK), 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population. PMID:23544101

  16. Combining knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) and case-based reasoning (CBR) to support diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranieri, Andrew; Yearwood, John; Pham, Binh

    1999-07-01

    The development of data warehouses for the storage and analysis of very large corpora of medical image data represents a significant trend in health care and research. Amongst other benefits, the trend toward warehousing enables the use of techniques for automatically discovering knowledge from large and distributed databases. In this paper, we present an application design for knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) techniques that enhance the performance of the problem solving strategy known as case- based reasoning (CBR) for the diagnosis of radiological images. The problem of diagnosing the abnormality of the cervical spine is used to illustrate the method. The design of a case-based medical image diagnostic support system has three essential characteristics. The first is a case representation that comprises textual descriptions of the image, visual features that are known to be useful for indexing images, and additional visual features to be discovered by data mining many existing images. The second characteristic of the approach presented here involves the development of a case base that comprises an optimal number and distribution of cases. The third characteristic involves the automatic discovery, using KDD techniques, of adaptation knowledge to enhance the performance of the case based reasoner. Together, the three characteristics of our approach can overcome real time efficiency obstacles that otherwise mitigate against the use of CBR to the domain of medical image analysis.

  17. Reading for Idea Advancement in a Grade 4 Knowledge Building Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianwei; Sun, Yanqing

    2011-01-01

    This study looks into the reading practice in a Grade 4 knowledge building community that involved 22 students and a veteran teacher. The students investigated light over a three-month period supported by Knowledge Forum, a networked collaborative knowledge-building environment. The classroom designs encouraged the students to take on high-level…

  18. [Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin American in the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marta de

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  20. ADHD and the Role of Medication: Knowledge and Perceptions of Qualified and Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Gazala; Thomson, A. H.; Boyter, A. C.; McLarty, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to affect 3-5% of school-aged children. A sound knowledge of both the disorder and its treatment would appear to be useful for school teachers. This study compared the knowledge and attitudes of Scottish qualified and student teachers towards ADHD and its pharmacological treatment. Data…

  1. Communication training for advanced medical students improves information recall of medical laypersons in simulated informed consent talks – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Informed consent talks are mandatory before invasive interventions. However, the patients’ information recall has been shown to be rather poor. We investigated, whether medical laypersons recalled more information items from a simulated informed consent talk after advanced medical students participated in a communication training aiming to reduce a layperson’s cognitive load. Methods Using a randomized, controlled, prospective cross-over-design, 30 5th and 6th year medical students were randomized into two groups. One group received communication training, followed by a comparison intervention (early intervention group, EI); the other group first received the comparison intervention and then communication training (late intervention group, LI). Before and after the interventions, the 30 medical students performed simulated informed consent talks with 30 blinded medical laypersons using a standardized set of information. We then recorded the number of information items the medical laypersons recalled. Results After the communication training both groups of medical laypersons recalled significantly more information items (EI: 41 ± 9% vs. 23 ± 9%, p < .0001, LI 49 ± 10% vs. 35 ± 6%, p < .0001). After the comparison intervention the improvement was modest and significant only in the LI (EI: 42 ± 9% vs. 40 ± 9%, p = .41, LI 35 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 9%, p = .016). Conclusion Short communication training for advanced medical students improves information recall of medical laypersons in simulated informed consent talks. PMID:23374907

  2. Medical update and potential advances in the treatment of pediatric intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nader N; Mezoff, Adam G; Carter, Beth A; Cole, Conrad R

    2012-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intestinal failure are chronic malabsorption disorders with considerable nutritional and growth consequences in children. Intestinal failure occurs when the functional gastrointestinal mass is reduced even if there is normal anatomical gastrointestinal length. A number of management strategies are often utilized to achieve successful intestinal rehabilitation and maintain adequate nutrition to avoid intestinal transplant. These strategies include minimizing the effect of parenteral associated liver disease, limiting catheter complications, and treating bacterial overgrowth in the remaining small intestine. In addition, there continues to be significant research interest in enhancing intestinal adaptation with targeted therapies. The purpose of this review is to discuss current perspectives and to highlight recent medical advances in novel investigational therapies.

  3. Targeted medical therapy of biliary tract cancer: Recent advances and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Höpfner, Michael; Schuppan, Detlef; Scherübl, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The limited efficacy of cytotoxic therapy for advanced biliary tract and gallbladder cancers emphasizes the need for novel and more effective medical treatment options. A better understanding of the specific biological features of these neoplasms led to the development of new targeted therapies, which take the abundant expression of several growth factors and cognate tyrosine kinase receptors into account. This review will briefly summarize the status and future perspectives of antiangiogenic and growth factor receptor-based pharmacological approaches for the treatment of biliary tract and gallbladder cancers. In view of multiple novel targeted approaches, the rationale for innovative therapies, such as combinations of growth factor (receptor)-targeting agents with cytotoxic drugs or with other novel anticancer drugs will be highlighted. PMID:19084910

  4. Knowledge and perception regarding clinical trials among doctors of government medical colleges: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Dubey, Lily; Barman, Lisa; Biswas, Tanmoy; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Aims: By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs) may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. Methods: We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Results: Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, “adverse event” and “good clinical practice.” Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Conclusion: Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology. PMID:27141476

  5. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians’ Assistants

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Christopher J.; Le Ngoc, Bao; Halim, Nafisa; Nguyen Viet, Ha; Larson Williams, Anna; Nguyen Van, Tan; McNabb, Marion; Tran Thi Ngoc, Lien; Falconer, Ariel; An Phan Ha, Hai; Rohr, Julia; Hoang, Hai; Michiel, James; Nguyen Thi Thanh, Tam; Bird, Liat; Pham Vu, Hoang; Yeshitla, Mahlet; Ha Van, Nhu; Sabin, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW’s clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME) activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS)-based mobile CME (mCME) intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician’s Assistants–CBPAs) who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations. Methods The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model) participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model) participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D) in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later). Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy. Results 638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%). Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did

  6. An open-source, mobile-friendly search engine for public medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Hanbury, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has become an important source of information for medical practitioners. To complement the capabilities of currently available web search engines we developed FindMeEvidence, an open-source, mobile-friendly medical search engine. In a preliminary evaluation, the quality of results from FindMeEvidence proved to be competitive with those from TRIP Database, an established, closed-source search engine for evidence-based medicine.

  7. A randomised trial of lung sealant versus medical therapy for advanced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Come, Carolyn E; Kramer, Mordechai R; Dransfield, Mark T; Abu-Hijleh, Muhanned; Berkowitz, David; Bezzi, Michela; Bhatt, Surya P; Boyd, Michael B; Cases, Enrique; Chen, Alexander C; Cooper, Christopher B; Flandes, Javier; Gildea, Thomas; Gotfried, Mark; Hogarth, D Kyle; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Leeds, William; Liesching, Timothy; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marquette, Charles; Mularski, Richard A; Pinto-Plata, Victor M; Pritchett, Michael A; Rafeq, Samaan; Rubio, Edmundo R; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Stratakos, Grigoris; Sy, Alexander; Tsai, Larry W; Wahidi, Momen; Walsh, John; Wells, J Michael; Whitten, Patrick E; Yusen, Roger; Zulueta, Javier J; Criner, Gerard J; Washko, George R

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled pilot studies demonstrated promising results of endoscopic lung volume reduction using emphysematous lung sealant (ELS) in patients with advanced, upper lobe predominant emphysema. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ELS in a randomised controlled setting.Patients were randomised to ELS plus medical treatment or medical treatment alone. Despite early termination for business reasons and inability to assess the primary 12-month end-point, 95 out of 300 patients were successfully randomised, providing sufficient data for 3- and 6-month analysis.57 patients (34 treatment and 23 control) had efficacy results at 3 months; 34 (21 treatment and 13 control) at 6 months. In the treatment group, 3-month lung function, dyspnoea, and quality of life improved significantly from baseline when compared to control. Improvements persisted at 6 months with >50% of treated patients experiencing clinically important improvements, including some whose lung function improved by >100%. 44% of treated patients experienced adverse events requiring hospitalisation (2.5-fold more than control, p=0.01), with two deaths in the treated cohort. Treatment responders tended to be those experiencing respiratory adverse events.Despite early termination, results show that minimally invasive ELS may be efficacious, yet significant risks (probably inflammatory) limit its current utility.

  8. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Anneser, Johanna; Jox, Ralf J.; Thurn, Tamara; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In November 2015, the German Federal Parliament voted on a new legal regulation regarding assisted suicide. It was decided to amend the German Criminal Code so that any “regular, repetitive offer” (even on a non-profit basis) of assistance in suicide would now be considered a punishable offense. On July 2, 2015, a date which happened to be accompanied by great media interest in that it was the day that the first draft of said law was presented to Parliament, we surveyed 4th year medical students at the Technical University Munich on “physician-assisted suicide,” “euthanasia” and “palliative sedation,” based on a fictitious case vignette study. Method: The vignette study described two versions of a case in which a patient suffered from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (physical suffering subjectively perceived as being unbearable vs. emotional suffering). The students were asked about the current legal norms for each respective course of action as well as their attitudes towards the ethical acceptability of these measures. Results: Out of 301 students in total, 241 (80%) participated in the survey; 109 answered the version 1 questionnaire (physical suffering) and 132 answered the version 2 questionnaire (emotional suffering). The majority of students were able to assess the currently prevailing legal norms on palliative sedation (legal) and euthanasia (illegal) correctly (81.2% and 93.7%, respectively), while only a few students knew that physician-assisted suicide, at that point in time, did not constitute a criminal offense. In the case study that was presented, 83.3% of the participants considered palliative sedation and the simultaneous withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as ethically acceptable, 51.2% considered physician-assisted suicide ethically legitimate, and 19.2% considered euthanasia ethically permissible. When comparing the results of versions 1 and 2, a significant difference could only be seen in the assessment of

  9. Building Irish families through surrogacy: medical and judicial issues for the advanced reproductive technologies

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Eric Scott; Healy, Clifford M

    2008-01-01

    Surrogacy involves one woman (surrogate mother) carrying a child for another person/s (commissioning person/couple), based on a mutual agreement requiring the child to be handed over to the commissioning person/couple following birth. Reasons for seeking surrogacy include situations where a woman has non-functional or absent reproductive organs, or as a remedy for recurrent pregnancy loss. Additionally, surrogacy may find application in any medical context where pregnancy is contraindicated, or where a couple consisting of two males seek to become parents through oocyte donation. Gestational surrogacy is one of the main issues at the forefront of bioethics and the advanced reproductive technologies, representing an important challenge to medical law. This analysis reviews the history of surrogacy and clinical and legal issues pertaining to this branch of reproductive medicine. Interestingly, the Medical Council of Ireland does not acknowledge surrogacy in its current practice guidelines, nor is there specific legislation addressing surrogacy in Ireland at present. We therefore have developed a contract-based model for surrogacy in which, courts in Ireland may consider when confronted with a surrogacy dispute, and formulated a system to resolve any potential dispute arising from a surrogacy arrangement. While the 2005 report by the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction (CAHR) is an expert opinion guiding the Oireachtas' development of specific legislation governing assisted human reproduction and surrogacy, our report represents independent scholarship on the contractual elements of surrogacy with particular focus on how Irish courts might decide on surrogacy matters in a modern day Ireland. This joint medico-legal collaborative also reviews the contract for services arrangement between the commissioning person/s and the surrogate, and the extent to which the contract may be enforced. PMID:18983640

  10. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    PubMed

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-08-30

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology.

  11. Pharmacy Educators’ Knowledge of Medication Safety and Their Perception Toward Its Integration into the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bustami, Rami; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.; Almodaimegh, Hind; Alghamdi, Sahar; Alharbi, Shemylan; Khalidi, Nabil; Murphy, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy educators’ knowledge of medication safety and their perception toward its integration into the PharmD curriculum in Saudi Arabia. Methods. A survey was administered to pharmacy educators at a college of pharmacy and its affiliate hospital. Knowledge, training, and perception toward integrating medication safety into the PharmD curriculum were evaluated. Results. More than 50% of respondents indicated that medication safety should be covered within selected courses, and 65% indicated that such courses should be mandatory. Pharmacy practice educators had significantly higher levels of knowledge about medication safety than their nonpractice counterparts. Perceptions toward medication safety integration into the curriculum varied significantly by general discipline, academic degree, years of experience, and gender. Conclusion. Pharmacy educators in Saudi Arabia understand the importance of medication safety and its integration into the curriculum. Further studies are needed to guide curricular change to achieve this integration. PMID:28381890

  12. Outcomes of Basic Versus Advanced Life Support for Out-of-Hospital Medical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Prachi; Jena, Anupam B.; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most Medicare patients seeking emergency medical transport are treated by ambulance providers trained in advanced life support (ALS). Evidence supporting the superiority of ALS over basic life support (BLS) is limited, but some studies suggest ALS may harm patients. Objective To compare outcomes after ALS and BLS in out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Design Observational study with adjustment for propensity score weights and instrumental variable analyses based on county-level variations in ALS use. Setting Traditional Medicare. Patients 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties between 2006 and 2011 with major trauma, stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or respiratory failure. Measurements Neurologic functioning and survival to 30 days, 90 days, 1 year, and 2 years. Results Except in cases of AMI, patients showed superior unadjusted outcomes with BLS despite being older and having more comorbidities. In propensity score analyses, survival to 90 days among patients with trauma, stroke, and respiratory failure was higher with BLS than ALS (6.1 percentage points [95% CI, 5.4 to 6.8 percentage points] for trauma; 7.0 percentage points [CI, 6.2 to 7.7 percentage points] for stroke; and 3.7 percentage points [CI, 2.5 to 4.8 percentage points] for respiratory failure). Patients with AMI did not exhibit differences in survival at 30 days but had better survival at 90 days with ALS (1.0 percentage point [CI, 0.1 to 1.9 percentage points]). Neurologic functioning favored BLS for all diagnoses. Results from instrumental variable analyses were broadly consistent with propensity score analyses for trauma and stroke, showed no survival differences between BLS and ALS for respiratory failure, and showed better survival at all time points with BLS than ALS for patients with AMI. Limitation Only Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties were studied. Conclusion Advanced life support is associated with substantially higher mortality

  13. Cancer Knowledge and Opportunities for Education Among HIV-Infected Patients in an Urban Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Lydia H; Stafford, Kristen A; Fantry, Lori E; Gilliam, Bruce L; Riedel, David J

    2015-06-01

    HIV-infected patients frequently present with advanced stage cancer. It is possible that late stage presentation may be related to lack of cancer knowledge and/or barriers to care. Questionnaires were administered to 285 adult HIV-infected patients to evaluate knowledge of cancer risk factors and symptoms and barriers to care between 2011 and 2012. Differences in mean and percent scores by group were assessed using a t test for independent samples and chi-square analysis, respectively. Respondents were predominantly male (64%), African-American (86%), and low income (60% < $10,000/year). Thirty-four (12%) had been diagnosed with cancer, and 169 (59%) had a family history of cancer. The mean knowledge score was 17.5 out of 24 questions (73%). Mean scores were not significantly different by sex, age, race, or income. Respondents with a college education scored significantly higher than those with less than a high school education (p < 0.01). In unadjusted analysis, a higher proportion of patients with a personal/family history of cancer (74%) scored in the highest quartile (>70% correct) compared to those without any personal history of cancer (62%) (p = 0.03). There was a higher level of cancer knowledge in this population compared to studies that have evaluated the HIV-uninfected population. Nevertheless, there were knowledge deficits, suggesting the need for further education about cancer to improve earlier detection rates and, ultimately, outcomes.

  14. Towards improved knowledge sharing: assessment of the HL7 Reference Information Model to support medical logic module queries.

    PubMed

    Jenders, R A; Sujansky, W; Broverman, C A; Chadwick, M

    1997-01-01

    Because clinical databases vary in structure, access methods and vocabulary used to represent data, the Arden Syntax does not define a standard model for querying databases. Consequently, database queries are encoded in ad hoc ways and enclosed in "curly braces" in Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). However, the nonstandard representation of queries impairs sharing of MLMs, an impediment that has come to be known as the "curly braces problem." As a first step in solving this problem, we evaluated the proposed HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a foundation for a standard query model for the Arden Syntax. Specifically, we analyzed the MLM knowledge base at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and compared the queries in these MLMs to the RIM. We studied 488 queries in 104 MLMs, identifying 674 total query data elements. Laboratory tests accounted for 45.8% of these elements, while demographic and ADT data accounted for 37.6%. Pharmacy orders accounted for 10.5%, medical problems for 4.3% and MLM output messages for 1.6%. We found that the RIM encompasses all but those data elements signifying MLM output (1.6% of the total). We conclude that the majority of queries in the CPMC knowledge base access a relatively small set of data elements and that the RIM encompasses these elements. We propose extensions of this analysis to continue construction of an Arden query model capable of solving the "curly braces problem."

  15. Perceptions and knowledge of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in traditionally non-circumcising communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacob Robin; Arendse, Kirsten D; Larbi, Carl; Johnson, Naomi; Vivian, Lauraine M H

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recommended for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Uptake of the campaign has been relatively poor, particularly in traditionally non-circumcising regions. This study evaluates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical male circumcision (MC) of 104 community members exposed to promotional campaigns for VMMC for five years. Results show that 93% of participants have heard of circumcision and 72% have heard of some health benefit from the practice. However, detailed knowledge of the relationship with HIV infection is lacking: 12.2% mistakenly believed you could not get HIV after being circumcised, while 75.5% believe that a circumcised man is still susceptible and another 12.2% do not know of any relationship between HIV and MC. There are significant barriers to the uptake of the practice, including misperceptions and fear of complications commonly attributed to traditional, non-medical circumcision. However, 88.8% of participants believe circumcision is an acceptable practice, and community-specific promotional campaigns may increase uptake of the service.

  16. Preliminary report of a Web-based instrument to assess and teach knowledge and clinical thinking to medical student

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Hironobu; Ando, Hirotaka; Obika, Mikako; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Bautista, Miho; Kataoka, Hitomi; Terasawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We report the preliminary development of a unique Web-based instrument for assessing and teaching knowledge and developing clinical thinking called the “Sequential Questions and Answers” (SQA) test. Included in this feasibility report are physicians’ answers to the Sequential Questions and Answers pre- and posttests and their brief questionnaire replies. Methods The authors refined the SQA test case scenario for content, ease of modifications of case scenarios, test uploading and answer retrieval. Eleven geographically distant physicians evaluated the SQA test, taking the pretest and posttest within two weeks. These physicians completed a brief questionnaire about the SQA test. Results Eleven physicians completed the SQA pre- and posttest; all answers were downloaded for analysis. They reported the ease of website login and navigating within the test module together with many helpful suggestions. Their average posttest score gain was 53% (p=0.012). Conclusions We report the successful launch of a unique Web-based instrument referred to as the Sequential Questions and Answers test. This distinctive test combines teaching organization of the clinical narrative into an assessment tool that promotes acquiring medical knowledge and clinical thinking. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of geographically distant physicians to access the SQA instrument. The physicians’ helpful suggestions will be added to future SQA test versions. Medical schools might explore the integration of this multi-language-capable SQA assessment and teaching instrument into their undergraduate medical curriculum. PMID:25341203

  17. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    PubMed Central

    Roex, Ann; Clarebout, Geraldine; Dory, Valerie; Degryse, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epistemological beliefs (EB) are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions). Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18) were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11) met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI), participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify knowledge are likely to be

  18. Semantics for E-Learning: An Advanced Knowledge Management Oriented Metadata Schema for Learning Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    The research described in this paper is concentrated on the demand for high quality interchangeable knowledge objects capable of supporting dynamic learning initiatives. The general metadata models (Dublin Core, IMS, LOM, SCORM) for knowledge objects enrichment are reviewed and a critique is provided in order to claim the importance of the…

  19. Does knowledge about bloodborne pathogens influence the reuse of medical injection syringes among women in Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Mahmood, Bushra; Imran Khan, M

    2014-01-01

    Injections with re-used syringes have been identified as a major risk factor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Pakistan. We analyzed data from the 2006-2007 Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) to describe the distribution of injections administered with newly opened syringes and assessed the association of knowledge about bloodborne pathogens with syringe reuse in Pakistan. In the PDHS, women aged 12-49 years were enrolled through a multistage stratified cluster-sampling strategy across Pakistan. Approximately 10,000 women were interviewed to collect information regarding receiving injections, the use of syringes taken out of new unopened packages for their last injections, and knowledge regarding the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HBV and HCV through the re-use of syringes and transfusion of unscreened blood. Of the 5126/10,023 women who provided information concerning their last injection, 4342 (86%) received this injection with a new syringe taken out of an unopened package. The proportion of injections received with a new syringe increased with the education level, wealth, HIV knowledge and knowledge about HCV/HBV transmission through the re-use of syringes. In the multivariable model, respondents in the 4th (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.1, 95%CI: 1.4-3.0) and 5th (AOR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5) wealth quintiles, with some education (AOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9), those in the 4th quartile of the HIV knowledge score (AOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.0), and those with the knowledge that a new syringe protects against HCV/HBV and HIV (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5-3.5) were more likely to receive injections with a newly opened syringe. The patients' knowledge regarding the transmission of bloodborne pathogens is an important factor in receiving injections with a new syringe.

  20. The application of knowledge synthesis methods in agri-food public health: recent advancements, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality

  1. Knowledge and practices of obtaining informed consent for medical procedures among specialist physicians: questionnaire study in 6 Croatian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomic Juraga, Ana

    2009-12-01

    AIM. To assess physicians' knowledge and practices for obtaining patients' informed consent to medical procedures. METHODS. An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. RESULTS. Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P=0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P=0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P<0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P<0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P> or =0.05 for all questions). CONCLUSION. Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and perception/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners in India towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kharkar, Mala; Bowalekar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude and perceptions/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners (MPs) in India towards Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for assessment of KAP of medical practitioners in India toward ADR reporting. This questionnaire was administered to 2-3 medical practitioners from each zone prior to administering final questionnaire which was approved by Disha Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. 1200 medical practitioners (about 300 from each zone) from India were selected randomly. Results: 1000 medical practitioners out of 1200 (90%), selected at random were approached. A total of 870 provided responses to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 73% of 1200 selected randomly. A total of 47.5% respondents reported that they were aware of Government ADR centers. A total of 59.2% reported that they are familiar with the procedure of reporting ADRs to Government centers. However, only 18.5% of MPs have reported the observed ADRs to Government ADR centers. As against this relatively large number of MPs (87.9%) have reported ADRs observed during their routine practice to medical representatives of pharmaceutical company and NGOs (non-Govt. Organizations). A total of 80.5% of respondents agreed that safety plays an important role and 96% reported that ADR centers are useful. However, only 55.6% of respondents have reported that there is a need for ADR centers. Conclusion: The study reveals that practitioners are aware of ADR reporting; their perception toward ADR reporting is right but it is not reflected when it comes to the act of reporting of ADRs. In our sample of 870 respondents only 18.5 % reported ADRs to some organizations. Only 5% of respondents recorded the details of ADR and reported to the manufacturer and 1% of respondents to government health ministry. Thus, medical practitioners in India appear to have a good knowledge about ADR reporting, the right

  3. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in... highly multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application...

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Comparison of Current Knowledge, Attitudes and Interest among German Medical Students and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Münstedt, Karsten; Harren, Hildegard; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been agreed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be included in the German medical curriculum, there is no consensus on which methods and how it should be taught. This study aimed to assess needs for CAM education by evaluating current knowledge, attitudes and interests of medical students, general physicians and gynecologists. Two instruments based on established and validated questionnaires were developed. One was given to seventh semester medical students and the other to office-based doctors. Data were analyzed by bivariate correlation and cross-tabulation. Altogether 550 questionnaires were distributed—280 to doctors and 270 to medical students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 80.4% of students and 78.2% of doctors. Although 73.8% (160/219) of doctors and 40% (87/217) of students had already informed themselves about CAM, neither group felt that they knew much about CAM. Doctors believed that CAM was most useful in general medicine, supportive oncology, pediatrics, dermatology and gynecology, while students believed that dermatology, general medicine, psychiatry and rheumatology offered opportunities; both recommended that CAM should be taught in these areas. Both groups believed that CAM should be included in medical education; however, they believed that CAM needed more investigation and should be taught “critically". German doctors and students would like to be better informed about CAM. An approach which teaches fundamental competences to students, chooses specific content based on evidence, demographics and medical conditions and provides students with the skills they need for future learning should be adopted. PMID:19098296

  5. A Knowledge-based Learning and Testing System for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Siobhan

    The traditional medical curriculum and internships must be supplemented by standardized teaching modalities, such as computer-assisted instruction using patient simulators. A patient simulator is defined as a representation of a clinical situation in which an individual conducts the diagnosis and management of a patient. Advantages include…

  6. Medical Students' Learning from Patient-Led Teaching: Experiential versus Biomedical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group…

  7. Comparative effectiveness research and the psychology of medical practice: the vicissitudes of knowledge implementation.

    PubMed

    Kassirer, Jerome P; Wong, John B

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research should provide much-needed information about the benefits and risks of different current treatment options in the community. Taking the perspective of medical care providers, we consider many of the psychological, social and behavioural hurdles to implementation of comparative effectiveness analyses and explain why these obstacles should not be ignored.

  8. Assessment of Genetics Knowledge and Skills in Medical Students: Insight for a Clinical Neurogenetics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Phillip L.; Pettiford, Jennifer M.; Combs, Susan E.; Heffron, Ari; Healton, Sean; Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Macri, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    The pace of discovery in biochemistry and genetics and its effect on clinical medicine places new curricular challenges in medical school education. We sought to evaluate students' understanding of neurogenetics and its clinical applications to design a pilot curriculum into the clinical neurology clerkship. We utilized a needs assessment and a…

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p < .0005). Users were younger (p = .027) and drank alcohol more frequently (p = .008) than "non-users." Forty-nine percent consumed alcohol associated with energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol.

  10. Regulating medical bodies? The consequences of the 'modernisation' of the NHS and the disembodiment of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Burrows, Roger; Watt, Ian

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the consequences of modernisation and regulatory processes for the everyday lives of doctors working the UK National Health Service. We do this by reporting on interview data generated as part of a qualitative investigation into the working lives of 47 doctors. The analysis of the empirical findings is informed by two literatures: that which has sought to theorise the contemporary thrust of regulation and audit and that which has developed a sociology of embodiment. Doctors' views are presented in relation to four areas of work which hav--in the loosest sense of the word--been subject to regulation. Drawing on work from the sociology of embodiment we argue that changes in the institutional and cultural context of medical work could be altering both the 'field' and the 'habitus'--to use Bourdieu's terms--of medicine, with a consequence that medical knowledge is becoming less embodied.

  11. Prior Knowledge or Advance Organizers as Effective Variables in Chemical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, P. J.; West, L. H. T.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes an attempt to apply a critical empirical test to some predictions from Ausubel's theory concerning the subsuming role of advance organizers. Alternative explanations are proposed and subsequent predictions tested. (BT)

  12. Brief Continuing Medical Education (CME) Module Raises Knowledge of Developing Country Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliman, Amr S.; Samadi, Shahed; Banerjee, Mousumi; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Aziz, Zeba

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence in Pakistan is the highest reported in any South-Central Asian country. It is the most frequent malignancy in women, where it accounts for 38.5% of all female cancers. About half (43.7%) of all breast cancers are locally advanced. We recruited 183 primary care physicians in Pakistan and invited them to attend educational…

  13. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Basic Combat/Advanced Individual Training Program for Medical Corpsmen (MOS 91A10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Joseph S.; And Others

    The Human Resources Research Organization undertook this study to determine experimentally the effect of integrating the Basic Combat Training (BCT) and the Advanced Individual Training (AIT) sequence of instruction for conscientious objector (CO) being trained as a Medical Corpsman (MOS 91A10). Other objectives were to develop an improved AIT…

  14. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  15. Changing educational needs of psychologists: do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science?

    PubMed

    Belar, Cynthia D

    2008-03-01

    Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs. The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the author by the conference organizers of the 3rd National Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Conference and is based on the perspective of the author.

  16. Usefulness of case reports to improve medical knowledge regarding trigemino-cardiac reflex in skull base surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe the discovery of the trigemino-cardiac reflex by Schaller in 1999 and the continued improvement of the knowledge about the trigemino-cardiac reflex involved in neurosurgery, especially in skull base surgery, during the past several years. The achieved medical progress could be gained only by the practical experience described by different case reports and later case series that have been published in several principal scientific journals. Additionally, we explain the scientific as well as clinical importance of the communication of the case reports on TCR. Special reference has been given to the validity of the case reports for new phenomena in clinical medicine. PMID:21496216

  17. The Thought Style of Physicians: Strategies for Keeping Up with Medical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochel de Camargo, Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study on how doctors (n=14) select and assess information in practice. The data produced from open-ended interviews was interpreted though a conceptual framework derived from Ludwick Fleck. Concludes that doctors lack adequate resources to assess knowledge. (Contains 52 references.) (DDR)

  18. HIV-Related Knowledge and Attitudes among First Year Medical Students in Mumbai, India Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samant, Yogindra; Mankeshwar, Ranjit; Sankhe, Lalit; Parker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The total number of people with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection in India is estimated to be 10% of all global cases. People living with HIV in India often experience discrimination while receiving health care due to inadequate knowledge and fear among health care professionals. Data presented in this paper represents the…

  19. Impact of advanced medical therapy for the outcome of an adult patient with Eisenmenger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ereminienė, Eglė; Kinderytė, Marija; Miliauskas, Skaidrius

    2017-01-01

    Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is the most severe form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with congenital heart disease. It is an extremely devastating condition with a serious impact on patients' life. Classical therapy of ES remains directed to avoid complications, such as erythrocytosis, treatment of congestive heart failure, prevention of infection, and secondary haematological abnormalities such as iron deficiency and coagulation disorders. However, the only effective treatment is heart-lung transplantation; still, morbidity and mortality after transplantation remain substantially high. Furthermore, waiting lists for heart-lung transplantation are long. Recent studies examining the use of advanced medical treatment in patients with ES have shown that it may have beneficial effects in patients with ES; however, additional studies need to be done to confirm its efficacy and appropriate clinical use. A 41-year-old female admitted to the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences due to progressive dyspnea on minimal effort, heart failure symptoms leading to NYHA functional class III-IV. After clinical and instrumental investigations, ES secondary to unrepaired patent ductus arteriosus with severe PAH was diagnosed. Treatment with sildenafil was initiated together with the standard pharmacological therapy, and the patient was added to the waiting list for the heart and lung transplantation. After 24 months of stable condition, her clinical status deteriorated, and combination therapy (sildenafil and ambrisentan) was initiated. Clinical symptoms and exercise capacity improved, and she has been stable for 4 years thereafter. Our experience of the management of an adult patient with ES showed the benefits of treatment with advanced therapy with pulmonary vasodilators that improved the patient's quality of life and delayed the need for heart and lung transplantation.

  20. Student Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy Gains After Completing an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Drisaldi, Aulbrey G.; Alotaibi, Fawaz M.; Bonas, Tabatha N.; Shibley, Edward M.; Slattum, Patricia W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess changes in pharmacy students’ knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy after completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in geriatrics. Design. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 30 Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Pharmacy students were required to complete a 5-week Geriatrics APPE at Plaza Professional Pharmacy in Richmond, Virginia. All students completed a 25-point knowledge-based pre- and post-assessment to measure students’ self-efficacy. The average time required to accurately fill one unit dose prescription card before and after completing the APPE was also evaluated. Assessment. Students’ average score on the knowledge component improved significantly from 54% to 88% after completing the APPE. The average time required to fill one prescription decreased significantly from 4.0 minutes to 2.5 minutes. Students reported an increase in self-efficacy in the following areas: communication, immunizations, geriatrics-specific pharmacotherapy knowledge, and the ability to fill and check monthly unit dose prescription cards. Conclusion. Requiring fourth-year pharmacy students to complete a geriatrics APPE as a capstone experience to the integrated geriatrics content covered in the first through third years of the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum provides an important opportunity to improve students’ knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in providing care to older adults. PMID:28090105

  1. Maths for medications: an analytical exemplar of the social organization of nurses' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dyjur, Louise; Rankin, Janet; Lane, Annette

    2011-07-01

    Within the literature that circulates in the discourses organizing nursing education, there are embedded assumptions that link student performance on maths examinations to safe medication practices. These assumptions are rooted historically. They fundamentally shape educational approaches assumed to support safe practice and protect patients from nursing error. Here, we apply an institutional ethnographic lens to the body of literature that both supports and critiques the emphasis on numeracy skills and medication safety. We use this form of inquiry to open an alternate interrogation of these practices. Our main argument posits that numeracy skills serve as powerful distraction for both students and teachers. We suggest that they operate under specious claims of safety and objectivity. As nurse educators, we are captured by taken-for-granted understandings of practices intended to produce safety. We contend that some of these practices are not congruent with how competency actually unfolds in the everyday world of nursing practice. Ontologically grounded in the materiality of work processes, we suggest there is a serious disjuncture between educators' assessment and evaluation work where it links into broad nursing assumptions about medication work. These underlying assumptions and work processes produce contradictory tensions for students, teachers and nurses in direct practice.

  2. SysBioMed report: advancing systems biology for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Wolkenhauer, O; Fell, D; De Meyts, P; Blüthgen, N; Herzel, H; Le Novère, N; Höfer, T; Schürrle, K; van Leeuwen, I

    2009-05-01

    The following report selects and summarises some of the conclusions and recommendations generated throughout a series of workshops and discussions that have lead to the publication of the Science Policy Briefing (SPB) Nr. 35, published by the European Science Foundation. (Large parts of the present text are directly based on the ESF SPB. Detailed recommendations with regard to specific application areas are not given here but can be found in the SPB. Issues related to mathematical modelling, including training and the need for an infrastructure supporting modelling are discussed in greater detail in the present text.)The numerous reports and publications about the advances within the rapidly growing field of systems biology have led to a plethora of alternative definitions for key concepts. Here, with 'mathematical modelling' the authors refer to the modelling and simulation of subcellular, cellular and macro-scale phenomena, using primarily methods from dynamical systems theory. The aim of such models is encoding and testing hypotheses about mechanisms underlying the functioning of cells. Typical examples are models for molecular networks, where the behaviour of cells is expressed in terms of quantitative changes in the levels of transcripts and gene products. Bioinformatics provides essential complementary tools, including procedures for pattern recognition, machine learning, statistical modelling (testing for differences, searching for associations and correlations) and secondary data extracted from databases.Dynamical systems theory is the natural language to investigate complex biological systems demonstrating nonlinear spatio-temporal behaviour. However, the generation of experimental data suitable to parameterise, calibrate and validate such models is often time consuming and expensive or not even possible with the technology available today. In our report, we use the term 'computational model' when mathematical models are complemented with information

  3. Sharing Wisdom(s) to Enrich Knowledge: Working in a Transdisciplinary Research Team in Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Carceller-Maicas, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    This paper explains our experience working in a transdisciplinary research team focused on adolescence mental health. It introduces briefly the two key theoretical concepts: participation and transdisciplinarity. In order to be followed with a deep description of the methodology and the creation of the two principal materials resulting from our research: a guide of best practices in adolescent mental health, and a documentary film. Showing in a practical way how the research could be enhanced by the sharing of knowledge.

  4. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  5. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft.

  6. Knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease among medical students of Rawalpindi: A preventable threat not yet confronted

    PubMed Central

    Hisam, Aliya; Rana, Mariam Nadeem; Mahmood-Ur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS. The data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The response rate was 77% (308/400). About 244 (79.2%) of students had heard about EVD before. One hundred and sixty four (53.2%) of the students correctly identified that no treatment is available for EVD as yet. Also 163 (52.9%) said that no vaccine was available against the virus either. Washing hands every time after touching a patient in clinics/wards was important for 151 (49.0%) while 223 (72.4%) claimed to use proper techniques to dispose off used injections. Conclusion: Students have basic knowledge regarding EVD. However, there is deficient information regarding the diagnosis and precautionary measures required to control it. PMID:27648059

  7. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    PubMed

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  8. Visual Search of Experts in Medical Image Reading: The Effect of Training, Target Prevalence, and Expert Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Maeda, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are (a) To determine the effect of training on the multiple-target lesion search performance; and (b) To examine the effect of target prevalence on the performance of radiologists and novices. We conducted four sessions of 500 trials in a lesion search on a medical image task in which participants searched for three different target lesions. Participants were 10 radiologists and novices. In each session, the prevalence of the different target lesions varied from low (2%) to high (40%). The sensitivity of novices was higher in the later sessions than in the first session, whereas there were no differences among sessions in radiologists. The improvement on sensitivity of novices was largely due to attenuations of false alarm (FA) errors. In addition, miss rates of the three targets did not differ in data of novices, whereas radiologists produced a higher miss rate for the highest prevalence target lesion (non-serious lesion) than for the other two lesions (serious lesions). The conclusions are (a) The training for the multiple-target lesion search task can be effective to reduce FA errors; and (b) The prevalence effect on lesion search can be attenuated by the multiple-target identification and the knowledge about seriousness of lesions. This suggests that acquired knowledge about normal cases and serious lesions is an important aspect of a radiologists’ skill in searching for medical lesions and their high performance levels. PMID:23576997

  9. On theory of learning and knowledge: Educational implications of advances in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Graham D.; King, Ronald C.

    The first section analyses the so-called mechanical theories of learning that underpin the transmission view of teaching that so permeates education and schooling. There is an impasse in current theories due to lack of explanation about how we acquire knowledge. In response to what appears to be insuperable problems in current psychological theories, the second section promotes a neuroscientific basis for resolution of the impasse; a basis which renders at least some aspects of information theory redundant. Finally, implications for the transmission-of-knowledge approach to teaching are addressed.

  10. [The application of forensic medical knowledge for the reconstruction of historical events].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Molin, Yu A; Gorshkov, A N; Smolyanitsky, A G; Mazurova, E A; Vorontsov, G A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the results of many year investigations on the application of forensic medical methods and experience for the reconstruction of historical events including identification of the ancient Russian saints' hallows and statesmen's remains, elucidation of the genuine causes of death of the members of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs based on the recently discovered archival materials, restoration of the character of the injuries suffered by Aleksander II, M.I. Kutuzov, P. Demidov, G. Gapon., and G. Rasputin, the attribution A.S. Pushkin's memorial belongings based on the biological traces, and the like.

  11. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S; de Wildt, Dick J; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, Loes; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    Aim The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical curriculum was investigated. Methods The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of cohorts of students, from years before, during and after implementation of a WHO-6-step-based integrated learning programme were tested using a standardized assessment containing 50 items covering knowledge of basic (n = 25) and clinical (n = 24) pharmacology, and pharmacotherapy skills (n = 1 open question). All scores are expressed as a percentage of the maximum score possible per (sub)domain. Results In total, 1652 students were included between September 2010 and July 2014 (participation rate 89%). The WHO-6-step-based learning programme improved students’ knowledge of basic pharmacology (mean score ± SD, 60.6 ± 10.5% vs. 63.4 ± 10.9%, P < 0.01) and clinical or applied pharmacology (63.7 ± 10.4% vs. 67.4 ± 10.3%, P < 0.01), and improved their pharmacotherapy skills (68.8 ± 26.1% vs. 74.6% ± 22.9%, P 0.02). Moreover, satisfaction with education increased (5.7 ± 1.3 vs. 6.3 ± 1.0 on a 10-point scale, P < 0.01) and as did students’ confidence in daily practice (from −0.81 ± 0.72 to −0.50 ± 0.79 on a −2 to +2 scale, P < 0.01). Conclusions The WHO-6-step method was successfully implemented in a medical curriculum. In this observational study, the integrated learning programme had positive effects on students’ knowledge of basic and applied pharmacology, improved their pharmacotherapy skills, and increased satisfaction with education and self-confidence in prescribing. Whether this training method leads to better patient care remains to be established. PMID:25556708

  12. Where Experts Meet to Exchange Knowledge: Biotechnet's Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Science and progress thrive on an open mind and a transnational exchange of ideas and experience. That's why, in 2005, two scientists with a vision launched the biotechnet Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology. This year, too, the Summer School - now held at ZHAW in Waedenswil - is attracting researchers from all over the globe, and is also celebrating its 10(th) anniversary.

  13. Some observations on the interdigitation of advances in medical science and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Glamore, Michael James; West, James L; O'leary, James Patrick

    2013-12-01

    The immense advancement of our understanding of disease processes has not been a uniform progression related to the passage of time. Advances have been made in "lurches" and "catches" since the advent of the written word. There has been a remarkable interdependency between such advances in medicine and advances in mathematics that has proved beneficial to both. This work explores some of these critical relationships and documents how the individuals involved contributed to advances in each.

  14. Traditional Knowledge and Formulations of Medicinal Plants Used by the Traditional Medical Practitioners of Bangladesh to Treat Schizophrenia Like Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Kabidul Azam, Md. Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia. PMID:25101175

  15. Traditional knowledge and formulations of medicinal plants used by the traditional medical practitioners of bangladesh to treat schizophrenia like psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Nasir; Kabidul Azam, Md Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.

  16. Use of Increasingly Complex Text to Advance ELs' Knowledge and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Lisa M.; Leighton, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored joining use of increasing-complex text with sound instructional practices on English Learners' (ELs) academic language and conceptual knowledge. Findings showed one-week postintervention, ELs achieved significant academic vocabulary gains such that there were no differences between ELs and general education (GE)…

  17. Advancing Understanding Using Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation and Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Lee, Shuh Shing

    2013-01-01

    Nonaka's model of knowledge creation can provide guidance for designing learning environments and activities. However, Bereiter is critical of the model because it does not address whether understanding is deepened in the process of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization. To address this issue of understanding, this…

  18. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of…

  19. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  20. On Theory of Learning and Knowledge: Educational Implications of Advances in Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, G. D.; King, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the so-called mechanical theories of learning that underpin the transmission view of teaching that so permeates education and schooling. Promotes a neuroscientific basis for resolution of the impasse in psychological theories. Implications for the transmission-of-knowledge approach to teaching are addressed. (PR)

  1. Introduction to the special issue on advances in clinical and health-care knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rajeev K; Feng, David Dagan; Burstein, Frada; Dwivedi, Ashish N

    2005-06-01

    Clinical and health-care knowledge management (KM) as a discipline has attracted increasing worldwide attention in recent years. The approach encompasses a plethora of interrelated themes including aspects of clinical informatics, clinical governance, artificial intelligence, privacy and security, data mining, genomic mining, information management, and organizational behavior. This paper introduces key manuscripts which detail health-care and clinical KM cases and applications.

  2. Evaluation of a Knowledge Translation and Exchange Platform to Advance Non-Communicable Disease Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettman, Tahna Lee; Armstrong, Rebecca; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven; Love, Penelope; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Boylan, Sinead; Booth, Sue; Bolton, Kristy; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated systems are required to ensure evidence-informed practice and evaluation of community-based interventions (CBIs). Knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) strategies show promise, but these require evaluation. This paper describes implementation and evaluation of COOPS, a national KTE platform to support best practice in obesity…

  3. Neoliberalism and the Global Restructuring of Knowledge and Education. Routledge Advances in Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the influence of neoliberal ideas and practices on the way knowledge has been conceptualized, produced, and disseminated over the last few decades at different levels of public education and in various national contexts around the world. Contents of this book include: (1) Introduction: The Contemporary Politics of Knowing and…

  4. [Soldiers and HIV: impact of medical knowledge on the analysis of discrimination in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Pou Giménez, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Mexican Supreme Court issued several opinions dealing with military personnel dismissed from the Army because of their being HIV-positive. The author describes the main questions under discussion and the core arguments developed by the Court, and stresses three reasons why these cases deserve close attention: positively, because they reinforced the use of the proportionality principle as a tool for identifying discriminatory norms and because they opened the door to the use of specialized scientific knowledge in constitutional adjudication; negatively, because they failed to build on the direct normative efficacy of the right to health.

  5. Conceptual Knowledge Foundations for Naval Medical Training: A Scheme for Directed Curricular Planning and Instructional Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-14

    Lactase deficiency (retroceal) Absorption (Idiopathic) NEURO Intracranial Central Nervous Brain tumor Hematoma System (Glioma) 23 Important...1.9 NEURO 9 Hematoma number of [9] [6] subjects Final Dx 2.0 1.5 Note: There were no significant differences As part of the clinical case vignettes that...subjects Evaluative 22 2.1 1.6 Assessment Self knowledge 2 0.44 0.43 Clinical 18 Assessment 2.3 33 NEURO Hematoma number of [91 (61 subjects Evaluative 5

  6. Knowledge and Practices of Obtaining Informed Consent for Medical Procedures among Specialist Physicians: Questionnaire Study in 6 Croatian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jukić, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomić, Ana; Juraga

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess physicians’ knowledge and practices for obtaining patients’ informed consent to medical procedures. Methods An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. Results Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P = 0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P = 0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P < 0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P < 0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P ≥ 0.05 for all questions). Conclusion Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process. PMID:20017225

  7. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Aim To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. Setting A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. Method The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Results Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to ‘always’ practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40–96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Conclusion Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers’ knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations. PMID:27711173

  8. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  9. Modeling and Encoding Clinical Causal Relationships in a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the computer modeling and encoding of clinical causal relationships (CR's). This method draws on the theory of multivariate linear models and path analysis. The representation was used to encode medical CR's derived empirically from a clinical database by the RX computer project described in SCAMC82. The emphasis in the representation is on capturing the intensities of effects and the variation in the effects across a patient population. This information is used by RX in determining the validity of other CR's. The representation uses a directed graph formalism in which the nodes are frames and the arcs contain seven descriptive features of individual CR's: intensity, distribution, direction, mathematical form, setting, validity, and evidence. Because natural systems (such as the human body) are inherently probabilistic, linear models are useful in representing causal flow in them.

  10. Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASE(TM)) Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AND SUBTITLE Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM...Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM) Guidelines Abstract The Body...develop new systems engineering graduate programs . One method is to develop the program within an existing department by combining new curriculum into a

  11. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  12. Applying knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery methods to advance clinical and translational research: the OAMiner project

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Best, Thomas M; Borlawsky, Tara B; Lai, Albert M; James, Stephen; Gurcan, Metin N

    2012-01-01

    The conduct of clinical and translational research regularly involves the use of a variety of heterogeneous and large-scale data resources. Scalable methods for the integrative analysis of such resources, particularly when attempting to leverage computable domain knowledge in order to generate actionable hypotheses in a high-throughput manner, remain an open area of research. In this report, we describe both a generalizable design pattern for such integrative knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery operations and our experience in applying that design pattern in the experimental context of a set of driving research questions related to the publicly available Osteoarthritis Initiative data repository. We believe that this ‘test bed’ project and the lessons learned during its execution are both generalizable and representative of common clinical and translational research paradigms. PMID:22647689

  13. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre

    PubMed Central

    Hing (Wong), Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. Aim: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. Conclusion: The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients’ preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia. PMID:27803566

  14. Charting a Course to Advance Educators' Knowledge and Perceptions of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards presents climate change as a crosscutting concept with applicability across all domains of science. It is therefore important that both formal and informal environmental and science educators have an understanding of the science of climate change. This research study examined changes in knowledge and perceptions about climate change held by fifteen graduate students as they participated in an elective course on global climate change education in an environmental education masters program. The students in this study, typical of many environmental education students, had diverse backgrounds and several had weak academic preparation in science. Modules from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education project, Climate Science Investigations: South Florida (CSI), were piloted throughout the course. Students also learned to develop evidence-based scientific arguments, which is a key practice integrated throughout the new science standards. Students' knowledge of and perceptions about climate change significantly increased after completing the course as measured by a pre-post administration of the Climate Science Inventory of Knowledge and Inventory of Perceptions About Climate Change. Students' journals were analyzed for insights on the effectiveness of the curriculum and instructional approach of the course. Students reported that the argumentation project contributed most to their understanding of the science. Because these students will pursue informal and formal environmental education careers, this study has important implications for the communication of science, and climate change in particular, in the context of public environmental education and formal school settings.

  15. EarthCube: Advancing Partnerships, Collaborative Platforms and Knowledge Networks in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Diggs; Lee, Allison

    2014-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative aims to create a community-driven data and knowledge management system that will allow for unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. More than 2,500 participants through forums, work groups, EarthCube events, and virtual and in-person meetings have participated. The individuals that have engaged represent the core earth-system sciences of solid Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, and Polar Sciences. EarthCube is a cornerstone of NSF's Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21) initiative, whose chief objective is to develop a U.S. nationwide, sustainable, and community-based cyberinfrastructure for researchers and educators. Increasingly effective community-driven cyberinfrastructure allows global data discovery and knowledge management and achieves interoperability and data integration across scientific disciplines. There is growing convergence across scientific and technical communities on creating a networked, knowledge management system and scientific data cyberinfrastructure that integrates Earth system and human dimensions data in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube does not intend to replicate these efforts, but build upon them. An agile development process is underway for the development and governance of EarthCube. The agile approach was deliberately selected due to its iterative and incremental nature while promoting adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness.

  16. Advances in oral health knowledge of Greek navy recruits and their socioeconomic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Zavras, Athanasios I; Vrahopoulos, Theofilos P; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Silvestros, Spyros; Vrotsos, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal changes on oral health knowledge and attitudes among two populations of young Greek males (age 19–29 years) undergoing their military training. A secondary aim was to identify socioeconomic trends that may have influenced the above. Methods A total of 2,764 healthy subjects (1511 in 1985, and 1253 in 1996) answered a standardized questionnaire of oral health issues. Respondents were stratified in 3 groups, according to their educational status (ES); their responses were compared using the chi-square statistic. The evaluation of socioeconomic indicators utilized longitudinal data from the national Household Expenditures Survey. Results An overall improvement was noted in the majority of "Knowledge" and "Attitudes" variables in 1996, as compared to 1985. Education seems to play an important role in both knowledge and attitudes. These changes may also be partially attributed to a shift in consuming standards from the coverage of main needs to income disposal directed towards the achievement of better quality of life. PMID:12489985

  17. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    PubMed

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (p<0.001). Notable also was the poor awareness of the potential curability of TC, this also being improved following the intervention (p<0.001). A poor level of awareness and practice of testicular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Age, gender and marital status were without

  18. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative.

  19. Patient-Centered Medical Home Knowledge and Attitudes of Residents and Faculty: Certification Is Just the First Step

    PubMed Central

    El Rayess, Fadya; Goldman, Roberta; Furey, Christopher; Chandran, Rabin; Goldberg, Arnold R.; Anandarajah, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Background The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an accepted framework for delivering high-quality primary care, prompting many residencies to transform their practices into PCMHs. Few studies have assessed the impact of these changes on residents' and faculty members' PCMH attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The family medicine program at Brown University achieved Level 3 PCMH accreditation in 2010, with training relying primarily on situated learning through immersion in PCMH practice, supplemented by didactics and a few focused clinical activities. Objective To assess PCMH knowledge and attitudes after Level 3 PCMH accreditation and to identify additional educational needs. Methods We used a qualitative approach, with semistructured, individual interviews with 12 of the program's 13 postgraduate year 3 residents and 17 of 19 core faculty. Questions assessed PCMH knowledge, attitudes, and preparedness for practicing, teaching, and leading within a PCMH. Interviews were analyzed using the immersion/crystallization method. Results Residents and faculty generally had positive attitudes toward PCMH. However, many expressed concerns that they lacked specific PCMH knowledge, and felt inadequately prepared to implement PCMH principles into their future practice or teaching. Some exceptions were faculty and resident leaders who were actively involved in the PCMH transformation. Barriers included lack of time and central roles in PCMH activities. Conclusions Practicing in a certified PCMH training program, with passive PCMH roles and supplemental didactics, appears inadequate in preparing residents and faculty for practice or teaching in a PCMH. Purposeful curricular design and evaluation, with faculty development, may be needed to prepare the future leaders of primary care. PMID:26692970

  20. Science of health care delivery as a first step to advance undergraduate medical education: A multi-institutional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Starr, Stephanie R; Reed, Darcy A; Essary, Alison; Hueston, William; Johnson, C Daniel; Landman, Natalie; Meurer, John; Miller, Bonnie; Ogrinc, Greg; Petty, Elizabeth M; Raymond, John; Riley, William; Gabriel, Sherine; Maurana, Cheryl

    2017-03-22

    Physicians must possess knowledge and skills to address the gaps facing the US health care system. Educators advocate for reform in undergraduate medical education (UME) to align competencies with the Triple Aim. In 2014, five medical schools and one state university began collaborating on these curricular gaps. The authors report a framework for the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD) using six domains and highlight curricular examples from each school. They describe three challenges and strategies for success in implementing SHCD curricula. This collaboration highlights the importance of multi-institutional partnerships to accelerate innovation and adaptation of curricula.

  1. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  2. A workshop to teach medical students communication skills and clinical knowledge about end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Torke, Alexia M; Quest, Tammie E; Kinlaw, Kathy; Eley, J William; Branch, William T

    2004-05-01

    We describe a half-day workshop to teach third-year medical students three focused end-of-life care skills: breaking bad news, discussing advance directives, and assessing and managing pain. Our workshop included a readers' theater exercise and three role-play exercises. In two of the workshops, faculty members played the role of patients. We used readers' theater to engage the students on an emotional level and set a reflective tone for the workshop. Evaluations reflected that most respondents felt that the workshop enhanced their understanding and ability to address these skills with patients. By 6 months, many students reported applying these skills to patient care in a way they thought was effective.

  3. Win-win: advancing written language knowledge and practice through university clinics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Lauren A; Fallon, Karen A

    2015-02-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are uniquely suited for assessing and treating individuals with both spoken and written language disorders. Yet as students move from the elementary grades into the middle and high school grades, SLPs tend to provide fewer direct language services to them. Although spoken language disorders become written language disorders, SLP are not receiving sufficient training in the area of written language, and this is reflected in the extent to which they believe they have the knowledge and skills to provide services to struggling readers and writers on their caseloads. In this article, we discuss these problems and present effective methods for addressing them.

  4. Application of knowledge management and the intelligence continuum for medical emergencies and disaster scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2006-01-01

    The world has recently witnessed several large scale natural disasters. These include the Asian tsunami which devastated many of the countries around the rim of the Indian Ocean in December 2004, extensive flooding in many parts of Europe in August 2005, hurricane katrina (September 2005), the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in many regions of Asia and Canada in 2003 and the Pakistan earthquake (towards the end of 2005). Such emergency and disaster situations (E&DS) serve to underscore the utter chaos that ensues in the aftermath of such events, the many casualties and lives lost not to mention the devastation and destruction that is left behind. One recurring theme that is apparent in all these situations is that, irrespective of the warnings of imminent threats, countries have not been prepared and ready to exhibit effective and efficient crisis management. This paper examines the application of the tools, techniques and processes of the knowledge economy to develop a prescriptive model that will support superior decision making in E&DS, thereby enabling effective and efficient crisis management.

  5. Integrated approach for designing medical decision support systems with knowledge extracted from clinical databases by statistical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Krusinska, E.; Babic, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Wigertz, O.; Bodemar, G.; Mathiesen, U.

    1991-01-01

    In clinical research data is often studied by a particular method without previous analysis of quality or semantic contents which could link clinical database and data analytical (e.g. statistical) procedures. In order to avoid bias caused by this situation, we propose that the analysis of medical data should be divided into two main steps. In the first one we concentrate on conducting the quality, semantic and structure analyses. In the second step our aim is to build an appropriate dictionary of data analysis methods for further knowledge extraction. Methods like robust statistical techniques, procedures for mixed continuous and discrete data, fuzzy linguistic approach, machine learning and neural networks can be included. The results may be evaluated both using test samples and applying other relevant data-analytical techniques to the particular problem under the study. PMID:1807621

  6. Advancing the Integration of Population Medicine into Medical Curricula at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University: A New Master's Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michael J; Feller, Edward; George, Paul; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Additional knowledge, attitudes and skills are required for the next generation of medical students as they expand the traditional focus on individual patients to include population-based health and scholarly investigation. The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) is initiating a master's degree program as a key component of the new Primary Care-Population Medicine program at AMS leading to both a Doctorate in Medicine (MD) and Master of Science in Population Medicine (ScM) degrees in four years. The ScM is composed of a series of nine courses, integrated into the four-year MD curriculum, as well as a thesis. Additional attention will be given to leadership and quality improvement training. The goal is to produce graduates competent in the care of individual patients, panels, communities, and populations.

  7. A method and knowledge base for automated inference of patient problems from structured data in an electronic medical record

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Justine; Feblowitz, Joshua C; Maloney, Francine L; Wilcox, Allison R; Ramelson, Harley Z; Schneider, Louise I; Bates, David W

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate knowledge of a patient's medical problems is critical for clinical decision making, quality measurement, research, billing and clinical decision support. Common structured sources of problem information include the patient problem list and billing data; however, these sources are often inaccurate or incomplete. Objective To develop and validate methods of automatically inferring patient problems from clinical and billing data, and to provide a knowledge base for inferring problems. Study design and methods We identified 17 target conditions and designed and validated a set of rules for identifying patient problems based on medications, laboratory results, billing codes, and vital signs. A panel of physicians provided input on a preliminary set of rules. Based on this input, we tested candidate rules on a sample of 100 000 patient records to assess their performance compared to gold standard manual chart review. The physician panel selected a final rule for each condition, which was validated on an independent sample of 100 000 records to assess its accuracy. Results Seventeen rules were developed for inferring patient problems. Analysis using a validation set of 100 000 randomly selected patients showed high sensitivity (range: 62.8–100.0%) and positive predictive value (range: 79.8–99.6%) for most rules. Overall, the inference rules performed better than using either the problem list or billing data alone. Conclusion We developed and validated a set of rules for inferring patient problems. These rules have a variety of applications, including clinical decision support, care improvement, augmentation of the problem list, and identification of patients for research cohorts. PMID:21613643

  8. [The formation of medical knowledges in Russia before 1800: contributions of German speaking physicians].

    PubMed

    Henning, Aloys

    2004-01-01

    Under the Moscovian grand duke VASILIJ III (1505-1533) the physician NICOLAUS BüLOW from Lübeck translated into Russian "Gaerde der Suntheit" (The garden of health), printed at Lübeck in 1492. Many German oral and literal medical transfers to Russia are documented since, amongst those from whole Europe, which SABINE DUMSCHAT has actually investigates (1998; 2003). At the end of the 16th century the German translation fo JOHANN REMMELINS (1583-1632) "catoptron microcosmicum" (1661) was translated into Russian for teaching the first Russian military surgeons (fel'dshery). JOSIAS WEITBRECHT (1702-1747) from Württemberg, member of the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg since 1725, created a catalog of the anatomical preparations in the Petersburg Chamber of Arts, which Peter I let buy from FREDERIK RUYSCH in 1717 at Amersterdamn. WEITBRECHT lectured on anatomy and physiology at the Academy since 1730, what DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700-1782) had done there before. JOHANN BLATHASAR HANHART (1704-1739) from Winterthur, surgeon since 1733 at the new Petersburg Admiralty's hospital was ordered to create the Latin terminology for the first anatomical atlas, ever printed in Russia (1744). When HANHART had died, the surgeon from Petersburg Army's hospital CHRISTOPH JAKOB VON MELLEN (1705-1765) from Lübeck finished his work. In 1757 and 1761 the chief-surgeon at the Admiralty's hospital MARTIN SHEIN (1712-1762) published the first textbooks on anatomy and surgery in Russian, having translated JOHANN ZACHARIAS PLATNERS 'Institutiones chirurgicae", Lipsiae 1745. In 1764 the accoucheur-surgeon JOHANN PAGENKAMPF, Personal surgeon of EKATERINA II, translated and published a German textbook from JOHANN HORN for accoucheuses into Russian for teaching at the Moscow school for accoucheuses under JOHANN FRIEDRICH ERASMUS from Strasburg, founded in 1757.

  9. Traditional-medical knowledge and perception of pangolins (manis sps) among the awori people, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Animals have been used as medicinal resources throughout human history. Majority of wildlife used in traditional medicines is taken from the wild; hence demand by traditional medicine is a cause of over-exploitation of wild animals. Indiscriminate use of endangered species portends grievous implications for biodiversity conservation. This study investigated the dynamics of the use of pangolin in trado-medicinal preparations amongst the Awori people. Methods Forty traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners (tymps) selected through stratified random-sampling technique were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. Various aspects of the utilisation of pangolin in traditional medicinal practices were investigated. Data collected were analysed using simple frequencies and percentages. Results An average of 1.6 pangolins were utilised per tymp per month. About 43% of respondents contracted hunters for deliberate searches for the animals. More than 92% believed that pangolins' abundance is steadily decreasing. Above 97% reported a continuous decline in the size of pangolin. Pangolin was used in treating 47 conditions. Situations accommodated included those that can be treated by orthodox medicine like rheumatism and venereal diseases as well as some that are out of range for orthodox medicine including kleptomania and good luck charms. Some substitute animals like gorilla are under a greater conservation threat than pangolin. Conclusions Utilisation of pangolin in traditional medicine has no consideration for sustainability. Awareness should be created on people as regards the implications of unsustainable depletion of medicinal resources. Efforts should be intensified on ex-situ breeding of pangolin while subjecting the scales and other parts to laboratory studies to determine the bioactive constituents. PMID:21884607

  10. [The problems of professional competence in the complementary professional forensic medical expertise programs of advanced training and professional requalification].

    PubMed

    Shadymov, A B; Fominykh, S A; Dik, V P

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of the analysis of the new tendencies and normatives of the working legislation in the field of additional professional education in the speciality of «forensic medical expertise» and the application of the competency-based approach to the training of specialists in the framework of professional requalification and advanced training programs. Special attention is given to the problems of organization of the educational process and the elaboration of additional training programs based on the competency approach to the training of specialists at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Law with the professor V.N. Kryukov Course of Advanced Professional Training and Professional Requalification of Specialists at the state budgetary educational Institution of higher professional education «Altai State Medical University», Russian Ministry of Health. The study revealed the problems pertaining to the development of professional competencies in the framework of educational programs for the professional requalification and advanced training in the speciality «forensic medical expertise». The authors propose the legally substantiated approaches to the solution of these problems.

  11. The Development of Evidence Briefs to Transfer Knowledge About Advanced Practice Nursing Roles to Providers, Policymakers and Administrators.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; DiCenso, Alba

    2015-03-01

    The transfer of health-related research knowledge between producers and users is a complex, dynamic and iterative process. There has been little research describing the preferred knowledge transfer strategies used by different stakeholder groups, including healthcare providers, policymakers and administrators. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of the content and preferred dissemination strategies of knowledge users of briefing notes about the effectiveness of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles in Canada. An on-line cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2011 to January 2012. Purposeful sampling was used to identify the target audience. The questionnaire included six items. The response rate was 44% (n=75/170). Participants identified that the briefing note should concisely summarize definitions for APN roles and information about the safety, effectiveness, cost savings and effective role implementation strategies. Multiple approaches were favoured to disseminate the information. Preferred dissemination strategies included personalized emails, meeting with briefing note recipients, engaging nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists in organizations where APN roles have been successfully implemented, engaging the media and using social media. The use of briefing notes has shown promise. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored briefing notes.

  12. Are Informing Knowledge and Supportive Attitude Enough for Tobacco Control? A Latent Class Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Patterns among Medical Teachers in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M.B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. Methods: In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. Results: A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals. PMID:26404331

  13. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be

  14. Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Shamin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research. Methods: A survey was administered to faculty in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary sciences at The University of the West Indies. The questions covered computer literacy, computer access and location, knowledge and use of electronic resources, and training needs. Results: The response rate was 70%, of whom 97% were computer users. Seventy-three percent used computers daily, and 82% felt that their computer literacy level was average or beyond. Overall, it was found that faculty had high awareness of the electronic resources made available by the MSL but low use of MSL-specific resources supporting the suggested problem of underutilization. Many respondents felt that e-resources were important, and, though many felt that they were competent users, 83% were self-taught and many still expressed a need for training. Over 60% felt that a workshop with a hands-on component was the preferred format for training. It was recommended that there be greater promotion of the library's e-resources. PMID:15685270

  15. [Advances in the knowledge of the use of micronutrients in artificial nutrition].

    PubMed

    Muñoz García, M; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrients are defined as those compounds necessary for the adequate physiological status of the organism and that may be administered through the daily diet either enteral or parenteral. The term micronutrient encompasses the vitamins and oligoelements, also termed trace elements. Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the organism and are categorized in two groups: water-soluble vitamins (the vitamin B group, C, folic acid, and biotin) and lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Oligoelements are found in small amounts in the human body, and copper, cobalt, chrome, iron, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc are considered to be essential. The important role of micronutrients in critically-ill patients has been demonstrated, and their influence on the immune system, cancer, burnt, septic, and poly-traumatized patients has extensively been put in evidence. It is important to establish the micronutrients demands for each individual in order to achieve an adequate intake. However, there is little evidence on the necessary intake to achieve proper physiological functioning under different pathologies; therefore, studies bringing light to this situation are needed. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge on micronutrients supplementation in the adult population with pathologies such as cancer, coronary and cardiovascular disease, bowel inflammatory disease, short-bowel syndrome, cystic fibrosis, liver disease, renal failure, respiratory failure, the surgical patient, big-burnt patient, pancreatitis, poly-traumatized patients, sepsis and HIV. After the bibliographical search, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding micronutrients intake in artificial nutrition under the above-mentioned pathologies.

  16. Advancing User Supports with a Structured How-To Knowledge Base for Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Acker, James G.; Lynnes, Christopher S.; Beaty, Tammy; Lighty, Luther; Kempler, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to access and process fast growing Earth science data from satellites and numerical models, which may be archived in very different data format and structures. NASA data centers, managed by the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), have developed a rich and diverse set of data services and tools with features intended to simplify finding, downloading, and working with these data. Although most data services and tools have user guides, many users still experience difficulties with accessing or reading data due to varying levels of familiarity with data services, tools, and/or formats. A type of structured online document, data recipe, were created in beginning 2013 by Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). A data recipe is the How-To document created by using the fixed template, containing step-by-step instructions with screenshots and examples of accessing and working with real data. The recipes has been found to be very helpful, especially to first-time-users of particular data services, tools, or data products. Online traffic to the data recipe pages is significant to some recipes. In 2014, the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG) for data recipes was established, aimed to initiate an EOSDIS-wide campaign for leveraging the distributed knowledge within EOSDIS and its user communities regarding their respective services and tools. The ESDSWG data recipe group started with inventory and analysis of existing EOSDIS-wide online help documents, and provided recommendations and guidelines and for writing and grouping data recipes. This presentation will overview activities of creating How-To documents at GES DISC and ESDSWG. We encourage feedback and contribution from users for improving the data How-To knowledge base.

  17. Advanced Knowledge of Three Important Classes of Grape Phenolics: Anthocyanins, Stilbenes and Flavonols

    PubMed Central

    Flamini, Riccardo; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Rosso, Mirko; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins) functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry. PMID:24084717

  18. Advanced knowledge of three important classes of grape phenolics: anthocyanins, stilbenes and flavonols.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Riccardo; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Rosso, Mirko; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2013-09-27

    Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins) functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry.

  19. Chronic lower limb ischemia and advanced renal failure. Do we possess sufficient therapeutic knowledge?

    PubMed

    Gacka, M; Adamiec, R

    2013-08-01

    Chronic lower limb ischemia diminishes the quality of life and is associated with a higher risk of limb amputation and cardiovascular mortality. Coexisting chronic renal disease can modulate the response to pharmacotherapy and revascularization, and thus influence prognosis. This paper reviews current literary evidence regarding therapeutic problems observed in patients with obliterative atherosclerosis and renal failure. We reviewed articles from peer-reviewed medical journals which were published between 2000 and 2011. The poorer clinical response in the discussed patients is not only connected with the direct failure of surgical and endovascular procedures, but first of all with the high mortality of the patients. There is still a lack of sufficient evidence on the effectiveness of currently used anti-atherosclerotic agents in patients with end-stage renal failure. A certain priority is the search for an effective therapeutic strategy that would reduce mortality associated with cardiovascular conditions in this particular group of patients. Identifying patients who can benefit most from costly endovascular procedures is another vital issue.

  20. Advances in knowledge related to wounding, repair, and healing: 1885-1984.

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, J A

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to record objectively the contribution of Annals of Surgery to the development of the science of surgery and its application to patient care in commemoration of its Centennial. Though many other subjects could have been chosen, the literature relating to wounding, repair, and healing is pertinent to all of surgery and uniquely comprises a significant portion of its history and science. By reviewing the articles and content of the 200 volumes, a personal perspective was gained and hopefully captured in the body of the manuscript. By departing from the usual format of a bibliography, names of authors appear rather than impersonal numbers. The editorial eras are apparent, punctuated by the beginnings, the World Wars, the Wars of Korea, Vietnam, and North Africa, the development of biomedical research, and the technologies in other fields. Annals also reflects the logarithmic increase in higly competent surgeons through the burgeoning educational programs of university health centers, major hospitals, and clinics in the United States and in other parts of the world. Societal needs and problems are reflected by the scope and breadth of the surgical articles in response to the medical needs of its constituents during war and peace. The evolution of specialization is apparent from the beginning. Declining morbidity and mortality rates reflect the application of research, technology, and experience to the science of surgery and the biology of wounds through their dissemination. PMID:3883919

  1. CATCH 22 syndrome: report of 7 infants with follow-up data and review of the recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11.

    PubMed

    Sergi, C; Serpi, M; Müller-Navia, J; Schnabel, P A; Hagl, S; Otto, H F; Ulmer, H E

    1999-06-01

    CATCH 22 is a medical acronym for Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, and Hypocalcemia, and a variable deletion on chromosome 22. The deletion within the chromosome region of 22q11 may occur in patients with three well-described dysmorphologic+ cardiological syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). We report in detail seven infants with a deletion of the locus 22q11 showing overlapping clinical features of DGS and CTAFS with complex congenital heart defects (double outlet right ventricle, atresia or stenosis of the pulmonary valve, atrial and ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, arcus aortae dexter, and persistence of the left superior vena cava). A homograft was implanted between the right ventricle and the main stem of the pulmonary artery in 2 patients, while a balloon valvuloplastic of the pulmonary valve was performed in one patient only. Pulmonary hemorrhage, acute hypoxia, and Aspergillus pneumonia were the complications. Death occurred in three out of seven patients. Recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11 are described. Since the locus 22q11 is highly heterogeneous, the CATCH 22 acronym should be used and temporarily the old eponyms should be abandoned waiting for the identification of the different genes.

  2. The trophodynamics of marine top predators: Current knowledge, recent advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jock W.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Cook, Timothée R.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Lorrain, Anne; Olson, Robert J.; Allain, Valerie; Menkes, Christophe; Patterson, Toby; Nicol, Simon; Lehodey, Patrick; Kloser, Rudy J.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Anela Choy, C.

    2015-03-01

    We review present understanding of the spatial and temporal diet variability (trophodynamics) of a range of pelagic marine top predators, at both early and adult life history stages. We begin with a review of methodologies used to advance our understanding of the trophodynamics of marine top predators, particularly in relation to climate change. We then explore how these developments are informing our understanding of the major trophic groups in food webs leading to, and including, marine top predators. We examine through specific examples how the impacts of ocean warming may affect pelagic food web relationships from both top-down and bottom-up perspectives. We examine the potential, in the absence of long-term data sets, of using large-scale spatial studies to examine how potential changes in biological oceanography could impact the biomass and composition of prey species, particularly the role of phytoplankton size spectra. We focus on examples from regions where biotic change with respect to climate change is likely. In particular, we detail the effects of climate change on oceanographic and bathymetric "hotspots" and provide the example involving seabirds in the Benguela Current system. We end by urging the development of international collaborations and databases to facilitate comprehensive ocean-scale understanding of climate impacts on marine top predators.

  3. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  4. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  5. Advancing knowledge gained from sediment budgets through sediment age dating and fingerprinting in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Gellis, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Hupp, C. R.; Larsen, L.; Noe, G. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schenk, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics and long-term trajectories of fine sediment generally remain poorly quantified in rivers, which have implications for nutrient and contaminant transport and remediation strategies. Here we focus on two streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Difficult Run and Accotink Creek. These streams have varying degrees of urbanization and diverse best management practices, making possible a comparison of sediment sources, sinks, and residence times to illuminate how land management impacts fine sediment transport. Bank erosion and floodplain accumulation in Difficult Run has been previously determined and is ongoing in Accotink Creek. Current work advances sediment budgets by quantifying the role of in-channel fine sediment storage in the bed and margins. To understand the relative storage timescales for various geomorphic features (floodplain, in-channel, etc.) and develop age distributions, sediment is dated using radionuclides of varying half-lives such as Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, bomb radiocarbon, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). To determine the source of sediment that is transported in suspension, sediment fingerprinting has been completed in Difficult Run and initiated in Accotink Creek. Furthermore, the present study furthers our understanding of fine sediment dynamics by fingerprinting sources of stored sediment and evaluating how they evolve over storm events and stream size. For this, we sampled sediment in storage zones before and after storm events of a specified magnitude to determine their chemical signatures with respect to various source-tracking elements and isotopes. This study represents the first such work to integrate sediment dating, sediment fingerprinting and an analysis of storage zones to understand fine sediment dynamics and long-term trajectories.

  6. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIH Roadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives by providing tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data, and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologies as well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotated using those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops in ontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research in ontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientific discovery. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  7. Advance Care Planning Meets Group Medical Visits: The Feasibility of Promoting Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Jones, Jacqueline; Matlock, Daniel D.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Lobo, Ingrid; Levy, Cari R.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Sudore, Rebecca L.; Kutner, Jean S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Primary care needs new models to facilitate advance care planning conversations. These conversations focus on preferences regarding serious illness and may involve patients, decision makers, and health care providers. We describe the feasibility of the first primary care–based group visit model focused on advance care planning. METHODS We conducted a pilot demonstration of an advance care planning group visit in a geriatrics clinic. Patients were aged at least 65 years. Groups of patients met in 2 sessions of 2 hours each facilitated by a geriatrician and a social worker. Activities included considering personal values, discussing advance care planning, choosing surrogate decision-makers, and completing advance directives. We used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the project. RESULTS Ten of 11 clinicians referred patients for participation. Of 80 patients approached, 32 participated in 5 group visit cohorts (a 40% participation rate) and 27 participated in both sessions (an 84% retention rate). Mean age was 79 years; 59% of participants were female and 72% white. Most evaluated the group visit as better than usual clinic visits for discussing advance care planning. Patients reported increases in detailed advance care planning conversations after participating (19% to 41%, P = .02). Qualitative analysis found that older adults were willing to share personal values and challenges related to advance care planning and that they initiated discussions about a broad range of relevant topics. CONCLUSION A group visit to facilitate discussions about advance care planning and increase patient engagement is feasible. This model warrants further evaluation for effectiveness in improving advance care planning outcomes for patients, clinicians, and the system. PMID:26951587

  8. Lucky Guess or Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Bland and Altman Analysis to Compare Confidence-Based Testing of Pharmacological Knowledge in 3rd and 5th Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT…

  9. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  10. Assessing Health Practitioner Knowledge of Appropriate Psychotropic Medication Use in Nursing Homes: Validation of the Older Age Psychotropic Quiz.

    PubMed

    Brown, Donnamay Tegan; Westbury, Juanita Louise

    2016-07-05

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS XX contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Assessing Health Practitioner Knowledge of Appropriate Psychotropic Medication Use in Nursing Homes: Validation of the Older Age Psychotropic Quiz" found on pages XX-XX, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until MONTH XX, 20XX. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. XXX 2. XXX DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Dévieux, Jessy G.; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P.; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Background Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. Methods A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. Results The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15–5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing “the best age to perform MMC” as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Conclusion Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health

  12. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre-and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Mansour, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Bedah, Abdullah MN; AlRukban, Mohammed Othman; Elsubai, Ibrahim S; Mohamed, Elsadiq Yousif; El Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Khalil, Asim AH; Khalil, Mohamed KM; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; Almudaiheem, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Waqas Sami; Medani, Khalid Altohami; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development. Objective and setting This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. Methods The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013) and second (year 2013–2014) intake (n=26 and 39, respectively) were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Results Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items including their views on CAM practices. Conclusion CAM course tends to have a positive impact on KAP of medical students. The preliminary results of this study call for further research with a larger sample in academic settings across the nation. PMID:26082671

  13. Disconnected in a connected world: knowledge and understanding of Web 2.0 tools at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Joanna Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines five Web 2.0 resources and looks at the use of these tools among medical and nursing professionals and students at the Hospital, Medical School, and Nursing School of the University of Pennsylvania. Questionnaires showed that a majority of the individuals surveyed were unfamiliar with Web 2.0 resources. Additional respondents recognized the tools but did not use them in a medical or nursing context, with a minimal number using any tools to expand their medical or nursing knowledge. A lack of time to set up and use the resources, difficulty of set-up and use, skepticism about the quality of user-generated medical content, and a lack of perceived need for Web 2.0 resources contributed substantially to non-use. The University of Pennsylvania Biomedical Library is responding by increasing the availability of basic, quick, and easy-to-use instructional materials for selected Web 2.0 resources.

  14. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

  15. Women in the C-Suite: A Study of How Succession Planning May Best Be Utilized for Career Advancement of Medical College Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Yvette E.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated and analyzed medical school executives' perceptions of the low level of advancement of women into the healthcare c-suite. As well, medical school executives' recommendations for increasing the number of women entering and experiencing sustained success in executive positions were assessed. Related to these observations were…

  16. Visual Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    Visual knowledge is an enormously important part of our total knowledge. The psychological study of learning and knowledge has focused almost exclusively on verbal materials. Today, the advance of technology is making the use of visual communication increasingly feasible and popular. However, this enthusiasm involves the illusion that visual…

  17. Academic Performance on First-Year Medical School Exams: How Well Does It Predict Later Performance on Knowledge-Based and Clinical Assessments?

    PubMed

    Krupat, Edward; Pelletier, Stephen R; Dienstag, Jules L

    2017-01-01

    Number of appearances in the bottom quartile of 1st-year medical school exams were used to represent the extent to which students were having academic difficulties. Medical educators have long expressed a desire to have indicators of medical student performance that have strong predictive validity. Predictors traditionally used fell into 4 general categories: demographic (e.g., gender), other background factors (e.g., college major), performance/aptitude (e.g., medical college admission test scores), and noncognitive factors (e.g., curiosity). These factors, however, have an inconsistent record of predicting student performance. In comparison to traditional predictive factors, we sought to determine the extent to which academic performance in the 1st-year of medical school, as measured by examination performance in the bottom quartile of the class in 7 required courses, predicted later performance on a variety of assessments, both knowledge based (e.g., United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and Step IICK) and clinical skills based (e.g., clerkship grades and objective structured clinical exam performance). Of all predictors measured, number of appearances in the bottom quartile in Year 1 was the most strongly related to performance in knowledge-based assessments, as well as clinically related outcomes, and, for each outcome, bottom-quartile performance accounted for additional variance beyond that of the traditional predictors. Low academic performance in the 1st year of medical school is a meaningful risk factor with both predictive validity and predictive utility for low performance later in medical school. The question remains as to how we can incorporate this indicator into a system of formative assessment that effectively addresses the challenges of medical students once they have been identified.

  18. Advances in the medical imaging of multiple myeloma and related clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xue, Hua-Dan; Li, Shuo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignancy developed in the bone marrow plasma cell system. It usually consists of focal lesions of the bone,soft tissue lesions,and diffuse bone marrow infiltration. Currently,the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple myeloma are highly dependent on various medical imaging techniques.