Science.gov

Sample records for advancing organizational change

  1. Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Dudley B., Jr.; Love, Patrick; Komives, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Management of student affairs is a complex and unpredictable task that requires thoughtful planning and sensitivity. Managers who set priorities in a planned way, act strategically to implement plans, and make adjustments based on changing conditions can make a difference. Managers must work collaboratively to achieve mutual purposes through…

  2. Local institutional development and organizational change for advancing sustainable urban water futures.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebekah R

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts. PMID:18027015

  3. Local Institutional Development and Organizational Change for Advancing Sustainable Urban Water Futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Rebekah R.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts.

  4. Organizational Climate Changes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, John C.; Taylor, Thomas N.; Watkins, J. Foster

    1975-01-01

    As the basis for his doctoral dissertation, Taylor explored some of the conjectures advanced by Halpin and Croft relative to the possible directional changes in the organizational climate of schools over time. Taylor limited his study to elementary school based upon the question raised by Watkins in his dissertation relative to the validity of the…

  5. Use of a business case model for organizational change.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses the concept of a business case and introduces a 3-phase business case model for organizational change. PMID:21799358

  6. Use of a business case model for organizational change.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses the concept of a business case and introduces a 3-phase business case model for organizational change.

  7. Organizational Change as Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Hasan; Louis, Karen Seashore

    1994-01-01

    A model of organizational change is applied to long-term planning at the University of Minnesota. Results suggest that, although planning began in the 1970s, the 1980s saw a model change that increased centralization in strategic orientation and a reduction in size and programs. Implications for organizational research are examined. (Author/MSE)

  8. "Leading Parts" and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, L. Dave

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying organizational change and applies the framework to understanding organizational change. The main focus of the framework is the concept of "leading parts." Leading parts may be dominant or catalytic in their impact on systems; and understanding their operation requires analysis of the…

  9. Organizational change: Incentives and resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Topics concerning Space Exploration Initiative technical interchange are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: models of change, elements of the current period, the signs of change, leaders' contribution, paradigms - our worldview, paradigm change, the effects of revealing paradigms, a checklist for change, and organizational control.

  10. Organizational change: Incentives and resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    Topics concerning Space Exploration Initiative technical interchange are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: models of change, elements of the current period, the signs of change, leaders' contribution, paradigms - our worldview, paradigm change, the effects of revealing paradigms, a checklist for change, and organizational control.

  11. Building blocks for organizational change.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2014-05-01

    To understand the types of organizational change that will best help them meet strategic goals, hospitals and health systems are: Projecting their quality and savings goals for the coming years and weighing their ability to meet them. Looking for partner organizations that share their culture, goals, and capabilities. Assessing the types of organizational arrangements that will provide the desired benefits. Determining the key components needed to make the arrangement fit their goals and culture.

  12. Discontinuous Change: Leading Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, David A.; And Others

    This book provides insights into the dynamics of organizational transformation and presents a diagnostic framework for leading organizations through periods of radical change. Part 1 provides a framework for looking at the different types of change and the action strategies for dealing with them. Chapters include: (1) "Change Leadership: Core…

  13. Communicating Change in Organizational Chaos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Kay E.

    A study examined the reactions of organizational members to ownership change. Participant observation during a 2-week stay in each of two national corporations, American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and Union Underwear, provided data in the study. Results showed different reactions to change illustrated through corporate differences in structure,…

  14. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  15. Organizational Change Processes: A Bibliography With Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, J. Victor

    This bibliography deals with a wide variety of organizational dynamics and is related to the definition of organizational change developed by the Stanford Center's Organizational Change project. This definition, discussed in detail, focuses on deliberate change instituted to reformulate official policy. A topical outline of the bibliography is…

  16. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

  17. Using Policy to Drive Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, Eunice Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter addresses recent changes in public policy and organizational practices that affect LGBTQ individuals and the role that organizational policy can play in establishing and maintaining respectful and inclusive workplaces.

  18. Organizational Learning, Change and Socialization. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on organizational learning, change, and socialization. "A Study of the Organizational Learning Profile (OLP)" (Rae Dorai, Adela J. McMurray) reports findings that show the OLP (Pace et al. 1998) is a reliable instrument for measuring organizational learning and its content validity is high. "The Ability…

  19. Exploiting Instability: A Model for Managing Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Debra; Rocks, William

    In response to decreased levels of funding and declining enrollments, increased competition, and major technological advances, Allegany Community College, in Maryland, has developed a model for managing organizational change. The model incorporates the following four components for effective transition and change: conceptualization; communication;…

  20. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  1. Organizational Change and the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John Stewart

    1998-01-01

    Depicts several aspects of organizational change in the community college, emphasizing its ability to define the identity of the institution. Describes how the actions and change processes in response to external stimuli reflects the college's nature and its adaptability and dynamism. (YKH)

  2. The Goal Model and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warriner, Charles K.

    This analysis is an attempt to specify the purposes and factors in organizational change and continuity. Denial of the purposeful premise makes possible an environmental perspective that views the characteristics of organizations as a function of their adaptation to their environment. This approach is based on the premises that (1) change in what…

  3. Impact of organizational change on organizational culture: implications for introducing evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) seeks to integrate the expertise of individual practitioners with the best available evidence within the context of the values and expectations of clients. Prior to implementing EBP, it is important to understand the significance that organizational change and organizational culture play. This article seeks to explore the literature associated with both organizational change and organizational culture. The analysis of organizational culture and change draw upon findings from both the private, for-profit sector, and the public, non-profit field. It is divided into four sections: organizational change and innovation, organizational culture, managing organizational culture and change, and finally, applying the findings to the implementation of EBP. While the audience for this analysis is managers in public and nonprofit human service organizations who are considering implementing EBP into their work environment, it is not intended to provide a "how to" guide, but rather a framework for critical thinking.

  4. Impact of organizational change on organizational culture: implications for introducing evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) seeks to integrate the expertise of individual practitioners with the best available evidence within the context of the values and expectations of clients. Prior to implementing EBP, it is important to understand the significance that organizational change and organizational culture play. This article seeks to explore the literature associated with both organizational change and organizational culture. The analysis of organizational culture and change draw upon findings from both the private, for-profit sector, and the public, non-profit field. It is divided into four sections: organizational change and innovation, organizational culture, managing organizational culture and change, and finally, applying the findings to the implementation of EBP. While the audience for this analysis is managers in public and nonprofit human service organizations who are considering implementing EBP into their work environment, it is not intended to provide a "how to" guide, but rather a framework for critical thinking. PMID:19064453

  5. Organizational Change and the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fojt, Martin, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Nineteen precis highlight concepts of managing change and people. Specific examples are provided from such companies as Texas Instruments, EMC, British Telecom, Cooper & Lybrands, MCB University Press, and the Royal Bank of Scotland. (SK)

  6. Organizational Climate for Change in Schools: Towards Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Suggests a socio-psychological approach to the definition and measurement of school organizational climate for change. The measurement instrument, the Organizational Climate for Change Questionnaire, is described. (Author/DB)

  7. The Bikestuff Simulation: Experiencing the Challenge of Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollag, Keith; Parise, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 2-hour experiential simulation that helps students understand (a) the challenge of even simple organizational changes, (b) the importance of communication between change agents and organizational members, and (c) the source of resistance to organizational change efforts. Teams of students compete to process the most…

  8. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  9. PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF DIRECTING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE VIA LABORATORY TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENNIS, WARREN G.

    THIS CHAPTER OF A LARGER WORK ON THE SOCIOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE SUGGESTS GUIDELINES FOR USING LABORATORY TRAINING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL SYSTEMS. THE ULTIMATE AIM OF SUCH TRAINING IS NOT ONLY TO IMPART HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS TO THE PARTICIPANTS, BUT ALSO TO CHANGE ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES SO THAT HUMAN FEELINGS ARE REGARDED AS…

  10. 28 CFR 0.190 - Changes within organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes within organizational units. 0... JUSTICE Sections and Subunits § 0.190 Changes within organizational units. (a) The head of each Office... termination of major functions within his organizational unit as he may deem necessary or appropriate. In...

  11. Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zins, Joseph E.; Illback, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an update of our 1984 chapter on organizational interventions in educational settings. Our view of the organizational change process is described, followed by a discussion of the gap between current theory and practice. We describe several examples of promising organizational change initiatives, followed by our observations of future…

  12. Prospective evaluation of a Bayesian model to predict organizational change.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Todd; Gustafson, Dave; Kilo, Chuck; Bhattacharya, Abhik; Olsson, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research examines a subjective Bayesian model's ability to predict organizational change outcomes and sustainability of those outcomes for project teams participating in a multi-organizational improvement collaborative. PMID:16093893

  13. Organizational Climate and Strategic Change in Higher Education: Organizational Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, D. K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the development of information strategies in 12 United Kingdom higher education institutions and highlighted the influence of different styles of management on organizational climate. Findings identify six issues that affect the climate of security or insecurity within different higher education institutions. (SLD)

  14. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  15. Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Batras, Dimitri; Duff, Cameron; Smith, Ben J

    2016-03-01

    Sophisticated understandings of organizational dynamics and processes of organizational change are crucial for the development and success of health promotion initiatives. Theory has a valuable contribution to make in understanding organizational change, for identifying influential factors that should be the focus of change efforts and for selecting the strategies that can be applied to promote change. This article reviews select organizational change models to identify the most pertinent insights for health promotion practitioners. Theoretically derived considerations for practitioners who seek to foster organizational change include the extent to which the initiative is modifiable to fit with the internal context; the amount of time that is allocated to truly institutionalize change; the ability of the agents of change to build short-term success deliberately into their implementation plan; whether or not the shared group experience of action for change is positive or negative and the degree to which agencies that are the intended recipients of change are resourced to focus on internal factors. In reviewing theories of organizational change, the article also addresses strategies for facilitating the adoption of key theoretical insights into the design and implementation of health promotion initiatives in diverse organizational settings. If nothing else, aligning health promotion with organizational change theory promises insights into what it is that health promoters do and the time that it can take to do it effectively.

  16. Organizational Readiness for Change in Adolescent Programs

    PubMed Central

    Saldana, Lisa; Chapman, Jason E.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and concurrent validity of the Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC; Lehman, Greener, & Simpson, 2002) Scale among practitioners who treat adolescents. Within the context of a larger study, the ORC and measures of practitioner attitudes toward evidence-based practices (EBPs) and treatment manuals were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 543 community-based therapists in the state mental health and substance abuse treatment sectors. Using a contextual random-effects regression model, the associations between ORC domains and measures of practitioner characteristics and attitudes were examined at both therapist and agency levels. Results supported the convergent and concurrent validity of several domains. Namely, the motivational readiness and training needs domains were associated with higher appeal and openness to innovations. Program resources and climate, however, were less related. Discussion focuses on the utility of the ORC in helping to evaluate the needs of programs considering the adoption of an EBP. PMID:17434703

  17. Sport medicine and sport science practitioners' experiences of organizational change.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, C R D; Gilmore, S; Thelwell, R C

    2015-10-01

    Despite the emergence of and widespread uptake of a growing range of medical and scientific professions in elite sport, such environs present a volatile professional domain characterized by change and unprecedentedly high turnover of personnel. This study explored sport medicine and science practitioners' experiences of organizational change using a longitudinal design over a 2-year period. Specifically, data were collected in three temporally defined phases via 49 semi-structured interviews with 20 sport medics and scientists employed by three organizations competing in the top tiers of English football and cricket. The findings indicated that change occurred over four distinct stages; anticipation and uncertainty, upheaval and realization, integration and experimentation, normalization and learning. Moreover, these data highlight salient emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal experiences of medics and scientists, the existence of poor employment practices, and direct and indirect implications for on-field performance following organizational change. The findings are discussed in line with advances to extant change theory and applied implications for prospective sport medics and scientists, sport organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the training and development of neophyte practitioners.

  18. Sport medicine and sport science practitioners' experiences of organizational change.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, C R D; Gilmore, S; Thelwell, R C

    2015-10-01

    Despite the emergence of and widespread uptake of a growing range of medical and scientific professions in elite sport, such environs present a volatile professional domain characterized by change and unprecedentedly high turnover of personnel. This study explored sport medicine and science practitioners' experiences of organizational change using a longitudinal design over a 2-year period. Specifically, data were collected in three temporally defined phases via 49 semi-structured interviews with 20 sport medics and scientists employed by three organizations competing in the top tiers of English football and cricket. The findings indicated that change occurred over four distinct stages; anticipation and uncertainty, upheaval and realization, integration and experimentation, normalization and learning. Moreover, these data highlight salient emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal experiences of medics and scientists, the existence of poor employment practices, and direct and indirect implications for on-field performance following organizational change. The findings are discussed in line with advances to extant change theory and applied implications for prospective sport medics and scientists, sport organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the training and development of neophyte practitioners. PMID:25487162

  19. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Deborah A; Hopkins, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions. PMID:26175708

  20. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Deborah A; Hopkins, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions.

  1. Coming Clean about Organizational Change: Leadership in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    This book examines change, leadership, and resilience, including levels of change, what constitutes effective leadership, and characteristics of organizational resilience. It describes ways to build organizational resilience and describes 12 harsh realities that people and organizations bring to reform, such as the reality that most people act…

  2. From Here to There: Effectively Managing Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, Casey J.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout organizational history it has been witnessed and written of time and again just how difficult initiating and leading change, as it relates to human behavior, can be. Initiating and implementing organizational change can be, and very often is, a journey characterized by periods of temporary progress followed by slow regression back to…

  3. Politics As a Lever for Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollow, Sharon G.; Bryk, Anthony S.

    This paper examines the role of politics in the restructuring of Chicago public schools. The Chicago educational system was deliberately altered to change the way decisions were made at the school level. Based on recent research on citizen participation and renewal of democratic institutions, the paper advances a theme that is germane to Chicago…

  4. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change.

  5. Transforming Cultures of Care: A Case Study in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Karyn; Cross, David; Jones, Daren; Buff, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a small organizational case study highlighting the dimensions of trauma-informed care, the processes of organizational change, and the growth of caregiver expertise. The article is framed by the notion of caregiving cultures, which refers to the beliefs, languages, and practices of caregivers and caregiving organizations.…

  6. Sustaining Motivation and Productivity during Significant Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellak, Mary T.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of organizational change and possible negative effects which can impact organizational performance focuses on ways a manager can identify problems with employee motivation and productivity and address them in a supportive manner. Topics include clear expectations, open communication, and recognizing employee efforts. (Author/LRW)

  7. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  8. The Structure and Function of Attitudes toward Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Rune

    2005-01-01

    In this article, an attitudinal perspective on organizational members' reactions to change is proposed and developed. By viewing change as an attitude object in this sense, a richer conceptualization of perceptions of change and reactions to change in terms of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors is achieved. The perspective also frames…

  9. Wisconsin Technical College Presidential Perspectives on Leading Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borowicz, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines leadership perceptions of attributes needed for effectively leading organizations within and through change. Current change forces substantiate the need for higher educational institutions to change in order to fulfill their missions. Creating a culture of organizational change presents a leadership challenge. The…

  10. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered. PMID:9919625

  11. Organizational Charts and Job Descriptions for the Advancement Office. The Sample File Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Judith T.; King, Roland

    This document offers examples of advancement organizational charts for large public and private universities, small- to medium-sized public and private colleges and universities, community colleges, and independent schools. In addition, it provides organizational charts and sample job descriptions for various areas of institutional advancement,…

  12. Fostering Learning Opportunities through Employee Participation amid Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valleala, Ulla Maija; Herranen, Sanna; Collin, Kaija; Paloniemi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Health care organizations are facing rapid changes, frequently involving modification of existing procedures. The case study reported here examined change processes and learning in a health care organization. The organizational change in question occurred in the emergency clinic of a Finnish central hospital where a new action model for…

  13. Organizational Change; How to Understand It and Deal with It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Jack N.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an exercise to facilitate employee understanding and implementation of planned organizational change, along with techniques to introduce the concept of change into organization development workshops or supervisory training efforts. Describes barriers that stimulate resistance to change and ways to promote acceptance of organizational…

  14. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job

  15. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  16. Leveraging organizational dynamics in buildings to change behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Elizabeth L.

    Buildings may be stationary, but they are not static; they are dynamic and active collectives of agents and actors, and play an important cultural and social role in shaping norms and influencing outcomes in the built environment. This research develops and applies a unique framework that conceptualizes the urban multifamily residential building as an organization, and seeks to use this lens to better understand the role of organizational characteristics in influencing energy efficiency in buildings. This work finds that an organizational analogy is a fruitful approach for understanding buildings, and that buildings in many ways can and do function successfully as organizations. In particular, eight organizational characteristics are explored here that extend well to buildings. These eight organizational characteristics are also explored more deeply to support an argument that some buildings have an organizational advantage that well positions them to undertake energy efficiency initiatives. One organizational characteristic -- the ownership type of the building -- is determined to be particularly important in driving energy outcomes in multifamily buildings in New York City. In particular, it was found that cooperative buildings in the New York City housing market consume less energy citywide than other types of multifamily properties, holding all else equal. Conversely, it was also found that rental buildings tend to consume more energy citywide. Subsequent qualitative case study work in a small Brooklyn cooperative building offers a deeper understanding of organizational decentralization and its role in driving decision-making and outcomes in the building. Additional comparative work in two rental properties -- one high-income and one low-income -- adds additional context and understanding to economic considerations such as the influence of income in overriding centralized efforts to operate the building efficiently. Ultimately, this research develops an analogy

  17. The Peer Support Group Needed to Guide Organizational Change Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A support group formed by three deans of social work schools and sustained over a seven-year period of change for each institution helped each dean address issues in organizational change. Agenda topics included tenure and promotion, selecting senior administrators, dealing with faculty conflict, managing budgets, responding to student concerns,…

  18. Management in Danish Universities: New Legislation and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jorgen Gulddahl

    1995-01-01

    Organizational changes in Danish higher education following 1993 legislation are examined. The new law delegates more power from the state to the universities, but is also more traditional in that it changes collective decision structures to a more authoritarian model. Problems and unforeseen complexities created by this situation in a…

  19. Strategies for organizational change from group homes to individualized supports.

    PubMed

    Walker, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to transform. Although the approach taken by each organization was unique, there were also some common strategies, which included generating commitment to common values and mission, a turn or return to authentic person-centered planning, shifting power and control, using community supports and relationships, moving away from facility-based settings, and nurturing staff engagement. Ultimately, organizational change is an ongoing process that requires organizational perseverance and commitment.

  20. Strategies for organizational change from group homes to individualized supports.

    PubMed

    Walker, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to transform. Although the approach taken by each organization was unique, there were also some common strategies, which included generating commitment to common values and mission, a turn or return to authentic person-centered planning, shifting power and control, using community supports and relationships, moving away from facility-based settings, and nurturing staff engagement. Ultimately, organizational change is an ongoing process that requires organizational perseverance and commitment. PMID:23025642

  1. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    PubMed Central

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  2. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    PubMed

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-12-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  3. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  4. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  5. The Sanctuary Model of Trauma-Informed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Sandra L.; Sreedhar, Sarah Yanosy

    2008-01-01

    This article features the Sanctuary Model[R], a trauma-informed method for creating or changing an organizational culture. Although the model is based on trauma theory, its tenets have application in working with children and adults across a wide diagnostic spectrum. Originally developed in a short-term, acute inpatient psychiatric setting for…

  6. Forces Driving Organizational Change: A Business School Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemelgor, Bruce H.; Johnson, Scott D.; Srinivasan, S.

    2000-01-01

    Business school deans (n=311) rated the present and future importance of organizational change factors. Highly rated were student recruitment, multimedia classrooms, and instructional use of the Internet. Public institutions' deans expected distance learning to be significantly more important. Private school deans considered recruiting more…

  7. Revisiting Knowledge Sharing from the Organizational Change Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Eun-Jee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify how knowledge sharing literature has discussed task, structure, technology and people as elements of organizational change and to examine the interactions between the four elements of knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: The research questions guiding the study are: How do organizational…

  8. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  9. Treatment Ideology and Correctional Bureaucracy: A Study of Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Robert Magnus

    A study was made of organizational change induced by a staff training project in six correctional institutions for youth in the California system, which is currently engaged in introducing "therapeutic community" into correctional facilities. Part I described and evaluated a federally financed training project. The "resource model" of training was…

  10. OSUL2013: Fostering Organizational Change through a Grassroots Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides background on planning and organizational culture change in libraries and describes a grassroots planning process taking place at the Ohio State University Libraries. Now in its third phase, the process aims to create a long-term plan for the organization while fostering a more collaborative, innovative culture.

  11. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  12. Marketing Higher Education Means Organizational Change. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklich, Beverly

    The issues, organizational changes, and institutional reactions that colleges and universities perceive as associated with implementation of new marketing practices were identified in a review of the literature and interviews with officials from 25 institutions primarily in or near Los Angeles, California. Several trends were revealed: successful…

  13. Organizational Readiness for Change and Opinions toward Treatment Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Bret E.; Rieckmann, Traci; Nunes, Edward V.; Miller, Michael; Arfken, Cynthia; Edmundson, Eldon; McCarty, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Program administrators and staff in treatment programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) completed surveys to characterize participating programs and practitioners. A two-level random effects regression model assessed the influence of Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) and organizational attributes on opinions toward the use of four evidence-based practices (manualized treatments, medication, integrated mental health services, and motivational incentives) and practices with less empirical support (confrontation and noncompliance discharge). The ORC Scales suggested greater support for evidence-based practices in programs where staff perceived more program need for improvement, better Internet access, higher levels of peer influence, more opportunities for professional growth, a stronger sense of organizational mission and more organizational stress. Support for confrontation and noncompliance discharge, in contrast, was strong when staff saw less opportunity for professional growth, weaker peer influence, less Internet access, and perceived less organizational stress. The analysis provides evidence of the ORC’s utility in assessing agency strengths and needs during the implementation of evidence-based practices. PMID:17434708

  14. Organizational Readiness for Change and opinions toward treatment innovations.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Bret E; Rieckmann, Traci; Nunes, Edward V; Miller, Michael; Arfken, Cynthia; Edmundson, Eldon; McCarty, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    Program administrators and staff in treatment programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys to characterize participating programs and practitioners. A two-level random-effects regression model assessed the influence of Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) and organizational attributes on opinions toward the use of four evidence-based practices (manualized treatments, medication, integrated mental health services, and motivational incentives) and practices with less empirical support (confrontation and noncompliance discharge). The ORC scales suggested greater support for evidence-based practices in programs where staff perceived more program need for improvement, better Internet access, higher levels of peer influence, more opportunities for professional growth, a stronger sense of organizational mission, and more organizational stress. Support for confrontation and noncompliance discharge, in contrast, was strong when staff saw less opportunity for professional growth, weaker peer influence, less Internet access, and perceived less organizational stress. The analysis provides evidence of the ORC's utility in assessing agency strengths and needs during the implementation of evidence-based practices.

  15. Strategic Use of Accreditation for Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Nolen M.; Smith, Janet D.

    The accreditation self-study provides an institution with the opportunity to identify and understand its strengths and weaknesses and use this understanding in developing plans for future institutional change. Four elements contribute to an effective planning or change process: (1) careful assessment of the environment to identify, forecast and…

  16. Learning and Organizational Change in SPI Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Marikka

    Explaining how organizations chance has been a central and enduring quest of management scholars and many other disciplines. In order to be successful change requires not only a new process or technology but also the engagement and participation of the people involved. In this vein the change process results in new behavior and is routinized in practical daily business life of the company. Change management provides a framework for managing the human side of these changes. In this article we present a literature review on the change management in the context of Software Process Improvement. The traditional view of learning, as a “lessons learned” or post-mortem reporting activity is often apparent in SPI literature. However, learning can also be viewed as a continuous change process where specific learning cycle starts with creative conflict and ends up in formal norms and systems. Since this perspective has almost no visibility in SPI literature of past it could show a new direction to the future development of change management in SPI.

  17. General Education Reform as Organizational Change: The Importance of Integrating Cultural and Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    General education reform is one of the most difficult challenges facing higher education institutions because general education is embedded in organizational culture. This paper examines the reform of general education as a process of organizational change and illustrates how deeper, more sustainable reform may be achieved by integrating cultural…

  18. 7 CFR 3560.405 - Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Borrower organizational structure or ownership... Servicing § 3560.405 Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes. (a) General. The requirements of this section apply to changes in a borrower entity's organizational structure or to a change...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.405 - Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower organizational structure or ownership... Servicing § 3560.405 Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes. (a) General. The requirements of this section apply to changes in a borrower entity's organizational structure or to a change...

  20. Cynicism about organizational change: an attribution process perspective.

    PubMed

    Wanous, John P; Reichers, Arnon E; Austin, James T

    2004-06-01

    The underlying attribution process for cynicism about organizational change is examined with six samples from four different organizations. The samples include hourly (n=777) and salaried employees (n= 155) from a manufacturing plant, faculty (n=293) and staff (n=302) from a large university, managers from a utility company (n=97), and young managers (n=65) from various organizations who were attending an evening MBA program. This form of cynicism is defined as the combination of Pessimism (about future change efforts) and a Dispositional attribution (why past efforts to change failed). Three analyses support this definition. First, an exploratory factor analysis (from the largest sample) produced two factors, one composed of Pessimism and the Dispositional attribution items and the second of the Situational attribution items. Second, the average correlation (across several samples) between Pessimism and Dispositional attribution is much higher (.59) than the average correlation between Pessimism and Situational attribution (.17). Third, scores on two different trait-based measures of cynicism correlate highest with the Dispositional attribution component of cynicism. A practical implication is that organizational leaders may minimize cynicism by managing both employees' pessimism about organizational change and employees' attributions about it. Specific suggestions for how this might be done are offered.

  1. Six Community College Presidents: Organizational Pressures, Change Processes and Approaches to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A total of six Maryland community college presidents were guided through conversations to identify the organizational challenges and uncertainties that have forced organizational changes in their respective colleges. Another thrust of the research was to discover what organizational change processes these presidents have implemented to overcome…

  2. Organizational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness: development of a new instrument.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Devos, Geert; van den Broeck, Herman

    2009-12-01

    On the basis of a step-by-step procedure (see T. R. Hinkin, 1998), the authors discuss the design and evaluation of a self-report battery (Organizational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness; OCQ-C, P, R) that researchers can use to gauge the internal context or climate of change, the process factors of change, and readiness for change. The authors describe 4 studies used to develop a psychometrically sound 42-item assessment tool that researchers can administer in organizational settings. More than 3,000 organizational members from public and private sector organizations participated in the validation procedure of the OCQ-C, P, R. The information obtained from the analyses yielded 5 climate-of-change dimensions, 3 process-of-change dimensions, and 3 readiness-for-change dimensions.

  3. Politics of change: the discourses that inform organizational change and their capacity to silence.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Kim

    2016-09-01

    Changes in healthcare organizations are inevitable and occurring at unprecedented rates. Such changes greatly impact nurses and their work, yet these experiences are rarely explored. Organizational change discourses remain grounded in perspectives that explore and explain systems, often not the people within them. Change processes in healthcare organizations informed by such organizational discourses validate only certain perspectives and forms of knowledge. This fosters exclusionary practices, limiting the capacity of certain individuals or groups of individuals to effectively contribute to change discourses and processes. The reliance on mainstream organizational discourses in healthcare organizations has left little room for the exploration of diverse perspectives on the subject of organizational change, particularly those of nurses. Michel Foucault's work challenges dominant discourse and suggest that strong reliance's on specific discourses effectively disqualify certain forms of knowledge. Foucault's writings on disqualified knowledge and parrhesia (truth telling and frank speech) facilitate the critical exploration of discourses that inform change in healthcare organizations and nurses capacities to contribute to organizational discourses. This paper explores the capacity of nurses to speak their truths within rapidly and continuously changing healthcare organizations when such changes are often driven by discourses not derived from nursing knowledge or experience. PMID:27152645

  4. New disability rights require organizational change and leadership.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Bopp, K D; Brown, G D

    1995-01-01

    On July 26, 1990, President George Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This legislation has been referred to as the "emancipation proclamation for the disabled" because of its great importance to persons with disabilities in our society. The ADA will not be implemented in a substantive way, however, without truly transformative leadership. Because of their traditional role in this area, health care professionals are in a unique position to provide that leadership and to help effect the necessary organizational changes. Passage of the ADA is only the beginning; the true test of its success will be in its implementation. PMID:10172512

  5. Organizational Change. Symposium 11. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on organizational change. The first paper, "Kaizen Blitz: Rapid Learning to Facilitate Immediate Organizational Improvements" (Robert B. Gudgel, Fred C. Feitler), describes rapid and dramatic improvement in the organizational performance of a manufacturing firm after use of a series of kaizen…

  6. E-Tools of Change: An Analysis of a Corporate Intranet Promoting Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Through analysis of a qualitative case study, this paper argues that aspects of a hospital's environment affect the process of change promoted through the intranet. Specifically, the conditions of network readiness and continual change allowed the intranet to be accepted by organizational members and accomplished both surface change and deeper…

  7. The effects of governing board configuration on profound organizational change in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Weiner, Bryan J

    2006-09-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely to experience positive changes such as diversification and merger and less likely to undergo negative changes such as closure. Organizational performance influenced change, but largely independent of governance configurations. Only in the case of closure did we find that governance configuration operated jointly with organizational performance. PMID:17066778

  8. The Influence of Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Readiness for Change in a Higher Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Norshidah

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the effectiveness in implementing organizational change. However, many change effort fail due to several factors such as lack of commitment, style of leadership, and emotional distress of the employees who have to implement the change. This study was intended to determine the influence of leadership behavior and…

  9. Exploring senior nurses' experiences of leading organizational change.

    PubMed

    Boyal, Amunpreet; Hewison, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to explore Senior nurses' experiences of leading organizational change. There is a substantial literature reporting middle-level nurse managers' experiences of change; however, there is less evidence concerning senior nurses' perspectives. In view of this, interview data collected from senior nurses, as part of a study of major organizational change, were analysed to redress this imbalance. Design/methodology/approach - In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 14) were conducted with senior nurses (between 2009 and 2012). Findings - Senior nurses' activity centred on leadership and workforce issues, internal influences and external pressures. In periods of change, appropriate leadership was vital, and "weak" leaders were considered to have an adverse effect on teams. Concerns were expressed about financial strictures and their impact on patient care and service provision. The senior nurses were striving to provide the best quality of service delivery with the limited resources available. Concentration on operational matters was necessary to maintain stability in periods of change. However, this prevented senior nurses from influencing strategic decision-making in their organizations. Practical implications - If senior nurses are to realise their potential to operate at a strategic level, they need to be given time and support to lead, rather than just react to change. This research emphasises the importance of a "nursing voice" to inform board-level decisions and maintain a focus on patient care. Originality/value - This research sheds light on the work of a key group of staff in health-care organizations. Understanding senior nurses' experience of and contribution to change is a useful contribution to health services research. PMID:26764959

  10. Individual Readiness for Organizational Change and Its Implications for Human Resource and Organization Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Myungweon; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Individual readiness for organizational change reflects the concept of "unfreezing" proposed by Lewin (1947/1997b) and is critical to successful change implementation. Understanding the conditions conducive to individual readiness for organizational change, instead of the more traditional focus on resistance to change, can be useful for designing…

  11. The Zone of Inertia: Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how interruptions in organizational learning effect institutional absorptive capacity and contribute to organizational inertia. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to describe how interruptions in organizational learning affect absorptive capacity.…

  12. Correspondence of supervisor and subordinate perspectives during major organizational change.

    PubMed

    Leiter, M P; Harvie, P

    1997-10-01

    Staff members (N = 2,605) and supervisors (N = 55) of 39 administrative units in 2 healthcare organizations completed a survey measuring confidence in the organization, engagement with their work, and occupational hazards. A correlational analysis determined correspondence between the perspectives of supervisors with those of staff reporting to them as their facilities adjusted to major organizational changes. Supervisors' scores were significantly and positively correlated with the corresponding scores of staff members on cynicism, meaningfulness, acceptance of change, goals, hospital reputation, and health risks. Regression analysis found that relationships were relatively domain specific: Supervisor engagement with work was positively related to that of their staff members, and supervisors evaluations of the organization were positively related to those of their staff members. Supervisor assessment of occupational hazards was related to all 3 areas of staff perception. PMID:9552302

  13. Institutionalization of Organizational Change: A Study of HRD Interventions in Singaporean, US, Japanese, and German Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman-Gani, AAhad M.; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    Institutionalizing organizational change has emerged as an issue among organization researchers and managers alike. Institutionalization of change is derived from change management theory in its emphasis on understanding the roots of organizational success and failure. The field of HRD appears particularly poised to help organizations…

  14. The Effects of Governing Board Configuration on Profound Organizational Change in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Ye, Yining; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the literature on governing boards and organizational change by examining how governing board configurations have influenced profound organizational change in U.S. hospitals, and the conditions under which such change occurs. Hospitals governed by boards that more closely resembled a corporate governance model were more likely…

  15. Planned Organizational Change; A Study in Change Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Garth N.

    This study attempts to develop a broad model or concept, based largely on empirical evidence, which applies social science knowledge and methodology to the planning of change in corporations, armies, schools, hospitals, government, community groups, and other formal and informal organizations. Chapters 2,3, and 4 define and discuss the roles of…

  16. Work–life initiatives and organizational change: Overcoming mixed messages to move from the margin to the mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lewis, Suzan; Hammer, Leslie B

    2011-01-01

    This article examines perspectives on employer work–life initiatives as potential organizational change phenomena. Work–life initiatives address two main organizational challenges: structural (flexible job design, human resource policies) and cultural (supportive supervisors, climate) factors. While work–life initiatives serve a purpose in highlighting the need for organizational adaptation to changing relationships between work, family, and personal life, we argue they usually are marginalized rather than mainstreamed into organizational systems. We note mixed consequences of work–life initiatives for individuals and organizations.While they may enable employees to manage work and caregiving, they can increase work intensification and perpetuate stereotypes of ideal workers. In order to advance the field, organizations and scholars need to frame both structural and cultural work–life changes as part of the core employment systems to enhance organizational effectiveness and not just as strategies to support disadvantaged, non-ideal workers. We conclude with an overview of the articles in this special issue. PMID:22021934

  17. Globalization and Organizational Change: Engineers' Experiences and Their Implications for Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucena, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    The demand for flexible engineers presents significant challenges to engineering education. Among these is the need for engineers to be prepared to understand and deal with organizational change. Yet engineering education and research on engineers have overlooked the impact of organizational change on engineering work. After outlining the impact…

  18. Trust, Isolation, and Presence: The Virtual Work Environment and Acceptance of Deep Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laurence Michael

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this research was to explore through the use of a grounded theory methodology if the human perceptions of trust, isolation, and presence affected the virtual workers ability to accept deep organizational change. The study found that the virtual workers in the sample defined their acceptance of deep organizational change by…

  19. Teacher Views on School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Their Change Management Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Türkan; Dilekçi, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine school administrators' organizational power sources and change management behaviours based on Bolu central district primary and secondary school teachers' views. The study conducted with relational screening model reached 286 teachers. School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources Scale and Change Management…

  20. Organizational Change and Improvement Institute (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, November 15-16, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra

    The Tuscarora Intermediate Unit Adult Education and Job Training Center planned, coordinated, delivered, and evaluated a 2-day institute on organizational change and improvement. The 85 agency staff members who attended the institute received an orientation to organizational change and improvement based on the latest theory and methodologies but…

  1. Changing organizational structure and organizational memory in primary care practices: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Alyahya, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Organizational structure is built through dynamic processes which blend historical force and management decisions, as a part of a broader process of constructing organizational memory (OM). OM is considered to be one of the main competences leading to the organization's success. This study focuses on the impact of the Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF), which is a Pay-for-Performance scheme, on general practitioner (GP) practices in the UK. The study is based on semistructured interviews with four GP practices in the north of England involving 39 informants. The findings show that the way practices assigned different functions into specialized units, divisions or departments shows the degree of specialization in their organizational structures. More specialized unit arrangements, such as an IT division, particular chronic disease clinics or competence-based job distributions enhanced procedural memory development through enabling regular use of knowledge in specific context, which led to competence building. In turn, such competence at particular functions or jobs made it possible for the practices to achieve their goals more efficiently. This study concludes that organizational structure contributed strongly to the enhancement of OM, which in turn led to better organizational competence.

  2. Organizational transformation: a model for joint optimization of culture change and evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D Kirk; Orr, Robin Diane; Raboin, W Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare organizations face continuous and accelerating external change and thus must be prepared to manage their own change initiatives proactively. Given that many believe that the U.S. healthcare system is broken and most healthcare organizations are dealing with pervasive problems, some organizations may choose to seek transformational change to achieve the six aims identified by the Institute of Medicine: healthcare that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Transformational change will almost certainly involve organizational culture. Culture change may be most effective when linked to other organizational change initiatives such as organizational strategy, structure, policies, procedures, and recruiting. Significant organizational change often requires accompanying facility change. There is an interdependent relationship between facility design and organizational culture. They affect each other and both impact organizational performance. Sociotechnical theory promotes joint optimization of the social (culture) and technical (facilities) aspects of an organization to achieve sustained positive change. To achieve organizational transformation and to sustain positive change, organizations must be prepared to adopt collaborative efforts in culture change and facility design. The authors propose a model for accomplishing joint optimization of culture change and evidence-based facility design.

  3. Monetary Incentives and Organizational Change in Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Carlos Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores and explains the organizational responses of Mexican public state universities to an ambitious incentive-based policy created by the federal government in 2001: "The Integral Program for Institutional Strengthening" ("PIFI"). Drawing upon literature on organizational-environmental relationships and on…

  4. Managing hospitals in turbulent times: do organizational changes improve hospital survival?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S Y; Alexander, J A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) the degree to which organizational changes affected hospital survival; (2) whether core and peripheral organizational changes affected hospital survival differently; and (3) how simultaneous organizational changes affected hospital survival. DATA SOURCES: AHA Hospital Surveys, the Area Resource File, and the AHA Hospital Guides, Part B: Multihospital Systems. STUDY DESIGN: The study employed a longitudinal panel design. We followed changes in all community hospitals in the continental United States from 1981 through 1994. The dependent variable, hospital closure, was examined as a function of multiple changes in a hospital's core and peripheral structures as well as the hospital's organizational and environmental characteristics. Cox regression models were used to test the expectations that core changes increased closure risk while peripheral changes decreased such risk, and that simultaneous core and peripheral changes would lead to higher risk of closure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicated more peripheral than core changes in community hospitals. Overall, findings contradicted our expectations. Change in specialty, a core change, was beneficial for hospitals, because it reduced closure risk. The two most frequent peripheral changes, downsizing and leadership change, were positively associated with closure. Simultaneous organizational changes displayed a similar pattern: multiple core changes reduced closure risk, while multiple peripheral changes increased the risk. These patterns held regardless of the level of uncertainty in hospital environments. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational changes are not all beneficial for hospitals, suggesting that hospital leaders should be both cautious and selective in their efforts to turn their hospitals around. PMID:10536977

  5. Advancing organizational health literacy in health care organizations serving high-needs populations: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Zellin, Stacie; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri

    2012-01-01

    Health care organizations, well positioned to address health literacy, are beginning to shift their systems and policies to support health literacy efforts. Organizations can identify barriers, emphasize and leverage their strengths, and initiate activities that promote health literacy-related practices. The current project employed an open-ended approach to conduct a needs assessment of rural federally qualified health center clinics. Using customized assessment tools, the collaborators were then able to determine priorities for changing organizational structures and policies in order to support continued health literacy efforts. Six domains of organizational health literacy were measured with three methods: environmental assessments, patient interviews, and key informant interviews with staff and providers. Subsequent strategic planning was conducted by collaborators from the academic and clinic teams and resulted in a focused, context-appropriate action plan. The needs assessment revealed several gaps in organizational health literacy practices, such as low awareness of health literacy within the organization and variation in perceived values of protocols, interstaff communication, and patient communication. Facilitators included high employee morale and patient satisfaction. The resulting targeted action plan considered the organization's culture as revealed in the interviews, informing a collaborative process well suited to improving organizational structures and systems to support health literacy best practices. The customized needs assessment contributed to an ongoing collaborative process to implement organizational changes that aided in addressing health literacy needs.

  6. Maximizing nurse practitioners' contributions to primary care through organizational changes.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    The nurse practitioner (NP) workforce represents a considerable supply of primary care providers able to contribute to meeting a growing demand for care. However, organizational barriers hinder their optimal use. This article presents reports from 592 NPs on their roles, organizational support available to them, relationships between NPs and administration, their job satisfaction, and intentions of leaving their jobs. Nurse practitioners reported deficits in organizational context of care, problematic deployment of resources, and unfavorable working relationships with administrators. Addressing these challenges and creating work environments conducive to NP practice are necessary to fully exploit the capacity of the NP workforce. PMID:25748259

  7. Organizational change, patient-focused care: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, J

    1995-08-01

    Hospitals throughout the world are attempting to improve organizational performance through a variety of means. The focus in this paper is on a leading teaching hospital in Australia for a review of current management strategy. In a time of shrinking resources, management adopted a multi-faceted change management program including restructuring the organization, becoming more patient-focused via a product-line management approach and emphasising efficiency and cost-reduction measures. The next stage in management thinking is to place greater emphasis on patient-focused care. It is concluded this has the propensity to yield substantial further benefits, including improved financial and quality of care outcomes, in the Australian as well as the British and wider Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) context. 'Professionally, we have committed ourselves to creating caring environments that promote healing. We cannot meet this goal until we make a commitment to be patient-focused and give up being nurse-focused or facility-focused' (Kerfort and LeClair, 1991). 'In a customer-driven [organization], the distribution of roles is different. The organization is decentralized, with responsibility delegated to those who until now have comprised the order-obeying bottom level of the pyramid. The traditional, hierarchical corporate structure, in other words, is beginning to give way to a flattened, more horizontal structure' (Carlzon, 1987). PMID:10151089

  8. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women’s career advancement

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Deborah A.; Hopkins, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women’s career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions. PMID:26175708

  9. Taking Action toward Inclusion: Organizational Change and the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Museum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…

  10. Why Do Firms Train? Empirical Evidence on the Relationship between Training and Technological and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neirotti, Paolo; Paolucci, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We explore the relationship between training and innovation using key insights from the resource-based approach, organizational learning and labour studies. By using data from 304 large enterprises in Italy, the study highlights a twofold role of training in favouring technological and organizational changes. First, training plays a role in…

  11. Planned Organizational Change in Higher Education: Dashboard Indicators and Stakeholder Sensemaking--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulowitz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examined the introduction and implementation of an organizational Dashboard as a planned organizational change within four educational support service departments and the senior leadership group within a large, Northeastern university. General systems theory provides a theoretical framework for conceptualizing planned…

  12. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  13. An Investigation of Organizational Culture Changes and Effectiveness at Jefferson College: 1963-Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Dena M.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental factor in the internal dynamics of a college is its culture. Central to understanding organizational culture is to minimize the occurrence and consequences of cultural conflict and help foster the development of shared goals. Modifying organizational culture is important. Without culture change, there is little hope of enduring…

  14. (De)constructing Organizational Boundaries of University Administrations: Changing Profiles of Administrative Leadership at German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blümel, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    By analysing institutional changes of administrative leadership at German universities, this paper studies the construction of organizational boundaries as an important aspect of organizational transformation of universities as complete organizations. Building on an analysis of the formal status of administrative leadership at universities derived…

  15. Managing Postsocialist Transitions: Politicized Sense Making as a Facilitator of Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores what organizational strategies are employed to initiate and facilitate organizational change in higher education institutions in the increasingly complex and competitive postsocialist environment of Bosnia-Herzegovina. By studying organizations trapped between their inert socialist-era legacies and desired organizational…

  16. A Co-Construction Perspective on Organizational Change and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehan, Hugh; Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    In their earlier work, the authors explained how the co-construction perspective has been heuristic in the study of organizational change and educational reform, often providing more nuanced analyses and findings than "technical-rational" models that dominated the field previously (Datnow, Hubbard, & Mehan, 2002). In framing organizational change…

  17. "Keeping our mission, changing our system": translation and organizational change in natural foods co-ops.

    PubMed

    Haedicke, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Institutional theory has played a central role in the study of organizations for over half a century, but it often overlooks the actions of the people who bring organizations to life. This article advances an inhabited approach to institutional analysis that foregrounds the creativity of organizational members. It argues that people use local cultures to translate and respond to institutional pressures. The article analyzes qualitative data from countercultural co-op stores that have been pushed to conform to mainstream forms of business organization by a competitive market and demonstrates that translation explains why outcomes that institutional theory would not predict have come to pass.

  18. PLANNED CHANGE AND ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH--FIGURE AND GROUND. CHAPTER 2, CHANGE PROCESSES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILES, MATTHEW B.

    PLANNED CHANGE, CONDITIONED BY THE STATE OF THE SYSTEM IN WHICH IT OCCURS, MUST TAKE THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH AS A PRIMARY TARGET. THE HEALTHY SCHOOL SYSTEM IS ABLE TO FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY AND TO DEVELOP INTO A MORE FULLY FUNCTIONING SYSTEM. OF TEN ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH DIMENSIONS APPLICABLE TO SCHOOLS, THREE ARE TASK CENTERED…

  19. An Examination of Organizational Change through Nevada's Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on how postsecondary institutions prepare to become HSIs. This chapter examines organizational change through a group of emerging HSIs and their governance, policy, and leadership.

  20. The Discipline of Rankings: Tight Coupling and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Michael; Espeland, Wendy Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates the value of Foucault's conception of discipline for understanding organizational responses to rankings. Using a case study of law schools, we explain why rankings have permeated law schools so extensively and why these organizations have been unable to buffer these institutional pressures. Foucault's depiction of two…

  1. From Youth Worker Professional Development to Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Sheetal; Baumgardner, Briana; Germanic, Ofir; Graff, Randy; Korum, Kathy; Mueller, Megan; Randall, Steve; Simmons, Tim; Stokes, Gina; Xiong, Will; Peterson, Karen Kolb

    2013-01-01

    An ongoing, innovative youth worker professional development is described in this article. This initiative began as youth worker professional development and then transcended to personal and organizational development. It grew from a moral response of Saint Paul Parks and Recreation staff and two faculty members of Youth Studies, University of…

  2. Contrasting Perspectives on Organizational Culture Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Michael; James, Chris; Beales, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organizational culture continues to be widely used for descriptive and explanatory purposes in academic, policy, and managerial debates in education and other contexts. The range of perspectives on its meaning, which are readily apparent in both educational and non-educational literature, is directly relevant to the analysis of…

  3. Organizational Commitment in Times of Change: An Alternative Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    A study illustrated an interpretive approach to investigating personal commitment during radical organizational transition by examining how people talk metaphorically about commitment and identification as a process. A questionnaire was constructed to be used in phone interviews with six employee assistance program (EAP) counselors who contract…

  4. Assessing Change: Can Organizational Learning "Work" for Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Manila S.; Harkins, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the effectiveness and practical utility of an organizational learning intervention for an organization that was not progressive, was not specifically chartered as a learning organization, and was situated in an urban, culturally diverse, and under-privileged community. Design/methodology/approach:…

  5. The Complexity Of Interactive Change: A Study of Organizational Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Sheila; Fruggeri, Laura

    A study examined the phenomenon of burnout in social service agencies, approaching burnout as a symptom of organizational communication patterns rather than a characteristic inherent in or developed within a particular individual. Sixteen working teams (defined as three or more people in a person-oriented service, who are perceived as a team by…

  6. Strategies for organizational change: the role of the inside change agent.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, P L

    1982-01-01

    An awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of internal positioning becomes the foundation on which the internal change agent builds an effective action plan for change--a plan that matches the specifics of the organizational situation being confronted. Basic principles have been described here to help define the specific type of role that the integral change agent should take, and to increase the chances for a successful change. As a change agent, you also need to develop specific change strategies that fit your unique characteristics and circumstances. Then, through the ways you communicate and the ways in which you see human resources, interpersonal strategies for influencing others can increase your personal control over situations. PMID:10256972

  7. A Measure of Toxicity: The Challenge of Employee Fit in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Nicolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Principal Vanessa Sanchez assumed leadership of a high-need, high-poverty urban school with a mandate from the district superintendent to change the school culture and to build an instructional team aligned to the principal's theory of change. The central dilemma of the case is how to lead organizational change while managing interpersonal…

  8. Constancy and Change in Work Practice in Schools: The Role of Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Jennifer Zoltners; Spillane, James

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Though change is constant in organizations, determining how to successfully implement planned change has been a perennial challenge for both organizational scholars and practitioners. While the empirical knowledge base on planned change in schools and other organizations offers numerous insights, the inattention to activity, or…

  9. A Change Management, Systems Thinking, or Organizational Development Approach to the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Problems with implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) can be assessed in light of change management theory. Viewing stakeholders collectively as a corporate entity supports employing change management strategies to make the NCLB work. Examining ways that organizational controls and change management can work together points to…

  10. Change Orientations: The Effects of Organizational Climate on Principal, Teacher, and Community Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Page A.; Maika, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the openness that teachers and principals have to change--specifically, the openness of the faculty to community pressure for change. Three dimensions of change are examined (teacher, principal, and community), as well as four aspects of organizational climate (institutional vulnerability, collegial leadership,…

  11. Readiness for Organizational Change: Do Organizational Commitment and Social Relationships in the Workplace Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.; Miller, Duane; John, Cameron R.

    2005-01-01

    Businesses are confronting continuous and unparalleled changes. For organizations to assist employees in being motivated and prepared for change, it is essential that managers, leaders, and organization development professionals understand factors that may influence individual change readiness. The purpose of the research study examined here was…

  12. Testing a measure of organizational learning capacity and readiness for transformational change in human services.

    PubMed

    Bess, Kimberly D; Perkins, Douglas D; McCown, Diana L

    2011-01-01

    Transformative organizational change requires organizational learning capacity, which we define in terms of (1) internal and (2) external organizational systems alignment, and promoting a culture of learning, including (3) an emphasis on exploration and information, (4) open communication, (5) staff empowerment, and (6) support for professional development. We shortened and adapted Watkins and Marsick's Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire into a new 16-item Organizational Learning Capacity Scale (OLCS) geared more toward nonprofit organizations. The OLCS and its subscales measuring each of the above 6 dimensions are unusually reliable for their brevity. ANOVAs for the OLCS and subscales clearly and consistently confirmed extensive participant observations and other qualitative data from four nonprofit human service organizations and one local human service funding organization.

  13. Testing a measure of organizational learning capacity and readiness for transformational change in human services.

    PubMed

    Bess, Kimberly D; Perkins, Douglas D; McCown, Diana L

    2011-01-01

    Transformative organizational change requires organizational learning capacity, which we define in terms of (1) internal and (2) external organizational systems alignment, and promoting a culture of learning, including (3) an emphasis on exploration and information, (4) open communication, (5) staff empowerment, and (6) support for professional development. We shortened and adapted Watkins and Marsick's Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire into a new 16-item Organizational Learning Capacity Scale (OLCS) geared more toward nonprofit organizations. The OLCS and its subscales measuring each of the above 6 dimensions are unusually reliable for their brevity. ANOVAs for the OLCS and subscales clearly and consistently confirmed extensive participant observations and other qualitative data from four nonprofit human service organizations and one local human service funding organization. PMID:21271431

  14. Organizational structure, leadership and readiness for change and the implementation of organizational cultural competence in addiction health services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Kim, Ahraemi

    2013-10-01

    Increasing representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the health care system and on-going concerns about existing health disparities have pressured addiction health services programs to enhance their cultural competence. This study examines the extent to which organizational factors, such as structure, leadership and readiness for change contribute to the implementation of community, policy and staffing domains representing organizational cultural competence. Analysis of a randomly selected sample of 122 organizations located in primarily Latino and African American communities showed that programs with public funding and Medicaid reimbursement were positively associated with implementing policies and procedures, while leadership was associated with staff having greater knowledge of minority communities and developing a diverse workforce. Moreover, program climate was positively associated with staff knowledge of communities and having supportive policies and procedures, while programs with graduate staff and parent organizations were negatively associated with knowledge of and involvement in these communities. By investing in funding, leadership skills and a strategic climate, addiction health services programs may develop greater understanding and responsiveness of the service needs of minority communities. Implications for future research and program planning in an era of health care reform in the United States are discussed.

  15. Organizational structure, leadership and readiness for change and the implementation of organizational cultural competence in addiction health services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Kim, Ahraemi

    2013-10-01

    Increasing representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the health care system and on-going concerns about existing health disparities have pressured addiction health services programs to enhance their cultural competence. This study examines the extent to which organizational factors, such as structure, leadership and readiness for change contribute to the implementation of community, policy and staffing domains representing organizational cultural competence. Analysis of a randomly selected sample of 122 organizations located in primarily Latino and African American communities showed that programs with public funding and Medicaid reimbursement were positively associated with implementing policies and procedures, while leadership was associated with staff having greater knowledge of minority communities and developing a diverse workforce. Moreover, program climate was positively associated with staff knowledge of communities and having supportive policies and procedures, while programs with graduate staff and parent organizations were negatively associated with knowledge of and involvement in these communities. By investing in funding, leadership skills and a strategic climate, addiction health services programs may develop greater understanding and responsiveness of the service needs of minority communities. Implications for future research and program planning in an era of health care reform in the United States are discussed. PMID:23816502

  16. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  17. The Effect of Organizational Learning Patterns on Leading Strategic Change among Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olla, Woyita W.

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and reforms are crucial for both public and Christian higher education institutions in order to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex and turbulent today's environment. Although there is a plethora of literature on strategic change, the effect of organizational learning on leading strategic change has been barely investigated…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Learning Organization Characteristics and Change Adaptation, Innovation, and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine; Awbre, Susan M.; Feurig, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between certain learning organization characteristics and change adaptation, innovation, and bottom-line organizational performance. The following learning organization characteristics were found to be the strongest predictors of rapid change adaptation, quick product or…

  19. Changing Organizational Culture and Instructional Methods in Elementary Schools: Perceptions of Teachers and Professional Educational Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar, Hanna; Gavin, Suss; Shlomo, Sharan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines teachers' perceptions of organizational changes in their elementary schools. These changes occurred following the implementation of a long-term comprehensive school improvement project (CSIP). One hundred and seventy one teachers who taught in six elementary schools located in two different school districts in Israel…

  20. A Case Study of Relationships between Organizational Culture and Curricular Change in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Prudence; Froyd, Jeffrey E.; Clark, M. Carolyn; Richardson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    We examined two curricular change efforts at a small, midwestern engineering and science college in order to explore how organizational culture influences curricular change processes. We found that the failure of one effort (measured by inability to sustain the curriculum over time) and the success of the other (the curriculum continues to be…

  1. Distributed Leadership and Organizational Change: Implementation of a Teaching Performance Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores leadership practice and change as evidenced in multiple data sources gathered during a self-study implementation of a teaching performance assessment. It offers promising models of distributed leadership and organizational change that can inform future program implementers and the field in general. Our experiences suggest…

  2. Change in Organizational Culture: The Use of Linguistic Methods in Corporate Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the links between social identity, language use, and retention in organizational mergers and acquisitions. Finds that (1) change in culture does not happen gradually across the whole organization, but either quickly or not at all; (2) change happens by subgroups; and (3) conflict in mergers and acquisitions was between individuals rather…

  3. Change Agent Research: Phase I-Organizational Audit and Communication Feedback Applied to Windsor Minor Lacrosse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Jones, Patti

    This study reports the results of a pilot Change Agent Research (CAR) project initiated in the summer of 1975 by the Sports Institute for Research (SIR) for the Windsor Minor Lacrosse Association. The purpose of the project was to audit the association to diagnose the nature of its organizational problems and assist in initiating change in order…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Superintendent Leadership Experiences during a Top-Down Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Johane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate common experiences of superintendents as they responded to realignment of leadership responsibilities during an organizational change initiated by mayoral control. To discover the shared essence of changes in leadership responsibilities experienced by superintendents, individuals "told their stories" to…

  5. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  6. Learning as Leadership: A Methodology for Organizational Change through Personal Mastery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuer, Lara H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses personal mastery for organizational change based on experiences used by Learning as Leadership at Fairchild Semiconductor. Topics include individual change leading to more accountability in workplace performance improvement; examining the past to uncover behavioral and communication patterns; creating goals for the future; and taking…

  7. Building skills in organizational and systems changes: a DNP-FNP clinical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Christine; Johnson, Gail

    2015-04-13

    DNP-prepared nurse practitioner leaders play a pivotal role in organizational change and quality improvement consistent with the IHI Triple Aim: improving quality of care, health of populations, and reducing cost. A DNP-FNP curriculum is described, designed to build students' leadership competencies for systems change in healthcare settings.

  8. Adaptation to a Changing Environment by Modifications in Organizational Decision Unit Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Robert B.

    This paper presents a model of how organizations adapt to the uncertainty in their environment by making changes in the way they structure themselves for decisionmaking. The research reported here indicates that it is not just a single change in organizational structure, but rather a shifting between a more rigid and more flexible decision…

  9. Individual Response to Organizational Change: A Grounded Model. Training and Development Research Center Project Number Fifty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Barry-Craig Paul

    Twenty-nine members of a manufacturing organization were interviewed to learn how they identified, evaluated, and responded to what they perceived as significant changes in their organization. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the interview transcripts. A model of the process of organizational change was constructed from emergent…

  10. Removing the Blinders: Toward an Integrative Model of Organizational Change in Sport and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the change process in physical education and sports, presenting a model to incorporate in studies of radical organizational change. The integration of four theories (institutionalism, population ecology, strategic choice, and resource dependence) provides the basis for the model. The paper offers a hypothetical example and…

  11. Organizational Readiness for Change in Correctional and Community Substance Abuse Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Greener, Jack M.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant needs exist for increased and better substance abuse treatment services in our nation's prisons. The TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) survey has been widely used in community-based treatment programs and evidence is accumulating for relationships between readiness for change and implementation of new clinical practices.…

  12. The Impact of Planned Organizational Change on an Academic Library: An MRAP Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ming-ming Shen

    This paper examines the impact of organizational change on a university library. The change process started in 1980 at Ball State University Libraries, Muncie, Indiana, with the initiation of a self-study, the Management Review and Analysis Program (MRAP). With certain key recommendations implemented, the University Libraries has been transformed…

  13. Academic Librarians' Perceptions of Teamwork and Organizational Structure in a Time of Rapid Technological Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strecker, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of academic librarians on two topics: the delivery of services to students and faculty in a time of rapid technological changes and an organizational structure appropriate for delivering services to students in a time of rapid technological changes. Several researchers agree that to…

  14. Organizational Transformation through Technological Change in Florida Community Colleges: Leaders' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    My purpose was to understand the essence of a specific change effort that occurred in a select group of public community colleges in Florida. This phenomenological study was undertaken to discover how leaders from seven Florida Community Colleges perceived their experience of organizationally changing their institutions through a unique…

  15. Change Deafness and the Organizational Properties of Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2008-01-01

    Change blindness, or the failure to detect (often large) changes to visual scenes, has been demonstrated in a variety of different situations. Failures to detect auditory changes are far less studied, and thus little is known about the nature of change deafness. Five experiments were conducted to explore the processes involved in change deafness…

  16. The Role of Curriculum in Organizational Significant Change Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrusciel, Don

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: With significant change as an ongoing challenge, the development and use of a flexible change curriculum is identified as a success factor that will allow an organization to optimize the outcome from change transformations. Design/methodology/approach: After discussing significant change, this paper will contrast two organizations in…

  17. Enterprise Information Technology Organizational Flexibility: Managing Uncertainty and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Karen Prast

    2009-01-01

    Chief Information Officers (CIOs) lead enterprise information technology organizations (EITOs) in today's dynamic competitive business environment. CIOs deal with external and internal environmental changes, changing internal customer needs, and rapidly changing technology. New models for the organization include flexibility and suggest that CIOs…

  18. Organizational Learning, Change and Power: Toward a Practice-Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Randal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the practices of the interim and current CEOs employed in managing a supportive environment conducive for learning as well as sustaining organizational change; and second, to describe the theory of practice guiding their efforts. Design/methodology/approach: An action science approach,…

  19. Organizational Change from Scientific Management to the Learning Organization--Implications for New Work Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusch, Gene E.

    Western enterprises confront an era of global competition in which industry leaders can no longer overlook negative effects originating from past Taylorist and autocratic organizational structures. Corporate leaders are exploring innovative methods to change their organizations from the Taylorist model to workplace environments that foster worker…

  20. Evolution of a Campus Sustainability Network: A Case Study in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of a sustainability network at a large California public university, as an example of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines participant observation and case study techniques over a three-year period. From 2007 to 2010, the author helped found the…

  1. Organizational Change at the Edge of Chaos: A Complexity Theory Perspective of Autopoietic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susini, Domenico, III.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study includes explorations of organizational change phenomena from the vantage point of complexity theory as experienced through the lived experiences of eight senior level managers and executives based in Northern N.J. who have experienced crisis situations in their organizations. Concepts from the natural…

  2. Explaining Employees' Evaluations of Organizational Change with the Job-Demands Resources Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Departing from the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were…

  3. Coming in from the Margins: Faculty Development's Emerging Organizational Development Role in Institutional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing that a necessary and significant role change is underway in faculty development, this book calls for centers to merge their traditional responsibilities and services with a leadership role as organizational developers. Failing to define and outline the dimensions and expertise of this new role puts centers at risk of not only…

  4. Organizational Change and Conflict: A Case Study of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Duane

    1983-01-01

    Despite attempts by Congress during the 1970s to reform and reorganize the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), it has maintained substantive control over reservation institutions. A key to understanding BIA resistance to change appears to lie in organizational imperative of area directors to preserve and enhance their control over bureaucratic…

  5. Changes in Organizational Climate Associated with Development and Implementation of an Educational Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonney, Lewis A.

    The development and implementation of a humanistic educational management system in a large urban school district has been associated with demonstrable changes in organizational climate. The management system is humanistic in that teachers and principals select their educational priorities based on student needs and mutually agree with supervisors…

  6. Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Provides psychologists with the rationale and needs for addressing multiculturalism and diversity in education, training, research, practice, and organizational change, along with basic information and relevant terminology to support these guidelines. Provides references for additional information and discusses paradigms that broaden the purview…

  7. In the Same Boat? On Metaphor Variation as Mediating the Individual Voice in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argaman, Einav

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of metaphor variation, and argues that it may play a significant role as a linguistic tool for positioning the subjects in a given organizational change. More specifically, it is argued that metaphor variation enables the subject to corroborate the organization's centripetal forces on the one hand, and to express…

  8. Organizational Learning and Large-Scale Change: Adoption of Electronic Medical Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavis, Virginia D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite implementation of electronic medical record (EMR) systems in the United States and other countries, there is no organizational development model that addresses medical professionals' attitudes toward technology adoption in a learning organization. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a model would change those attitudes toward…

  9. Automation as a Socio-Organizational Agent of Change: An Evaluative Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsgaard, John N.

    1985-01-01

    Through an evaluative review of literature in management science and social psychology, this study analyzes causes of difficulties experienced when introducing technological change to library and its employees. Nature of problems (technological, organizational, behavioral), alternative solutions, selection of course of action, and assessment of…

  10. Learning to See Differently: Viewing Technology Diffusion in Teacher Education through the Lens of Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei; Patterson, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    While the discussion on the topic of technology diffusion in teacher education primarily centers on course design, program development, and faculty technology training, this article explores technology diffusion from the perspective of organizational change. Technology diffusion in teacher education is a multi-faceted task and, therefore, requires…

  11. Organizational Change in Academic Programs: A Case Study of Doctoral Students' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Christina Coffee

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the experiences of doctoral students at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities as they transitioned from a fairly stable academic department experiencing significant changes. To achieve the purpose of the study, I investigated the experiences of doctoral students through an organizational development…

  12. How Leaders Learn to Be Successful during Large-Scale Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Donna S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies leaders used to learn new roles during large-scale organizational change and to understand what organizations can do to support the learning process. This was accomplished by exploring the experience of 15 school principals who learned to lead in the midst of two complex organizational…

  13. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  14. [Developing the hospital's mission to facilitate organizational change: limits and possibilities].

    PubMed

    de Oliviera Cecilio, L C

    2000-01-01

    The author begins by discussing the field of General Administration Theory vis-à-vis the defining role of "organizational goals" within an overall change process in organizations. While admitting the validity of some challenges raised by certain authors who deny the possibility of establishing a "single" direction for the organization by explicitly outlining its formal or official goals, the author presents and discusses his experience in defining the mission in the health sector as a way to implement organizational goals. This definition is meant as a strategy to improve communications among health team members and to a culture of responsibility when dealing with health service users. PMID:11175521

  15. Creating the Infrastructure for Organizational Change with RAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Julie; Milstein, Mindy; Robinson, Consuela

    2012-01-01

    In order to thrive, organizations must undergo significant change at various points in their development. Such is the case with Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Emotional Disability Services in the beginning process of implementing Response Ability Pathways (RAP) with staff and students. The impetus for change originated from an…

  16. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well. PMID:19305308

  17. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well.

  18. The Human Side of Change: Towards a Pragmatic, Evolutionary Conception of Cognition and Emotion in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jason Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation synthesizes and analyzes an emblematic sample of three prevalent psychological approaches to organizational change and learning, giving particular attention to the conception of cognition and emotion. It also explores some of the philosophical and psychological assumptions undergirding these approaches. A web model depicting…

  19. The Partnership between Project Management and Organizational Change: Integrating Change Management with Change Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith-Cooper, Barber; King, Karyl

    2007-01-01

    The nature of project management is change. Even though all knowledge areas in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) are rooted in controlling change, none of these areas specifically addresses the human elements of change. There is a significant distinction between directly controlling change relative to the nonhuman aspects of a…

  20. Employee resistance to organizational change: managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange.

    PubMed

    Furst, Stacie A; Cable, Daniel M

    2008-03-01

    The authors explored the relationship between managerial influence tactics and employee resistance to organizational change. Using attribution theory, the authors developed a series of hypotheses concerning the effects of influence tactics on employee resistance to change and the ways in which these relationships are moderated by leader-member exchange. Results, which are based on multisource data, suggest that employee resistance reflects both the type of influence a manager uses and the strength of leader-member exchange. PMID:18361644

  1. Changing Organizational Culture to Achieve Excellence in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shera, Wes

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the research capacity building efforts of the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work at the University of Toronto over the past 12 years. It identifies the role of strategic planning, the process of change, and the key practices, in terms of personnel, resources, research center development, and strategic community…

  2. A Case Study in Organizational Change: Evaluation in Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennekamp, Roger A.; Engle, Molly

    2008-01-01

    This chapter examines how factors both internal and external to Cooperative Extension have influenced its commitment and capability to assess the quality and impact of its programs. The authors begin by documenting how the nature of Extension programming has changed dramatically in response to societal needs over the course of the organization's…

  3. Putting the University Online: Information, Technology and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornford, James; Pollock, Neil

    This book explores what new technology and the vision of a virtual university mean for an institution and its staff, students and other stakeholders, and the consequences for the role and identity of the university of "putting the university online." Chapters are: (1) "The Online Imperative"; (2) "Researching Changing Universities"; (3) "Working…

  4. Creating a Culture of Assessment: A Catalyst for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakos, Amos; Phipps, Shelley E.

    2004-01-01

    In the rapidly changing information environment, libraries have to demonstrate that their services have relevance, value, and impact for stakeholders and customers. To deliver effective and high quality services, libraries have to assess their performance from the customer point of view. Moving to an assessment framework will be more successful if…

  5. The role of the organizational champion in achieving health system change.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2012-02-01

    In healthcare there is a long held wisdom that 'champions' are a key aspect of organizational change. Drawing on organizational management theory, we examine the role of champions in three health and social care organizations in England as they attempt to move services to a remote model of delivery, 'telecare'. The delivery of remote care is a significant policy in the U.K. and elsewhere, but its introduction has been challenging. Over three years ethnographic methods (observations, informed discussions and interviews) were used to analyze the role of organizational champions in implementing remote care. Cases were local authorities and associated primary care trusts. Participants were champions and organizational members involved in implementation. Our study shows that organizational champions are highly effective in the first phase of adoption, when change is contained within distinct sub-sets of practice. Moving beyond local contexts the effectiveness of the champions varied. Identification centered on the remote care work. This identification enabled the champions to motivate others and move beyond their normally prescribed roles, contributing to innovation ideas, processes and practices. When required to shift their work organization-wide, and share ideas outside their professional culture, some champions responded with resistance, resulting in a lack of innovation spread. These results caution against allowing change to become positioned within the remit of a few individuals. Whilst this strategy may be initially beneficial, the role of champion may be less useful, even detrimental to progress, in the later stages of implementation, particularly if identification with the new circumstances is not established.

  6. The role of the organizational champion in achieving health system change.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2012-02-01

    In healthcare there is a long held wisdom that 'champions' are a key aspect of organizational change. Drawing on organizational management theory, we examine the role of champions in three health and social care organizations in England as they attempt to move services to a remote model of delivery, 'telecare'. The delivery of remote care is a significant policy in the U.K. and elsewhere, but its introduction has been challenging. Over three years ethnographic methods (observations, informed discussions and interviews) were used to analyze the role of organizational champions in implementing remote care. Cases were local authorities and associated primary care trusts. Participants were champions and organizational members involved in implementation. Our study shows that organizational champions are highly effective in the first phase of adoption, when change is contained within distinct sub-sets of practice. Moving beyond local contexts the effectiveness of the champions varied. Identification centered on the remote care work. This identification enabled the champions to motivate others and move beyond their normally prescribed roles, contributing to innovation ideas, processes and practices. When required to shift their work organization-wide, and share ideas outside their professional culture, some champions responded with resistance, resulting in a lack of innovation spread. These results caution against allowing change to become positioned within the remit of a few individuals. Whilst this strategy may be initially beneficial, the role of champion may be less useful, even detrimental to progress, in the later stages of implementation, particularly if identification with the new circumstances is not established. PMID:21444137

  7. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    PubMed

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10105044

  8. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    PubMed

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Springer, Pamela J; Clark, Cynthia M; Strohfus, Pamela; Belcheir, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing.

  10. Developing and Sustaining a Science and Technology Center Education Program: "Inquiry" as a Means for Organizational Change and Institutional Legitimacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, T.; Hunter, L.

    2010-12-01

    Formal organizations have become ubiquitous in contemporary society and since so many of us spend so much of our daily lives working, learning, and socializing in them it is important to understand not only how they govern our interactions but also how we can incite (and sustain) organizational change. This is especially true for STEM education; learning about science, technology, engineering or mathematics rarely occurs outside of formal settings and educators need to be aware of how learning goals, priorities and practices are permeable to the institutional processes that structure sponsoring organizations. Adopting a historical perspective, this paper reports on organizational changes at the Center for Adaptive Optics in relation to an emerging emphasis on inquiry learning. The results of our analysis show how the inquiry model functioned as a boundary object and was instrumental in transforming members' expectations and assumptions about educational practice in STEM while securing the institutional legitimacy of the CfAO as a whole. Our findings can inform the advancement of educational initiatives within the STEM research community and are particularly useful in relation to concerns around accommodating and integrating individuals from non-dominant backgrounds.

  11. Community Organizational Learning: Case Studies Illustrating a Three-Dimensional Model of Levels and Orders of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas D.; Bess, Kimberly D.; Cooper, Daniel G.; Jones, Diana L.; Armstead, Theresa; Speer, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional cube framework to help community organizational researchers and administrators think about an organization's learning and empowerment-related structures and processes in terms of first-order (incremental or ameliorative) and second-order (transformative) change at the individual, organizational, and community levels.…

  12. Governing boards and profound organizational change in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fennell, M L; Alexander, J A

    1989-01-01

    of the maximally performing governing board, we should perhaps shift our focus back to a fuller understanding of board structure and function, and its influence on hospital change. The model developed here combines four essential, and very basic, questions: 1. What are the basic dimensions that underlie structural variation in different types of governing boards? 2. How do these board types influence structural change in hospitals? 3. How is the effect of board influence on change itself likely to change over time as a function of the hospital's general pattern of growth, decline, stability, or instability?(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Organizational culture in the changing workplace: an employee assistance program perspective.

    PubMed

    Churchill, J

    1999-03-01

    The rapid change experienced in the work world today results in an often dramatic change in the organizational culture. In the process of culture change, employees experience loss of identity and loss of meaning in their work. These losses will manifest themselves in the workplace in the form of withdrawal, isolation, the failure of teamwork, and a high conflict milieu. It is helpful to the effective navigation of the change process to facilitate the grieving of these losses. Only when these losses have been successfully mitigated will employees experience a resurgence of energy and commitment.

  14. Faculty Experiences of Merger and Organizational Change in a Social Work Program.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process.

  15. Faculty Experiences of Merger and Organizational Change in a Social Work Program.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process. PMID:25923773

  16. Toward an understanding of the relationships among organizational change, individual differences, and changes in person-environment fit: a cross-level study.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Steven D; Herold, David M; Fedor, Donald B

    2004-10-01

    Organizational behavior literature has not typically viewed person-environment (P-E) fit as an outcome of change. Whereas the study of antecedents to employees' fit with their work environment has largely been restricted to the selection and socialization of newcomers, this study examines individuals' perceptions of changes in P-E fit in relation to organizational changes occurring in 34 different organizational work units. Results suggest that the relationships between organizational change and perceived changes in fit are best understood as interactions between the characteristics of the change process, the extent of change, and individual differences. Both age and mastery orientation related to perceived changes in P-E fit through interactions with aspects of the change process.

  17. Healthcare organizational change: implications for access to care and its measurement.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To summarize evidence from peer-reviewed literature on access to care for vulnerable HMO enrollee populations; to discuss the potential effect of recent HMO and physician organization changes on access to care and its measurement. STUDY DESIGN: Review and summary of peer-reviewed literature for two HMO populations: those with chronic conditions and diseases, and those subject to discrimination due to income, color, or ethnic background. I also reviewed and summarized literature on three major changes in capitated organizations (HMOs and capitated physician organizations) that could affect access to care for vulnerable populations, and summarized findings from healthcare manager interviews conducted for several recent research projects on health system change. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although mixed, there are enough negative results to raise some concerns about access to care for HMO enrollees with chronic conditions and diseases. Several emerging organizational changes have the potential to change access to care for the vulnerable HMO enrollees. The shift in cost-cutting from fragmented clinical management of specific services at a point in time toward more integrated clinical management of all services for specific types of patients across time may improve access to care, as may increased efforts to attract and retain HMO enrollees. The increased importance of capitated provider organizations within the health system may restrict access in some ways, and expand access in others. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational changes can affect both access to care and its measurement. More research is needed on the effects of these changes on access to care and quality of care. For researchers examining access to care for vulnerable HMO enrollee populations, these changes create challenges to determine the most appropriate measures of access to care, and the most appropriate organizations and organizational characteristics to measure. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE

  18. Meeting the needs of cancer patients: is there a need for an organizational change?

    PubMed

    Foà, Chiara; Mancini, Tiziana; Prandi, Rossella; Ghirardi, Linda; De Vincenzi, Franca; Cornelli, Maria Cristina; Copelli, Patrizia; Artioli, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    As stated in the literature the most important needs of cancer patients are not adequately meet. Improving information, communication and education provided have not led to incisive changes in the organizational model of the oncology departments. The study contributes to this direction, by planning an "Integrated Operating Point" (I.O.P.) dedicated to cancer patients and their relatives in Italy. 42 Some professionals, patients and relatives were involved and 42 of them participated in focus group/or interviews. Results of thematic content analysis allow us to sketch out some key elements that I.O.P. should have in order to support cancer patients and their families. Integration of services, continuity of care, and cooperation between professionals involved are key elements that might qualify such organizational development.

  19. Continuing medical education, quality improvement, and organizational change: implications of recent theories for twenty-first-century CME.

    PubMed

    Price, David

    2005-05-01

    Healthcare providers and systems are being asked to measure and improve the quality of care delivered to their patients. Additionally, the American Board of Medical Specialties now requires physicians to participate in systems-based practice and practice-based learning and improvement activities as part of maintenance of specialty board certification. These changing paradigms provide opportunities for continuing medical education to become more aligned with health system goals and help prepare clinicians to practice in this new environment. Organizational change and quality improvement principles have much in common with continuing medical education planning processes. Medical education can play a role in helping organizations improve. Continuing medical education must move beyond delivering content to individual clinicians towards becoming a facilitator of organizational improvement. Research is needed to determine the effect of integrating continuing medical education with organizational change approaches on professional competence, organizational processes and patient outcomes.

  20. Nursing entrepreneurship: motivators, strategies and possibilities for professional advancement and health system change.

    PubMed

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    In Canada, as well as internationally, efficiency-focused organizational restructuring in healthcare has resulted in stressful job change for nurses, although nurses continue to work in a system that values technology-based, physician-provided services. Employed nurses have had to participate in organizational activities that undermine their professional values and goals. Nursing entrepreneurship presents an opportunity to explore nursing's professional potential in nursing practice that is uniquely independent. In this study, a focused ethnographic approach was used to explore the experiences of self-employed nurses, who see themselves as leaders in advancing the profession of nursing and its contribution to healthcare. Key themes in the findings include the responses of self-employed nurses to health system change, expanded roles for nurses, the consequences of this non-traditional approach to nursing work and the possibilities for change that arise from nursing entrepreneurship. This research has implications for healthcare policy, professional advocacy and nursing education.

  1. Large-scale organizational and managerial change in health care: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferlie, E

    1997-07-01

    This paper takes an overview of the organizational and managerial literature on recent large-scale change efforts within health care organizations. Such literature refers to issues of enhanced policy significance, as a succession of such changes has swept through health care, at an international level. Interpretive and case study method have been widely employed in this field. While the literature is emergent, key empirical concerns can be identified: (1) Changing roles and relationships, with the rise of management and the challenge to clinical domination; some argue that radical deprofessionalization now is evident, while others take a more nuanced view. (2) The impact of marketization, with health care becoming more of a commodity; various models of a health care 'quasi market' have been formulated. (3) Understanding the process of change in health care organizations, such as the development of a management of change literature. New theoretical frameworks have been developed, notably 'the reform cycle' as a way of understanding progressive cycles of organizational reform, the impact on health care of the rise of the new public management, and examining the demedicalization thesis through the more generic literature on professions. The paper concludes with a discussion of what this research base could contribute to policy-making. PMID:10180380

  2. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  3. Using the Malcolm Baldridge criteria: a viable tool for assessing organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, J.M.

    1998-04-01

    How does understanding and using the Malcolm Baldrige criteria impact library organizational change? In September 1997, the Los Alarnos National Laboratory Research Library used the criteria to apply for a Quality New Mexico Award (QNMA). This paper will provide a fimdamental background on the Malcolm Baldrige criteria and outline the Library project to apply for the award. The Research Library learned from the project and feedback and has started implementing steps to increase its effectiveness providing viable products and services to its customers. This has been a step forward to strengthen our competitive edge to assure our fiture prosperity within the Laboratory.

  4. A Multidimensional View of Resistance to Organizational Change: Exploring Cognitive, Emotional, and Intentional Responses to Planned Change across Perceived Change Leadership Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabla, David B.

    2007-01-01

    In this survey research study, the researcher employed a causal-comparative, or ex post facto, design to explore the relationship between how union employees of a U.S. county government perceived implementation of a new electronic performance appraisal process and how they responded to the planned organizational change along cognitive, emotional,…

  5. [Imaginary dimension and intersubjectivity in public health organizations: implications to managerial work and organizational change].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with organization management in a new perspective, stressing the micro-social aspects and the role of individuals in the process of implementing change in public health organizations such as hospitals. Following the paths of French psychosociology, the article approaches the imaginary, intersubjective and collective dimensions of these organizations, highlighting the ways hospitals' directors and employees engage themselves in a struggle for power, affiliation and recognition. An essentially interactive and intersubjective activity, management is examined in the light of psychoanalysis's leadership function. It seems crucial to take into account the directors' potential structuring role in order to understand the organizational changing processes. Nevertheless, the mounting crisis in Rio de Janeiro public health services does not favor change and the building of personal bonds, but disruption, dismantle of institutional affiliations. In this scenario, the management structuring function and the director's social and psychological mediating role lose ground. PMID:20640254

  6. Assessing the impact of dispositional resistance to change on organizational attraction.

    PubMed

    Arciniega, Luis M; Maldonado, Adriana

    2011-11-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest among researchers and practitioners to analyze what makes a firm attractive in the eyes of university students, and if individual differences such as personality traits have an impact on this general affect towards a particular organization. The main goal of the present research is to demonstrate that a recently conceptualized narrow trait of personality named dispositional resistance to change (RTC), that is, the inherent tendency of individuals to avoid and oppose changes (Oreg, 2003), can predict organizational attraction of university students to firms that are perceived as innovative or conservative. Three complementary studies were carried out using a total sample of 443 college students from Mexico. In addition to validating the hypotheses, our findings suggest that as the formation of the images of organizations in students' minds is done through social cognitions, simple stimuli such as physical artifacts, when used in an isolated manner, do not have a significant impact on organizational attraction. PMID:22059325

  7. CALM: Complex Adaptive System (CAS)-Based Decision Support for Enabling Organizational Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Koehn, David J.

    Guiding organizations through transformational changes such as restructuring or adopting new technologies is a daunting task. Such changes generate workforce uncertainty, fear, and resistance, reducing morale, focus and performance. Conventional project management techniques fail to mitigate these disruptive effects, because social and individual changes are non-mechanistic, organic phenomena. CALM (for Change, Adaptation, Learning Model) is an innovative decision support system for enabling change based on CAS principles. CALM provides a low risk method for validating and refining change strategies that combines scenario planning techniques with "what-if" behavioral simulation. In essence, CALM "test drives" change strategies before rolling them out, allowing organizations to practice and learn from virtual rather than actual mistakes. This paper describes the CALM modeling methodology, including our metrics for measuring organizational readiness to respond to change and other major CALM scenario elements: prospective change strategies; alternate futures; and key situational dynamics. We then describe CALM's simulation engine for projecting scenario outcomes and its associated analytics. CALM's simulator unifies diverse behavioral simulation paradigms including: adaptive agents; system dynamics; Monte Carlo; event- and process-based techniques. CALM's embodiment of CAS dynamics helps organizations reduce risk and improve confidence and consistency in critical strategies for enabling transformations.

  8. Changing dynamics in the Canadian voluntary sector: challenges in sustaining organizational capacity to support healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Steedman, Eric; Rabinowicz, Jane

    2006-11-01

    The voluntary sector is recognized, by citizens, industry and government, as an increasingly vital contributor to healthy communities within Canadian society, called upon to provide front-line service delivery in areas of community support that were in the past often served by government and or religious charity. (The voluntary sector is large, consisting of an estimated 180,000 non-profit organizations [of which 80,000 are registered as charities] and hundreds of thousands more volunteer groups that are not incorporated [Statistics Canada, 2002].) The dynamics of the sector have changed considerably over the past decade, as government has pulled back the level of core organizational funding support and the role of the church has diminished. As community health is directly related to the organizational health of service-providing non-profits and charities, these organizations are looking increasingly towards corporate and individual donors, along with new self-financing approaches that generate revenues. They are also facing challenges in attracting and retaining skilled and motivated volunteers. As the scope of the voluntary sector and its overall influence grows, so do the organizational and financial challenges it faces. This article will address in particular the issue of funding support for healthy communities and examine a number of potential and existing best practices for sustaining community health in Canada. We will also look at the issue of volunteerism and human resource capacity challenges for organizations. This is an area in which the Canadian government has decided to focus as a result of explicit policy decisions taken in the late 1990s. PMID:17152321

  9. Phenomenological Study: How Organizational Structures and Change Processes Influence Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charlotte Clay

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions create organizational structures for younger students with limited work experience. New generations of adult students require different organizational structures to improve success. The current phenomenological qualitative study addressed the lack of consensus of what types of organizational structures in higher education…

  10. Exploring the Political Underbelly of Organizational Learning: Learning during Pay and Performance Management Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In an effort to better understand the political dimensions of organizational learning, this paper aims to examine learning processes in an organizational context--namely renegotiation of pay and performance management arrangements--where the interests of organizational members are threatened. Design/methodology/approach: Data were derived…

  11. Mental Health System Transformation: Drivers for Change, Organizational Preparation, Engaging Partners and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Corring, Deborah J; Whittall, Sandy; MustinPowell, Jill; Jarmain, Sarah; Chapman, Patty; Sussman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    St. Joseph's Health Care London (hereafter referred to as St. Joseph's) is a publicly funded hospital that has led mental health (MH) service system transformation in south west Ontario following directives from the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC) (Sinclair 2000). This paper documents how provincial policy; HSRC directives; use of change management activities; organizational planning; and partnerships with other hospitals, community agencies and LHINs drove, shaped and accomplished the transformational change. The transformation included divestment of beds and related ambulatory services to four other hospitals, closure of beds and employment services and the construction of two state-of-the-art facilities. This paper documents the tracking of system performance measures and the outcomes that resulted.

  12. Mental Health System Transformation: Drivers for Change, Organizational Preparation, Engaging Partners and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Corring, Deborah J; Whittall, Sandy; MustinPowell, Jill; Jarmain, Sarah; Chapman, Patty; Sussman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    St. Joseph's Health Care London (hereafter referred to as St. Joseph's) is a publicly funded hospital that has led mental health (MH) service system transformation in south west Ontario following directives from the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC) (Sinclair 2000). This paper documents how provincial policy; HSRC directives; use of change management activities; organizational planning; and partnerships with other hospitals, community agencies and LHINs drove, shaped and accomplished the transformational change. The transformation included divestment of beds and related ambulatory services to four other hospitals, closure of beds and employment services and the construction of two state-of-the-art facilities. This paper documents the tracking of system performance measures and the outcomes that resulted. PMID:26854541

  13. Building capacity for evidence informed decision making in public health: a case study of organizational change

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Core competencies for public health in Canada require proficiency in evidence informed decision making (EIDM). However, decision makers often lack access to information, many workers lack knowledge and skills to conduct systematic literature reviews, and public health settings typically lack infrastructure to support EIDM activities. This research was conducted to explore and describe critical factors and dynamics in the early implementation of one public health unit's strategic initiative to develop capacity to make EIDM standard practice. Methods This qualitative case study was conducted in one public health unit in Ontario, Canada between 2008 and 2010. In-depth information was gathered from two sets of semi-structured interviews and focus groups (n = 27) with 70 members of the health unit, and through a review of 137 documents. Thematic analysis was used to code the key informant and document data. Results The critical factors and dynamics for building EIDM capacity at an organizational level included: clear vision and strong leadership, workforce and skills development, ability to access research (library services), fiscal investments, acquisition and development of technological resources, a knowledge management strategy, effective communication, a receptive organizational culture, and a focus on change management. Conclusion With leadership, planning, commitment and substantial investments, a public health department has made significant progress, within the first two years of a 10-year initiative, towards achieving its goal of becoming an evidence informed decision making organization. PMID:22348688

  14. Understanding the Role of Culture and Communication in Implementing Planned Organizational Change: The Case of Compstat in Police Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of planned change efforts, the failure rates of implementation are as high as 50 to 70 percent (Lewis & Seibold, 1998). While these efforts are affected by technical issues, the organizations' approach to change, structure, technological capabilities, and organizational culture and communication practices are…

  15. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  16. Utilizing Organizational Culture to Predict Responses to Planned Change in a Public School: A Test of the OC[superscript 3] Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Eric Christian

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to test the capability of the Organizational Change in Cultural Context (OC[superscript 3]) Model (Latta, 2009, 2011) to predict responses to change. According to Latta, predictions of resistance to or facilitation of change can be predicted by utilizing organizational culture and its alignment with the…

  17. Timeless and Timely Advice: A Commentary on "Consultation to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools," an Article by Joseph E. Zins and Robert J. Illback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel, Cynthia E.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary on Zins and Illback's (1995) article, Consultation to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools, argues that the authors provided a solid foundation for well-planned, proactive, sustainable, internally-driven systemic change in schools that has yet to be widely realized. Their school organizational change model and more…

  18. Advancing Women Scientists: Exploring a Theoretically Grounded Climate Change Workshop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Barbara; Prochaska, Janice; Mederer, Helen; Harlow, Lisa; Sherman, Karen

    Universities in the United States have an increasing need to recruit the best and the brightest faculty to remain globally competitive, but the majority of schools share a profile that includes a low percentage of women in most of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines. Changes in university culture are needed to enable departmental diversity growth, to expand offerings and perspectives, and to strengthen the view that STEM is an attractive choice for female students and prospective faculty. This paper describes the theoretical models used to develop a prototype workshop series implemented in departments to help faculty progress in their readiness to advance women scientists, defined as collaborating, mentoring, sharing resources, and generating support through community. The three theoretical underpinnings are the gender-as-structure theory of organizational change, Appreciative Inquiry, and the Transtheoretical Model. These workshops are one aspect of the climate change efforts implemented by the ADVANCE program of the University of Rhode Island.

  19. Dispensing emotions: Norwegian community nurses' handling of diversity in a changing organizational context.

    PubMed

    Debesay, Jonas; Harsløf, Ivan; Rechel, Bernd; Vike, Halvard

    2014-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, public sector health care services in Norway have been restructured, in line with New Public Management ideas. This restructuring has coincided with demographic changes that have led to a more culturally diverse patient population. Both developments have created new challenges for community nurses in managing their work. This qualitative study applies the concept of "emotional labor" to examine nurses' experiences in working with ethnic minority patients in the context of pressures arising from organizational reforms. The analysis sheds light on the nurses' attempts to comply with system-induced efficiency considerations, while catering to the special situation of patients with language barriers and unfamiliar cultural traditions. The article demonstrates how efficiency requirements and time constraints either aggravate the nurses' insecurity in dealing with minority patients or, in some cases, compel them to assume more work responsibilities so as to mitigate the effects of such constraints.

  20. Dispensing emotions: Norwegian community nurses' handling of diversity in a changing organizational context.

    PubMed

    Debesay, Jonas; Harsløf, Ivan; Rechel, Bernd; Vike, Halvard

    2014-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, public sector health care services in Norway have been restructured, in line with New Public Management ideas. This restructuring has coincided with demographic changes that have led to a more culturally diverse patient population. Both developments have created new challenges for community nurses in managing their work. This qualitative study applies the concept of "emotional labor" to examine nurses' experiences in working with ethnic minority patients in the context of pressures arising from organizational reforms. The analysis sheds light on the nurses' attempts to comply with system-induced efficiency considerations, while catering to the special situation of patients with language barriers and unfamiliar cultural traditions. The article demonstrates how efficiency requirements and time constraints either aggravate the nurses' insecurity in dealing with minority patients or, in some cases, compel them to assume more work responsibilities so as to mitigate the effects of such constraints. PMID:25150653

  1. Using the Lessons of Organizational Change and Previous School Reforms To Predict Innovation Outcomes: Should We Expect more from TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detert, James R.; Mauriel, John J.

    Can Total Quality Management (TQM) improve the performance of school systems in meaningful ways? This paper evaluates the soundness of TQM as an improvement program for education by comparing its philosophy and prescriptions with the mounting theoretical and empirical wisdom on introducing and sustaining large-scale organizational change and more…

  2. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  3. Introducing New Technology into the Workplace: The Dynamics of Technological and Organizational Change. Background Paper No. 8a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Patricia M.

    A human resource strategy to enable the effective integration of new technologies in the workplace must be comprehensive, flexible, and sensitive to the dynamics of technological and organizational change. However, information from macro-level studies provides little guidance for anticipating and planning for the adoption of new technologies,…

  4. A Case Study of Liberal Arts Colleges in the 21st Century: Understanding Organizational Change and Evolution in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Vicki L.; Baldwin, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    We draw upon the evolutionary model of change in order to examine the organizational transformation of three liberal arts colleges (Albion College, Allegheny College, Kenyon College). Relying on our prior research (Baker, Baldwin, & Makker, 2012), we seek to continue our exploration and understanding of the evolution occurring in the important…

  5. The Organizational History of the Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union: SIR/CAR Model and Method for Analyzing Conflict and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick

    The Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) model and method for research in organizational history are used to analyze the growth and development of the Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union (CIAU) from its inception in 1906 through its breakup in 1955 and its reestablishment in 1961. Four stages of growth are identified:…

  6. Windows of Opportunity, Strategies for Organizational Change. Proceedings of the Annual Health Promotion Division Workshop (10th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, September 27, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Pat, Comp.

    The workshop "Windows of Opportunity: Strategies for Organizational Change" was designed to help health professionals from a variety of community settings share their experiences and knowledge and become better informed about organizational change. The session began with a keynote address by David Morley, a professor of environmental studies at…

  7. Identifying the Organizational Changes Taking Place in Somali Community-Based Organization (CBO) in Response to New Patterns of Immigration: Implications for Adult Community Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Sirad Warfa

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on changes in the organizational development of community-based organizations (CBOs) within the context of new patterns of immigration, in the United States. Organizational development is considered within the context of dialects of growth, change and transformation of communities in transition. The primary goal of this…

  8. Making a Difference in Research and Practice: A Commentary on "Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools," an Article by Joseph E. Zins and Robert J. Illback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaspohler, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Zins and Illback observed in 1995 that planned organizational change processes were neglected in practice, training, and research. In the decade following publication of their article, implementation of processes and structures of planned organizational change increased dramatically. Schools and school districts continue to face increased…

  9. Ecological Approaches to Organizational Consultation and Systems Change in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Adena B.; Meyers, Joel; Graybill, Emily C.; Proctor, Sherrie L.; Huddleston, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the conceptual foundations and specific features of an ecologically oriented model of school-based organizational consultation. We begin by providing an overview of ecological theory. This is followed by a brief description of a model of school-based organizational consultation with a special focus on the ecological elements…

  10. Assessing and changing organizational social contexts for effective mental health services.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Williams, Nathaniel J

    2015-03-18

    Culture and climate are critical dimensions of a mental health service organization's social context that affect the quality and outcomes of the services it provides and the implementation of innovations such as evidence-based treatments (EBTs). We describe a measure of culture and climate labeled Organizational Social Context (OSC), which has been associated with innovation, service quality, and outcomes in national samples and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mental health and social service organizations. The article also describes an empirically supported organizational intervention model labeled Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC), which has improved organizational social context, innovation, and effectiveness in five RCTs. Finally, the article outlines a research agenda for developing more efficient and scalable organizational strategies to improve mental health services by identifying the mechanisms that link organizational interventions and social context to individual-level service provider intentions and behaviors associated with innovation and effectiveness.

  11. Assessing and changing organizational social contexts for effective mental health services.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Williams, Nathaniel J

    2015-03-18

    Culture and climate are critical dimensions of a mental health service organization's social context that affect the quality and outcomes of the services it provides and the implementation of innovations such as evidence-based treatments (EBTs). We describe a measure of culture and climate labeled Organizational Social Context (OSC), which has been associated with innovation, service quality, and outcomes in national samples and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mental health and social service organizations. The article also describes an empirically supported organizational intervention model labeled Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC), which has improved organizational social context, innovation, and effectiveness in five RCTs. Finally, the article outlines a research agenda for developing more efficient and scalable organizational strategies to improve mental health services by identifying the mechanisms that link organizational interventions and social context to individual-level service provider intentions and behaviors associated with innovation and effectiveness. PMID:25785894

  12. Predictors of Response and Mechanisms of Change in an Organizational Skills Intervention for Students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Girio-Herrera, Erin

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictors of response and mechanisms of change for the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Twenty-three middle school students with ADHD (grades 6-8) received the HOPS intervention implemented by school mental health providers and made significant improvements in parent-rated materials organization and planning skills, impairment due to organizational skills problems, and homework problems. Predictors of response examined included demographic and child characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, intelligence, ADHD and ODD symptom severity, and ADHD medication use. Mechanisms of change examined included the therapeutic alliance and adoption of the organization and planning skills taught during the HOPS intervention. Participant implementation of the HOPS binder materials organization system and the therapeutic alliance as rated by the student significantly predicted post-intervention outcomes after controlling for pre-intervention severity. Adoption of the binder materials organization system predicted parent-rated improvements in organization, planning, and homework problems above and beyond the impact of the therapeutic alliance. These findings demonstrate the importance of teaching students with ADHD to use a structured binder organization system for organizing and filing homework and classwork materials and for transferring work to and from school. PMID:24319323

  13. The impact of immersion training on complementing organizational goals and accelerating culture change - a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.M.

    1996-02-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a national defense laboratory with a history of working in seclusion and secrecy, scientists and engineers have received an important new mission to partner with industry. The scientists and engineers need to expand their skill base beyond science and understand the business of innovation to be successful in this new environment. An administrative field experiment of conducting intensive, immersion training about the commercialization process was piloted at Los Alamos in September, 1992. This Field Research Project addresses the following research question: {open_quotes}Does {open_quotes}immersion{close_quotes} commercialization training complement organizational goals and does the method accelerate cultural change?{close_quotes} The field experiment first began as a pilot Commercialization Workshop conducted for twelve scientists in September, 1992. The objective was to create commercialization action plans for promising environmental technologies. The immersion method was compared to the indoctrination method of training also. The indoctrination training was a one-day lecture style session conducted for one hundred and fifty scientists in July, 1993. The impact of the training was measured by perceived attitude change and the amount of subsequent industrial partnerships that followed the training. The key management question addressed on the job was, {open_quotes}With a limited budget, how do we maximize the impact of training and achieve the best results?{close_quotes}

  14. Nursing home organizational change: the "Culture Change" movement as viewed by long-term care specialists.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan C; Miller, Edward Alan; Jung, Hye-Young; Sterns, Samantha; Clark, Melissa; Mor, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    A decade-long grassroots movement aims to deinstitutionalize nursing home (NH) environments and individualize care. Coined "NH Culture Change" the movement is often described by its resident-centered/directed care focus. While empirical data of "culture change's" costs and benefits are limited, it is broadly viewed as beneficial and widely promoted. Still, debate abounds regarding barriers to its adoption. We used data from a Web-based survey of 1,147 long-term care specialists (including NH and other providers, consumers/advocates, state and federal government officials, university/academic, researchers/consultants, and others) to better understand factors associated with perceived barriers. Long-term care specialists view the number-one barrier to adoption differently depending on their employment, familiarity with culture change, and their underlying policy views. To promote adoption, research and broad-based educational efforts are needed to influence views and perceptions. Fundamental changes in the regulatory process together with targeted regulatory changes and payment incentives may also be needed.

  15. Mentoring, Organizational Rank, and Women's Perceptions of Advancement Opportunities in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Christa Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived career barriers of women in entry-level and mid-level positions who were formally and informally mentored. Research studies have found that mentoring can yield positive outcomes; however, there is limited research on how mentoring style impacts career advancement. The primary research questions…

  16. The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Role of Leadership and Organizational Climate in Turnover during Statewide Behavioral Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Willging, Cathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined leadership, organizational climate, staff turnover intentions, and voluntary turnover during a large-scale statewide behavioral health system reform. The initial data collection occurred nine months after initiation of the reform with a follow-up round of data collected 18 months later. A self-administered structured assessment was completed by 190 participants (administrators, support staff, providers) employed by 14 agencies. Key variables included leadership, organizational climate, turnover intentions, turnover, and reform-related financial stress (“low” versus “high”) experienced by the agencies. Analyses revealed that positive leadership was related to a stronger empowering climate in both high and low stress agencies. However, the association between more positive leadership and lower demoralizing climate was evident only in high stress agencies. For both types of agencies empowering climate was negatively associated with turnover intentions, and demoralizing climate was associated with stronger turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were positively associated with voluntary turnover. Results suggest that strong leadership is particularly important in times of system and organizational change and may reduce poor climate associated with turnover intentions and turnover. Leadership and organizational context should be addressed to retain staff during these periods of systemic change. PMID:22229021

  17. The effects of hospital characteristics and radical organizational change on the relative standing of health care professions.

    PubMed

    Leicht, K T; Fennell, M L; Witkowski, K M

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of hospital characteristics and radical organizational change on the relative representation of health care professions in hospitals over the period of the 1980s. Health care organizations, and hospitals in particular, represent organizations where multiple professional groups make competing claims of expertise that often conflict. The question our research seeks to answer is whether different constellations of organizational characteristics and organizational changes affect the outcome of these professional conflicts. Using the annual census of hospitals compiled by the American Hospital Association, we examine the effects of several characteristics of community hospitals on the relative representation of specific professional groups. We find that hospital mergers favor physicians at the expense of administrators, and multihospital system affiliation favors technical core occupations at the expense of administrators. Measures of organizational growth and decline increase the relative representation of physicians and administrators compared to nurses, and increase the probability that hospitals will employ physicians' assistants and nurse practitioners. Our results are evaluated in light of recent developments in the sociology of medicine and research on the relative standing of occupations in other industries.

  18. The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Role of Leadership and Organizational Climate in Turnover during Statewide Behavioral Health Reform.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sommerfeld, David H; Willging, Cathleen E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined leadership, organizational climate, staff turnover intentions, and voluntary turnover during a large-scale statewide behavioral health system reform. The initial data collection occurred nine months after initiation of the reform with a follow-up round of data collected 18 months later. A self-administered structured assessment was completed by 190 participants (administrators, support staff, providers) employed by 14 agencies. Key variables included leadership, organizational climate, turnover intentions, turnover, and reform-related financial stress ("low" versus "high") experienced by the agencies. Analyses revealed that positive leadership was related to a stronger empowering climate in both high and low stress agencies. However, the association between more positive leadership and lower demoralizing climate was evident only in high stress agencies. For both types of agencies empowering climate was negatively associated with turnover intentions, and demoralizing climate was associated with stronger turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were positively associated with voluntary turnover. Results suggest that strong leadership is particularly important in times of system and organizational change and may reduce poor climate associated with turnover intentions and turnover. Leadership and organizational context should be addressed to retain staff during these periods of systemic change.

  19. Interindividual differences in intraindividual changes in proactivity during organizational entry: a latent growth modeling approach to understanding newcomer adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Schmitt, N

    2000-04-01

    Intraindividual change over time is the essence of the change phenomenon hypothesized to occur in the individual newcomer adaptation process. Many important adaptation questions cannot be answered without an adequate conceptualization and assessment of intraindividual change. Using a latent growth modeling approach to data collected from 146 doctoral program newcomers over 4 repeated measurements spaced at 1-month intervals, the authors explicitly modeled interindividual differences in intraindividual changes in newcomer proactivities (information seeking, relationship building) and proximal adaptation outcomes (task mastery, role clarity, social integration) during organizational entry. Results indicated that changes in proactivity may be related to newcomer characteristics and adaptation outcomes in interesting ways that have not been previously examined.

  20. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low

  1. Faculty Development for Institutional Change: Lessons from an Advance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Sandra; Rocque, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The ADVANCE Institutional Transformation projects are remarkably diverse in their theories of action and choice of strategies. However, faculty development plays a role in many, and it was the central change strategy chosen by Leadership Education for Advancement and Promotion (LEAP), the 2002-2008 ADVANCE project at the University of Colorado at…

  2. Developing and Testing a Model to Predict Outcomes of Organizational Change

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H; Sainfort, François; Eichler, Mary; Adams, Laura; Bisognano, Maureen; Steudel, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a Bayesian model employing subjective probability estimates for predicting success and failure of health care improvement projects. Data Sources Experts' subjective assessment data for model development and independent retrospective data on 221 healthcare improvement projects in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands collected between 1996 and 2000 for validation. Methods A panel of theoretical and practical experts and literature in organizational change were used to identify factors predicting the outcome of improvement efforts. A Bayesian model was developed to estimate probability of successful change using subjective estimates of likelihood ratios and prior odds elicited from the panel of experts. A subsequent retrospective empirical analysis of change efforts in 198 health care organizations was performed to validate the model. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were used to evaluate the model's performance using three alternative definitions of success. Data Collection For the model development, experts' subjective assessments were elicited using an integrative group process. For the validation study, a staff person intimately involved in each improvement project responded to a written survey asking questions about model factors and project outcomes. Results Logistic regression chi-square statistics and areas under the ROC curve demonstrated a high level of model performance in predicting success. Chi-square statistics were significant at the 0.001 level and areas under the ROC curve were greater than 0.84. Conclusions A subjective Bayesian model was effective in predicting the outcome of actual improvement projects. Additional prospective evaluations as well as testing the impact of this model as an intervention are warranted. PMID:12785571

  3. Institutionalizing evidence-based practice: an organizational case study using a model of strategic change

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general expectation within healthcare that organizations should use evidence-based practice (EBP) as an approach to improving the quality of care. However, challenges exist regarding how to make EBP a reality, particularly at an organizational level and as a routine, sustained aspect of professional practice. Methods A mixed method explanatory case study was conducted to study context; i.e., in terms of the presence or absence of multiple, inter-related contextual elements and associated strategic approaches required for integrated, routine use of EBP ('institutionalization'). The Pettigrew et al. Content, Context, and Process model was used as the theoretical framework. Two sites in the US were purposively sampled to provide contrasting cases: i.e., a 'role model' site, widely recognized as demonstrating capacity to successfully implement and sustain EBP to a greater degree than others; and a 'beginner' site, self-perceived as early in the journey towards institutionalization. Results The two sites were clearly different in terms of their organizational context, level of EBP activity, and degree of institutionalization. For example, the role model site had a pervasive, integrated presence of EBP versus a sporadic, isolated presence in the beginner site. Within the inner context of the role model site, there was also a combination of the Pettigrew and colleagues' receptive elements that, together, appeared to enhance its ability to effectively implement EBP-related change at multiple levels. In contrast, the beginner site, which had been involved for a few years in EBP-related efforts, had primarily non-receptive conditions in several contextual elements and a fairly low overall level of EBP receptivity. The beginner site thus appeared, at the time of data collection, to lack an integrated context to either support or facilitate the institutionalization of EBP. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of some of the key contextual elements

  4. Advances in Methods for Assessing Longitudinal Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Mazza, Gina L.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research aims to understand how and why students change over time. With its emphasis on within-person change, latent change score models provide educational researchers with a more general and flexible framework for testing nuanced hypotheses regarding within-person change and between-person differences in within-person change. Models…

  5. Action Research on Change in Schools: The Relationship between Teacher Morale/Job Satisfaction and Organizational Changes in a Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomquist, Robert; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between school staff job satisfaction or morale and a number of organizational changes and practices occurring at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Junior High School. The issues under examination included homogeneous vs. heterogeneous grouping, class length, school-within-a-school or teaming, department…

  6. An Incentive Pay Plan for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses: Impact On Provider and Organizational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Catherine A; Bechtle, Mavis; McNett, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are integral to the provision of quality, cost-effective health care throughout the continuum of care. To promote job satisfaction and ultimately decrease turnover, an APRN incentive plan based on productivity and quality was formulated. Clinical productivity in the incentive plan was measured by national benchmarks for work relative value units for nonphysician providers. After the first year of implementation, APRNs were paid more for additional productivity and quality and the institution had an increase in patient visits and charges. The incentive plan is a win-win for hospitals that employ APRNs. PMID:26259336

  7. The School Counselor as Facilitator of Organizational Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Fairman, Marvin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses ways school counselors can be agents of change in organizational behavior to promote organizational health in their schools. Defines organizational health and identifies 10 related dimensions. (ABB)

  8. Determining and Diagnosing Organizational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Presents a method for holistic organizational analysis that provides developers with a rationale to obtain data and decision bases for successful internal and extraorganizational intervention and change. The analysis, based on the Organizational Elements Model, relates organizational resources, efforts, results, and organizational impact. Presents…

  9. Speech-language pathologists and the Common Core Standards initiative: an opportunity for leadership and organizational change.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Jennifer; Flynn, Perry

    2012-05-01

    The Common Core State Standards initiative within public school education is designed to provide uniform guidelines for academic standards, including more explicit language targets. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are highly qualified language experts who may find new leadership roles within their clinical practice using the Common Core Standards. However, determining its usage by SLPs in clinical practice needs to be examined. This article seeks to discover the social context of organizations and organizational change in relation to clinical practice. Specifically, this article presents the diffusion of innovations theory to explain how initiatives move from ideas to institutionalization and the importance of social context in which these initiatives are introduced. Next, the values of both SLPs and organizations will be discussed. Finally, this article provides information on how to affect organizational change through the value of an affirmative, socially based theoretical perspective and methodology, appreciative inquiry.

  10. Speech-language pathologists and the Common Core Standards initiative: an opportunity for leadership and organizational change.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Jennifer; Flynn, Perry

    2012-05-01

    The Common Core State Standards initiative within public school education is designed to provide uniform guidelines for academic standards, including more explicit language targets. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are highly qualified language experts who may find new leadership roles within their clinical practice using the Common Core Standards. However, determining its usage by SLPs in clinical practice needs to be examined. This article seeks to discover the social context of organizations and organizational change in relation to clinical practice. Specifically, this article presents the diffusion of innovations theory to explain how initiatives move from ideas to institutionalization and the importance of social context in which these initiatives are introduced. Next, the values of both SLPs and organizations will be discussed. Finally, this article provides information on how to affect organizational change through the value of an affirmative, socially based theoretical perspective and methodology, appreciative inquiry. PMID:22538707

  11. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice.

  12. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice. PMID:27356446

  13. Looking from a CHAT-IT perspective to undergraduate Mexican physics: organizational trajectories or professors as agents of change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-09-01

    Recent elaborations on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström et al., eds., Perspectives on activity theory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999) and its relation to organizational theories have produced a theoretical amalgam of these earlier ideas, which allow for the exploration of learning in formal organizational contexts such as schools. In this paper I reflect on Candela's work situated in undergraduate Mexican physics by drawing attention to the CHAT-IT framework (Ogawa et al., Educational Researcher 37(2):83-95, 2008) as a viable lens. I suggest that it is important to understand the historical development of the Mexican university as an educational organization as well as the role of physics professors as agents of change whose practices contribute to not only breaking classroom walls but also to transforming the organization affecting future activity systems.

  14. Professional quality of life and organizational changes: a five-year observational study in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fernandez, Jesus; Gomez-Gascon, Tomas; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Cortes-Rubio, Jose Alfonso; Alberquilla-Menendez-Asenjo, Angel

    2007-01-01

    maintained despite deep organizational changes at the macro-management level. Different professional groups experience different perceptions depending on how the changes impact their position in the organization. PMID:17610728

  15. The Principal as Convener of Organizational Change. Research Reports in Educational Administration, Vol. II, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.; Nelson, Jack E.

    The authors propose that a principal, instead of making all decisions himself, should convene faculty, staff, and student groups to help bring conflict into the open and to work on organizational problems systematically. This "team-leader" role assumes that team members are intelligent, competent, and want to perform well; and that an open…

  16. Ambivalence and Stereotypes Cause Sexual Harassment: A Theory with Implications for Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Theorizes that workplace sexual harassment results from the complex interplay of ambivalent motives and gender stereotyping of women and jobs. It argues that ambivalence combines hostile and "benevolent" sexist motives based on paternalism, gender differentiation, and heterosexuality and that organizational context can encourage or discourage the…

  17. Organizational Learning, Change Process, and Evolution of Management Systems: Empirical Evidence from the Basque Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aramburu, Nekane; Saenz, Josune; Rivera, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between the organizational learning capacity of manufacturing companies in the Spanish Basque Region and their management systems. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, an ad hoc questionnaire was devised and addressed to the Chief Executive Officers of a representative…

  18. Management Education for Practicing Managers: Combining Academic Rigor with Personal Change and Organizational Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Christian; Soderlund, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    For several decades, management educators have discussed the difficulty of accommodating the competing values of academic rigor and organizational relevance. Only a few articles, however, consider approaches for integrating theory and practice in educational programs for working managers. Building on 15 years of experience in executive education,…

  19. Building change: Effects of professional culture and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Kathryn Bess

    1998-12-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of energy-efficient buildings, energy efficiency measures have not been widely adopted by the building industry. My dissertation addresses the question "If energy efficiency is such a good idea, why isn't there more of it?" by studying the two professional groups that have the most influence over building design: architects and engineers. My hypothesis is that the professional cultures and organizational contexts of building designers can and do influence the achievable potential for energy efficiency in buildings. "Professional culture" describes what architects and engineers are generally taught (both directly and indirectly) to want in a building. "Organizational context" refers to where and how an individual architect or engineer does his or her work. Two utility-funded demand-side management projects provide data for this effort. I use technologies, designers, and decisions from these projects to explore the effects of engineering-economic information, professional culture, and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption. My results show that even in situations where cost and information barriers are overcome, professional culture and organizational contexts affect energy efficiency adoption. My conclusions recommend treating energy efficiency in the built environment as a socio-technical problem, not an engineering-economic one. To improve energy efficiency adoption in the short term, efficiency advocates should focus on organizational context, matching efficient technologies with the firm types most likely to adopt them. To generate market transformation in the long term, efficiency advocates should focus on educating future generations of designers to include efficiency in their professional cultures.

  20. Organizational Paradigm Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This collection of essays explores a new paradigm of higher education. The first essay, "Beyond Re-engineering: Changing the Organizational Paradigm" (L. Edwin Coate), suggests a model of quality process management and a structure for managing organizational change. "Thinking About Consortia" (Mary Jo Maydew) discusses cooperative effort and…

  1. Stress changes ahead of an advancing tunnel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abel, J.F.; Lee, F.T.

    1973-01-01

    Instrumentation placed ahead of three model tunnels in the laboratory and ahead of a crosscut driven in a metamorphic rock mass detected stress changes several tunnel diameters ahead of the tunnel face. Stress changes were detected 4 diameters ahead of a model tunnel drilled into nearly elastic acrylic, 2??50 diameters ahead of a model tunnel drilled into concrete, and 2 diameters ahead of a model tunnel drilled into Silver Plume Granite. Stress changes were detected 7??50 diameters ahead of a crosscut driven in jointed, closely foliated gneisses and gneissic granites in an experimental mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado. These results contrast markedly with a theoretical elastic estimate of the onset of detectable stress changes at 1 tunnel diameter ahead of the tunnel face. A small compressive stress concentration was detected 2 diameters ahead of the model tunnel in acrylic, 1.25 diameters ahead of the model tunnel in concrete, and 1 diameter ahead of the model tunnel in granite. A similar stress peak was detected about 6 diameters ahead of the crosscut. No such stress peak is predicted from elastic theory. The 3-dimensional in situ stress determined in the field demonstrate that geologic structure controls stress orientations in the metamorphic rock mass. Two of the computed principal stresses are parallel to the foliation and the other principal stress is normal to it. The principal stress orientations vary approximately as the foliation attitude varies. The average horizontal stress components and the average vertical stress component are three times and twice as large, respectively, as those predicted from the overburden load. An understanding of the measured stress field appears to require the application of either tectonic or residual stress components, or both. Laboratory studies indicate the presence of proportionately large residual stresses. Mining may have triggered the release of strain energy, which is controlled by geologic structure. ?? 1973.

  2. Competition and deregulation in the electric industry. A study of organizational change: The New York State Public Service Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Deborah J. Cordaro

    2000-11-01

    Public organizations are formed in response to societal needs. They collect taxes, educate children, enforce laws and provide protection to the environment, the nation and consumers. One such organization is the New York State Public Service Commission. In 1907, legislation was passed to form the New York State Public Service Commission the first regulatory body of its kind in the United States. Its mission was to provide safe, reliable and reasonably priced electricity. Subsequently, this became the model that was implemented in every state in the nation. The past decade heralds an era of competition and a lessening of regulatory control. The telephone, natural gas and airline industries are in various stages of deregulation, and the electric industry is beginning down this path as well. In an environment such as this, are regulatory organizations necessary, and if they are, how can they organize to meet the new societal requirements? The case of the New York State Public Service Commission at this point in time offers a real time study of a regulatory body immersed in an environment that is calling for competition and an end to big government. Utilizing case studies of industries that have deregulated, or are in the process of deregulating, indicates a future societal need for regulations. This result does not lead to a conclusion that organizational change is unnecessary. This Dissertation will lay out the current organizational structure of the Public Service Commission, give an overview of the environmental signals, describe the mission/core values, and illustrate general political and employee factors that are indigenous to public service. Utilizing both classic and current organizational theory, an evaluation will be made of the Commission's need for change, their ability to change, and obstacles they may encounter.

  3. School promotion of healthful diet and exercise behavior: an integration of organizational change and social learning theory interventions.

    PubMed

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B G; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Kolbe, L J; Bee, D E

    1987-04-01

    In the Go For Health project, interventions based on organizational change and social learning theory facilitate changes in diet and exercise behavior by elementary school children. Baseline data documented the need for behavior change. Based on chemical analyses, average per meal amounts of total fat and sodium were higher than national recommendations: total fat was 29.3% higher than U.S. Dietary Goals; sodium was 107.4% greater than recommended levels. Observations of students in physical education class revealed children moved through space 50.1% of the time and moved continuously an average of 2.2 minutes per class period. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes in the school environment to enable children to engage in more healthful diet and exercise behavior.

  4. Is organizational change associated with increased rates of readmission to general hospital in suicide attempters? A 10-year prospective catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Mehlum, Lars; Jørgensen, Trond; Diep, Lien My; Nrugham, Latha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine predictors for readmissions in patients admitted to a general hospital emergency ward for suicide attempts before and after organizational changes potentially affecting the chain of care. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected by clinicians from 1997 thru 2007. Data from the periods before and after 2004--when the hospital changed its catchment area--were compared. A substantial increase in readmission rates in the period after the organizational change was observed. This increase was not associated with any of the socio-demographic or clinical patient characteristics. Although no causal connection can be inferred, the observed association between organizational change and readmission rates could indicate that established post-discharge care systems for suicide attempters may be vulnerable to such change. PMID:20455152

  5. Opportunity seized or missed? A case study of leadership and organizational change in the creation of a Care Trust.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Helen; Peck, Edward; Davidson, Deborah

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes an action research study which focused on an exploration of the aspirations for and initial achievements of Stratham Mental Health NHS and Social Care Trust. Local leaders perceived that Stratham had a good history of health and social care partnership working and as such, adopted an integrationist view of culture to help shape the context of the new structural form. In doing so, consistency remained a key message to staff throughout this organizational transition and the change did not appear to cause the distraction to core business which the literature suggests it would do so. However, this continuity may have come at a cost, at least initially. In the process of formalizing the previous partnership into a Care Trust, Stratham may not have produced all the beneficial effects of synergy which are usually (albeit eventually) associated with mergers in the private sector. Certainly, local actors could see opportunities that had been missed. By focusing on the structural manifestation of the relationship, the opportunities to broaden informal horizontal linkages may have been underexploited. The study of Stratham serves to confirm that the integrationist conception of culture is limited and that the differentiation of professional groupings and the ambiguity of individual experience will always make contested the meanings that are attributed to organizational change. PMID:17891624

  6. Opportunity seized or missed? A case study of leadership and organizational change in the creation of a Care Trust.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Helen; Peck, Edward; Davidson, Deborah

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes an action research study which focused on an exploration of the aspirations for and initial achievements of Stratham Mental Health NHS and Social Care Trust. Local leaders perceived that Stratham had a good history of health and social care partnership working and as such, adopted an integrationist view of culture to help shape the context of the new structural form. In doing so, consistency remained a key message to staff throughout this organizational transition and the change did not appear to cause the distraction to core business which the literature suggests it would do so. However, this continuity may have come at a cost, at least initially. In the process of formalizing the previous partnership into a Care Trust, Stratham may not have produced all the beneficial effects of synergy which are usually (albeit eventually) associated with mergers in the private sector. Certainly, local actors could see opportunities that had been missed. By focusing on the structural manifestation of the relationship, the opportunities to broaden informal horizontal linkages may have been underexploited. The study of Stratham serves to confirm that the integrationist conception of culture is limited and that the differentiation of professional groupings and the ambiguity of individual experience will always make contested the meanings that are attributed to organizational change.

  7. The development of measures of organizational citizenship behaviour and changes in job behaviours related to quality management in health care.

    PubMed

    Irvine, D

    1995-08-01

    A study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in Canada for the purpose of developing instruments to measure organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB) and changes in job behaviours that occur as a result of participation on hospital quality improvement (CQI) teams. Semi structured interviews were conducted among 52 hospital employees in order to elicit critical incidents of OCB and changes in job behaviours related to CQI. The results of the staff interviews were used to develop a measure of OCB in the hospital setting, and a measure of changes in job behaviours related to CQI. 39 employees, who were drawn from the major departments within the two hospitals on the basis of their membership on CQI teams, participated in a test of the psychometric properties of the two research instruments. Exploratory factor analysis, employing an orthogonal rotation, yielded two factors that accounted for 30% of the variation among the OCB items. The Cronbach alpha for items loading highly on the first factor was .88. The factor was labelled 'OCB directed towards individuals within the organization'. This factor was dominated by items reflecting the kinds of extra-role job behaviours employees engage in to assist patients, family members, visitors, and other employees within the organization. The Cronbach alpha for items loading highly on the second factor was 0.71. The second factor was labelled 'organizationally directed OCB', and consisted of behaviours that reflected an impersonal form of OCB in the hospital setting. Factor analysis, employing an orthogonal rotation, yielded four factors that accounted for 48% of the variation among the items measuring changes in job behaviours related to CQI. The four factors were labelled 'problem-solving', Cronbach alpha 0.82; 'customer awareness', Cronbach alpha 0.79; 'use of CQI knowledge', Cronbach alpha 0.77; and 'organizational interests', Cronbach alpha 0.79. The two OCB factors were moderately correlated, there were no

  8. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  9. Organizational Performance and Customer Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Herbst, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    While behavior systems analysts have recognized the importance of the consumer of organizational products (i.e., receiving system) in developing models of organizational change, few have offered a systematic assessment of the relationship between consumer and organizational practices. In this article we will discuss how a behavior systems approach…

  10. Simulation Gaming for Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohomaki, Virpi

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces development and design approaches to organizational change (DIL). Simulation games can be used for promoting organizational development. They offer an arena for organization members to analyze the present state of an organization and create new organizational solutions. The bridge between the present and future mode of…

  11. Impact of organizational change on the intake, referral and treatment of outpatients at a community mental health center.

    PubMed

    Salta, L; Buick, W P

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluated two indices of services for 349 outpatients who requested an initial appointment for screening and evaluation at a community mental health center over a one-month period in April of 1981, 1984, and 1988. Intake waiting time after initial screening and evaluation was 15.2 treatment days in 1981, 15.4 treatment days in 1984 and reduced to 2.7 treatment days in 1988. For patients who were referred for continued outpatient treatment, the dropout rates were reduced from 54.3 percent in 1981, to 28.51 percent in 1984 and further reduced to 19.19 percent in 1988. A divisional structure was designed with the purpose of reducing organizational barriers in order to provide greater access to services and to enhance continuity of care to patients. These results suggest that systematic organizational changes and the implementation of clearly defined clinical and administrative policies and procedures can impact favorably upon the intake, referral and treatment of outpatients.

  12. Faculty Receptivity/Resistance to Change, Personal and Organizational Efficacy, Decision Deprivation and Effectiveness in Research I Universities. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, James S.; And Others

    This study developed and validated a conceptual framework to explore the link between faculty receptivity and resistance to innovation and change, and organizational effectiveness. The study also sought to clearly delineate the difference between receptivity, which is defined as an internal or cognitive orientation toward change, and resistance,…

  13. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  14. Advanced practice nursing: leadership to effect policy change.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta; McLennan, Marianne

    2005-02-01

    Nursing leaders used evidence-based thinking to engage key stakeholders when implementing advanced practice nursing roles in a traditional medically oriented tertiary oncology center. A strategic orientation to the policy change initiative was guided by a theoretical framework for connecting research and policy. Policy approaches that addressed stakeholder values and beliefs, while attending to questions of competence, standards of practice, fiscal savings, medical and nursing workload, and ongoing multidisciplinary teamwork were essential to facilitate change. PMID:15714096

  15. Organizational Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Krogh, George; Roos, Johan

    This book is intended to give readers an observational scheme for understanding the process of organizational knowledge development at the individual and social levels. Chapter 1 examines devising a concept of organizational knowledge. In chapter 2, the place of epistemology within philosophy is discussed along with organizational, cognitivist,…

  16. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Future of Nursing" explores how nurses' roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America's increasingly complex health system. At more than 3 million in number, nurses make up the single…

  17. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  18. Nasal profile changes with le fort I maxillary advancement surgery.

    PubMed

    Marşan, Gülnaz; Hocaoğlu, Emre; Cura, Nil; Emekli, Ufuk

    2015-03-01

    Introduction : The purpose of this study was to quantify anteroposterior facial soft tissue changes with respect to underlying skeletal movements after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery by using lateral cephalograms taken before and after the operation. Materials and Methods : The study group consisted of 20 patients (10 women, 10 men; mean age 23.4 ± 1.4 years) having a Class III skeletal deformity caused by a retrognathic maxilla. All patients were treated by Le Fort I maxillary advancement osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and 1.6 ± 0.4 years after surgery. Results : The anteroposterior position of A-point and anteroposterior position of maxillary incisor were significantly protracted (-2.69 ± 3.34 and -2.68 ± 3.21, respectively; P < .01). The nasal anteroposterior and superoinferior positions (NASALAP and NASALSI, respectively) were significantly changed (-2.70 ± 6.81, P < .01, and -2.55 ± 5.80, P < .05, respectively) and nasal elevation and protraction were observed after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery. Conclusions : The changes in anteroposterior and superoinferior positions of A-point were correlated with the nasal superoinferior position (r = -0.71 , P < .05; r = 0.72, P < .05) after Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery.

  19. Strategic Institutional Change to Support Advancement of Women Scientists in the Academy: Lessons from a Study of ADVANCE-IT Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. L.; Austin, A. E.; Soto, M.; Martinez, D.

    2011-12-01

    While women's representation among undergraduate and graduate degree-earners has grown steadily in most science fields, progress at the faculty level has been slow to realize, especially in upper academic ranks and in higher status institutions. This is only partly explained by the slow turnover of faculty positions. While some efforts to address this issue have aimed to support individual women and foster their career success, the National Science Foundation's ADVANCE program has taken a different approach, calling for institutions to take a systemic and organizational approach to enhance women's representation in the academy. Since 2001, some 50 institutions have received ADVANCE Institutional Transformation (IT) awards to develop such systemic approaches. Most ADVANCE-IT projects have attended to structures (e.g. committee and departmental leadership roles), processes (e.g. hiring), policy (e.g. family leave), attitudes and awareness (e.g. training for chairs), and workplace climate, as well as interventions that focus on faculty members as valuable human resources. Our research team is studying ADVANCE institutions' approaches to organizational change, by identifying and categorizing individual change interventions, examining how they combine to build an overall change portfolio, and considering how change interventions are selected or adapted to fit a specific institutional context. Because universities are complex organizations composed of multiple, loosely coupled, interconnected sub-systems, an overall change strategy cannot depend on a single type of intervention. Yet any particular intervention might be deployed on behalf of multiple goals and in a variety of forms that may depend on the context, or institutional system, in which it is introduced. We will discuss some common types of strategic intervention used in ADVANCE-IT projects, categorized by Bolman and Deal's (1991) four main perspectives or "lenses" for understanding organizational issues. The

  20. Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change.

  1. An Exploration of the Relationship between Readiness for Change and Organizational Trust in Turkish Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayim, Merve; Kondakci, Yasar

    2015-01-01

    Readiness for change is one of the constructs that fosters positive behaviours, attitudes and thinking towards new adjustments on the part of employees. As one of the internal context variables, trust acts as a catalyst for supportive behaviours in times of change and uncertainty by reducing change related resistance and stress. Based on this…

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Organizational Change in One U.S. Dental School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Geralyn Dell

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is need for change in the way that dental schools in the United States educate their students to keep pace with the rapidly changing nature of the profession and to better address societal needs. Despite a well-documented change agenda put forth by individual authors and agencies both within and outside of dental education,…

  3. Cultures of engagement: The organizational foundations of advancing health in immigrant and low-income communities of color.

    PubMed

    Bloemraad, Irene; Terriquez, Veronica

    2016-09-01

    A rich civic infrastructure of community-based organizations (CBOs) can help generate, diffuse and maintain a culture of engagement and health that benefits marginalized populations most at risk for illness, disability, and poor health. Attention to CBOs advances "meso-level" frameworks for understanding health cultures and outcomes by going beyond attention to social networks and social identities. We focus on three mechanisms: CBOs can (1) empower individuals by developing civic capacity and personal efficacy; (2) foster solidarity by building networks, social identities and a shared commitment to collective well-being; and (3) mobilize people to have a voice in health-related policies and programming, thereby affecting community well-being. We draw on theory and research in sociology, political science and psychology, and we illustrate the utility of a CBO approach by examining survey and semi-structured interview data from participants in youth civic groups in 13 low-income, predominantly immigrant communities in California. Interview data illustrate the ways in which CBOs enhance members' civic capacities, provide a sense of empowerment and efficacy to engage in healthy behaviors, develop solidarity among diverse participants, and elaborate networks among those committed to community well-being. We also discuss CBO-led campaigns in which youth mobilized for change in policies and practices of local institutions to illustrate possible community-wide health consequences of CBO engagement. CBOs can thus generate individual-level well-being effects, and reduce structural barriers to good health through changes in the broader environment. PMID:26898114

  4. Why Do People Reject New Technologies and Stymie Organizational Changes of Which They Are in Favor? Exploring Misalignments between Social Interactions and Materiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardi, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between users' interpretations of a new technology and failure of organizational change. I suggest that people form interpretations of a new technology not only based on their conversations with others, but also through their use of technology's material features directly. Through qualitative and quantitative…

  5. Lost in Translation? Emotional Intelligence, Affective Economies, Leadership and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Not until the late 1990s did the rational/emotional binary embedded in mainstream literature on educational leadership and management come under challenge. Now the emotional dimensions of organisational change and leadership are widely recognised in the leadership, organisational change and school improvement literature. However, the dissolution…

  6. The Training Demand in Organizational Changes Processes in the Spanish Wine Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Garcia-Alcaraz, Jorge L.; Mataveli, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of training demand in the organisational changes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the demand of training courses in the Rioja wine sector in Spain and its relation with the changes in the sector carried out in recent years. Through a questionnaire, wineries' managers asked…

  7. The Development and Implementation of a Diversity Management Curriculum: Organizational Change through Exploration and Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowitz, Mary Ann; Hanappi-Egger, Edeltraud; Hofmann, Roswitha

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide concepts and strategies to successfully introduce and implement curricular change; especially, related to incorporating diversity management into academic programs. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing documents and accounts from two agents involved in the change process and an outside observer,…

  8. Organizational Learning and Program Renewal in Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Theory of Learning, Innovation and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Charles A.; Gallucci, Chrysan; Sloan, Tine; Lippincott, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Pressures for change in the field of teacher education are escalating significantly as part of systemic education reform initiatives in a broad spectrum of economically developed and developing nations. Considering these pressures, it is surprising that relatively little theoretical or empirical analysis of learning and change processes within…

  9. Achieving Performance Excellence in University Administration. A Team Approach to Organizational Change and Employee Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel

    This book uses the experiences of a large state research university over the past 5 years to illustrate principles to improve administrative efficiency and manage change. In 12 chapters the book examines, provides lists, and gives examples of plans and strategies for dealing with matters such as: (1) change strategies; (2) leadership roles,…

  10. An Organizational Case Study: The Impact of an Initiation, Implementation, and Institutionalization of a Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful change in schools is planned, expected and managed with the objective focused on benefiting the students, not just converting the staff. This investigation is a case study of a public school district that opted to implement curricular change following an examination of the district's performance toward adequate yearly progress.…

  11. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.; Evans, J. P.; Eldridge, D.; McCabe, M. F.; Caylor, K. K.; King, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change

  12. Major Changes in Systemic Therapy for Advanced Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John A

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 5 years, a host of new agents have radically changed the therapeutic landscape in advanced melanoma; gone are the days when the only active agents were interferon and dacarbazine. Nearly 25 years ago, few patients with stage IV melanoma reached 2-year survival; today, these survival curves have risen substantially. At the NCCN 21st Annual Conference, John A. Thompson, MD, discussed updates with longer duration of patient follow-up for immune checkpoint therapies. He also reviewed some of the newer approvals in advanced melanoma, including the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab, high-dose ipilimumab, the oncolytic virus therapy talimogene laherparepvec, and the molecularly targeted combination of the BRAF and MEK inhibitors vemurafenib and cobimetinib. PMID:27226502

  13. An ethnographic study of nursing home culture to define organizational realities of culture change.

    PubMed

    Deutschman, Marian T

    2005-01-01

    The current system of delivery of nursing home care is costly both in dollars and in human terms. Culture change may provide solutions to both issues. Culture change has a different meaning for different organizations depending on where they are in the continuum of change. Detailed observation of staff members "in action" in three long-term care facilities over a period of several months was supplemented by formal and informal interviews of organization members to gain an understanding of the culture of the nursing home organization. Four three-hour observations in each of three facilities, representing privately-held and not-for-profit organizations in urban, suburban, and rural locations yielded insights into the routine, recruitment, training, teamwork, activities, leadership, role-modeling, mentoring, staff and resident satisfaction, weekend staffing and activities, bureaucratic structure, and sharing of best practices. Discussion of each of these issues may provide a starting point for all those facilities that are contemplating significant culture change. If the objective is to have facilities truly embrace a new set of values, then the change begins with the owners and administrators of nursing homes who need to focus on building new relationships with all the stakeholders. In-depth interviews of organization members and six chief executive officers in long-term care in the Western New York area culminated the study with the development of a fifty-question survey for decision makers.

  14. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  15. Organizational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  16. Anatomy of an organizational change effort at the Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.

  17. Responding to Hostility: Evidence-Based Guidance for Communication during Planned Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kim Sydow; Carmichael, Pierson; Naidoo, Jefrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Hostile challenges to planned organization change are common and challenging to deal with effectively. Little research has explained successful responses to such stakeholder hostility. To address this gap, we use the concept of readiness to characterize the content of hostile challenges. We also use rhetorical strategies based on speech act theory…

  18. Designing Equity-Focused Action Research: Benefits and Challenges to Sustained Collaboration and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woerner, Christiane Rhys

    2013-01-01

    This study was a developmental evaluation that investigated whether practitioners' involved in an action research project experienced changes in their attitudes, assumptions, knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs by engaging in practitioner inquiry. The problem of the study revolved around the pressing issues of access, retention and degree completion…

  19. Organizational Change in the Information Society: Impact on Skills and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborne, David J.; Arnold, Karen M.

    2000-01-01

    The Information Society is affecting organizations and the people who work in them. European projects resulted in a change model emphasizing the role of communication structures within organizations and the ways in which information and communications technologies interact with them. (JOW)

  20. Knowledge Management as a Mechanism for Technological and Organizational Change Management in Israeli Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith; Perry, Milly

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, the higher education sector has experienced many pressures and changes (Hanna, "Educause Review, 38"(4), 25-34, 2003; Scott, "Educause Review, 38", 64-80, 2003; Waterhouse, "The power of e-learning: The essential guide for teaching in the digital age", 2005). Universities around the world are facing the need to adapt to a…

  1. Organizational Strategies for Promoting Instructional Change: Implementation Dynamics in Schools Working with Comprehensive School Reform Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Miller, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for studying how three comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs organized schools for instructional change and how the distinctive strategies they pursued affected implementation outcomes. The conceptual model views the Accelerated Schools Project as using a system of cultural control to produce…

  2. Environment for Innovation: Exploring Associations with Individual Disposition toward Change, Organizational Conflict, Justice and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinert, Daniel James

    2013-01-01

    The environment in higher education and healthcare is rapidly changing. Adaptation through innovation is critical for organizations responsible for the education of healthcare providers. This study examined the climate for innovation at chiropractic colleges and health sciences universities offering a doctor of chiropractic program. The…

  3. Downsizing, Competition, and Organizational Change in Government: Is Necessity the Mother of Invention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    One answer to the question of why government organizations don't perform better - common in academic "public choice" literature but also in folk wisdom--is that resources come too easily, independent of performance. Some business management literature suggests that a crisis in resource flows can force successful change--"necessity is the mother of…

  4. Organizational Change Factors for Increasing Online Learning within a Southeastern State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, David Edwin

    2012-01-01

    This bounded case study describes the readiness of a Southeastern State University System to support the growth of online learning. Structured as a case study, the view provided of the Southeastern State University System in this moment in time provides a contextually rich view of the phenomenon of change within a university system. The study…

  5. An Exploration of Presidential Roles during Organizational Change in Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Niki J.

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the country are seeking ways to strategically position their campuses within the growingly competitive landscape of higher education. The presidents of these institutions are approaching these changes with a watchful eye on the fiscal, environmental, and human resources involved. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Transforming University Practice through ICT--Integrated Perspectives on Organizational, Technological, and Pedagogical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lorentsen, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The article focuses on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for strengthening and transforming university practice in line with the social and technological conditions of the new ideas for "interactive" universities. The purpose is to use ICT as a change-agent in order to establish new practices--new pedagogical methods, new…

  7. The Dynamics of Organizational Change: A Study of How California Distinguished Schools Use Change To Implement Positive New Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbalist, Ronald

    This study examines how educational leaders in California used the change process to accomplish positive new outcomes in their schools, and tests the hypothesis that skilled leadership is required for successful change. Data were gathered from a review of literature and a survey of leaders from 39 Distinguished Schools. Questions focused on the…

  8. Clinicians' perceptions of organizational readiness for change in the context of clinical information system projects: insights from two cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The adoption and diffusion of clinical information systems has become one of the critical benchmarks for achieving several healthcare organizational reform priorities, including home care, primary care, and integrated care networks. However, these systems are often strongly resisted by the same community that is expected to benefit from their use. Prior research has found that early perceptions and beliefs play a central role in shaping future attitudes and behaviors such as negative rumors, lack of involvement, and resistance to change. In this line of research, this paper builds on the change management and information systems literature and identifies variables associated with clinicians' early perceptions of organizational readiness for change in the specific context of clinical information system projects. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted to test our research model. First, a questionnaire was pretested and then distributed to the future users of a mobile computing technology in 11 home care organizations. The second study took place in a large teaching hospital that had approved a budget for the acquisition of an electronic medical records system. Data analysis was performed using partial least squares. Results Scale items used in this study showed adequate psychometric properties. In Study 1, four of the hypothesized links in the research model were supported, with change appropriateness, organizational flexibility, vision clarity, and change efficacy explaining 75% of the variance in organizational readiness. In Study 2, four hypotheses were also supported, two of which differed from those supported in Study 1: the presence of an effective project champion and collective self-efficacy. In addition to these variables, vision clarity and change appropriateness also helped explain 75% of the variance in the dependent variable. Explanations for the similarities and differences observed in the two surveys are provided. Conclusions

  9. The association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ravangard, Ramin; Sajjadnia, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Shahsavan, Najme; Bahmaie, Jamshid; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve success in today’s competitive world, organizations should adapt to environmental changes. On the other hand, managers should have a set of values and ethical guidelines for their administrative and organizational functions. This study aimed to investigate the association between work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes among the administrative, financial and support employees of general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study conducted in 2013. A sample of 124 employees was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using 2 questionnaires measuring the dimensions of employees' work ethics (four dimensions) and attitudes towards organizational changes (three dimensions). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and statistical tests, including ANOVA, independent samples t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The maximum and minimum score of work ethic dimensions were related to being cooperative (4.60 ± 0.38) and dependable (4.29 ± 0.39) respectively. On the other hand, the maximum and minimum score of attitudes towards the various dimensions of organizational changes were related to the behavioral (3.83 ± 0.70) and the affective (3.55 ± 0.88) dimensions respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the work ethics and education levels of the employees in this study (P = 0.003). Also, among work s dimensions, only being considerate had a significant association with attitudes towards organizational changes (P = 0.014) and their cognitive dimension (P = 0.005). To improve employees' work ethics and attitudes towards organizational changes, the following suggestions can be offered: training hospitals managers in participative management style and its application

  10. Socio-cultural implications of changing organizational technologies in the provision of care.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2002-02-01

    Technology refers to inputs (machines, bureaucratic procedures, management strategies) organized to achieve specified outcomes. Such inputs and how they are used arise from socio-cultural conditions and in turn influence social behavior and values. Advances in medical technology are due to the high value populations place on health, emerging developments in science (also a cultural product). and from the opportunities and incentives the society gives to varying stakeholders. In the United States for example, the development and uses of medical technology are shaped by faith in marketplace competition, technological progress, activism, choice and consumerism. This constellation of values has resulted in very rapid growth and dissemination of hardware and related procedures whose costs pose significant financial dilemmas. In response, a range of management technologies have been developed to restrain the excesses of intervention but, because they are counter to many prevailing values and interests, they have led to much tension and a social backlash. Resolving these rationing tensions--which are rarely acknowledged as such--is a major challenge in American medical care and in much of the world. In the context of American social values, once new preventive or treatment technologies are introduced, they take patients on treatment trajectories that are difficult to control and which result in many being labeled with diagnoses they do not have and receiving interventions they do not need. Major efforts are under way to increase the sophistication of consumers of health care in a manner consistent with evidence-based medicine but these face significant barriers. Underlying what at first appears as simply technical barriers are the particular social and cultural influences on how people acquire and use information, the sources they trust and distrust, and the types of information they find credible and relevant to their situations. In short, the competition between new

  11. Assimilation approach to measuring organizational change from pre- to post-intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Scott C; Osatuke, Katerine; Howe, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To present a conceptual and measurement strategy that allows to objectively, sensitively evaluate intervention progress based on data of participants’ perceptions of presenting problems. METHODS: We used as an example an organization development intervention at a United States Veterans Affairs medical center. Within a year, the intervention addressed the hospital’s initially serious problems and multiple stakeholders (employees, management, union representatives) reported satisfaction with progress made. Traditional quantitative outcome measures, however, failed to capture the strong positive impact consistently reported by several types of stakeholders in qualitative interviews. To address the paradox, full interview data describing the medical center pre- and post- intervention were examined applying a validated theoretical framework from another discipline: Psychotherapy research. The Assimilation model is a clinical-developmental theory that describes empirically grounded change levels in problematic experiences, e.g., problems reported by participants. The model, measure Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES), and rating procedure have been previously applied across various populations and problem types, mainly in clinical but also in non-clinical settings. We applied the APES to the transcribed qualitative data of intervention participants’ interviews, using the method closely replicating prior assimilation research (the process whereby trained clinicians familiar with the Assimilation model work with full, transcribed interview data to assign the APES ratings). The APES ratings summarized levels of progress which was defined as participants’ assimilation level of problematic experiences, and compared from pre- to post-intervention. RESULTS: The results were consistent with participants’ own reported perceptions of the intervention impact. Increase in APES levels from pre- to post-intervention suggested improvement, missed in the

  12. Knowledge Style Profiling: An Exploration of Cognitive, Temperament, Demographic and Organizational Characteristics among Decision Makers Using Advanced Analytical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Vincent A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the possibilities of identifying knowledge style factors that could be used as central elements of a professional business analyst's (PBA) performance attributes at work for those decision makers that use advanced analytical technologies on decision making tasks. Indicators of knowledge style were…

  13. Organizational Changes to Thyroid Regulation in Alligator mississippiensis: Evidence for Predictive Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Ashley S. P.; Lowers, Russell H.; Cloy-McCoy, Jessica A.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    During embryonic development, organisms are sensitive to changes in thyroid hormone signaling which can reset the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. It has been hypothesized that this developmental programming is a ‘predictive adaptive response’, a physiological adjustment in accordance with the embryonic environment that will best aid an individual's survival in a similar postnatal environment. When the embryonic environment is a poor predictor of the external environment, the developmental changes are no longer adaptive and can result in disease states. We predicted that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and environmentally-based iodide imbalance could lead to developmental changes to the thyroid axis. To explore whether iodide or EDCs could alter developmental programming, we collected American alligator eggs from an estuarine environment with high iodide availability and elevated thyroid-specific EDCs, a freshwater environment contaminated with elevated agriculturally derived EDCs, and a reference freshwater environment. We then incubated them under identical conditions. We examined plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations, thyroid gland histology, plasma inorganic iodide, and somatic growth at one week (before external nutrition) and ten months after hatching (on identical diets). Neonates from the estuarine environment were thyrotoxic, expressing follicular cell hyperplasia (p = 0.01) and elevated plasma triiodothyronine concentrations (p = 0.0006) closely tied to plasma iodide concentrations (p = 0.003). Neonates from the freshwater contaminated site were hypothyroid, expressing thyroid follicular cell hyperplasia (p = 0.01) and depressed plasma thyroxine concentrations (p = 0.008). Following a ten month growth period under identical conditions, thyroid histology (hyperplasia p = 0.04; colloid depletion p = 0.01) and somatic growth (body mass p<0.0001; length p = 0.02) remained altered among the

  14. Advancing the long view of ecological change in tundra systems

    PubMed Central

    Post, Eric; Høye, Toke T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite uncertainties related to sustained funding, ideological rivalries and the turnover of research personnel, long-term studies and studies espousing a long-term perspective in ecology have a history of contributing landmark insights into fundamental topics, such as population- and community dynamics, species interactions and ecosystem function. They also have the potential to reveal surprises related to unforeseen events and non-stationary dynamics that unfold over the course of ongoing observation and experimentation. The unprecedented rate and magnitude of current and expected abiotic changes in tundra environments calls for a synthetic overview of the scope of ecological responses these changes have elicited. In this special issue, we present a series of contributions that advance the long view of ecological change in tundra systems, either through sustained long-term research, or through retrospective or prospective modelling. Beyond highlighting the value of long-term research in tundra systems, the insights derived herein should also find application to the study of ecological responses to environmental change in other biomes as well. PMID:23836784

  15. Organizational centralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have a radiology department, where images are taken and interpretation occurs. Teleradiology makes it possible to capture images in one location and transmit them elsewhere for interpretation. Organizational centralization of radiology interpretations is therefore of interest. Empirical data have been collected in qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons with substantial experience with picture archiving and communication systems and teleradiology, from 12 departments of radiology in Norway. The response rate was 90%. A total of 21 theoretically possible types of centralization of image interpretation were identified, representing combinations of three categories of geographical centralization, and seven categories of centralization according to function. Various advantages and disadvantages of centralization were identified. Organizational changes may be decisive for the future of teleradiology, but it may be wise to plan for change in small steps, since we know little about how broad future organizational changes based on teleradiology will be, or what will decide how far particular organizations will go. PMID:16438776

  16. Organizational culture and the implementation of person centered care: results from a change process in Swedish hospital care.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Tariq Saleem J; Ekman, Inger; Olsson, Lars-Eric; Dudas, Kerstin; Carlström, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Sweden has one of the oldest, most coherent and stable healthcare systems in the world. The culture has been described as conservative, mechanistic and increasingly standardized. In order to provide a care adjusted to the patient, person centered care (PCC) has been developed and implemented into some parts of the health care industry. The model has proven to decrease patient uncertainty. However, the impact of PCC has been limited in some clinics and hospital wards. An assumption is that organizational culture has an impact on desired outcomes of PCC, such as patient uncertainty. Therefore, in this study we identify the impact of organizational culture on patient uncertainty in five hospital wards during the implementation of PCC. Data from 220 hospitalized patients who completed the uncertainty cardiovascular population scale (UCPS) and 117 nurses who completed the organizational values questionnaire (OVQ) were investigated with regression analysis. The results seemed to indicate that in hospitals where the culture promotes stability, control and goal setting, patient uncertainty is reduced. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that a culture of flexibility, cohesion and trust is positive, a culture of stability can better sustain a desired outcome of reform or implementation of new care models such as person centered care. It is essential for health managers to be aware of what characterizes their organizational culture before attempting to implement any sort of new healthcare model. The organizational values questionnaire has the potential to be used as a tool to aid health managers in reaching that understanding.

  17. Organizational Planning and Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Considers the elements of organizational effectiveness, the relationships between ends and means, and the nature of inputs necessary to the organization's survival. Presents hypotheses for industrial, educational, and military organizational planning processes and training technology, and suggests changing planning focus from inputs to outcomes.…

  18. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  19. Facilitating Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the three papers in this symposium, "Conflicts that Arise in Small Group Facilitation: A Descriptive Study of Accounts, Actions, Outcomes, and Assessments" (Judith A. Kolb, William J. Rothwell), contains self-report verbatim accounts contributed by facilitators and the results of a literature review on small group conflict. "A Test of…

  20. Looking from a CHAT-IT Perspective to Undergraduate Mexican Physics: Organizational Trajectories or Professors as Agents of Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-01-01

    Recent elaborations on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engestrom et al., eds., "Perspectives on activity theory." New York: Cambridge University Press, "1999") and its relation to organizational theories have produced a theoretical amalgam of these earlier ideas, which allow for the exploration of learning in formal organizational…

  1. The Role of the Community College Chair in Organizational Change: Chaos, Leadership and the Challenge of Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellow, Gail O.

    The hierarchical organizational structures that exist at community colleges and other institutions of higher education reflect the Late Industrial Era; as organizations make the transition to the Early Information Era, however, these rigid structures can hinder institutions' efforts to effectively utilize information and respond to changing…

  2. Organizational Learning: Leading Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne; Cook, Tanya Fedoruk

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the interplay among the environment, learning, leaders, and innovations in school systems. Six conditions that, together, have potential to shape an environment that supports organizational learning are illustrated with data from two leaders of innovation: one in an environment that resisted change; the other in a supportive…

  3. Celebrating Change: Overcoming Resistance to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golemo, Mary Beth

    1990-01-01

    College campus activities professionals implementing change need to simultaneously involve four elements in the organizational world: environment, people, structure, and purpose. Resistance to change can be countered by defusing resistance, developing a strategy, choosing leaders wisely, providing advance notice and information, and observing…

  4. Dental school deans' perceptions of the organizational culture and impact of the ELAM program on the culture and advancement of women faculty.

    PubMed

    Dannels, Sharon A; McLaughlin, Jean M; Gleason, Katharine A; Dolan, Teresa A; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn C; Morahan, Page S

    2009-06-01

    In 2006, deans of the sixty-four U.S. and Canadian dental schools were surveyed to gain their perspectives on their institutions' organizational culture for faculty, family-friendly policies, processes used by deans to develop faculty leadership, and the impact of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women. The deans reported (52 percent response rate) an improved climate in terms of gender equity, yet recognized that inequities still exist. Of fifteen family-friendly policies, only three were available at more than 50 percent of the schools, with little indication that additional policies were under consideration. The deans reported active engagement in behaviors to develop the leadership of their faculty members. Of the nine processes, 50 percent of the deans indicated three they believed to be particularly effective with women. They agreed that ELAM has had a positive impact on their alumnae and their schools. Results are discussed in terms of how the deans' perceptions compare to faculty perceptions and within the larger context of higher education and other organizations. The responsibility of the dean to shape the dental school's culture, particularly in the face of the changing demographics of dental faculty, adds to the importance of the unique perspective provided by the deans. PMID:19491345

  5. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  6. The relationship between baseline Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment subscale scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders treatment clinics: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) is a measure of organizational readiness for implementing practice change in healthcare settings that is organized based on the core elements and sub-elements of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. General support for the reliability and factor structure of the ORCA has been reported. However, no published study has examined the utility of the ORCA in a clinical setting. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between baseline ORCA scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders (SUD) clinics. Methods Nine clinic teams from Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics across the United States participated in a six-month training program to promote evidence-based practices for hepatitis prevention. A representative from each team completed the ORCA evidence and context subscales at baseline. Results Eight of nine clinics reported implementation of at least one new hepatitis prevention practice after completing the six-month training program. Clinic teams were categorized by level of implementation-high (n = 4) versus low (n = 5)-based on how many hepatitis prevention practices were integrated into their clinics after completing the training program. High implementation teams had significantly higher scores on the patient experience and leadership culture subscales of the ORCA compared to low implementation teams. While not reaching significance in this small sample, high implementation clinics also had higher scores on the research, clinical experience, staff culture, leadership behavior, and measurement subscales as compared to low implementation clinics. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the ORCA was able to measure differences in organizational factors at baseline between clinics that reported high and low implementation of practice recommendations at follow-up. This

  7. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  8. Leveraging the Power of Social Media to Maximize Organizational Learning and Drive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Camilla C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study addresses the phenomenon of rapid social media expansion, which creates organizational challenges. Ongoing development of advanced technology products means that effective organizations must be more adaptive and receptive to new approaches and changes in their environment. In a hyper connected society, one where…

  9. Typologizing Organizational Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Rozhan; Hashim, Noor Azuan

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that a major problem limiting an organization's ability to develop organizational learning capacity is of organizational amnesia. To understand organizational amnesia, it is necessary to look at the various ways that organizational learning is defined. Organizational learning is not merely the process of acquiring knowledge.…

  10. Early Childhood Community School Linkages: Advancing a Theory of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Kristin E.; Rollins, S. Kwesi; Gerstein, Amy; Blank, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Coalition for Community Schools at the Institute for Educational Leadership (CCS-IEL) embarked on an ambitious action research and development project, leveraging the community school system infrastructure present in three geographic regions (Tulsa, Oklahoma; Multnomah County, Oregon; Albuquerque, New Mexico) to advance research and…

  11. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  12. Cognitive and organizational ergonomics in the transition of the new integrated center of control of an oil refinery: human reliability and administration of changes.

    PubMed

    Bau, Lucy M S; Puquirre, Magda S E S; Buso, Sandro A; Ogasawara, Érika L; Marcon Passero, Carolina R; Bianchi, Marcos C

    2012-01-01

    The conception of a product is closely tied to its adaptation level to the users. In this view, designers are increasingly oriented to survey the needs and features of the users. This paper aims at developing a diagnosis of employees working in high-complexity activities in a petrochemical company, in light of the physical and operating changes in the Integrated Center of Control; assessing the reception sensibility to changes; assessing the cognitive pattern of the group; and making suggestions that might eliminate or minimize the difficulties in the transition process of the change, in order to reduce the adaptation period. The field of study comprised 111 production, transfer and storage operators, forming 5 groups of desktop activities. The stages of the study followed the following flow: survey of the prescribed tasks and organizational structure; Concentrated Attention test; application of the Work and Disease Risks Inventory (ITRA, Portuguese acronym); and structured psychological interview. The ITRA results pointed to a serious cognitive cost (3.83) for all five groups, this being the largest intervention focus. The items: division of task contents (3.52), social professional relationships (2.93), quality of the physical environment (2.91), physical cost (3.24), emotional cost (2.71), freedom of expression (3.77), professional fulfillment (3.41); experience and suffering (2.75), lack of recognition (2.18) and physical injuries (2.07) were considered critical. Meanwhile, social damages (1.64) and psychological injuries (1.35) are bearable. As to the Concentrated Attention test, most workers registered average level. In the individual interviews, workers showed that larger involvement in the process of physical, organizational and operational change in the desktops and on field works was required, as well as the follow up of implementations, so as to reduce the adaptation process and prevent rework (furniture, equipment, noise, form of communication with the

  13. Changes in the organizational structure of public health nurse service in the Republic of Croatia 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Bendeković, Zvonimir; Simić, Dobrislav; Gladović, Ana; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Since 1996, after the privatization of primary health care, public health nurse (PHN) in Croatia remained employed within the health center, mainly responsible for the preventive care of the inhabitants from defined catchment's area. Before that time they were part of general practice teams. The main aim of the study was to investigate what are the trends in the organizational structure of PHN service in Croatia, from 1995-2012. The main source was the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. The obtained results shows that they are college educated and mostly in full-time jobs. The important findings are the lack of nurses and theirs regional differences. In highly demanding societies, with growing numbers of elderly, mental, social and economic problems, it will be worthy to consider the lower standard then 5 100 inhabitants per one PHN. Also, it should be taken into account to invest into the lowering of regional disparities. PMID:25643533

  14. Changes in the organizational structure of public health nurse service in the Republic of Croatia 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Bendeković, Zvonimir; Simić, Dobrislav; Gladović, Ana; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Since 1996, after the privatization of primary health care, public health nurse (PHN) in Croatia remained employed within the health center, mainly responsible for the preventive care of the inhabitants from defined catchment's area. Before that time they were part of general practice teams. The main aim of the study was to investigate what are the trends in the organizational structure of PHN service in Croatia, from 1995-2012. The main source was the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. The obtained results shows that they are college educated and mostly in full-time jobs. The important findings are the lack of nurses and theirs regional differences. In highly demanding societies, with growing numbers of elderly, mental, social and economic problems, it will be worthy to consider the lower standard then 5 100 inhabitants per one PHN. Also, it should be taken into account to invest into the lowering of regional disparities.

  15. Organizational wisdom.

    PubMed

    Limas, Michael J; Hansson, Robert O

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, much theoretical and empirical attention has focused on wisdom as a psychological construct. The development of wisdom is viewed as a positive aspect of aging, but also has a complement to more traditionally-studied domains of intelligence. Two studies, involving a total of 327 adults, examined how our understanding of the construct might be furthered by its application into specific, problematic contexts, and by having its utility assessed. This involved: 1) development of an instrument that related the elements of wisdom to the context of work organizations; 2) identification of the primary ways in which wisdom contributes to well-being in work organizations; and 3) identification of types of organizations (organizational cultures) most likely to need and value wise persons of influence in their midst. Results suggest that wisdom is of greatest consequence when it fills an important gap in what is offered by the organization's (or society's) formal structure. Where the culture has developed more formal institutions, structure, and principles to guide its activities and ensure fairness in how people are treated, there may be less need for informal sources of organizational wisdom.

  16. Lewin's Theory of Planned Change as a strategic resource.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2013-02-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author explores the use of the Lewin's Theory of Planned Change as a strategic resource to mobilize the people side of change. An overview of the theory is provided along with a discussion of its strengths, limitations, and targeted application.

  17. Can Industrial-Organizational Psychology Survive the Advancement of Professional Psychology? Speciality Standards for Providers of I/O Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Thomas E.

    The Revised Standards for Providers of Psychological Services, developed by a committee of the American Psychological Association, have an important impact on industrial/organizational psychologists. Currently, four types of controls exist as assurances to the public that appropriate psychological services are being provided. They are: graduate…

  18. Organizational technologies for transforming care: measures and strategies for pursuit of IOM quality aims.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Bolin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Progress on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 6 aims to bridge the "quality chasm" requires both measurement and the concerting of multiple organizational technologies. The basic thesis of this article is that rapid progress on the IOM's multiple aims calls for transformative change within and among healthcare organizations. The promise of a number of types of transformative approaches is closely linked to their ability to simultaneously build upon several organizational technologies: clinical, social, information, and administrative technologies. To encourage and advance such efforts, this article identifies illustrative measures of attainment of the IOM's 6 aims or targeted areas for improvement that reflect the contributions of the 4 organizational technologies. It discusses examples of relationships between the IOM aims and the organizational technologies considered. Finally, the article offers illustrations of the interplay of these organizational technologies and IOM aims-across an array of organizational innovations with transformative potential. Included among such innovations are information technology in the form of electronic medical records, computer-based physician order entry, and patient health records; organization-wide patient-centered cultural change such as Studer's Hardwiring Excellence; Six Sigma and Toyota Production Management/LEAN; major clinical technology change, for example, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and broader treatment innovations such as disease management. PMID:17873660

  19. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  20. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  1. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  2. Energy Organizational Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gina C. Paradis; James Yockey; Tracey LeBeau

    2009-04-17

    As the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) continues to refine and finalize its Strategic Energy Plan, it became necessary to insure that a sustainable organization structure was developed through which the energy program and its initiatives could be nurtured and managed. To that end, SNI undertook a study to thoroughly evaluate the existing organizational structures and assess the requisite changes and/or additions to that framework that would complement the mission of the Strategic Plan. The goal of this study was to analyze, work with staff and leadership and recommend the most effective plan for the development of an organizational framework within which the Seneca could more effectively exercise energy sovereignty – control and manage their natural resource assets – i.e. develop its own energy resources, meet the current and projected energy needs of their community, and “sit at the table” with other regional energy providers to deal with issues on a peer-to-peer basis.

  3. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed. Comparisons are made to the more conventional pitch control mechanisms.

  4. Advances in ocean modeling for climate change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, William R.; Capotondi, Antonietta; Holland, Marika M.

    1995-07-01

    An adequate understanding of climate variability and the eventual prediction of climate change are among the most urgent and far-reaching efforts of the scientific community. The climate system is in an ever-changing state with vast impact on mankind in all his activities. Both short and long-term aspects of climate variability are of concern, and the unravelling of "natural" variability from "man-induced" climate change is required to prepare for and ameliorate, if possible, the potentially devastating aspects of such change. In terms of scientific effort, the climate community can be thought of as the union of the disciplinary sciences of meteorology, oceanography, sea ice and glaciology, and land surface processes. Since models are based upon mathematical and numerical constructs, mathematics and computer sciences are also directly involved. In addition, some of the problems of man-induced climate change (release of greenhouse gases, the ozone-hole problem, etc.) are basically chemical in nature, and the expertise of the atmospheric and oceanic chemist is also required. In addition, some part of the response to climate perturbations will arise in the biological world, due to upsetting the balance in the great food web that binds communities together on both the land and the sea. Thus, the problems to be solved are extraordinarily complex and require the efforts of many kinds of scientist.

  5. Advancing landscape change research through the incorporation of Inupiaq knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Brower, Ronald H.

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is a valuable but under-used source of information relevant to landscape change research. We interviewed Iñupiat elders, hunters, and other knowledge-holders in the villages of Barrow and Atqasuk on the western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to gain further insight into the processes governing the ubiquitous lakes and the dynamics of landscape change in this region of continuous permafrost. The interviews provided a suite of information related to lakes and associated drained lake basins, as well as knowledge on landforms, environmental change, human events, and other phenomena. We were able to corroborate many observations independently and verify the timing of several large and significant lake drainage events using either aerial photography or remotely sensed time series. Data collected have been incorporated into a geodatabase to develop a multi-layer Geographic Information System that will be useful for local and scientific communities. This research demonstrates that indigenous knowledge can reveal a new understanding of landscape changes on the Arctic Coastal Plain in general and on lake processes in particular. We advocate ongoing, community-oriented research throughout the Arctic as a means of assessing and responding to the consequences of rapid environmental change.

  6. Advancing Science Literacy Through the Climate Change National Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Quirke, M.; Lefer, B. L.; Hester, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change National Forum (http://climatechangenationalforum.org) was established almost a year ago to provide a publicly visible platform for discussion of scientific issues related to climate change and, at a later date, policy options motivated by climate change science. The site is also designed to promote public literacy in the culture and conduct of science by incorporating dozens of active scientists in a broad range of climate science and related fields and encouraging dialogue among those scientists. The forum provides a rare window into scientific debate, allowing non-scientists to see how scientists evaluate the work of others, construct meaning out of various bits of evidence, formulate ideas, challenge their colleagues, and (on occasion) develop a consensus. As such, the site is intended to have educational value well beyond its climate science focus.

  7. Regional Advanced Manufacturing Academy: An Agent of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeling, Daniel M.; Rose, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Three Northeast Texas community colleges put aside service delivery areas and matters of "turf" to create Centers of Excellence that provided training throughout a nine county area. This consortium; along with 14 manufacturers, seven economic development corporations, and the regional workforce board, led the change in training a highly skilled…

  8. Educational Changes to Support Advanced Practice Nursing Education

    PubMed Central

    LeFlore, Judy L.; Thomas, Patricia E.

    2016-01-01

    Educational factors limit the number of advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) graduates to meet the growing workforce demands. Healthcare dynamics are necessitating a shift in how nursing education envisions, creates, and implements clinical learning opportunities. The current clinical education model in APRN programs continues to be the same as it was 45 years ago when the student numbers were much smaller. New approaches in graduate nursing education are needed to address the shortage of APRNs in primary and acute care areas. Determining competency based on the number of clinical hours can be inefficient, ineffective, and costly and limits the ability to increase capacity. Little research exists in graduate nursing education to support the effectiveness and efficiency of current hours of clinical required for nurse practitioner students. Simulation and academic-practice partnership models can offer innovative approaches to nurse practitioner education for clinical training, with the goal of producing graduates who can provide safe, quality care within the complex practice-based environment of the nation's evolving healthcare system. PMID:27465446

  9. The Organizational Configurations of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is twofold: 1) To develop a framework and method for simultaneously examining many different school organizations and their relation to patterns of school change and 2) To utilize that framework to obtain a district-wide understanding of the organizational functioning and change patterns of Chicago Public School (CPS)…

  10. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture.

  11. Triagency collaboration for the advancement of climate change education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Carolyn E.; Chambers, Lin H.; Schoedinger, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Second Annual NASA, NOAA, and NSF Climate Change Education Principal Investigators Meeting; Fairfax, Virginia, 28 February to 2 March 2011; In 2009 the Obama administration identified climate change research and education as a presidential priority. Embracing the spirit of the America COMPETES Act, which encourages coordination of federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education activities and programs, NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have been working together to increase funding opportunities for projects focused on global climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments and have fostered collaborations among awardees that create a strong national network for effectively presenting climate science to diverse audiences.

  12. The Changing Nature of Performance: Implications for Staffing, Motivation, and Development. Frontiers of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R., Ed.; Pulakos, Elaine D., Ed.

    This volume provides a discussion of the relationship between the changing nature of work and the understanding, measurement, and influence of human performance. Chapter 1, Employee Performance in Today's Organizations (Daniel R. Ilgen, Elaine D. Pulakos), introduces seven key changes in the nature of work--changes in technology, job design, type…

  13. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  14. Methodological advances: using greenhouses to simulate climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Morales, F; Pascual, I; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Aguirreolea, J; Irigoyen, J J; Goicoechea, N; Antolín, M C; Oyarzun, M; Urdiain, A

    2014-09-01

    Human activities are increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. Related to this global warming, periods of low water availability are also expected to increase. Thus, CO2 concentration, temperature and water availability are three of the main factors related to climate change that potentially may influence crops and ecosystems. In this report, we describe the use of growth chamber - greenhouses (GCG) and temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG) to simulate climate change scenarios and to investigate possible plant responses. In the GCG, CO2 concentration, temperature and water availability are set to act simultaneously, enabling comparison of a current situation with a future one. Other characteristics of the GCG are a relative large space of work, fine control of the relative humidity, plant fertirrigation and the possibility of light supplementation, within the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) region and/or with ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. In the TGG, the three above-mentioned factors can act independently or in interaction, enabling more mechanistic studies aimed to elucidate the limiting factor(s) responsible for a given plant response. Examples of experiments, including some aimed to study photosynthetic acclimation, a phenomenon that leads to decreased photosynthetic capacity under long-term exposures to elevated CO2, using GCG and TGG are reported. PMID:25113448

  15. A Stakeholder View of Organizational Adaptation to Technological Change: The Case of U. S. State Universities, 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed technological change in the core processes of teaching and learning in U. S. state universities in the decade from 2003-2012. Institutions of higher education in the U. S. have faced dramatically complex and rapidly changing operating environments. In response to these conditions, institutions of higher education have…

  16. Relationship between Staff-Reported Culture Change and Occupancy Rate and Organizational Commitment among Nursing Homes in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Design and Methods: Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method…

  17. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological…

  18. Information Handling, Organizational Structure, and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1989-01-01

    Uses examples from military strategic communications to demonstrate that organizational structures and the distribution of power within organizational structures adapt to changes in information handling capability. It is concluded that delegation and decentralization can be viewed as indicative of inadequate information handling and that improved…

  19. From Tall to Matrix: Redefining Organizational Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson McPhail, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines traditional organizational structures of community colleges and how traditional hierarchical structures influence delivery of programs and services. The point is to reveal ways in which community colleges can change organizational structures to more effectively implement key reform and student success efforts through a…

  20. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  1. Advancing Ecological Models to Compare Scale in Multi-Level Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2016-01-01

    Education systems as units of analysis have been metaphorically likened to ecologies to model change. However, ecological models to date have been ineffective in modelling educational change that is multi-scale and occurs across multiple levels of an education system. Thus, this paper advances two innovative, ecological frameworks that improve on…

  2. Importance of change appraisal for employee well-being during organizational restructuring: findings from the Finnish paper industry's extensive transition.

    PubMed

    Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Väänänen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppänen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal.

  3. Organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA): Development of an instrument based on the Promoting Action on Research in Health Services (PARIHS) framework

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Sharp, Nancy D; Sales, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    Background The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services, or PARIHS, framework is a theoretical framework widely promoted as a guide to implement evidence-based clinical practices. However, it has as yet no pool of validated measurement instruments that operationalize the constructs defined in the framework. The present article introduces an Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment instrument (ORCA), organized according to the core elements and sub-elements of the PARIHS framework, and reports on initial validation. Methods We conducted scale reliability and factor analyses on cross-sectional, secondary data from three quality improvement projects (n = 80) conducted in the Veterans Health Administration. In each project, identical 77-item ORCA instruments were administered to one or more staff from each facility involved in quality improvement projects. Items were organized into 19 subscales and three primary scales corresponding to the core elements of the PARIHS framework: (1) Strength and extent of evidence for the clinical practice changes represented by the QI program, assessed with four subscales, (2) Quality of the organizational context for the QI program, assessed with six subscales, and (3) Capacity for internal facilitation of the QI program, assessed with nine subscales. Results Cronbach's alpha for scale reliability were 0.74, 0.85 and 0.95 for the evidence, context and facilitation scales, respectively. The evidence scale and its three constituent subscales failed to meet the conventional threshold of 0.80 for reliability, and three individual items were eliminated from evidence subscales following reliability testing. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were retained. Seven of the nine facilitation subscales loaded onto the first factor; five of the six context subscales loaded onto the second factor; and the three evidence subscales loaded on the third factor. Two subscales failed to load significantly on any

  4. A Propitious Moment in the Midst of Crisis: A Case Study of Organizational Change in an Academic Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Grigsby, R. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors analyze the change, growth, and healing process of the Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior at the Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine, which came close to its demise when the department Chair and a senior faculty member were arrested and charged with criminal misconduct related to financial transactions in…

  5. Restructuring Academic Libraries: Organizational Development in the Wake of Technological Change. ACRL Publications in Librarianship No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Charles A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 19 essays and case studies about the challenges libraries face today. It assesses a broad range of opportunities and achievements, and emphasizes both theory and practice. The essays are divided into six sections: (1) Introduction--"Restructuring Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Technological Change" (Charles A.…

  6. Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elisabeth S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

  7. Districts' Responses to Demographic Change: Making Sense of Race, Class, and Immigration in Political and Organizational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erica O.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. public school systems now face three large demographic shifts: rising poverty, the growing number of students from immigrant families, and increasing populations of students of color. Yet, we know little about how district policymakers react to these important changes or indeed the factors that consistently shape their policymaking.…

  8. The Organizational Structure of the Instructional Program of a Community College: An Evaluation With Recommendations for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jack E.

    A study was undertaken in the Spring of 1974 to evaluate the effectiveness of the administrative structure of the instructional program of East Los Angeles College (ELAC) and to make recommendations for change. Since ELAC was founded 29 years ago each new discipline has been established as a separate department; at the time of the study 27 such…

  9. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  10. The Organizational Meaning of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adria, Marco; Boechler, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Practitioners and theorists have given attention recently to the role and status of research activities in Canadian university continuing education units. For individuals in units that are increasing the proportion of their organizational activities devoted to research, there will be an ongoing process of cognitive change and development as a new…

  11. Ghosts: Gateway to Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Tim; Had, Gary

    2001-01-01

    "Ghosts" are elements that influence an organization's view of itself, its ways of working, and its culturally specific attitudes; they exert an indirect influence over everything that happens within an organization. Successful organizational change requires identifying and integrating these ghosts. (JOW)

  12. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science Research: A Perspective for Organizational Change in African Academia.

    PubMed

    John, Theresa Adebola

    2014-01-01

    In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a perspective derived from the FASEB journal publications. The author examines the thirty three peer reviewed scientific research articles in a centennial (April 2012) issue of the FASEB Journal [Volume 26(4)] using the following parameters: number of authors contributing to the paper; number of academic departments contributing to the paper; number of academic institutions contributing to the paper; funding of the research reported in the article. The articles were written by 7.97±0.61 authors from 3.46±0.3 departments of 2.79±0.29 institutions. The contributors were classified into four categories: basic sciences, clinical sciences, institutions and centers, and programs and labs. Amongst the publications, 21.2% were single disciplinary. Two tier collaboration amongst any two of the four categories were observed in 16/33 (48.5%) of the articles. Three tier and four tier collaborations were observed amongst 7/33 (21.2%) and 3/33 (9%) of the articles respectively. Therefore 26/33 (78.7%) of the articles were multidisciplinary. Collaborative efforts between basic science and clinical science departments were observed in 9/33 (27.3%) articles. Public funding through government agencies provided 85 out of a total of 143 (59.5%) grants. The collaborative and multidisciplinary nature and government support are characteristic of biomedical science in the US where research tends to result in solutions to problems and economic benefits.

  13. Organizational Change, Leadership, and the Transformation of Continuing Professional Development: Lessons Learned From the American College of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Beliveau, Mary Ellen; Warnes, Carole A; Harrington, Robert A; Nishimura, Rick A; O'Gara, Patrick T; Sibley, Janice B; Oetgen, William J

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for a transformational change in clinical education. In postgraduate medical education we have traditionally had a faculty-centric model. That is, faculty knew what needed to be taught and who were the best teachers to teach it. They built the agenda, and worked with staff to follow Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) accreditation criteria and manage logistics. Changes in the health care marketplace now demand a learner-centric model-one that embraces needs assessments, identification of practice gaps relative to competency, development of learning objectives, contemporary adult learning theory, novel delivery systems, and measurable outcomes. This article provides a case study of one medical specialty society's efforts to respond to this demand. PMID:26378426

  14. Advance care planning in nursing homes: pre- and post-Patient Self-Determination Act.

    PubMed Central

    Castle, N G; Mor, V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify resident and organizational factors associated with the use of advance care plans pre- and post-implementation of the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA), and (2) to identify changes (pre- and post-implementation of the PSDA) in the relationship between these factors and the use of advance care plans. DESIGN: Complex, multistage cluster sampling. SETTING: Ten states were selected for variation in geographic location, Medicaid reimbursement rate, and average staffing patterns. Participants were 4,215 nursing home residents in 268 facilities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in 1990, and 12 resident and organizational factors were associated with their use in 1993. Five factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: activities of daily living (ADL) scores, race, cognitive performance scale (CPS) scores, full-time equivalent (FTE) nurse aides per resident, and bed size. Ten resident and organizational factors were associated with use of do-not-hospitalize (DNH) orders in 1990 and six resident and organizational factors were associated with DNH orders in 1993. Four factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: legal guardian, FTE LPNs per resident, Medicaid census, and forprofit ownership. Five resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of living wills in 1990 and seven resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of living wills in 1993. Four factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: ADL scores, race, length of stay, and for-profit ownership. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the PSDA may have been successful in increasing the use of advance care plans and in changing the types of residents who use advance care plans. However, they also show that the use of advance care plans is associated with organizational characteristics, indicating that some types of facilities

  15. Emerging Organizational Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carchidi, Daniel M.; Peterson, Marvin W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of emerging higher educational organizational structures focuses on the increasing importance of distance education. Considers the emerging organizational landscape, three types of network organizations, six organization archetypes, organizational forms that support distance education, and implications for higher education planners. (DB)

  16. The Organizational Learning Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Notes that organizational communication and organizational learning share a common focus on how message processing occurs in institutional settings and how they affect and are affected by people and relationships. Proposes that the assessment of organizational learning represents an assessment of a subset of communication processes in an…

  17. Insecure Commitment and Resistance: An Examination of Change Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Trust on the Relationship between Job Insecurity, Employee Commitment, and Resistance to Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Elijah

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the mediation role of self-efficacy and the moderating roles of change leadership strategy and trust on the change attitudes of job insecure employees. Using job insecurity theory (Greenhalgh, 1983), Chin & Benne's (1961) seminal classification of change leadership strategies and the tripartite model of…

  18. Sexual selection predicts advancement of avian spring migration in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Tøttrup, Anders P; Coppack, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Global warming has led to earlier spring arrival of migratory birds, but the extent of this advancement varies greatly among species, and it remains uncertain to what degree these changes are phenotypically plastic responses or microevolutionary adaptations to changing environmental conditions. We suggest that sexual selection could help to understand this variation, since early spring arrival of males is favoured by female choice. Climate change could weaken the strength of natural selection opposing sexual selection for early migration, which would predict greatest advancement in species with stronger female choice. We test this hypothesis comparatively by investigating the degree of long-term change in spring passage at two ringing stations in northern Europe in relation to a synthetic estimate of the strength of female choice, composed of degree of extra-pair paternity, relative testes size and degree of sexually dichromatic plumage colouration. We found that species with a stronger index of sexual selection have indeed advanced their date of spring passage to a greater extent. This relationship was stronger for the changes in the median passage date of the whole population than for changes in the timing of first-arriving individuals, suggesting that selection has not only acted on protandrous males. These results suggest that sexual selection may have an impact on the responses of organisms to climate change, and knowledge of a species' mating system might help to inform attempts at predicting these. PMID:17015341

  19. Organizational Learning Mechanisms: Exploring a Conceptual Framework for Organizational Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2005-01-01

    In light of the complexity and wealth of information in societies today, the notion of organizational learning has become the forerunner of school change discourse. However, organizational learning is still characterized by mystical and amorphous rhetoric, understood well neither by researchers nor by practitioners. Therefore, this article is an…

  20. Teamwork in the Terminal Area: Organizational Issues and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny K.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic growth and technology advances in commercial aviation have turned the terminal area into a complex, multi-organization workplace which requires the smooth coordination of many operational teams. In addition to pilots, cabin crew, air traffic controllers, and dispatch (who nominally work together throughout a flight), surface operations additionally involve local, ground and ramp controllers, ramp agents, maintenance, dozens of service contractors, and any number of teams who are responsible for airport operations. Under abnormal or emergency conditions, even more teams become actively involved. In order to accommodate growth and to meet productivity and safety challenges, numerous changes are being made in surface operations. Unfortunately, it is often the case that changes in technologies, organizational roles, procedures, and training are developed and implemented in isolated and piecemeal fashion without regard to cross organizational impact. Thus, there is a need for evaluation methodologies which assure integrated system safety for all organizations. Such methodologies should aid the understanding of how organizations work together and how changes in one domain affects the next. In this study, we develop one approach toward addressing these organizational issues. Examples of surface operations in abnormal situations are examined in regard to their impact on personnel in the terminal area. Timelines are given for the responses to incidents, along with the necessary communication links, the specific roles that members of terminal teams have, and any overlapping responsibilities. Suggestions to improve cross-operational teamwork are given. Methods of graphic representation are explored, both in regards to human links and access to information. The outcome of such an approach should enhance the understanding which is critical for resolving organizational conflicts and maximizing system effectiveness.

  1. Influence of School Organizational Characteristics on the Outcomes of a School Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Hebert, David; deMoor, Carl; Hearn, Marsha Davis; Resnicow, Ken

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the impact of school organizational characteristics on outcomes of a teacher health behavior change program. Organizational, dietary, and psychologic data from intervention and control schools indicated that teachers at intervention schools with high organizational climate, organizational health, and job satisfaction reported better…

  2. Advanced technology needs for a global change science program: Perspective of the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Swissler, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the NASA program in remote sensing is primarily the Earth system science and the monitoring of the Earth global changes. One of NASA's roles is the identification and development of advanced sensing techniques, operational spacecraft, and the many supporting technologies necessary to meet the stringent science requirements. Langley Research Center has identified the elements of its current and proposed advanced technology development program that are relevant to global change science according to three categories: sensors, spacecraft, and information system technologies. These technology proposals are presented as one-page synopses covering scope, objective, approach, readiness timeline, deliverables, and estimated funding. In addition, the global change science requirements and their measurement histories are briefly discussed.

  3. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  4. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  5. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  6. Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools" provides a comprehensive view of the way competencies can be used to drive organizational e-learning, including the main conceptual elements, competency gap analysis, advanced related computing topics, the application of semantic Web technologies, and the integration of competencies…

  7. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  8. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from 415 primary teachers…

  9. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  10. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology. PMID:16884560

  11. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  12. Interleukin-6 and leptin as markers of energy metabolic changes in advanced ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Massa, Daniela; Astara, Giorgio; Farci, Daniele; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Mantovani, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    The progression of the neoplastic disease is characterized by specific alterations of energy metabolism and by symptoms like fatigue, anorexia, nausea, anaemia, immunodepression and poor performance status (PS). The main cause of these symptoms and metabolic abnormalities is the chronic action of proinflammatory cytokines released both by tumour and immune cells. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between markers of inflammation (C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, proinflammatory cytokines) and energy metabolic status (BMI, leptin, oxidative stress) according to clinical parameters in 104 ovarian cancer patients at different stage and, moreover, to evaluate prospectively the changes of these parameters in accordance to tumour response in a subgroup of 70 advanced stage ovarian cancer patients. Advanced stage and poor PS were associated to high-grade inflammation and impaired energy metabolism. Among inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6 had a central role as predictive factor of leptin, reactive oxygen species and glutathione peroxidase. In turn, leptin considered the key marker of the nutritional status and energy metabolism, was independently determined from stage and IL-6, not only from BMI. Moreover, the evaluation of the changes of these parameters during the course of the neoplastic disease in the subgroup of advanced ovarian cancer patients clearly unveils the central role of IL-6 and leptin as early markers of the metabolic alterations and symptoms associated to disease progression in advanced stage ovarian cancer. Their assessment should be included in monitoring disease outcome, especially when cancer is no longer curable and quality of life becomes the primary endpoint. PMID:18624749

  13. The advancing timberline on Mt. Fuji: natural recovery or climate change?

    PubMed

    Sakio, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro

    2012-07-01

    The alpine timberline on Mt. Fuji (central Japan) is at 2,400-2,500 m above sea level. Over a 21-year period (1978-1999), we tracked changes in this vegetation boundary on a transect at a site impacted by the 1707 volcanic eruption. The timberline advanced rapidly upwards during this time period. Dominant tree species at the timberline (Alnus maximowiczii, Salix reinii, and Larix kaempferi) colonized sites that were initially largely free of vegetation at higher altitudes. Seedlings of L. kaempferi were particularly abundant at the border of advancing vegetation. According to tree age, we found that this was the first canopy species in the colonized areas. L. kaempferi is drought resistant, and this probably contributes to its establishment capability in the high-altitude climate. Most seedlings of Abies veitchii invaded patches of herbs and shrubs. These vegetation patches in the upper kampfzone provide important shelter for seedlings of invading tree species. We predict that the upward advance of the alpine timberline is a recovery process following the volcanic eruption, and that climate change may accelerate this advance.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-09

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  16. Using the Rx for Change tobacco curriculum in advanced practice nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Frances J; Heath, Janie; Crowell, Nancy

    2006-03-01

    In today's health care system driven by quality outcome indicators and performance care measures, it is essential for nurses to know how to intervene with tobacco-dependent patients. This article discusses pilot results from the "Rx for Change: Clinician Assisted Tobacco Cessation Curriculum" intervention conducted at Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies using advanced practice students. The results reveal that 6 hours of tobacco-cessation training can increase knowledge and self-efficiency scores. PMID:16546016

  17. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  19. Interplay of three-dimensional profile change and CD variation in 193-nm advanced binary photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yun-Yue; Su, Sean; Hsush, Wen-Chang; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chen, Jia-Jen; Lee, Shin-Chang; Yen, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between the depth profile of features and critical dimension (CD) deviation on MoSi binary photomasks is comprehensively investigated using 3D atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) and aerial image metrology system (AIMS). Detailed profile description based on various surface analysis techniques, was performed to reconstruct the profile at various stages of the mask fabrication process. It is found that profile change and sidewall byproduct formation are strongly correlated with the etching environment, wet cleaning, and post-treatment. These process-induced profile changes subsequently lead to wafer CD change which can be verified by deviation in AIMS and CDSEM measurements. Visualization of these 3D profile and morphology change clearly reveals that etching gas control forms an outer layer, to enhance etch selectivity, film strength, and immunity to the mask cleaning process. Our finding provides a direction for optimizing advanced photomask materials and processing.

  20. 26 CFR 1.248-1T - Election to amortize organizational expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... irrevocable and applies to all organizational expenditures of the corporation. A change in the characterization of an item as an organizational expenditure is a change in method of accounting to which sections... as a change in method of accounting if the corporation amortized organizational expenditures for...

  1. Organizational Learning? Look Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growth in research on conditions for successful learning by organizations and the introduction of expanding practices and approaches, a progressive and shared understanding of the link between organizational learning and governance is currently missing. This paper aims to take a closer look at organizational learning from a…

  2. Organizational culture, job satisfaction, and clinician turnover in primary care.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charles B; Brazil, Kevin; Wakefield, Dorothy; Lerer, Trudy; Tennen, Howard

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how organizational culture and job satisfaction affect clinician turnover in primary care pediatric practices. One hundred thirty clinicians from 36 primary care pediatric practices completed the Primary Care Organizational Questionnaire (PCOQ), which evaluates interactions among members of the practice and job-related attributes measuring 8 organizational factors, along with a separate 3-item instrument measuring job satisfaction. Random effects logistic models were used to assess the associations between job satisfaction, the organizational factors from the PCOQ, and clinician turnover over the subsequent year. All 8 measured organizational factors from the PCOQ, particularly perceived effectiveness, were associated with job satisfaction. Five of the 8 organizational factors were also associated with clinician turnover. The effects of the organizational factors on turnover were substantially reduced in a model that included job satisfaction; only 1 organizational factor, communication between clinicians and nonclinicians, remained significant (P = .05). This suggests that organizational culture affects subsequent clinician turnover primarily through its effect on job satisfaction. Organizational culture, in particular perceived effectiveness and communication, affects job satisfaction, which in turn affects clinician turnover in primary care pediatric practices. Strategies to improve job satisfaction through changes in organizational culture could potentially reduce clinician turnover. PMID:23804066

  3. Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) pitch change actuator and control design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Carvalho, P.; Cutler, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the high inherent efficiency previously demonstrated by low speed turboprop propulsion systems may now be extended to today's higher speed aircraft if advanced high-speed propeller blades having thin airfoils and aerodynamic sweep are utilized. Hamilton Standard has designed a 9-foot diameter single-rotation Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) which will be tested on a static test stand, in a high speed wind tunnel and on a research aircraft. The major objective of this testing is to establish the structural integrity of large-scale Prop-Fans of advanced construction in addition to the evaluation of aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic design. This report describes the operation, design features and actual hardware of the (LAP) Prop-Fan pitch control system. The pitch control system which controls blade angle and propeller speed consists of two separate assemblies. The first is the control unit which provides the hydraulic supply, speed governing and feather function for the system. The second unit is the hydro-mechanical pitch change actuator which directly changes blade angle (pitch) as scheduled by the control.

  4. How institutional change and individual researchers helped advance clinical guidelines in American health care.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit

    2013-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are important tools for managing health care quality. Research on the origins of guidelines primarily focuses on the institutional causes of their emergence and growth. Individual medical researchers, however, have played important roles. This paper develops knowledge of the role of individual medical researchers in advancing guidelines, and of how researchers' efforts were enabled or constrained by broader institutional changes. Drawing on an analytical case study focused on the role of Kerr White, John Wennberg, and Robert Brook, it shows that guidelines were a product of the interplay between institutional change in the medical field and actions by individual researchers, acting as institutional entrepreneurs. Increased government involvement in the health care field triggered the involvement of a range of new actors in health care. These new organizations created a context that allowed individual researchers to advance guidelines by creating job opportunities, providing research funding, and creating opportunities for researchers to engage with the policy process. Individual researchers availed of this context to both advance their ideas, and to draw new actors into the field. PMID:23631774

  5. Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Inouye, David W; McKinney, Amy M; Colautti, Robert I; Mitchell-Olds, Tom

    2012-09-22

    Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life-history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change, but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38 year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the US Rocky Mountains. Flowering phenology advanced significantly from 1973 to 2011, and was strongly associated with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt dates. Strong directional selection favoured earlier flowering in contemporary environments (2010-2011). Climate change could drive this directional selection, and promote even earlier flowering as temperatures continue to increase. Our quantitative genetic analyses predict a response to selection of 0.2 to 0.5 days acceleration in flowering per generation, which could account for more than 20 per cent of the phenological change observed in the long-term dataset. However, the strength of directional selection and the predicted evolutionary response are likely much greater now than even 30 years ago because of rapidly changing climatic conditions. We predict that adaptation will likely be necessary for long-term in situ persistence in the context of climate change.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Inouye, David W; McKinney, Amy M; Colautti, Robert I; Mitchell-Olds, Tom

    2012-09-22

    Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life-history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change, but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38 year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the US Rocky Mountains. Flowering phenology advanced significantly from 1973 to 2011, and was strongly associated with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt dates. Strong directional selection favoured earlier flowering in contemporary environments (2010-2011). Climate change could drive this directional selection, and promote even earlier flowering as temperatures continue to increase. Our quantitative genetic analyses predict a response to selection of 0.2 to 0.5 days acceleration in flowering per generation, which could account for more than 20 per cent of the phenological change observed in the long-term dataset. However, the strength of directional selection and the predicted evolutionary response are likely much greater now than even 30 years ago because of rapidly changing climatic conditions. We predict that adaptation will likely be necessary for long-term in situ persistence in the context of climate change. PMID:22787021

  7. The Organizational Learning Cycle. How We Can Learn Collectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Nancy

    This book, which is designed for individuals interested in changing and developing their organizations, examines the organizational learning cycle and ways of learning collectively. Among the topics discussed in the book's nine chapters are the following: (1) changing nature of work and organizational learning; (2) theoretical framework of…

  8. From Crisis to Success: Three Case Studies in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitki, Yoram; Herstein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radical changes and increasing competition in the global economy and markets lead enterprises to change their business policy and activities. This process demands the creation of effective organizational learning mechanisms. This paper seeks to illustrate how three service organizations designed and utilized organizational learning…

  9. Changing the academic culture: Valuing patents and commercialization toward tenure and career advancement

    PubMed Central

    Sanberg, Paul R.; Gharib, Morteza; Harker, Patrick T.; Kaler, Eric W.; Marchase, Richard B.; Sands, Timothy D.; Arshadi, Nasser; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2014-01-01

    There is national and international recognition of the importance of innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurship for sustained economic revival. With the decline of industrial research laboratories in the United States, research universities are being asked to play a central role in our knowledge-centered economy by the technology transfer of their discoveries, innovations, and inventions. In response to this challenge, innovation ecologies at and around universities are starting to change. However, the change has been slow and limited. The authors believe this can be attributed partially to a lack of change in incentives for the central stakeholder, the faculty member. The authors have taken the position that universities should expand their criteria to treat patents, licensing, and commercialization activity by faculty as an important consideration for merit, tenure, and career advancement, along with publishing, teaching, and service. This position is placed in a historical context with a look at the history of tenure in the United States, patents, and licensing at universities, the current status of university tenure and career advancement processes, and models for the future. PMID:24778248

  10. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  11. The Experience of Leadership during Organizational Identity Transformation: A Phenomenological Study of Florida's State College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Tracy A.

    2010-01-01

    The study was a qualitative investigation into the sensemaking experience of leaders during transformative organizational identity change. How people arrive at meaning (sensemaking) and the implications of that meaning for organizational performance are essential to effective leadership during change. Organizational theory holds that…

  12. Organizational Culture and Institutional Transformation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keup, Jennifer R.; Walker, Arianne A.; Astin, Helen S.; Lindholm, Jennifer A.

    The purpose of the digest is to review the research on institutional transformation as it relates to institutional culture. The discussion of organizational culture's importance in institutional transformation is organized around three primary aspects of the change process: (1) readiness and responsiveness; (2) resistance to change; and (3)…

  13. Appreciative Inquiry as an Organizational Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinetz, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Defines appreciative inquiry as a change model that uses traditional organizational development processes (team building, strategic planning, business process redesign, management audits) in a new way, both as a philosophy and as a process. Emphasizes collaboration, participation of all voices, and changing the organization rather than the people.…

  14. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835

  15. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts.

  16. Linking individual and organizational wellness.

    PubMed

    Canosa, J F; Lewandowski, L M

    1993-09-01

    In addition to intervening when workers have substance abuse or stress problems, many hospital employee assistance programs (EAPs) now include a wellness component that emphasizes prevention and organizational wholeness. The EAP at St. Joseph's Hospital & Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, has taken a number of steps to improve its responsiveness to employees' needs and promote constructive organizational changes. To meet increasing requests for mental health services, St. Joseph's EAP implemented a short-term (up to 12 sessions) counseling program that focuses on problem-solving techniques. The EAP has also used feedback from clients to address organizational issues. For example, a survey that revealed differences between managers' and employees' perceptions of managers' leadership skills has led St. Joseph's to consider development of further workshops to train managers on how to be more effective leaders. And in response to complaints from nurses about a lack of communication with physicians, St. Joseph's invested $8,000 to implement nursing support groups and seminars to enhance nurse-physician collaboration. Additional EAP activities include consulting services for other corporations and help for employees in overcoming financial barriers to access to healthcare and social services. As budgets tighten, effective marketing of EAPs will be essential to their continued growth. In particular, EAP administrators must learn how to document the strategic and financial benefits of their programs.

  17. Effective organizational control: implications for academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Michael S; Srinivasan, Malathi; Flamholtz, Eric

    2005-11-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding the nature, role, functioning, design, and effects of organizational oversight systems. Using a case study with elements recognizable to an academic audience, the authors explore how a dean of a fictitious School of Medicine might use organizational control structures to develop effective solutions to global disarray within the academic medical center. Organizational control systems are intended to help influence the behavior of people as members of a formal organization. They are necessary to motivate people toward organizational goals, to coordinate diverse efforts, and to provide feedback about problems. The authors present a model of control to make this process more visible within organizations. They explore the overlap among academic medical centers and large businesses-for instance, each is a billion-dollar enterprise with complex internal and external demands and multiple audiences. The authors identify and describe how to use the key components of an organization's control system: environment, culture, structure, and core control system. Elements of the core control system are identified, described, and explored. These closely articulating elements include planning, operations, measurement, evaluation, and feedback systems. Use of control portfolios is explored to achieve goal-outcome congruence. Additionally, the authors describe how the components of the control system can be used synergistically by academic leadership to create organizational change, congruent with larger organizational goals. The enterprise of medicine is quickly learning from the enterprise of business. Achieving goal-action congruence will better position academic medicine to meet its multiple missions.

  18. Temporomandibular Joint Condylar Changes Following Maxillomandibular Advancement and Articular Disc Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Joao Roberto; Wolford, Larry Miller; Cassano, Daniel Serra; da Porciuncula, Guilherme; Paniagua, Beatriz; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate condylar changes 1 year after bimaxillary surgical advancement with or without articular disc repositioning using longitudinal quantitative measurements in 3-dimensional (3D) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) models. Methods Twenty-seven patients treated with maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) underwent cone-beam computed tomography before surgery immediately after surgery and at 1-year follow-up. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging before surgery to assess disc displacements. Ten patients without disc displacement received MMA only. Seventeen patients with articular disc displacement received MMA with simultaneous TMJ disc repositioning (MMA-Drep). Pre- and postsurgical 3D models were superimposed using a voxel-based registration on the cranial base. Results The location, direction, and magnitude of condylar changes were displayed and quantified by graphic semitransparent overlays and 3D color-coded surface distance maps. Rotational condylar displacements were similar in the 2 groups. Immediately after surgery, condylar translational displacements of at least 1.5 mm occurred in a posterior, superior, or mediolateral direction in patients treated with MMA, whereas patients treated with MMA-Drep presented more marked anterior, inferior, and mediolateral condylar displacements. One year after surgery, more than half the patients in the 2 groups presented condylar resorptive changes of at least 1.5 mm. Patients treated with MMA-Drep presented condylar bone apposition of at least 1.5 mm at the superior surface in 26.4%, the anterior surface in 23.4%, the posterior surface in 29.4%, the medial surface in 5.9%, or the lateral surface in 38.2%, whereas bone apposition was not observed in patients treated with MMA. Conclusions One year after surgery, condylar resorptive changes greater than 1.5 mm were observed in the 2 groups. Articular disc repositioning facilitated bone apposition in localized condylar regions in patients treated with MMA

  19. Confirmation of ETI: initial organizational response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2003-08-01

    Perhaps the most crucial responses to the confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligence will come from organizations, rather than from individual people. Among the key organizations that will help shape humanity's response are political institutions such as the US Congress, administrative bodies such as the US Department of State, security agencies, the military, professional societies, and the media. Although popular culture and individual beliefs will affect organizational performance, organizational reactions will depend also on organizational cultures and traditions, administrative structures, communication patterns, decision-making processes, and the actions of other organizations. Prompt and effective responses may be blocked by sociopolitical constraints, jurisdictional disputes, cumbersome structures and procedures, stresses that frequently slow and distort information processing, and potentially counterproductive efforts to maintain positive organizational images. Efforts undertaken by governmental agencies will be hampered by public perceptions of low credibility. Foresight and advance preparation are among the steps that organizations may take to prepare for contact, but conservative values, skepticism towards SETI, and competing organizational priorities make serious preparation unlikely.

  20. Relationship of decrease in fecundity with advancing age to structural changes in mouse endometrium

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, KIYOSHI; YAMADA, JINZO

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between decrease in fecundity and structural changes in the antimesometrial endometrium of the mouse. Fecundity was calculated as the number of animals showing a placental sign/number of copulated animals ×100 (%). Structural changes in the endometrium were examined by electron microscopy. A negative correlation between age and fecundity was found. Fecundity was 50% at 7 mo of age. At this age, amorphous material appeared in the region between the basement membrane deep to the luminal epithelium and the subepithelial cells. This material was sometimes attached to the basement membrane. It increased in amount with advancing age, as fecundity decreased. The structure of the uterine luminal epithelial cells did not alter with age. The results indicated that decrease in fecundity with advancing age is correlated with the appearance of amorphous material beneath the basal lamina of the endometrial epithelium. It is suggested that this could impair communication between the luminal epithelium and the endometrial stroma, which plays an important role in implantation. PMID:10697293

  1. Organizational leadership in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, B B; Darr, K; Rakich, J S

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face very dynamic environments and must meet diverse needs in the communities they serve and respond to multiple expectations imposed by their stakeholders. Coupled with these variables, the fact that leadership in these organizations is a shared phenomenon makes organizational leadership in them very complicated. An integrative overview of the organizational leadership role of CEOs in hospitals is presented, and determinants of success in playing this role are discussed.

  2. The impact of training interventions on organizational readiness to support innovations in juvenile justice offices.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Henderson, Craig; Young, Doug; Farrell, Jill

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trials on technology transfer models are rare, even with the interest in advancing the uptake of evidence-based practices in social service agencies. This article presents the results from a trial examining different transfer strategies to assist juvenile justice caseworkers in using screening, assessment, and case planning practices to address mental health and substance use needs. Study findings examine factors that promote organizational readiness. A clinical trial was conducted examining the impact of three post-training strategies: an external coach to build the social network of the justice office (build social climate), an external coach to educate staff (build skills and knowledge), and a control condition consisting of traditional management directives (directives to staff of agency priorities). All groups were exposed to a 1 day refresher course in motivational interviewing. The social network and skill building groups also attended an intensive 3-day training followed by three on-site booster sessions over a 12 month period of time. Twelve juvenile justice offices (with their 231 juvenile justice staff) were assigned to one of three conditions. The study examined the impact of different transfer conditions on organizational readiness to implement the innovation of screening, assessment, and referral strategies. External coaching targeting the social climate of the justice office to support innovations improved organizational readiness to change, regardless of office size. Coaching that targeted either the social climate or staff knowledge and skills both improved organizational readiness for change compared to management directives, but social climate coaching resulted in greater improvements in receptivity to change. No individual level features of case workers (e.g., age, gender, years of experience) significantly predicted organizational readiness to change. Unexpectedly, the skill and knowledge building approach did not perform any better

  3. The Impact of Training Interventions on Organizational Readiness to Support Innovations in Juvenile Justice Offices

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig; Young, Doug; Farrell, Jill

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Clinical trials on technology transfer models are rare, even with the interest in advancing the uptake of evidence-based practices in social service agencies. This article presents the results from a trial examining different transfer strategies to assist juvenile justice caseworkers in using screening, assessment, and case planning practices to address mental health and substance use needs. Study findings examine factors that promote organizational readiness. METHODS A clinical trial was conducted examining the mpact of three post-training strategies: an external coach to build the social network of the justice office (build social climate), an external coach to educate staff (build skills and knowledge), and a control condition consisting of traditional management directives (directives to staff of agency priorities). All groups were exposed to a one day refresher course in motivational interviewing. The social network and skill building groups also attended an intensive three-day training followed by three on-site booster sessions over a 12 month period of time. Twelve juvenile justice offices (with their 231 juvenile justice staff) were assigned to one of three conditions. The study examined the impact of different transfer conditions on organizational readiness to implement the innovation of screening, assessment, and referral strategies. RESULTS External coaching targeting the social climate of the justice office to support innovations improved organizational readiness to change, regardless of office size. Coaching that targeted either the social climate or staff knowledge and skills both improved organizational readiness for change compared to management directives, but social climate coaching resulted in greater improvements in receptivity to change. No individual level features of case workers (e.g., age, gender, years of experience) significantly predicted organizational readiness to change. Unexpectedly, the skill and knowledge building

  4. Neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement in organizational research: an agenda for research in organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-11-01

    Although organizational research has made tremendous strides in the last century, recent advances in neuroscience and the imaging of functional brain activity remain underused. In fact, even the use of well-established psychophysiological measurement tools is comparatively rare. Following the lead of social cognitive neuroscience, in this review, we conceptualize organizational cognitive neuroscience as a field dedicated to exploring the processes within the brain that underlie or influence human decisions, behaviors, and interactions either (a) within organizations or (b) in response to organizational manifestations or institutions. We discuss organizational cognitive neuroscience, bringing together work that may previously have been characterized rather atomistically, and provide a brief overview of individual methods that may be of use. Subsequently, we discuss the possible convergence and integration of the different neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement modalities. A brief review of prior work in the field shows a significant need for a more coherent and theory-driven approach to organizational cognitive neuroscience. In response, we discuss a recent example of such work, along with three hypothetical case studies that exemplify the link between organizational and psychological theory and neuroscientific methods. PMID:17717097

  5. Advancing the long view of ecological change in tundra systems. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Post, Eric; Høye, Toke T

    2013-08-19

    Despite uncertainties related to sustained funding, ideological rivalries and the turnover of research personnel, long-term studies and studies espousing a long-term perspective in ecology have a history of contributing landmark insights into fundamental topics, such as population- and community dynamics, species interactions and ecosystem function. They also have the potential to reveal surprises related to unforeseen events and non-stationary dynamics that unfold over the course of ongoing observation and experimentation. The unprecedented rate and magnitude of current and expected abiotic changes in tundra environments calls for a synthetic overview of the scope of ecological responses these changes have elicited. In this special issue, we present a series of contributions that advance the long view of ecological change in tundra systems, either through sustained long-term research, or through retrospective or prospective modelling. Beyond highlighting the value of long-term research in tundra systems, the insights derived herein should also find application to the study of ecological responses to environmental change in other biomes as well.

  6. Climate change is advancing spring onset across the U.S. national park system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monahan, William B.; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Ault, Toby R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Gross, John E.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. national parks are already at the extreme warm end of their historical temperature distributions. With rapidly warming conditions, park resource management will be enhanced by information on seasonality of climate that supports adjustments in the timing of activities such as treating invasive species, operating visitor facilities, and scheduling climate-related events (e.g., flower festivals and fall leaf-viewing). Seasonal changes in vegetation, such as pollen, seed, and fruit production, are important drivers of ecological processes in parks, and phenology has thus been identified as a key indicator for park monitoring. Phenology is also one of the most proximate biological responses to climate change. Here, we use estimates of start of spring based on climatically modeled dates of first leaf and first bloom derived from indicator plant species to evaluate the recent timing of spring onset (past 10–30 yr) in each U.S. natural resource park relative to its historical range of variability across the past 112 yr (1901–2012). Of the 276 high latitude to subtropical parks examined, spring is advancing in approximately three-quarters of parks (76%), and 53% of parks are experiencing “extreme” early springs that exceed 95% of historical conditions. Our results demonstrate how changes in climate seasonality are important for understanding ecological responses to climate change, and further how spatial variability in effects of climate change necessitates different approaches to management. We discuss how our results inform climate change adaptation challenges and opportunities facing parks, with implications for other protected areas, by exploring consequences for resource management and planning.

  7. The use of systems and organizational theories in the interprofessional field: findings from a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Suter, Esther; Goldman, Joanne; Martimianakis, Tina; Chatalalsingh, Carole; DeMatteo, Dale J; Reeves, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Authors have commented on the limited use of theory in the interprofessional field and its critical importance to advancing the work in this field. While social psychological and educational theories in the interprofessional field are increasingly popular, the contribution of organizational and systems theories is less well understood. This paper presents a subset of the findings (those focused on organizational/systems approaches) from a broader scoping review of theories in the organizational and educational literature aimed to guide interprofessional education and practice. A detailed search strategy was used to identify relevant theories. In total, we found 17 organizational and systems theories. Nine of the theories had been previously employed in the interprofessional field and eight had potential to do so. These theories focus on interactions between different components of organizations which can impact collaboration and practice change. Given the primarily educational focus of the current research, this paper offers new insight into theories to support the design and implementation of interprofessional education and practice within health care environments. The use of these theories would strengthen the growing evidence base for both interprofessional education and practice--a common need for its varied stakeholders.

  8. Project Management Framework to Organizational Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotnour, Tim; Barton, Saul

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a project management framework and associated models for organizational transitions. The framework contains an integrated set of steps an organization can take to lead an organizational transition such as downsizing and change in mission or role. The framework is designed to help an organization do the right work the right way with the right people at the right time. The underlying rationale for the steps in the framework is based on a set of findings which include: defining a transition as containing both near-term and long-term actions, designing actions which respond to drivers and achieve desired results, aligning the organization with the external environment, and aligning the internal components of the organization. The framework was developed based on best practices found in the literature, lessons learned from heads of organizations who have completed large-scale organizational changes, and concerns from employees at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The framework is described using KSC.

  9. 10 CFR 300.4 - Selecting organizational boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selecting organizational boundaries. 300.4 Section 300.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.4 Selecting organizational boundaries. (a) Each reporting entity must disclose in its...

  10. 10 CFR 300.4 - Selecting organizational boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selecting organizational boundaries. 300.4 Section 300.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.4 Selecting organizational boundaries. (a) Each reporting entity must disclose in its...

  11. 10 CFR 300.4 - Selecting organizational boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selecting organizational boundaries. 300.4 Section 300.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.4 Selecting organizational boundaries. (a) Each reporting entity must disclose in its...

  12. 10 CFR 300.4 - Selecting organizational boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selecting organizational boundaries. 300.4 Section 300.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.4 Selecting organizational boundaries. (a) Each reporting entity must disclose in its...

  13. 10 CFR 300.4 - Selecting organizational boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selecting organizational boundaries. 300.4 Section 300.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.4 Selecting organizational boundaries. (a) Each reporting entity must disclose in its...

  14. Effects of Organizational Signals on Text-Processing Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth Pugzles

    1995-01-01

    Two hypotheses about how organizational signals influence text recall were tested with 274 college students who read and recalled a text with or without signals. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that organizational signals induce readers to change their text-processing strategies. (Author/SLD)

  15. Understanding organizational culture: a key to management decision-making.

    PubMed

    Van Ess Coeling, H; Wilcox, J R

    1988-11-01

    Organizational culture is a significant element in today's health care environment. Understanding work culture can assist the nursing administrator in hiring personnel, orienting newcomers, facilitating organizational change, and promoting learning. The authors report a study that identified the work group culture of two nursing units and suggest that differences between these cultures affect a variety of nursing administration decisions.

  16. Climate change-driven treeline advances in the Urals alter soil microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Climatic warming may affect microbial communities and their functions either directly through increased temperatures or indirectly by changes in vegetation. Treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries from tundra to forests. In unmanaged regions of the Ural mountains, there is evidence that the forest-tundra ecotone has shifted upward in response to climate warming during the 20th century. Little is known about the effects of the treeline advances on the microbial structure and function and hence they feedbacks on the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling In our study, we aimed to estimate how ongoing upward shifts of the treeline ecotone might affect soil biodiversity and its function and hence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the Southern and Polar Ural mountains. Along altitudinal gradients reaching from the tundra to forests, we determined the soil microbial community composition (using Phospholipid Fatty Acids method) and quantified the activity of several extracellular enzymes involved in the C and nutrient cycling. In addition, we measured C pools in biomass and soils and quantified C and N mineralization. The results for the top soils, both in South Urals and in the Polar Ural, indicate a close link between climate change driven vegetation changes and soil microbial communities. The observed changes in microbial structure are induced through the resulting more favorable conditions than due to a shift in litter quality. The activities of chitinase were significantly higher under trees than under herbaceous plants, while activities of cellulase and protease declined with altitude from the tundra to the closed forest. In contrast to enzymatic activities, soil carbon stocks did not change significantly with altitude very likely as a result of a balancing out of increased C inputs from vegetation by an enhanced C output through mineralization with forest expansion. The accelerated organic matter turnover in the forest than in the tundra

  17. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics. PMID:19780367

  18. The evolving role of health educators in advancing patient safety: forging partnerships and leading change.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Annette

    2007-04-01

    At least 1.5 million preventable injuries because of adverse drug events occur in the United States each year, according to an Institute of Medicine report. IOM and other organizations at the forefront of health care improvement emphasize that stronger partnerships between patients, their families, and health care providers are necessary to make health care safer. Health educators possess a skill set and an ethical framework that effectively equip them to advance patient and family-centered care and contribute in other significant ways to a safer health care system. Health educators in clinical settings are playing varied and significant roles in advancing patient safety. They are removing barriers to clear communication and forging partnerships between patients, their families, and staff. Health educators are leading patient safety culture change within their institutions and contributing to the shift from provider-centric to patient-centric systems. To expand their impact in improving patient safety, health educators in clinical settings are participating in public awareness campaigns. In seeking to enhance patient safety, health educators face a number of challenges. To successfully manage those, health educators must expand their knowledge, broaden connections, and engage patients and families in meaningful ways.

  19. Three-dimensional position changes of the midface following Le Fort III advancement in syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Bouw, Frederik P; Nout, Erik; van Bezooijen, Jine S; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Veenland, Jifke F; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the positional change of the Le Fort III segment following advancement. To study this, pre- and postoperative computed tomography scans of 18 craniosynosthosis patients were analyzed. The Le Fort III segment movement was measured by creating a reference coordinate system and by superpositioning the postoperative over the preoperative scan. On both the pre- and postoperative scans, four anatomical landmarks were marked: the most anterior point of the left and right foramen infraorbitale, the nasion, and the anterior nasal spine. A significant anterior movement of the four reference points was observed. No significant transversal differences were found. A significant difference between the anterior movement of the nasion and anterior nasal spine was found. In vertical dimension, there was a significant cranial movement of nasion in the study group. In addition, from all patients standardized lateral X-rays were viewed to determine the location and direction of force application that were linked to the outcomes of the three-dimensional movement of the nasion and anterior nasal spine (ANS) and the surgical technique. Conclusively, a significant advancement of the midface can be achieved with Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis in this specific patient group. Counterclockwise movement seemed to be the most dominant movement despite different modes of anchorage.

  20. Irradiation creep and microstructural changes in an advanced ODS ferritic steel during helium implantation under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Pouchon, M. A.; Kimura, A.; Jung, P.; Hoffelner, W.

    2009-04-01

    An advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with very fine oxide particles has been homogeneously implanted with helium under uniaxial tensile stresses from 20 to 250 MPa to a maximum dose of about 0.38 dpa (1650 appm-He) with displacement damage rates of 4.4 × 10 -6 dpa/s at temperatures of 573 and 773 K. The samples were in the form of miniaturized dog-bones, where during the helium implantation the straining and the electrical resistance were monitored simultaneously. Creep compliances were measured to be 4.0 × 10 -6 and 11 × 10 -6 dpa -1 MPa -1 at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The resistivity of ODS steel samples decreased with dose, indicating segregation and/or precipitation. Evolution of microstructure during helium implantation was studied in detail by TEM. The effects of ODS particle size on irradiation creep and microstructural changes was investigated by comparing the results from the present advanced ODS (K1) to a commercial ODS ferritic steels (PM2000) with much bigger oxide particles.

  1. Recent Advances in Regional Climate System Modeling and ClimateChange Analyses of Extreme Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.

    2004-09-24

    During the period May 2003 to May 2004, there were two CEC/PIER funded primary research activities by the Atmosphere and Ocean Sciences Group/Earth Science Division at LBNL. These activities are the implementation and testing of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model (CLM) into MM5, and the analysis of extreme heat days under a new set of climate simulations. The new version of MM5,MM5-CLM, has been tested for a 90 day snowmelt period in the northwestern U.S. Results show that this new code upgrade, as compared to the MM5-NOAH, has improved snowmelt, temperature, and precipitation when compared to observations. These are due in part to a subgrid scheme,advanced snow processes, and advanced vegetation. The climate change analysis is the upper and lower IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios, representing fossil fuel intensive and energy conserving future emission scenarios, and medium and low sensitivity Global Climate Models. Results indicate that California cities will see increases in the number of heat wave and temperature threshold days from two to six times.These results may be viewed as potential outcomes based on today's decisions on emissions.

  2. The changing face of acromegaly--advances in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Barkan, Ariel

    2012-10-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of a pituitary growth hormone (GH)-producing tumour, excessive secretion of growth hormone, raised levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and characteristic clinical presentation of acral enlargement. Over the past two decades, major advances have occurred in the understanding of some aspects of acromegaly--such as the biology of pituitary tumours, the physiology, molecular mechanisms of GH secretion and IGF-I generation, and the pathogenesis of comorbidities. Moreover, new approaches to diagnosis and surveillance (both in terms of screening and follow-up) of acromegaly have led to increases in the number of patients diagnosed with active disease, many of whom would previously have been missed. The development of sensitive assays for detecting plasma GH and IGF-I levels, as well as the widespread use of MRI for visualization of small tumours, have been major contributing factors to these improvements. Treatment advances have resulted in improved cure rates and disease control through novel neurosurgical techniques and pharmacological approaches. This Review summarizes and discusses the changes in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of acromegaly and its comorbidities.

  3. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  4. Changes in splicing factor expression are associated with advancing age in man.

    PubMed

    Holly, Alice C; Melzer, David; Pilling, Luke C; Fellows, Alexander C; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harries, Lorna W

    2013-09-01

    Human ageing is associated with decreased cellular plasticity and adaptability. Changes in alternative splicing with advancing age have been reported in man, which may arise from age-related alterations in splicing factor expression. We determined whether the mRNA expression of key splicing factors differed with age, by microarray analysis in blood from two human populations and by qRT-PCR in senescent primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Potential regulators of splicing factor expression were investigated by siRNA analysis. Approximately one third of splicing factors demonstrated age-related transcript expression changes in two human populations. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) transcript expression correlated with splicing factor expression in human microarray data. Senescent primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells also demonstrated alterations in splicing factor expression, and changes in alternative splicing. Targeted knockdown of the ATM gene in primary fibroblasts resulted in up-regulation of some age-responsive splicing factor transcripts. We conclude that isoform ratios and splicing factor expression alters with age in vivo and in vitro, and that ATM may have an inhibitory role on the expression of some splicing factors. These findings suggest for the first time that ATM, a core element in the DNA damage response, is a key regulator of the splicing machinery in man.

  5. Organizational Considerations for Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRuntz, Bruce D.; Turner, Roger M.

    2003-01-01

    In the last several decades, the United States has experienced a decline in productivity, while the world has seen a maturation of the global marketplace. Nations have moved manufacturing strategy and process technology issues to the top of management priority lists. The issues surrounding manufacturing technologies and their implementations have…

  6. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  7. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual

  8. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  9. Effects of Management Communication, Opportunity for Learning, and Work Schedule Flexibility on Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Butts, Marcus M.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    In the current career climate characterized by change and turbulence, employees may demonstrate limited organizational commitment to their employers. Rousseau (1998) suggests that two key ways to elicit loyalty from employees today are to reinforce perceptions of organizational membership and demonstrate organizational care and support for…

  10. Organizational Resilience and Culture a Model for Information Technology Service Management (ITSM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granito, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational change and organizational culture have been studied and written about by many authors, most notably by Edgar Schein (1990, 1992), and are named as critical components of organizational maturity through such industry standards as The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Control Objectives for Information and Related…

  11. Goal Translation: How To Create a Results-Focused Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourier, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Presents a model for changing human and organizational behavior. Highlights include behavioral dynamics; expectations; alignment; organizational structure; organizational culture; individual skills and training; leadership; management systems; developing corporate-level goals; communicating goals to the organization; and developing employee goals.…

  12. What is changing in radiotherapy for the treatment of locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer patients? A review.

    PubMed

    Giaj-Levra, Niccoló; Ricchetti, Francesco; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment continues to have a relevant impact in the treatment of nonsmall cell cancer (NSCLC). Use of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is considered the gold standard in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC but clinical outcomes are not satisfactory. Introduction of new radiotherapy technology and chemotherapy regimens are under investigation in this setting with the goal to improve unsatisfactory results. We report how radiotherapy is changing in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC.

  13. Organizational Citizenship and Organizational Justice in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Tasdan, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine primary school teachers' perceptions regarding organizational citizenship and organizational justice. The study also aims to determine whether such perceptions vary depending on the variables of gender, field of study and seniority, and whether organizational citizenship behaviors and…

  14. Organizational Justice As a Predictor of Organizational Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, relation between teachers' perception for organizational justice and their organizational silence was examined. Sample of this study consists of 300 teachers who work at elementary schools in Siirt. Relational Scanning model was utilized in performance of this study. In this study, Organizational Justice Scale and…

  15. Does Organizational Forgetting Matter? Organizational Survival for Life Coaching Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Erhan; Gormus, Alparslan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to determine the role of organizational forgetting in different type of coaching companies and to determine organizational survival based on both knowledge structure of coaching companies and organizational forgetting with core features of organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Within the context of…

  16. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John; Arnott, James; Wright, Alyson

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  17. Land-Use Change and Earth System Dynamics: Advancing the Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, George

    2010-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of land-use changes on Earth system dynamics requires adequate information on both past and future land-use activities in a format appropriate for models capable of tracking relevant impacts. This presentation will review past approaches to understanding the role of land-use change on the Earth system dynamics, and summarize new work involving ‘land-use harmonization' (Hurtt et al. 2009) to advance the understanding for IPCC-AR5 and beyond. Emphasis will be placed on the importance and accuracy of historical maps, uncertainties in future projections, and key challenges for the future. Hurtt, G. C., L. P. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feedema, G. Fischer, K. Klein Goldewijk, K. Hibbard, A. Janetos, C. Jones, G. Kindermann, T. Kinoshita, K. Riahi, E. Shevliakova, S. Smith, E. Stehfest, A. Thomson, P. Thorton, D. van Vuuren, Y. Wang (2009), Harmonization of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5. Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS) Newsletter 7:6-8.

  18. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  19. Stress and Burnout: An Organizational Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Leslie H.; Clouse, R. Wilburn

    In the care, prevention, and treatment, of burnout, the reoccurring theme is "control and balance" between expectation and performance. Burnout is treatable and preventable, but changes and interventions must occur on all levels, (individual, organizational, and societal). Recent research, which has expanded the already complex definition of…

  20. Exploring Organizational Learning Mechanisms in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Feldman, Niv

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of organizational learning (OL) has reached the forefront of both school change discourse and academic inquiry. However, this notion has not yet undergone deliberate thinking and research within the special education domain. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature by empirically investigating OL…

  1. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  2. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  3. Changing the medical world order with technological advances: the future has only begun.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Ronald C

    2004-01-01

    It is a great honor to contribute in a small way to this book which in a way celebrates the continued evolution of telemedicine in Kosova. I was privileged to visit this brave land on several occasions in the last years. Severe circumstances were repeatedly resolved through great personal and professional sacrifice. Revolutionary solutions have been applied where evolutionary development was simply too slow in the realization of a new land in a complex world. In some ways telemedicine is emblematic of such struggle and success. We aspire to world health when world peace is elusive and hunger haunts us in the midst of plenty. Telecommunications have made it easy to report the failings of medicine, the injustice of health care and the unmet promise of political endeavor. It is the promise of telemedicine to use those same channels of information to empower, unify and advance the cause of health rather than only report the failings. Telemedicine entails the use of telecommunications and information technology to support the delivery of health care at a distance. There are critics who believe telemedicine is a waste of precious resources, which are needed urgently for higher health priorities. Telemedicine is dismissed as an expensive irrelevance, another distraction from the real needs of medicine in a chaotic world. That is patently ridiculous. Telemedicine is a part of the wider phenomenon of information and information is arguably the strongest change agent in play for medicine and other societal elements as well. A well-informed public armed with the tools for self-determination and the evidence for efficient action cannot be corrupted. Telemedicine is a part of the great change information brings to the world order, a drastic change toward a better world of health and justice.

  4. Organizational Learning Theory in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauske, Janice R.; Raybould, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purposes are to establish organizational learning theory as evolving from the theoretical and empirical study of organizations and to build grounded theory explaining organizational learning in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of instructional technology as a process of organizational learning was explored…

  5. Organizational Theory and Leadership Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…

  6. Organizational Knowledge Management Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate a novel management structure that encourages knowledge sharing across an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The extant literature on the impact of organizational culture and its link to management structure is examined and used to develop a new knowledge sharing management structure. Roadblocks to…

  7. Organizational Effectiveness of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil

    1982-01-01

    Because organizational effectiveness of schools is difficult to define, a model is needed to explain the complexities of the concept. Two models offer some promise. One is the goal model, which defines effectiveness as the degree to which organizations meet or surpass their goals (either official or operational). The other is the system resource…

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  9. Understanding Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for workplace education providers, defines organizational culture, reviews selected techniques for reading a company's culture, and presents examples of ways in which organizations' culture can affect workplace education programs. An organization's culture is determined by: recognizing the company's philosophy…

  10. Teaching Organizational Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

    2001-01-01

    Advocates teaching students organizational skills that lead to school success. Outlines seven such skills and how to teach them, including such things as bringing necessary supplies to class, organizing handouts and loose-leaf papers, taking and organizing notes, developing and following study plans, and planning and carrying out large projects.…

  11. Organizationally Sponsored Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kenneth M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Institutionally sponsored mentoring programs benefit organizations by aiding retention of employees or students. A successful program must have endorsement from top administration and a designated coordinator who is sensitive to organizational goals and objectives as well as the varied needs of mentors and proteges. (SK)

  12. Employees' organizational identification and affective organizational commitment: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover.

  13. Employees’ Organizational Identification and Affective Organizational Commitment: An Integrative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover. PMID:25875086

  14. Employees' organizational identification and affective organizational commitment: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover. PMID:25875086

  15. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…

  16. Organizational climate in air traffic control Innovative preparedness for implementation of new technology and organizational development in a rule governed organization.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2006-03-01

    A positive and innovative organizational climate is of great importance in order to manage and adapt to change. Such a climate seldom evolves in organizations closely governed by rules and regulations. Because of ongoing organizational and technical changes within the Swedish Air Navigation Services Provider, a study concerning the organizational climate for changes and innovations was conducted to investigate the organization's capacity to cope with changes. Study locations were the two Swedish main air traffic control centers and parts of the civil aviation administration headquarters. In the study 390 subjects took part and the CCQ questionnaire was used to measure the organizational climate. The results show that the organizational climate is quite positive despite the rule-governed work. The results also show that administrative personnel assess the organizational climate as more positive than operative personnel. Comparisons between management positions did not result in any differences.

  17. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  18. Organizational effectiveness. Primary care and the congruence model.

    PubMed

    Eiser, A R; Eiser, B J

    1996-10-01

    The congruence model is a framework used to analyze organizational strengths and weaknesses and pinpoint specific areas for improving effectiveness. This article provides an overview of organizations as open systems, with examples in the primary care arena. It explains and applies the congruence model in the context of primary care issues and functions, including methods by which the model can be used to diagnose organizational problems and generate solutions. Changes needed in primary care due to the managed care environment, and areas of potential problems and sensitivities requiring organizational changes to meet market and regulatory demands now placed on PCOs are examined.

  19. The changing hope trajectory in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Seda, Julie S; Kardinal, Carl G

    2012-06-01

    As patients with advanced-stage cancer move from the initial diagnosis through treatment, remission, recurrence, and advanced-stage disease, the hope trajectory undergoes a dynamic transformation. By identifying the hope trajectory, nurses can help patients focus on obtainable hope objects while balancing the need to present a realistic prognosis. This, in turn, may help patients find meaning and purpose in advanced-stage cancer and facilitate realistic hope when faced with a life-threatening illness.

  20. The Impact of Organizational Learning on Innovativeness in Spanish Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo González Del Campo, Jesús David Sánchez; Škerlavaj, Miha

    Innovativeness is a key factor regarding the survival and progress of a company in modern business environments. The question is how to facilitate innovativeness in organizations. This article studies the impact of the organizational learning process on innovativeness. We understand innovativeness as a combination of (1) innovative culture and (2) technological and process innovation. Organizational learning is a consecutive process of (1) information acquisition, (2) information distribution, (3) information interpretation, and (4) behavioral and cognitive changes. New knowledge obtained through organizational learning improves innovativeness. As a methodological framework, we use the partial least square (PLS) approach to structural equation modeling on data from 107 Spanish companies. The results show that organizational learning has a strong positive direct impact on process, product, and service innovations. In addition, the impact of organizational learning on innovation is also indirect, via innovative culture.

  1. The ebb and flow model: a philosophy of organizational learning in the academic health center.

    PubMed

    Dimario, Francis J

    2012-02-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) have traditionally been a vibrant locale for cutting-edge medical research, androgogic education and innovative clinical care for the most vexing diseases. While these pursuits have coexisted and flourished, the realities of the health-care business environment have demanded reformatting and emulation of a corporate organizational model. This evolution has impacted the core identities of the AHC and challenged individual medical-educators, clinician-scientists and basic science investigators to persist and succeed in this milieu. The AHC has a unique capacity to muster the innate learning drive of these individuals into an organizational mission as it balances the pressures exerted from both the internal and external environments. The AHC as an organization can be viewed as an experimental condition with modifiable variables to which its professionals can react, adapt to, and transform. Organizational learning and change implementation is in essence an experiment in human behavior modification. While all individuals are subject to change, merely assembling them in a single locale determines neither a predictable homogeneous outcome nor the success of their endeavor. This article highlights some of these propositions and offers a philosophical approach to advance the AHC as an organization through the creativity and innovation of its professional ranks. PMID:22670360

  2. Advances in Paediatric Strength Assessment: Changing Our Perspective on Strength Development

    PubMed Central

    Croix, Mark De Ste

    2007-01-01

    Our knowledge of the age and sex associated changes in strength during childhood and adolescence is relatively limited compared to other physiological parameters. However, those studies available on the age and sex associated change in strength are relatively consistent, especially for the lower limbs. Caution must be taken when transferring this knowledge to other muscle joints as the development in strength appears to be both muscle action and joint specific. Strength appears to increase in both boys and girls until about the age of 14 y where it begins to plateau in girls and a spurt is evident in boys. By 18 y there are few overlaps in strength between boys and girls. The exact age in which sex differences become apparent appears to be both muscle group and muscle action specific and there is a suggestion that sex differences in upper body strength occur earlier than lower body strength. What is less clear is the complex factors that contribute to the production of strength during childhood and adolescence. There are few well controlled longitudinal studies that have concurrently examined the influence of known variables using appropriate statistical techniques. Most studies have shown that maturation does not exert an independent effect when other factors, such as stature and body mass are accounted for. Also, the assumption that muscle cross-sectional area is the most important parameter in strength production does not hold when examined with other known variables. Consistently, stature appears to play a key role in strength development and this may be attributed to the strength spurt that has been linked to peak height velocity, and the muscle moment arm. Advances in technology have provided us with more accurate techniques to examine these explanatory variables but the complex interaction of neural, mechanical and muscular remains to be clearly identified from well controlled longitudinal studies. Key pointsThe age associated development in strength is

  3. Gender Equity in Science and Engineering: Advancing Change in Higher Education. Routledge Studies in Management, Organizations and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilimoria, Diana; Liang, Xiangfen

    2011-01-01

    Women faculty's participation in academic science and engineering is critical for future US global competitiveness, yet their underrepresentation particularly in senior positions remains a widespread problem. To overcome persistent institutional resistance and barriers to change, the "NSF ADVANCE" institutional transformation initiative,…

  4. When goals diverge: Staff consensus and the organizational climate.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Gerald; Ulaszek, Wendy R; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Wexler, Harry K

    2009-08-01

    A sample of correctional officers and prison substance abuse treatment staff collected by the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey is used to provide an exploratory study of an aspect of organizational culture consisting of consensus (agreement) among prison personnel regarding their beliefs about rehabilitation in the presence of conflicting organizational goals and aspects of the organizational climate important to change. Findings show that among those staff members responding to the survey, the belief in rehabilitation scale mean score was associated with higher levels of organizational commitment, and interdepartmental coordination. However, an hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis that used an index score derived from the standard deviation for staff consensus regarding these same beliefs about rehabilitation produced a different pattern of results, showing that high levels of consensus were associated with job frustration, cynicism towards the ability of the institution to change, and lower levels of organizational commitment. The authors conclude that, although the sample may not express the beliefs of corrections officers or prison-based treatment staff at large, within the sample, consensus appeared to play a unique role in evaluating the effect of divergent goals on organizational climate as it relates to change, and warrants consideration when considering the effects of organizational climate.

  5. Organizational Dimensions of Relationship-centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Dana Gelb; Miller, William; Beckman, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Four domains of relationship have been highlighted as the cornerstones of relationship-centered health care. Of these, clinician-patient relationships have been most thoroughly studied, with a rich empirical literature illuminating significant linkages between clinician-patient relationship quality and a wide range of outcomes. This paper explores the realm of clinician-colleague relationships, which we define to include the full array of relationships among clinicians, staff, and administrators in health care organizations. Building on a stream of relevant theories and empirical literature that have emerged over the past decade, we synthesize available evidence on the role of organizational culture and relationships in shaping outcomes, and posit a model of relationship-centered organizations. We conclude that turning attention to relationship-centered theory and practice in health care holds promise for advancing care to a new level, with breakthroughs in quality of care, quality of life for those who provide it, and organizational performance. PMID:16405711

  6. Organizational innovation and the laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B A; Mitchell, W

    1990-01-01

    There is an urgent need for more innovation in health care and in clinical laboratories. Innovation can be divided into five separate categories: core products, components of the core products, production processes, uses of products, and the organization of production. Organizational innovation is an important as technological advances in increasing the quality and efficiency of clinical laboratories. The use of a laboratory information system (LIS) can stimulate organizational innovation such as the assignment of computer-oriented tasks to personnel within individual clinical laboratories. The authors refer to such LIS support personnel as "hidden personnel" and suggest that such a shift of responsibility empowers laboratory professionals and makes them stakeholders in automated information processing.

  7. [Hospital organizational structure].

    PubMed

    Bittar, O J

    1994-01-01

    The basic point for an Institution to work is the existence of a definite organizational structure that puts together similar areas allowing decisions and the operationalization of different tasks. Knowledge and analysis of structures of private and public hospitals and a bibliography review about the issue is the purpose of this paper. Suggestions are given about the elaboration of small structures and the utilization of matrix management in order to accomplish the hospitals objectives.

  8. Observations of Dynamic Changes at an Advancing Tidewater Glacier: Hubbard Glacier, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Stearns, L. A.; Pritchard, M. E.; Bartholomaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, is the largest non-polar tidewater glacier in the world and one of a small number of glaciers that is steadily advancing. These attributes make it an intriguing target for observations of variations in ice dynamics over time. We use synthetic aperture radar data (ALOS and TerraSAR-X) and high-resolution optical imagery (WorldView and Quickbird) with a pixel tracking technique to map surface velocities from 2008 to the present, lengthening and broadening the time series of ice velocities presented in previous studies. A key result from our analysis is that Hubbard displays peak speeds of up to 12 m/day during the winter months (December - February) and minimum speeds during late summer (August - September). The times of peak and minimum speeds is quite different from those found in previous studies of Hubbard surface velocities derived from Landsat imagery, GPS, and photogrammetric methods. Those studies found peak speeds during late spring (May - June) and minimum speeds in fall (October-November), a pattern observed generally at tidewater glaciers. A second major feature we observe in our time series is the dramatic seasonal variation in surface speeds. The minimum speeds we find along the terminal lobe of the glacier are much lower than those found in previous studies, with values decreasing to near zero. Such a dramatic slow down of a tidewater glacier has not been widely observed. This result, along with the recent pattern of seasonal velocity peaks and minimas, suggests that Hubbard has undergone a change in ice dynamics.

  9. Advanced composite materials and subcooled liquid change-of-phase (COP) cooling for thermal management in advanced electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.E.; Ehlers, S.L.; Mudawar, I.

    1996-12-31

    High performance, high density airborne and spaceborne electronic systems (both DoD and commercial) are performance and reliability limited by materials and thermal management. There is a continual need to improve performance and reliability in high density systems and to reduce adverse effects induced by excessive weight, dissipated heat, and related environmental incompatibilities. The penalties effected by these limitations prevail from cradle-to-grave in the life of high performance airborne systems, beginning at the development stage, continuing through manufacturing and procurement, and throughout system life, ultimately raising the cost of ownership. The objective of this effort is to investigate the use of selected high specific property composites and change-of-phase (COP) (i.e., liquid to vapor) cooling (using non-CFC, perfluorohexane fluids) to combat these limitations. High density (e.g., 2 kw SEM-E configuration), miniaturized avionics are assumed. Material systems for enclosure and module packaging as well as COP mechanisms will be discussed at this time relative to a retrofit scenario, interfacing with existing aircraft environmental control systems (ECS) for coolant reconditioning.

  10. Thinking Globally, Planning Nationally and Acting Locally: Nested Organizational Fields and the Adoption of Environmental Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasi, Ion Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The study of the adoption of activities to protect the natural environment has tended to focus on the role of organizational fields. This article advances existing research by simultaneously examining conflicting processes that operate in nested organizational fields at local, national and supra-national levels. It examines the recent spread of an…

  11. State-of-the-art three-dimensional analysis of soft tissue changes following Le Fort I maxillary advancement.

    PubMed

    Almukhtar, A; Ayoub, A; Khambay, B; McDonald, J; Ju, X

    2016-09-01

    We describe the comprehensive 3-dimensional analysis of facial changes after Le Fort I osteotomy and introduce a new tool for anthropometric analysis of the face. We studied the cone-beam computed tomograms of 33 patients taken one month before and 6-12 months after Le Fort I maxillary advancement with or without posterior vertical impaction. Use of a generic facial mesh for dense correspondence analysis of changes in the soft tissue showed a mean (SD) anteroposterior advancement of the maxilla of 5.9 (1.7) mm, and mean (SD) minimal anterior and posterior vertical maxillary impaction of 0.1 (1.7) mm and 0.6 (1.45) mm, respectively. It also showed distinctive forward and marked lateral expansion around the upper lip and nose, and pronounced upward movement of the alar curvature and columella. The nose was widened and the nostrils advanced. There was minimal forward change at the base of the nose (subnasale and alar base) but a noticeable upward movement at the nasal tip. Changes at the cheeks were minimal. Analysis showed widening of the midface and upper lip which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. The nostrils were compressed and widened, and the lower lip shortened. Changes at the chin and lower lip were secondary to the limited maxillary impaction.

  12. Past Organizational Change and Managerial Evaluations of Crisis: A Case of Double-Loop Learning Effects in Non-Profit Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mano, Rita S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines the critical effect of learning from past changes on employees' evaluations regarding the extent that a crisis can be controlled and prevented. It is suggested that previous changes incorporate elements of a double-loop learning process that shape managerial perceptions of crisis controllability and crisis prevention.…

  13. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  14. The 'cube' meta-model for the information system of large health sector organizations--a (platform neutral) mapping tool to integrate information system development with changing business functions and organizational development.

    PubMed

    Balkányi, László

    2002-01-01

    To develop information systems (IS) in the changing environment of the health sector, a simple but throughout model, avoiding the techno-jargon of informatics, might be useful for the top management. A platform neutral, extensible, transparent conceptual model should be established. Limitations of current methods lead to a simple, but comprehensive mapping, in the form of a three-dimensional cube. The three 'orthogonal' views are (a) organization functionality, (b) organizational structures and (c) information technology. Each of the cube-sides is described according to its nature. This approach enables to define any kind of an IS component as a certain point/layer/domain of the cube and enables also the management to label all IS components independently form any supplier(s) and/or any specific platform. The model handles changes in organization structure, business functionality and the serving info-system independently form each other. Practical application extends to (a) planning complex, new ISs, (b) guiding development of multi-vendor, multi-site ISs, (c) supporting large-scale public procurement procedures and the contracting, implementation phase by establishing a platform neutral reference, (d) keeping an exhaustive inventory of an existing large-scale system, that handles non-tangible aspects of the IS. PMID:15460745

  15. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  16. Antecedents of the People and Organizational Aspects of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Riley, Robert T.; Blyth, Andrew J. C.; Southon, Gray; Dixon, Bradley J.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area—like medical informatics itself—is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with research with significant potential to ease the introduction and on-going use of information technology in today's complex health systems. These academic areas contribute research data and core information for better understanding of such issues as the importance of and processes for creating future direction; managing a complex change process; effective strategies for involving individuals and groups in the informatics effort; and effectively managing the altered organization. This article reviews the behavioral and business referent disciplines that can potentially contribute to improved implementations and on-going management of change in the medical informatics arena. PMID:9067874

  17. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    PubMed

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. PMID:16987573

  18. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  19. Improving quality of care through routine, successful implementation of evidence-based practice at the bedside: an organizational case study protocol using the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an expected approach to improving the quality of patient care and service delivery in health care systems internationally that is yet to be realized. Given the current evidence-practice gap, numerous authors describe barriers to achieving EBP. One recurrently identified barrier is the setting or context of practice, which is likewise cited as a potential part of the solution to the gap. The purpose of this study is to identify key contextual elements and related strategic processes in organizations that find and use evidence at multiple levels, in an ongoing, integrated fashion, in contrast to those that do not. Methods The core theoretical framework for this multi-method explanatory case study is Pettigrew and Whipp's Content, Context, and Process model of strategic change. This framework focuses data collection on three entities: the Why of strategic change, the What of strategic change, and the How of strategic change, in this case related to implementation and normalization of EBP. The data collection plan, designed to capture relevant organizational context and related outcomes, focuses on eight interrelated factors said to characterize a receptive context. Selective, purposive sampling will provide contrasting results between two cases (departments of nursing) and three embedded units in each. Data collection methods will include quantitative tools (e.g., regarding culture) and qualitative approaches including focus groups, interviews, and documents review (e.g., regarding integration and “success”) relevant to the EBP initiative. Discussion This study should provide information regarding contextual elements and related strategic processes key to successful implementation and sustainability of EBP, specifically in terms of a pervasive pattern in an acute care hospital-based health care setting. Additionally, this study will identify key contextual elements that differentiate successful implementation and

  20. Missions of Research University and Choice of Its Organizational Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuan, Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper delineates the distinctive facets of the research university and further explores the features of scientific research. On this basis, it is established that the mission of the research university is to achieve knowledge creation and academic advances. With a comparison of the organizational framework between the general university and…