Gwinn, Marta; MacCannell, Duncan R; Khabbaz, Rima F
Advances in laboratory and information technologies are transforming public health microbiology. High-throughput genome sequencing and bioinformatics are enhancing our ability to investigate and control outbreaks, detect emerging infectious diseases, develop vaccines, and combat antimicrobial resistance, all with increased accuracy, timeliness, and efficiency. The Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative has allowed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide leadership and coordination in integrating new technologies into routine practice throughout the U.S. public health laboratory system. Collaboration and partnerships are the key to navigating this transition and to leveraging the next generation of methods and tools most effectively for public health.
Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin
Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.
Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klompas, Michael; Shah, Nirav R
Public health surveillance conducted by health departments in the United States has improved in completeness and timeliness owing to electronic laboratory reporting. However, the collection of detailed clinical information about reported cases, which is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, to understand transmission, or to determine disease-related risk factors, is still heavily dependent on manual processes. The increasing prevalence and functionality of electronic health record (EHR) systems in the United States present important opportunities to advance public health surveillance. EHR data have the potential to further increase the breadth, detail, timeliness, and completeness of public health surveillance and thereby provide better data to guide public health interventions. EHRs also provide a unique opportunity to expand the role and vision of current surveillance efforts and to help bridge the gap between public health practice and clinical medicine.
Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.
This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…
This special issue on Mental Health of the Journal of the School of Medicine, represents a significant contribution to the advance of public mental health research and training in Latin America. The editors (as well as the authors) deserve much credit for having conceived and implemented the joint publication of these papers. In this brief introduction, I draw attention to four ways in which their effort is likely to accelerate progress in this field.
Muller, Mark; Tagtow, Angie; Roberts, Susan L.; MacDougall, Erin
The involvement of public health professionals in food and agricultural policy provides tremendous opportunities for advancing the public's health. It is particularly challenging, however, for professionals to understand and consider the numerous policy drivers that impact the food system, which range from agricultural commodity policies to local food safety ordinances. Confronted with this complexity in the food system, policy advocates often focus on narrow objectives with disregard for the larger system. This commentary contends that, in order to be most effective, public health professionals need to consider the full range of interdependent policies that affect the system. Food policy councils have proven to be an effective tool, particularly at the local and state level, for developing comprehensive food systems policies that can improve public health. PMID:23144671
Brownell, Kelly D.
Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D
Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity.
Atkins, Marc S; Cappella, Elise; Shernoff, Elisa S; Mehta, Tara G; Gustafson, Erika L
Schools have long been the primary setting for children's mental health services but have neither the resources nor the expertise to manage these services independently. The critical importance of school success for children's adjustment provides a strong rationale for schooling as an essential component of children's mental health services. In this article, we review evidence for how schooling and mental health coalesce, suggesting an alignment of school and community mental health resources that prioritizes successful schooling as a key mental health outcome. We describe collaborative principles and ecological practices that advance a public health focus on children's mental health while also reducing the burden on schools to maintain mental health services. We close with a model of mental health services illustrating these principles and practices in high-poverty urban schools and propose future directions for research and practice to promote positive mental health for all children and youth. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 13 is May 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Groseclose, Samuel L; Buckeridge, David L
Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. We consider their current use to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the public health system, the role of system stakeholders, the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data, approaches to system monitoring and evaluation, and opportunities for future advances in terms of increased scientific rigor, outcomes-focused research, and health informatics.
Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda
Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194
Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda
Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.
Shaw, Kathy; Harpin, Scott; Steinke, Geraldine; Stember, Marilyn; Krajicek, Marilyn
Strong professional priorities, evolving Affordable Care Act requirements, and a significantly limited public health nursing workforce prompted the University of Colorado College of Nursing to collaborate with the School of Public Health to implement one of the first Doctor of Nursing Practice/Master of Public Health dual degree programs in the nation. Federal grant funding supported the development, implementation, and evaluation of this unique post-baccalaureate dual degree program, for which there were no roadmaps, models, or best practices to follow. Several key issues emerged that serve as lessons learned in creating a new, novel higher education pathway for Advanced Public Health Nursing. This paper highlights two of those: (1) marketing, admission, and matriculation across two programs, and (2) enhancing curricula through distance coursework and interprofessional education. When collaboration with a school of public health is possible, the Doctor of Nursing Practice/Master of Public Health dual degree is an efficient way to prepare public health nurses' with the highest level of public health knowledge, practice, and leadership expertise.
McGaghie, William C
Scholarship and publication are key contributors to career advancement in health professions education worldwide. Scholarship is expressed in many ways including original research; integration and synthesis of ideas and data, often across disciplines; application of skill and knowledge to problems that have consequences for health professionals, students, and patients; and teaching in many forms. Professional publication also has diverse outlets ranging from empirical articles in peer reviewed journals, textbook chapters, videos, simulation technologies, and many other means of expression. Scholarship and publication are evaluated and judged using criteria that are consensual, public, and transparent. This three-part AMEE Guide presents advice about how to prepare and publish health professions education research reports and other forms of scholarship in professional journals and other outlets. Part One addresses scholarship-its varieties, assessment, and attributes of productive scholars and scholarly teams. Part Two maps the road to publication, beginning with what's important and reportable and moving to manuscript planning and writing, gauging manuscript quality, manuscript submission and review, and writing in English. Part Three offers 21 practical suggestions about how to advance a successful and satisfying career in the academic health professions. Concluding remarks encourage health professions educators to pursue scholarship with vision and reflection.
Birnbaum, Linda S; Jung, Paul
Environmental health science is the study of the impact of the environment on human health. This paper introduces basic topics in environmental health, including clean air, clean water, and healthful food, as well as a range of current issues and controversies in environmental health. Conceptual shifts in modern toxicology have changed the field. There is a new understanding of the effects of exposure to chemicals at low doses, and in combination, and the impact on human growth and development. Other emerging topics include the role of epigenetics, or changes in genes and gene expression that can be brought about by chemical exposure; environmental justice; and potential effects of engineered nanomaterials and climate change. We review the important implications for public health policy and recommend a broad environmental health research strategy aimed at protecting and improving human health.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Sharma, Kirsten Cullen; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Asian American (ASA) children experience high rates of mental health problems. Although there is a pressing need to utilize population approaches, emerging frameworks from the fields of public and population health have not been applied to ASA children. This paper addresses this gap by first discussing applications of the National Prevention Strategy (NPS), a population strategy developed from the Social Determinants of Health perspective, to guide ASA prevention work. Next, we provide a practical example to illustrate how the NPS can be applied to prevention program design (using ParentCorps as an example) and dissemination and implementation processes to broadly address ASA children's mental health needs. Finally, we present preliminary data on the feasibility of applying this population strategy to ASA families and a framework for researchers who are considering disseminating and implementing evidence-based programs to ASA or ethnic minority pediatric populations. PMID:25505500
Flowers, Louis; Wick, Jeannette; Figg, William Douglas; McClelland, Robert H.; Shiber, Michael; Britton, James E.; Ngo, Diem-Kieu H.; Borders-Hemphill, Vicky; Mead, Christina; Zee, Jerry; Huntzinger, Paul
Objective To describe how pharmacy officers in the Commissioned Corps are making a difference in protecting, promoting, and advancing health and safety of the Nation. Summary Pharmacists who serve in the Commissioned Corps of the United States Public Health Service fill roles that are considerably different than their counterparts in the private sector. Their work takes them out from behind the counter and into the world. Pharmacy officers advance the health and safety of the Nation by their involvement in the delivery of direct patient care to medically underserved people, national security, drug vigilance, research and policy-making endeavors. PHS pharmacists fill essential public health leadership and service roles throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and certain non-HHS federal agencies and programs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons, Health Resources and Services Administration, Food and Drug Administration, United States Coast Guard, Indian Health Service, and National Institutes of Health are among the many federal agencies where pharmacy officers are assigned. Conclusion In each setting, pharmacists find traditional roles augmented with assignments and challenges that broaden the scope of their practice. PMID:19443327
Heitmueller, Axel; Henderson, Sarah; Warburton, Will; Elmagarmid, Ahmed; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Darzi, Ara
The vast amount of health data generated and stored around the world each day offers significant opportunities for advances such as the real-time tracking of diseases, predicting disease outbreaks, and developing health care that is truly personalized. However, capturing, analyzing, and sharing health data is difficult, expensive, and controversial. This article explores four central questions that policy makers should consider when developing public policy for the use of "big data" in health care. We discuss what aspects of big data are most relevant for health care and present a taxonomy of data types and levels of access. We suggest that successful policies require clear objectives and provide examples, discuss barriers to achieving policy objectives based on a recent policy experiment in the United Kingdom, and propose levers that policy makers should consider using to advance data sharing. We argue that the case for data sharing can be won only by providing real-life examples of the ways in which it can improve health care.
Bekemeier, Betty; Walker Linderman, Tessa; Kneipp, Shawn; Zahner, Susan J
National changes in the context for public health services are influencing the nature of public health nursing practice. Despite this, the document that defines public health nursing as a specialty--The Definition and Role of Public Health Nursing--has remained in wide use since its publication in 1996 without a review or update. With support from the American Public Health Association (APHA) Public Health Nursing Section, a national Task Force, was formed in November 2012 to update the definition of public health nursing, using processes that reflected deliberative democratic principles. A yearlong process was employed that included a modified Delphi technique and various modes of engagement such as online discussion boards, questionnaires, and public comment to review. The resulting 2013 document consisted of a reaffirmation of the one-sentence 1996 definition, while updating supporting documentation to align with the current social, economic, political, and health care context. The 2013 document was strongly endorsed by vote of the APHA Public Health Nursing Section elected leadership. The 2013 definition and document affirm the relevance of a population-focused definition of public health nursing to complex systems addressed in current practice and articulate critical roles of public health nurses (PHN) in these settings.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.
Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.
Cole, Galen E.
Provides strategies for constructing theories of theory-based evaluation and provides examples in the field of public health. Techniques are designed to systematize and bring objectivity to the process of theory construction. Also introduces a framework of program theory. (SLD)
Bauer, Georg; Davies, John Kenneth; Pelikan, Jurgen; Noack, Horst; Broesskamp, Ursel; Hill, Chloe
This paper discusses the work of the EUHPID Project to develop a European Health Promotion Monitoring System based on a common set of health promotion indicators. The Project has established three working groups to progress this task--health promotion policy and practice-driven, data-driven and theory-driven. The work of the latter group is reviewed in particular. EUHPID has taken a systems theory approach in order to develop a model as a common frame of reference and a rational basis for the selection, organization and interpretation of health promotion indicators. After reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of those health promotion models currently proposed for indicator development, the paper proposes a general systems model of health development, and specific analytical, socio-ecological models related to public health and health promotion. These are described and discussed in detail. Taking the Ottawa Charter as the preferred framework for health promotion, the socio-ecological model for health promotion adopts its five action areas to form five types of systems. The structure and processes for each of these five systems are proposed to form the basis of a classification system for health promotion indicators. The paper goes on to illustrate such a system with reference to indicators in the workplace setting. The EUHPID Consortium suggest that their socio-ecological model could become a common reference point for the public health field generally, and offer an invitation to interested readers to contribute to this development.
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.
This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…
Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...
Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J
Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.
Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli
The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is
... is Public Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Climate Change Gun Violence Environmental Health Health Equity Health Reform ... to AJPH Public Health Newswire April 14 news: Climate change, mumps outbreak in Texas, type 2 diabetes in ...
Clancy, Gerard P
Market- and legislation-driven health reforms are being implemented across the United States. Within this time of great change for health care delivery systems and medical schools lie opportunities to address the country's long-standing health inequities by using community needs assessments, health information technologies, and new models for care and payment. In this Commentary, the author, a university regional campus leader, shares several difficult personal experiences to demonstrate that health equity work undertaken by academic institutions also requires institutional leaders to pay attention to and gain an understanding of issues that go beyond public health data. The author reflects on lessons learned and offers recommendations that may help academic health center and university leaders be more effective as they take on the complex tasks involved in improving health inequities. These include reflection on personal strengths and deficiencies, engagement with the community, recognition of the historical roots of health disparities, and the development of trusting relationships between the institution and the community.
Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana
Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality
Bell, Iris R.; Schwartz, Gary E.; Boyer, Nancy N.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.
Introduction Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses. Methods We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation. Results NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1–100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs’ large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs. Discussion Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host’s complex networks underlie effects. Conclusions Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious
Wynia, Matthew K
Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.
Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela
To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022
Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela
To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.
Samet, Jonathan M
In an article recently published in the IJHPR, Ginsberg and colleagues from Israel's Public Health Services estimate the disease burden from airborne particulate matter in Israel. Using national data on the concentration of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and risk estimates from meta-analyses, they calculate that about 2000 deaths (4.7% of total deaths) are attributable to air pollution. Although inherently subject to uncertainty, such estimates are useful for motivating public health protection and gauging the stringency of any needed regulations. However, Israel does not yet have an evidence-based process for air quality regulation comparable to that of the United States, which has evolved over the 45 years since passage of the Clean Air Act. In fact, Israel has only recently promulgated a national standard for airborne particulate matter and quantitative risk assessment has not been an element of regulatory decision-making. The report by Ginsberg and colleagues represents a useful beginning and should initiate discussion of the role of burden estimation and risk assessment more broadly in regulations intended to advance environmental health in Israel.
Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A
Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.
Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L
Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.
Neuhauser, Linda; Richardson, Dawn; Mackenzie, Sonja; Minkler, Meredith
Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional…
Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B
The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566
Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar
Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease.
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
The rapid spread of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli throughout Europe highlights the need for modern and flexible public health laws to identify, control and treat infections and contamination that give significant concern for the health of the population. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outline the amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 that adopt an all-hazards approach to threats to public health.
Gebbie, Kristine M; Raziano, Amanda; Elliott, Sterling
Comprehensive data on the public health workforce are fundamental to workforce development throughout the public health system. Such information is also a critical data element in public health systems research, a growing area of study that can inform the practice of public health at all levels. However, methodologic and institutional issues challenge the development of comparable indicators for the federal, state, and local public health workforce. A 2006-2007 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials workforce enumeration pilot project demonstrated the issues involved in collecting workforce data. This project illustrated key elements of an institutionalized national system of workforce enumeration, which would be needed for a robust, recurring count that provides a national picture of the public health workforce.
This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.
Gostin, L O
Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.
Gostin, Lawrence O.
Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757
Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...
Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…
Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J
Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.
Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.
Honoré, Peggy A; Costich, Julia F
The absence of appropriate financial management competencies has impeded progress in advancing the field of public health finance. It also inhibits the ability to professionalize this sector of the workforce. Financial managers should play a critical role by providing information relevant to decision making. The lack of fundamental financial management knowledge and skills is a barrier to fulfilling this role. A national expert committee was convened to examine this issue. The committee reviewed standards related to financial and business management practices within public health and closely related areas. Alignments were made with national standards such as those established for government chief financial officers. On the basis of this analysis, a comprehensive set of public health financial management competencies was identified and examined further by a review panel. At a minimum, the competencies can be used to define job descriptions, assess job performance, identify critical gaps in financial analysis, create career paths, and design educational programs.
Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Arakaki, Lee-Ann; Uemoto, Maya
The University of Hawai‘i at Manoa (UHM) has long provided public health graduate education. The University's Office of Public Health Studies (OPHS) has recently started to offer a Bachelor of Arts in Public Health (BA PH) degree in response to the growing need for professionals in the health field. The purpose of this paper is to describe how UHM operates the BA PH and how the program complements OPHS's mission and goals. First, we describe the overall scope of the BA PH within OPHS and within UHM. Then we provide examples of how the BA PH program and past undergraduate student projects align with OPHS's four main goals: (1) education, (2) research, (3) service, and (4) program development. PMID:28352496
Hawai‘i had high insurance coverage rates even before the Affordable Health Care Act and continues to have a high percentage of the population with health insurance today. However, high insurance rates can disguise wide variation in what is covered and what it costs. In this essay, an Australian Masters in Public Health student from the University of Hawai‘i considers the strengths and weaknesses of insurance coverage in the US health-care system when her friend “Peter” becomes seriously ill. PMID:27688955
Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bello, Stefania; Gulino, Matteo; Zaami, Simona; Frati, Paola
Advance health care decisions animate an intense debate in several European countries, which started more than 20 years ago in the USA and led to the adoption of different rules, based on the diverse legal, sociocultural and philosophical traditions of each society. In Italy, the controversial issue of advance directives and end of life's rights, in the absence of a clear and comprehensive legislation, has been over time a subject of interest of the Supreme Court. Since 2004 a law introduced the “Public Guardian,” aiming to provide an instrument of assistance to the person lacking in autonomy because of an illness or incapacity. Recently, this critical issue has once again been brought to the interest of the Supreme Court, which passed a judgment trying to clarify the legislative application of the appointment of the Guardian in the field of advance directives. PMID:24729977
Canyon, Deon V
The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World Health Organization, and the Institute of Medicine promote systems thinking as the only sensible means to respond to issues that greatly exceed the normal capacity of health and medical services. This paper agrees with the application of systems thinking but argues that health organizations have misunderstood and misapplied systems thinking to the extent that the term has become meaningless. This paper presents the basic constructs of systems thinking, explains why systems thinking has been misapplied, examines some misapplications of systems thinking in health, and suggests how the concept can be applied correctly to medicine and public health to achieve the reason it was adopted in the first place. PMID:24377080
Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L
Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.
Historical assessments of the Occupation’s efforts to tackle enteric diseases (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery) have generally reflected a celebratory narrative of US-inspired public health reforms, strongly associated with the head of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Crawford F. Sams. Close inspection of the documentary record, however, reveals much greater continuity with pre-war Japanese public health practices than has hitherto been acknowledged. Indeed, there are strong grounds for disputing American claims of novelty and innovation in such areas as immunisation, particularly in relation to typhoid vaccine, and environmental sanitation, where disparaging comments about the careless use of night soil and a reluctance to control flies and other disease vectors reveal more about the politics of public health reform than the reality of pre-war practices. Likewise, the representation of American-inspired sanitary teams as clearly distinct from and far superior to traditional sanitary associations (eisei kumiai) was closer to propaganda than an accurate rendering of past and present developments. PMID:19048809
Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.
This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…
One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE). The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of 'cosmetic neurology', where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to (as many as 25% of US students already use nootropic cognitive enhancers such as ritalin). However, the potential for CE to improve public health has been neglected. This paper examines the prospect of improving health outcomes through CE among sections of the population where health inequalities are particularly pronounced. I term this enhancement of the public's health through CE 'neuroenhancing health'. It holds great promise, but raises several ethical issues. This paper provides an outline of these issues and related philosophical problems. These include the potential effectiveness of CE in reducing health inequalities; issues concerning autonomy and free will; whether moral enhancement might be more effective than CE in reducing health inequalities; and the problem of how to provide such CE, including the issue of whether to provide targeted or universal coverage.
Bettcher, D; Lee, K
At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.
Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
Matsudai, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey
Nanotechnology is developing very quickly, and Japan is in many respects leading the world in this convergence of nanoscale engineering techniques. The public health community in Japan must start to think about the public health impacts of nanotechnology over the next 20 years. The responsibility for the benefits and the harms of nanotechnology lies with government, with corporations and the business community, with scientists and specialists in all related fields, and with NPOs and the public. There are very many questions of public health which are not yet being asked about nanotechnology. If nanoparticles are to be used in cosmetics, food production and packaging, how will they react or interact with the human skin and organs? What chemical-toxic effects on life might there be from the nanoparticles in car tires and vehicle plastic mouldings when they are disposed of by incineration? Will they pass into the soil and groundwater and enter into the food-chain? It is now an urgent ethical demand, based on the precautionary principle, that Japan join the governments of the world to take an intergovernmental initiative to intervene in the further development, production and marketing of nanotechnological products with precautionary research and regulation.
Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott
The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.
Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately half the births in the nation as well as locally. By providing nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and foods in addition to referrals, WIC plays a crucial role in promoting lifetime health for women, infants and children. WIC helps achieve national public health goals such as reducing premature births and infant mortality, increasing breastfeeding, and reducing maternal and childhood overweight. Though individuals and families can self-refer into WIC, physicians and allied health professionals have the opportunity and are encouraged to promote awareness of WIC and refer families in their care. PMID:25285258
Whelen, A Christian; Kitagawa, Kent; Maddock, Jay; Hayes, Donald; St John, Tonya Lowery; Rajan, Ranjani
Chronically understaffed public health laboratories depend on a decreasing number of employees who must assume broader responsibilities in order to sustain essential functions for the many clients the laboratories support. Prospective scientists considering a career in public health are often not aware of the requirements associated with working in a laboratory regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The purpose of this pilot internship was two-fold; introduce students to operations in a regulated laboratory early enough in their academics so that they could make good career decisions, and evaluate internship methodology as one possible solution to workforce shortages. Four interns were recruited from three different local universities, and were paired with an experienced State Laboratories Division (SLD) staff mentor. Students performed tasks that demonstrated the importance of CLIA regulations for 10–15 hours per week over a 14 week period. Students also attended several directed group sessions on regulatory lab practice and quality systems. Both interns and mentors were surveyed periodically during the semester. Surveys of mentors and interns indicated overall positive experiences. One-on-one pairing of experienced public health professionals and students seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement. Interns reported that they would participate if the internship was lower paid, unpaid, or for credit only. The internship appeared to be an effective tool to expose students to employment in CLIA-regulated laboratories, and potentially help address public health laboratory staffing shortfalls. Longer term follow up with multiple classes of interns may provide a more informed assessment. PMID:23386992
Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B
Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in other countries.
Freire, R M
An undestanding of the activities and functions of a speech therapist within the specific context of the Basic Health Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde) is sought. Difficulties relating to the introduction of a new service on the basis of one of the health professions that has not hitherto belonged to the group of categories which are traditionally incorporated in these same Basic Units. When the statistical data on the demand for speech therapy services by the population who attend health centres were considered, it was discovered that 32% were of schooling age and had been referred by schools, allegedly due to "learning problems". Closer contact with these children, through speech therapy, has brought a different aspect to light i.e. that one cannot consider as disturbance/deviation/problem/pathology written signs which constitute indications of the shock between the process of literacy and that of learning how to read and write. To understand the problem from the point of view of public health, a programme of teacher counselling is proposed, with the purpose of helping the school to clarify its role as co-constructor of the child's literacy process and of returning to the teacher the responsibility for the success and/or failure of teaching how to read and write. A similar programme is proposed for creches where coincidently, a greater proportion (44%) of the younger children (2 to 5 years of age) are seen to have difficulties in oral language development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K
Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the
Rogers, W A
This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.
Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966
Crawford, Carol A Gotway; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas; Roy, Kakoli; Chen, Zhuo Adam; Meltzer, David O; Thacker, Stephen B
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Workforce and Career Development is committed to developing a competent, sustainable, and diverse public health workforce through evidence-based training, career and leadership development, and strategic workforce planning to improve population health outcomes. This article reviews the previous efforts in identifying priorities of public health workforce research, which are summarized as eight major research themes. We outline a strategic framework for public health workforce research that includes six functional areas (ie, definition and standards, data, methodology, evaluation, policy, and dissemination and translation). To conceptualize and prioritize development of an actionable public health research agenda, we constructed a matrix of key challenges in workforce analysis by public health workforce categories. Extensive reviews were conducted to identify valuable methods, models, and approaches to public health workforce research. We explore new tools and approaches for addressing priority areas for public health workforce and career development research and assess how tools from multiple disciplines of social sciences can guide the development of a research framework for advancing public health workforce research and policy.
Muessig, Kathryn E; Smith, M Kumi; Maman, Suzanne; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
Despite widespread biomedical advances in treatment and prevention, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) continue to affect a large portion of the world's population. The profoundly social nature of behaviorally driven epidemics and disparities across socioeconomic divides in the distribution of HIV/STI and care outcomes emphasize the need for innovative, multilevel interventions. Interdisciplinary approaches to HIV/STI control are needed to combine insights from the social and biological sciences and public health fields. In this concluding essay to a Special Issue on HIV/STI in south China, we describe the evolution of the region's HIV/STI epidemics and the government response, then synthesize findings from the 11 studies presented in this issue to extend seven recommendations for future HIV/STI prevention and care research in China. We discuss lessons learned from forging international collaborations between the social and biological sciences and public health to inform a shared research agenda to better meet the needs of those most affected by HIV and other STI.
Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Maman, Suzanne; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Xiang-sheng
Despite widespread biomedical advances in treatment, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) continue to affect a large portion of the world's population. The profoundly social nature of behaviorally driven epidemics and disparities across socioeconomic divides in the distribution of HIV/STI and care outcomes emphasize the need for innovative, multilevel interventions. Interdisciplinary approaches to HIV/STI control are needed to combine insights from the social and biological sciences and public health fields. In this concluding essay to a Special Issue on HIV/STI in south China, we describe the evolution of China's HIV/STI epidemics and the government response; then synthesize findings from the 11 studies presented in this issues to extend seven recommendations for future HIV/STI prevention and care research in China. We discuss lessons learned from forging international collaborations between social science and public health to inform a shared research agenda to better meet the needs of those most affected by HIV and other STI. PMID:24443101
One of the main interests of the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in both education and research was child public health, i.e. an area based on the broad World Health Organisation (WHO) health ideology and on public health methods, while concentrating on the special needs and characteristics of children. The fields of study and action, training, research and service, had the ultimate task to consider the health of children in their full social, economic and political context. Regular courses on child public health were offered as part of the general program in Public Health from 1979 until the closing down of the school, named: Social Paediatrics; Child Health; Child Public Health; and finally, Measuring Children's Health - A Public Health Perspective. Numerous national, Nordic and international conferences were held, and several textbooks were written and edited. A major research project, NordChild, was initiated as a cross-sectional postal study of a random sample of children aged 2-17 years from the five Nordic countries, performed in 1984, 1996 and 2011. So far, 10 doctoral theses and more than 130 other publications from the studies have been produced. Furthermore, the Nordic Network on Research of Refugee Children was created, and a special interest has been devoted to indicators for children's health, both internationally, nationally and locally, which has been demonstrated in major EU projects as well as locally in Sweden and Greenland.
McBeath, W H
The approach of a millennial passage invites public health to a review of past performance and a preview of future prospects toward assuring a healthy public. Since the 1974 Canadian Lalonde report, the best national plans for health progress have emphasized disease prevention and health promotion. WHO's multinational Health for All by the Year 2000 promotes basic health services essential to leading a socially and economically productive life. Healthy People 2000, the latest US guide, establishes three goals: increase healthy life span, reduce health disparities, and achieve universal access to preventive services. Its objectives can be used to excite public understanding, equip program development, evaluate progress, and encourage public accountability for health initiatives. Needed is federal leadership in defining requisite action and securing necessary resources. Elsewhere a "new public health" emphasizes community life-style and multisectoral "healthy public policy." In the United States, a national health program is needed to achieve equity in access to personal health care. Even more essential is equitable sharing in basic health determinants in society--nutritious food, basic education, safe water, decent housing, secure employment, adequate income, and peace. Vital to such a future is able and active leadership now from governments and public health professionals. PMID:1746649
Kimura, Lisa J; McGee, Amelia; Baird, Shelagh; Viloria, Joanne; Nagatsuka, Melissa
Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Hawai‘i (HMHB) is a local nonprofit organization dedicated to eliminating health disparities and improving Hawai‘i's maternal, child, and family health though collaborative efforts in public education, advocacy, and partner development. A review of HMHB services revealed overwhelming requests for both breastfeeding and postpartum depression (PPD) support. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of two surveys that highlight the awareness of existing breastfeeding and PPD resources based on both parents and health care providers; perceptions of where and how care is accessed; and whether mothers throughout Hawai‘i have equitable access to support. Results helped assess gaps in resources and determine barriers to care, as well as provide suggestions for new services or resources. Web-based surveys were sent to 450 providers and 2,955 parents with response rates of 8.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Less than half of parent participants reported that their health provider discussed PPD with them. Participants identified a number of barriers to increasing access and utilization of PPD support resources, including: not feeling like symptoms were server enough, feeling embarrassed to seek help, not knowing where to find support/information, and not able to afford or insurance wouldn't cover PPD support. Only 40% of providers reported screening for PPD and 33% felt they had not received adequate training. Barriers identified by providers were a lack of trained providers, lack of PPD specific support groups, cultural stigma, and lack of PPD awareness among providers. Of the women who did not exclusively breastfeed for the full six-month recommendation, the most common breastfeeding concerns included: perceptions of low milk supply; lack of lactation support; medical reasons; and pain. Providers described an environment of uneven distribution of resources, general lack of awareness of available resources, along
Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann
This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.
Greenberg, Alan E; Purcell, David W; Gordon, Christopher M; Flores, Stephen; Grossman, Cynthia; Fisher, Holly H; Barasky, Rebecca J
The contributions reported in this supplemental issue highlight the relevance of NIH-funded CEWG research to health department–supported HIV prevention and care activities in the 9 US cities with the highest numbers of AIDS cases. The project findings have the potential to enhance ongoing HIV treatment and care services and to advance the wider scientific agenda. The HIV testing to care continuum, while providing a framework to help track progress on national goals, also can reflect the heterogeneities of local epidemics. The collaborative research that is highlighted in this issue not only reflects a locally driven research agenda but also demonstrates research methods, data collection tools, and collaborative processes that could be encouraged across jurisdictions. Projects such as these, capitalizing on the integrated efforts of NIH, CDC, DOH, and academic institutions, have the potential to contribute to improvements in the HIV care continuum in these communities, bringing us closer to realizing the HIV prevention and treatment goals of the NHAS.
provide a strong concept of the public health infrastructure. It is a useful tool permitting local agencies to compare themselves to national averages...limitations of the system they govern. The concept of articulating program guidelines for local public health activities is a NJDHSS tradition...referral to treatment and social service agencies. • Maternal and Child Health activities a. Infants and preschool – health supervision for infants
Fox, Daniel M.
Law has been an essential tool of public health practice for centuries. From the 19th century until recent decades, however, most histories of public health described, approvingly, the progression of the field from marginally useful policy, made by persons learned in law, to effective policy, made by persons employing the methods of biomedical and behavioral science. Historians have recently begun to change this standard account by documenting the centrality of law in the development of public health practice. The revised history of public health offers additional justification for the program of public health law reform proposed in this issue of the Journal by Gostin and by Moulton and Matthews, who describe the new program in public health law of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:11527756
Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge
Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.
Hirschhorn, Joel S
Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.
Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel
The precautionary principle has provoked a spirited debate among environmentalists worldwide, but it is equally relevant to public health and shares much with primary prevention. Its central components are (1) taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; (2) shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; (3) exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and (4) increasing public participation in decision making. Precaution is relevant to public health, because it can help to prevent unintended consequences of well-intentioned public health interventions by ensuring a more thorough assessment of the problems and proposed solutions. It can also be a positive force for change. Three aspects are stressed: promoting the search for safer technologies, encouraging greater democracy and openness in public health policy, and stimulating reevaluation of the methods of public health science. PMID:11527753
Potvin, Louise; Gendron, Sylvie; Bilodeau, Angèle; Chabot, Patrick
The innovative practice that resulted from the Ottawa Charter challenges public health knowledge about programming and evaluation. Specifically, there is a need to formulate program theory that embraces social determinants of health and local actors’ mobilization for social change. Likewise, it is imperative to develop a theory of evaluation that fosters reflexive understanding of public health programs engaged in social change. We believe advances in contemporary social theory that are founded on a critique of modernity and that articulate a coherent theory of practice should be considered when addressing these critical challenges. PMID:15798114
Gostin, Lawrence O; Powers, Madison
Justice is so central to the mission of public health that it has been described as the field's core value. This account of justice stresses the fair disbursement of common advantages and the sharing of common burdens. It captures the twin moral impulses that animate public health: to advance human well-being by improving health and to do so particularly by focusing on the needs of the most disadvantaged. This Commentary explores how social justice sheds light on major ongoing controversies in the field, and it provides examples of the kinds of policies that public health agencies, guided by a robust conception of justice, would adopt.
Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health.
Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June
Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.
Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June
Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278
Evans, C A; Margolis, L A
The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities.
McQueen, David V
Though not necessarily using the same terminology historically, people concerned with the public's health have long been addressing the social context of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the actions of promoting health. This commentary places the current interest in NCDs within that history and discusses the challenges that continue to face institutions in dealing with NCDs. It makes a particular plea for the role of health promotion as the area of public health that takes actions to address the global burden of NCDs. Without a health promotion focus, we will just continue to describe the NCD burden rather than reduce it.
Italy's recent economic growth and strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea have made it a prime destination for immigrants and asylum seekers in Europe. Despite its well-developed health care system, statistics on foreign citizens' health are worrisome. In 1998 public health services were extended to illegal immigrants, giving them the right to necessary urgent and non-urgent medical assistance, even for a prolonged period. This paper examines a two-year joint intervention project between Centre for the Study and Research of Public Health (Mental Health), Local Health Agency ROMA E (LHA RME) and the non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Rome.
Jackson, B; Huston, P
Health inequities, or avoidable inequalities in health between groups of people, are increasingly recognized and tackled to improve public health. Canada's interest in health inequities goes back over 40 years, with the landmark 1974 Lalonde report, and continues with the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, which affirmed a global political commitment to implementing a social determinants of health approach to reducing health inequities. Research in this area includes documenting and tracking health inequalities, exploring their multidimensional causes, and developing and evaluating ways to address them. Inequalities can be observed in who is vulnerable to infectious and chronic diseases, the impact of health promotion and disease prevention efforts, how disease progresses, and the outcomes of treatment. Many programs, policies and projects with potential impacts on health equity and determinants of health have been implemented across Canada. Recent theoretical and methodological advances in the areas of implementation science and population health intervention research have strengthened our capacity to develop effective interventions. With the launch of a new health equity series this month, the journals Canada Communicable Disease Report and Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada will continue to reflect and foster analysis of social determinants of health and focus on intervention studies that advance health equity.
Green, Lawrence W.
Public health asks of systems science, as it did of sociology 40 years ago, that it help us unravel the complexity of causal forces in our varied populations and the ecologically layered community and societal circumstances of public health practice. We seek a more evidence-based public health practice, but too much of our evidence comes from artificially controlled research that does not fit the realities of practice. What can we learn from our experience with sociology in the past that might guide us in drawing effectively on systems science? PMID:16449580
Green, Lawrence W
Public health asks of systems science, as it did of sociology 40 years ago, that it help us unravel the complexity of causal forces in our varied populations and the ecologically layered community and societal circumstances of public health practice. We seek a more evidence-based public health practice, but too much of our evidence comes from artificially controlled research that does not fit the realities of practice. What can we learn from our experience with sociology in the past that might guide us in drawing effectively on systems science?
Silverstein, Steven J
Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M
The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.
Alpi, Kristine M.
Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281
With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.
With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles. PMID:28207327
Parales-Quenza, Carlos J
This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.
Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca
Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854
Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca
Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.
The report into the outbreak of measles in the Swansea area in 2013 has recommended that public health law be used as a routine response to minimising the spread of infectious diseases. In this article, the author considers what powers are available to health and local authorities to minimise the spread of an infectious disease outbreak.
... public health by providing a variety of comprehensive classroom and curriculum resources. Framing The Future Faculty Resources ... and is regularly spotlighted in popular culture and media . The impact is measurable. In the past century, ...
Walsh, D C; Rudd, R E; Moeykens, B A; Moloney, T W
Marketing techniques and tools, imported from the private sector, are increasingly being advocated for their potential value in crafting and disseminating effective social change strategies. This paper describes the field of social marketing as it is used to improve the health of the public. A disciplined process of strategic planning can yield promising new insights into consumer behavior and product design. But the "technology" cannot simply be transferred without some translation to reconcile differences between commercial marketing and public health.
Weil, D E
In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.
Mularski, C A; Bradigan, P S
This study examines the publication patterns of U.S. academic health sciences librarians. A survey was sent to a random sample of Medical Library Association (MLA) members who work in academic settings. Some survey results are consistent with other research while others vary from the findings of previous studies. Faculty status requiring publication may be an incentive to publish; however, a large percentage of librarians in this study published despite the lack of a requirement. Academic health sciences librarians without advanced degrees other than a master's in library science produced about three quarters of the publications, whereas their colleagues with advanced degrees published slightly more than 25% of the publications. Results concerning professional maturity, position, and geographic location reflect findings of earlier studies of academic librarians' publication patterns. Publication productivity generally increased with professional maturity, most authors held administrative or supervisory positions, and many lived in the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. The differences in rates of publication between males and females was not statistically significant after controlling for respondents' professional maturity and position. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:2039902
Tong, Michelle; Sentell, Tetine
Chinese Americans constitute the largest percentage of Asian Americans. In Hawai‘i, Chinese Americans make up approximately 4.7% of the total state population. Accurately assessing health disparities across specific Asian American subgroups is critically important to health research and policy, as there is often substantial variability in risk and outcomes. However, even for Chinese Americans, the largest of the Asian American subgroups, such analyses can present challenges in population-based surveys. This article considers these challenges generally and then specifically in terms of the issue of health literacy and heart disease in Chinese Americans using existing population-based survey data sets in the United States, California, and Hawai‘i. PMID:28090401
Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being justified on consequentialist grounds; namely, that the potential public health benefits outweigh any stigmatizing side effects. In this paper, I examine and reject the blanket condemnation of stigmatization efforts in public health. I argue that the moral status of such efforts are best evaluated within a contractualist, as opposed to a consequentialist, framework. Contractualism in public health ethics asks whether a particular stigmatizing policy could be justified to reasonable individuals who do not know whether they will be affected by that policy. Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization.
... Infectious Diseases has a new Spanish language website! https://t.co… RT @CDCgov: Know when you need ... Together we can fight antibiotic resistance. Be #AntibioticSmart. https://t.… RT @AMJPublicHealth: Whiteness of the #opioidepidemic is ...
Delafield, Rebecca; Wright, Tricia E
Substance use can have serious consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. The problem is of particular concern when it involves pregnant women due to health risks for the mother and the fetus. In utero exposure to either legal (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and certain prescription drugs) or illicit (eg, amphetamines, cocaine, and opioids) substances can result in potentially serious and long-lasting health problems for infants. Available data from Hawai‘i indicate that substance use among pregnant women is higher than national targets, which reflect the fact that there is essentially no acceptable rate of use of these substances. Developing an effective system to support virtual elimination of substance use in pregnancy requires broad-based strategies. Progress is being made in Hawai‘i to better identify and address substance use in pregnancy. These efforts are being guided by a variety of stakeholders who are dedicated to improving the healthcare and health outcomes for this population. However, significant challenges to the system remain, including provider shortages, lack of local investment, and limited capacity of appropriate, individualized treatment. PMID:27920946
Lechat, M. F.
Studies on the health effects of disasters have shown that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectiveness. Mortality rates naturally vary considerably, but in earthquakes, for example, the number of deaths per 100 houses destroyed can give an indication of the adequacy of building techniques. Age-specific mortality rates can help to identify particularly vulnerable groups and perhaps indicate what form of education would be valuable. Except in earthquakes, the number of casualties after a disaster is usually low in relation to the number of deaths, and study of the distribution and types of lesions would help in planning the amounts and types of relief supplies and personnel required. Disasters also affect the general level of morbidity in a district because of either interruption of normal health care services or of spraying or other disease control measures. Mental health and nutrition following disasters are particular problems that require further investigation. Study of all these features of disasters has been handicapped by a lack of data, particularly concerning the health situation immediately after the impact. The provision of surveillance teams in disaster-prone areas would appear to be a field in which international cooperation could yield immense benefits. PMID:311707
Yoshimoto, D Kaulana; Robertson, N Tod; Hayes, Donald K
Home visiting services are cost-effective and improve the health of children and families among those at increased risk. From 1985–2008, home visiting services in Hawai‘i were provided primarily through state funding of the Hawai‘i Healthy Start Program, but the program was severely reduced due to the economy and state budget changes over the past decade. The Maternal and Child Health Branch (MCHB) in the Family Health Services Division responded to these changes by seeking out competitive grant opportunities and collaborations in order to continue to promote home visiting services to those children and families in need. In 2010, the MCHB was awarded a federally funded Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grant for home visiting services to promote maternal, infant, and early childhood health, safety and development, strong parent-child relationships, and responsible parenting. In 2011, the MCHB was also awarded a competitive MIECHV development grant that funded the re-establishment of the hospital Early Identification program. Families in need of additional support identified through this program are referred for family strengthening services to a network of existing home visiting programs called the Hawai‘i Home Visiting Network (HHVN). The HHVN is supported by MIECHV and a small amount of state funds to assist programs with capacity building, training, professional development, quality assurance, and accreditation/certification support. The MIECHV grant requires that programs are evidence-based and address specific outcome measures and benchmarks. The HHVN provides home visiting services to families prenatally through 5 years of age that reside in specific at-risk communities, and is aimed at fostering positive parenting and reducing child maltreatment using a strength-based approach by targeting six protective factors: (1) social connections, (2) nurturing and attachment, (3) knowledge of parenting and child development, (4
Buxton, Herbert T.
Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health
Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman
In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.
Fountain, Jane E
Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.
Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki
Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.
Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L
The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders.
Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie
Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants.
Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D
Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808
Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.
Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…
Griffiths, S; Wright, J; Grice, D
The development of primary care trusts requires health authority public health departments to work in new ways. Reviews of the public health function in two counties found widely varying views. A common understanding of organisations' responsibilities is crucial when developing public health in primary care. Public health networks can play a key role. Significant investment in training is required.
The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.
Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay
Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166
Riley, William J; Lownik, Elizabeth M; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Mays, Glen P; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Les M
Health department accreditation is one of the most important initiatives in the field of public health today. The Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) is establishing a voluntary accreditation system for more than 3000 state, tribal, territorial, and local health departments using domains, standards, and measures with which to evaluate public health department performance. In addition, public health department accreditation has a focus on continuous quality improvement to enhance capacity and performance of health departments in order to advance the health of the population. In the accreditation effort, a practice-based research agenda is essential to build the scientific base and advance public health department accreditation as well as health department effectiveness. This paper provides an overview of public health accreditation and identifies the research questions raised by this accreditation initiative, including how the research agenda will contribute to better understanding of processes underlying the delivery of services by public health departments and how voluntary accreditation may help improve performance of public health departments.
Many calls have been made for a systems approach to public health. My response is to offer a methodology for systemic intervention that (1) emphasizes the need to explore stakeholder values and boundaries for analysis, (2) challenges marginalization, and (3) draws upon a wide range of methods (from the systems literature and beyond) to create a flexible and responsive systems practice. I present and discuss several well-tested methods with a view to identifying their potential for supporting systemic intervention for public health. PMID:16449577
Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I
Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management.
Incorporating public health content in a bioethics and law course can prompt rich discussions. This set of materials on mandatory vaccinations, nonmedical exemptions, and potential tort liability for nonvaccination explores the roles of public health law and tort law in advancing social goals and protecting individual rights and interests.
This report is part of a series of annual papers on Advanced Concepts and Missions Division (ACMD) publications. It contains a bibliography and corresponding abstract of all papers presented or published by personnel of ACMD during the calendar year 1971. Also included are abstracts of final reports ACMD contracted studies perfomed during this time period.
EPA’s Community Public Health (CPH) project in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) produces high quality science and tools to understand and assess environmental risks and ecosystem goods and services (EGS) to decision-makers at all levels.
Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H
The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers.
Galbraith, N S
The development of the British public health services is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that two types of epidemiologist (Community Physician) are necessary in each locality: one concerned with medical administration and health care planning-the medical administrator, and the other with the prevention of disease-the clinical epidemiologist. A new nation public health service is proposed to revive disease prevention with four main features: (1) A district Clinical Epidemiologist who is a member of the district department of community medicine with responsibility for prevention but with no district administrative duties. (2) A District Epidemiology Unit comprising other appropriate staff. (3) National specialist epidemiology units within the NHS with service roles to support and coordinate the District Clinical Epidemiologists. (4) A national authority within the NHS with responsibility for prevention and for administering the national specialist units. PMID:7007637
Fullilove, R. E.; Edgoose, J. C.; Fullilove, M. T.
Self-organized criticality offers more than a descriptive model or a doomsday forecast. We have tried to suggest that it is a paradigm for understanding the interconnections between apparently complex processes. At best, it suggests a method for finding the pressure points that can be used to bring unstable systems of public health services into greater levels of stability. The model enjoins us to understand that our goal is not to achieve equilibrium--that perfect match between the demand for health services and its delivery--but rather stability (or, more precisely, metastability). As is true of the sandpile, our systems of public health are constantly evolving. If we are correct, then the mechanism driving this ostensibly complex pattern of change and growth reflects the existence of simpler and, hopefully, more manageable processes. By monitoring these processes, it may be increasingly possible to adapt to change and even manage it effectively. PMID:9170831
Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R
Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.
Zodpey, Sanjay P; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv
Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate 'standard' and 'quality' of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.
Binns, C W; Leong, J F
Public health nutrition is focused on the prevention of diet-related diseases and the attainment of good health, through policy, education and health promotion. It involves many sectors of the community, cooperating to improve the health and wellbeing of the population with emphasis on prevention, equity, wellbeing and improved quality of life. In the majority of western countries, an epidemic of coronary heart disease (CHD) began after World War One, reaching its peak in the 1970's. In Asia, the epidemic began after WW2 with the rapid economic development of the region. In western countries, of which Australia is a typical example, health promotion activities and improved hospital treatment have been effective in reducing the impact of the CHD epidemic. The life expectancy of the population has steadily grown to 75.6 years for males and 81.3 years for females. Despite major advances in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, it is still the leading cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Australia. Furthermore, cardiovascular disease shares common risk factors with other leading causes of death, including lifestyle behaviours (diet, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, smoking), physiological states (obesity, hypertension, high blood cholesterol) and socioeconomic factors. For Asia, the challenge is to implement public health policies that will tackle the epidemic of chronic disease before it reaches its peak. Health Promotion policies will be important for all countries. The use of the disability adjusted life years (DALY) methodology to measure the association between the cause of disease and relate its occurrence to health outcomes will be an important public health planning tool.
Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S
Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.
Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.
Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492
Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G
Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as
Potter, Roberto Hugh
This article outlines and discusses five categories of information about individual jails that should be considered before making general statements about jails. These are (a) the process by which individuals come to and are processed through the jail, (b) the size of the jail, (c) the region of the country where the jail is situated, (d) classification/assessment techniques, and (e) architecture and supervision styles. It is hoped that this discussion will generate a better understanding of the complexity of jail systems across the nation and help public health professionals better target their research, programs, and policies directed at the jail/community health nexus.
Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth
Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646
Gentry, Daniel; Klesges, Lisa M.
As the field of public health advances toward addressing complex, systemic problems, future public health professionals must be equipped with leadership and interprofessional skills that support collaboration and a culture of health. The University of Memphis School of Public Health has infused innovative strategies into graduate education via experiential learning opportunities to enhance leadership, collaboration, and professional development. Novel training programs such as Day One, Public Health Interdisciplinary Case Competition, and Memphis Healthy U support Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health cross-cutting competencies and prepare Master of Public Health and Master of Health Administration graduates to function effectively at the outset of their careers and become catalysts for creating a culture of health. PMID:25706016
Levy, Marian; Gentry, Daniel; Klesges, Lisa M
As the field of public health advances toward addressing complex, systemic problems, future public health professionals must be equipped with leadership and interprofessional skills that support collaboration and a culture of health. The University of Memphis School of Public Health has infused innovative strategies into graduate education via experiential learning opportunities to enhance leadership, collaboration, and professional development. Novel training programs such as Day One, Public Health Interdisciplinary Case Competition, and Memphis Healthy U support Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health cross-cutting competencies and prepare Master of Public Health and Master of Health Administration graduates to function effectively at the outset of their careers and become catalysts for creating a culture of health.
A special Committee on Internal Medicine and Public Health was established by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) in April 2007 with the duty to write a Consensus Paper on the interaction between both branches of medical profession. The main objective was to find the common grounds on which to construct a positive approach to regain space for Internal Medicine, based on prevalent epidemiológical features related to adult health issues. The authors describe the reasons to explain the gap between clinical medicine and population health and identify the nature and evolution of chronic diseases as the point of encounter between both. With Chilean health surveys data, they state that chronic diseases explain the high proportion of burden of disease, mortality and disability, and stress that by the year 2025 one in every five inhabitants will be over 65 years of age, with ageing as another main problem for the health care sector. Population with multiple risks and multimorbidity is the most important challenge for the Chilean Health Care System. A new model of care is needed to tackle this scenario with new skills regarding psychosocial determinants of health. The leading role of internists and ideally geriatricians, will be crucial in this process and will help the implementation of sound population based interventions. Both individual and community level interventions will help to improve quality of life of Chilean families.
Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.
Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653
Gebbie, Kristine M; Turnock, Bernard J
Efforts to develop the public health workforce since 2001 have benefited from increased funding resulting from concerns over terrorism and other public health threats. This largesse has been accompanied by the need for greater accountability for results. The size, composition, and distribution of the public health workforce have long been policy concerns. Production and retention of public health workers remain important issues, although new dimensions of readiness are also taking center stage. We offer here policy recommendations in the areas of assessing the public health workforce and its needs, organizing development efforts around essential competencies for public health practice, credentialing workers, and accrediting agencies.
King, Ewa; Vanner, Cynthia; Leibovitz, Henry; Smith, Robin
While laboratories play an important and recognized role in many public health programs that require surveillance of disease spread or monitoring of environmental conditions, the role of public laboratories in assessing and advancing health equity is not well understood. Yet, public laboratories collect, provide or generate much of the data used to determine health equity status and monitor heath equity trends in multiple settings and disciplines. RI State Health Laboratories, a division of the RI Department of Health, operates programs that help measure and address health disparities. Health equity themes are present in laboratory programs that measure environmental determinants of health and assure equal access to laboratory screening and diagnostic services. This article will review the role of laboratory programs in advancing health equity in the state. Specific examples of laboratory contributions to health equity programs will be provided and examined. Future trends and unmet needs will also be discussed. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-11.asp].
Massetti, Greta M; Ragan, Kathleen R; Thomas, Cheryll C; Ryerson, A Blythe
Advances in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment have led to reductions in morbidity and premature mortality and improvements in quality of life. However, not all Americans have benefitted equally from these advances, and certain populations experience continued disparities in cancer care. Although research and public health efforts have highlighted the experiences of some groups, other populations have been relatively understudied, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Public health efforts in surveillance, research, programs, and partnerships can provide opportunities to advance health equity for LGBT at the population level and lead to better health outcomes for LGBT individuals with cancer.
Massetti, Greta M; Ragan, Kathleen R; Thomas, Cheryll C; Ryerson, A Blythe
Advances in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment have led to reductions in morbidity and premature mortality and improvements in quality of life. However, not all Americans have benefitted equally from these advances, and certain populations experience continued disparities in cancer care. Although research and public health efforts have highlighted the experiences of some groups, other populations have been relatively understudied, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Public health efforts in surveillance, research, programs, and partnerships can provide opportunities to advance health equity for LGBT at the population level and lead to better health outcomes for LGBT individuals with cancer.
Massetti, Greta M.; Ragan, Kathleen R.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; Ryerson, A. Blythe
Advances in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment have led to reductions in morbidity and premature mortality and improvements in quality of life. However, not all Americans have benefitted equally from these advances, and certain populations experience continued disparities in cancer care. Although research and public health efforts have highlighted the experiences of some groups, other populations have been relatively understudied, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Public health efforts in surveillance, research, programs, and partnerships can provide opportunities to advance health equity for LGBT at the population level and lead to better health outcomes for LGBT individuals with cancer. PMID:26566532
Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F
Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728
INTRODUCTION Monitoring and modifying physicians’ prescribing behavior through prescription tracking is integral to pharmaceutical marketing. Health information organizations (HIOs) combine prescription information purchased from pharmacies with anonymized patient medical records purchased from health insurance companies to determine which drugs individual physicians prefer for specific diagnoses and patient populations. This information is used to tailor marketing strategies to individual physicians and to assess the effect of promotions on prescribing behavior. DISCUSSION The American Medical Association (AMA) created the Prescription Data Restriction Plan in an attempt to address both the privacy concerns of physicians and industry concerns that legislation could compromise the availability of prescribing data. However, the PDRP only prohibits sales representatives and their immediate supervisors from accessing the most detailed reports. Less than 2% of US physicians have registered for the PDRP, and those who have signed up are not the physicians who are targeted for marketing. CONCLUSION Although it has been argued that prescription tracking benefits public health, data gathered by HIOs is designed for marketing drugs. These data are sequestered by industry and are not generally available for genuine public health purposes. PMID:18473146
Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E
A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560
Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.
Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.
Public access computing in health science libraries began with online computer-assisted instruction. Library-based collections and services have expanded with advances in microcomputing hardware and software. This growth presents problems: copyright, quality, instability in the publishing industry, and uncertainty about collection scope; librarians managing the new services require new skills to support their collections. Many find the cooperative efforts of several organizational units are required. Current trends in technology for the purpose of information management indicate that these services will continue to be a significant focus for libraries.
Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sayaka
Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has shown that extreme use of alcohol, poor diet and nutrition, and psychological stress all have negative effects on periodontal health. Research on sociobehavioral risk factors has great implication to prevent periodontal disease. The case for tobacco is illustrated in this report. The global exposure to tobacco use in adults and adolescents is outlined. Because of the global Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (2003), the solid research on the harmful effect of tobacco is now being widely used for public health. The importance of tobacco prevention within the context of health-promoting schools is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population
Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.
Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yang, Beilei
Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958
Silverman, Ross D
Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.
Issues arising in connection with genes and nutrition policy include both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics considers the relationship between specifc nutrients or diet and gene expression and, it is envisaged, will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, and in the longer term may lead to personalised dietary recommendations. It is important also to consider the surrounding context of other issues such as novel and functional foods in so far as they are related to genetic modification. Ethical issues fall into a number of categories: (1) why nutrigenomics? Will it have important public health benefits? (2) questions about research, e.g. concerning the acquisition of information about individual genetic variation; (3) questions about who has access to this information, and its possible misuse; (4) the applications of this information in terms of public health policy, and the negotiation of the potential tension between the interests of the individual in relation to, for example, prevention of conditions such as obesity and allergy; (5) the appropriate ethical approach to the issues, e.g. the moral difference, if any, between therapy and enhancement in relation to individualised diets; whether the 'technological fix' is always appropriate, especially in the wider context of the purported lack of public confidence in science, which has special resonance in the sphere of nutrition.
The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions.
Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.
Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking. PMID:24028265
Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W
Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking.
Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A
Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.
Bernheim, Ruth Gaare
Public health ethics is emerging as a new field of inquiry, distinct not only from public health law, but also from traditional medical ethics and research ethics. Public health professional and scholarly attention is focusing on ways that ethical analysis and a new public health code of ethics can be a resource for health professionals working in the field. This article provides a preliminary exploration of the ethical issues faced by public health professionals in day-to-day practice and of the type of ethics education and support they believe may be helpful.
In Italy, the year 1946 was characterized, on one hand, by the growing concern for the lack of public structures and, on the other, by the hopes placed in the research sector, namely the apparently inexhaustible properties of penicillin and antibiotics. Consistently, Igiene e Sanità Pubblica reflected the general mood of the hygienists, swinging between the strong protests against a far too slow political system incapable of spurring scientific research, and the constant engagement aimed at enhancing the future role of public health. Besides facing many institutional problems, such as claiming an official recognition for their profession, hygienists also managed to make Italians understand the real value of a discipline conceived for the community service.
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...
... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...
... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...
... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...
Hutt, Peter Barton
Major criticisms of health science policy are that (1) health science research is not presently designed to help the public which pays for it; (2) the public should have greater control over health science research; and (3) federal funding of training for health science research is an inappropriate use of tax funds. (Author/DB)
Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.
Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…
Yasnoff, William A.; Overhage, J. Marc; Humphreys, Betsy L.; LaVenture, Martin
The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. PMID:11687561
Leipert, B D
It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.
This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…
Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities. PMID:19608955
Lopez, Russ P
Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities.
Jacobson, Peter D.; Palmer, Jennifer A.
We investigated ways of defining and measuring the value of services provided by governmental public health systems. Our data sources included literature syntheses and qualitative interviews of public health professionals. Our examination of the health economic literature revealed growing attempts to measure value of public health services explicitly, but few studies have addressed systems or infrastructure. Interview responses demonstrated no consensus on metrics and no connection to the academic literature. Key challenges for practitioners include developing rigorous, data-driven methods and skilled staff; being politically willing to base allocation decisions on economic evaluation; and developing metrics to capture “intangibles” (e.g., social justice and reassurance value). Academic researchers evaluating the economics of public health investments should increase focus on the working needs of public health professionals. PMID:18923123
Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.
Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.
The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084
Patel, Meghal; Miller, Margaret Ann
Regulatory science plays a vital role in protecting and promoting global public health by providing the scientific basis for ensuring that food and medical products are safe, properly labeled, and effective. Regulatory science research was first developed for the determination of product safety in the early part of the 20th Century, and continues to support innovation of the processes needed for regulatory policy decisions. Historically, public health laws and regulations were enacted following public health tragedies, and often the research tools and techniques required to execute these laws lagged behind the public health needs. Throughout history, similar public health problems relating to food and pharmaceutical products have occurred in countries around the world, and have usually led to the development of equivalent solutions. For example, most countries require a demonstration of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy prior to marketing these products using approaches that are similar to those initiated in the United States. The globalization of food and medical products has created a shift in regulatory compliance such that gaps in food and medical product safety can generate international problems. Improvements in regulatory research can advance the regulatory paradigm toward a more preventative, proactive framework. These improvements will advance at a greater pace with international collaboration by providing additional resources and new perspectives for approaching and anticipating public health problems. The following is a review of how past public health disasters have shaped the current regulatory landscape, and where innovation can facilitate the shift from reactive policies to proactive policies.
Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.
Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T
Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept
Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.
This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…
Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.
Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.
This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation.
This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.
Sibbald, Shannon L; Graham, Ross; Gilliland, Jason
Greater understanding of the important and complex relationship between the built environment and human health has made 'healthy places' a focus of public health and health promotion. While current literature concentrates on creating healthy places through traditional decision-making pathways (namely, municipal land use planning and urban design processes), this paper explores do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism: a movement circumventing traditional pathways to, arguably, create healthy places and advance social justice. Despite being aligned with several health promotion goals, DIY urbanism interventions are typically illegal and have been categorized as a type of civil disobedience. This is challenging for public health officials who may value DIY urbanism outcomes, but do not necessarily support the means by which it is achieved. Based on the literature, we present a preliminary approach to health promotion decision-making in this area. Public health officials can voice support for DIY urbanism interventions in some instances, but should proceed cautiously.
Camic, Paul M; Chatterjee, Helen J
The majority of public health programmes are based in schools, places of employment and in community settings. Likewise, nearly all health-care interventions occur in clinics and hospitals. An underdeveloped area for public health-related planning that carries international implications is the cultural heritage sector, and specifically museums and art galleries. This paper presents a rationale for the use of museums and art galleries as sites for public health interventions and health promotion programmes through discussing the social role of these organisations in the health and well-being of the communities they serve. Recent research from several countries is reviewed and integrated into a proposed framework for future collaboration between cultural heritage, health-care and university sectors to further advance research, policy development and evidence-based practice.
Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita
More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.
Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K
Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing.
Mutatkar, R K
Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope.
Hartsfield, DeKeely; Moulton, Anthony D.; McKie, Karen L.
Model public health laws (public health laws or private policies publicly recommended by at least 1 organization for adoption by government bodies or by specified private entities) are promoted as exemplary. We assessed the information sponsors of model public health laws provide on the methods used in developing their models and on their models’ adoption and effectiveness. Through a systematic search, we identified 107 model public health laws published from 1907 to 2004. As of our assessment in 2005, only 18 (44%) of the sponsors presented any information on the procedures and evidence used in developing their model public health laws; information on adoption was provided for only 7 (6.5%) model laws. No sponsors provided information on model effectiveness. We recommend sponsors improve their disclosure of information about the methods and evidence used in developing model public health laws and about their adoption and effectiveness. PMID:17413072
Hodge, James G; Barraza, Leila; Bernstein, Jennifer; Chu, Courtney; Collmer, Veda; Davis, Corey; Griest, Megan M; Hammer, Monica S; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Orenstein, Daniel G
Since its inception in September 2010, the Network for Public Health Law has responded to hundreds of public health legal technical assistance claims from around the country. Based on a review of these data, a series of major trends in public health practice and the law are analyzed, including issues concerning: the Affordable Care Act, tobacco control, emergency legal preparedness, health information privacy, food policy, vaccination, drug overdose prevention, sports injury law, public health accreditation, and maternal breastfeeding. These and other emerging themes in public health law demonstrate the essential role of law and practice in advancing the public's health.
Mostashari, Farzad; Hripcsak, George; Soulakis, Nicholas; Kuperman, Gilad
Public health relies on data reported by health care partners, and information technology makes such reporting easier than ever. However, data are often structured according to a variety of different terminologies and formats, making data interfaces complex and costly. As one strategy to address these challenges, health information organizations (HIOs) have been established to allow secure, integrated sharing of clinical information among numerous stakeholders, including clinical partners and public health, through health information exchange (HIE). We give detailed descriptions of 11 typical cases in which HIOs can be used for public health purposes. We believe that HIOs, and HIE in general, can improve the efficiency and quality of public health reporting, facilitate public health investigation, improve emergency response, and enable public health to communicate information to the clinical community. PMID:21330598
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice.
JPRS: ^472 21 March 1961 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY IN INDONESIA 3y M. Joedono DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. ,-^’ JPRS: J^72 CSO: 1335-S/d PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY
Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027
Lahey, Benjamin B
The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them.
Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.
The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document...
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document...
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document...
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document...
Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina
Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead
Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina
Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead
Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee
Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…
Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J
The Institute of Medicine concluded that keeping the public healthy required a well-educated public health workforce, thus leading to its recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health" . In response to this call, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in strengthening (or building) a functional collaborative model between academic institutions and practitioners from local health departments to educate tomorrow's public health workforce. Local and regional health departments in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of collaborations with academic partners; (3) assess how they jointly promote public health workforce development; and (4) analyze which essential public health services their partnership addresses. Despite the lack of financial resources often cited for the absence of academic-local health department collaborations, some New England states reported that their academic institution and local public health department partnerships were valued and productive. The authors discuss how effective academic-community collaborations have the potential to facilitate a broad-based appreciation of public health among students via a wide array of public health curricula and applied experiential learning opportunities in public health settings. The authors propose a model for how to combine basic public health lessons with practical experience and leadership offered by local health departments, in order to foster a real understanding of public health, its importance, practice, and relevance in today's society from a public health workforce perspective.
This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.
In this paper, I describe how public health officers in Japan in the period of the late Taisho and early Showa eras claimed their position as professionals in the sanitary administrations of central and local governments. In the background of this push for recognition, there were related international and national movements. Internationally, public health ministries were established in developed countries and the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) was created. LNHO wanted to improve the level of public health officials world-wide, so the organization sponsored international exchanges of officials. These activities made a strong impression on Japanese public health officials, who realized that they belonged to an internationally recognized profession and that they needed to work hard to improve the substandard Japanese public health situation. Meanwhile, at the level of domestic politics, there were several movements of technical experts in different fields of government administration that worked to fight the unfair treatment of administrative officials, a situation that had existed since Meiji Period. The public health officers collaborated with the other technical experts to improve their positions and to play key roles in society. But while the other technical experts actively pursued social leadership, public health officials wanted to remain scientists. This is because the sanitary departments in the local governments were organized within police departments. In this environment, the law was dominant and science was secondary. But public health officials insisted that the basis of public health should be science, so they emphasized their scientific expertise.
... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES......
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...
Winett, L B
Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes. Images p-a p499-a p500-a p501-a p502-a p503-a p504-a p506-a PMID:9847921
Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.
American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897
Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J
The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.
Cali, Salvatore; Scheff, Peter; Mucha, Amy; Nickels, Leslie; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel
The Great Lakes Center of Excellence in Environmental Health (GLCEEH), an innovative capacity-building component of the University of Illinois, performs health hazard evaluations in collaboration with the Illinois Department of Public Health and local health departments. GLCEEH has provided state and local health departments with faculty, industrial-hygiene expertise, and research expertise to help them investigate a variety of environmental health issues. This article describes health hazard evaluations performed with support from the National Center for Environmental Health, lessons learned, and recommendations for successful collaboration between academic and public health departments. From the academic perspective, health hazard evaluations are beneficial because they provide faculty and students with the opportunity to engage in public health practice and encounter new issues that advance the science of environmental health through research. From the perspective of a public health department, health hazard evaluations are beneficial because they address priority environmental health concerns and build the capacity of department personnel to conduct health hazard evaluations with internal resources. A collaborative health hazard evaluation program increases public health capacity by developing new approaches to environmental health problems and by sharing limited resources.
García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M
Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability.
Annas, George J
It is unnecessary and counterproductive to sacrifice basic human rights to respond to bioterrorism. Constructive public health legislation, which must be federal, cannot be carefully drafted under panic conditions. When it is, like the "model act," it will predictably rely on broad, arbitrary state authority exercised without public accountability. Public health should resist reverting to its nineteenth-century practices of forced examination and quarantine, which will simply encourage people to avoid physicians, hospitals, and public health practitioners they now trust and actively seek out in emergencies. Upholding human rights is essential to public trust and is ultimately our best defense against the threat of terrorism in the twenty-first century.
PUBLIC HEALTH, *GHANA, SUBSAHARAN AFRICA, ECONOMICS, NATURAL RESOURCES, DEMOGRAPHY, DISEASES, MAPS , ANIMALS, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, MEDICAL SERVICES, NUTRITION, GEOGRAPHY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, SANITARY ENGINEERING, DISEASE VECTORS.
Lara, Diego A; Lopez, Keila N
Public health research is an integral part of the study of congenital heart disease. While this type of research has become more popular, particularly over the past decade, it has a history that stretches back to almost the beginnings of pediatric cardiology as a field. This review aims to introduce the concepts and methodologies of public health and how they relate to congenital heart disease, describe some of the challenges of traditional research methods in congenital heart disease, describe the history of public health research, and demonstrate the relevance of public health research, particularly databases, to pediatric cardiology fellows.
MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Buehler, James W.
Ethical issues that can arise in distinguishing public health research from practice are highlighted in 2 case studies—an investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison and an evaluation of a program for improving HIV prevention services. Regardless of whether such public health investigations represent research or practice, we see a need for ethics oversight procedures that reflect actual risks and enable timely responses to crises. Such oversight should accommodate the perspectives of persons and communities affected by public health threats and by governmental responses to those threats; it should further recognize that public health ethics is a distinct field combining bioethics, political philosophy, human rights, and law. PMID:15249291
Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V
This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.
At the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV), methods to alleviate problems with disability have been seen as an important part of actions to support public health. A programme for universal design was started in 2006. Some issues of public health perspectives on disability are presented in this paper, based on discussions from a PhD course held at the NHV. During the course, the students presented papers in which they reflected on the relationship between disability and public health. These essays were collected and published in 2012 at NHV.
Leider, Jonathon P
Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to
Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L
Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R
Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R
Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health. PMID:25954386
Lefebvre, R. Craig; Flora, June A.
The proliferation of community-based health education programs has outpaced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate for public health interventions. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process. (JOW)
Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S
Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.
Stancliff, Sharon; Phillips, Benjamin W; Maghsoudi, Nazlee; Joseph, Herman
Drug use is a public health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity, and is often accompanied by suboptimal engagement in health care. Harm reduction is a pragmatic public health approach encompassing all goals of public health: improving health, social well-being, and quality of life. Harm reduction prioritizes improving the lives of people who use drugs in partnership with those served without a narrow focus on abstinence from drugs. Evidence has shown that harm reduction oriented practice can reduce transmission of blood-borne illnesses, and other injection related infections, as well as preventing fatal overdose.
Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael
There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058
Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Jones, Walter A; Malone, Samantha L; Vinci, Leon F
High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional gas reserves has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production. HVHF has been promoted as a way to decrease dependence on foreign energy sources, replace dirtier energy sources like coal, and generate economic development. At the same time, activities related to expanded HVHF pose potential risks including ground- and surface water contamination, climate change, air pollution, and effects on worker health. HVHF has been largely approached as an issue of energy economics and environmental regulation, but it also has significant implications for public health. We argue that public health provides an important perspective on policymaking in this arena. The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently adopted a policy position for involvement of public health professionals in this issue. Building on that foundation, this commentary lays out a set of five perspectives that guide how public health can contribute to this conversation.
Heuer, Chelsea A.
Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322
Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity.
Riegelman, Richard K.; Albertine, Susan
This curriculum guide serves to assist faculty who are developing undergraduate courses in public health as well as educational administrators and faculty curriculum committees who are designing undergraduate public health curricula. The approach outlined in these recommendations focuses on the development of three core courses, each of which is…
NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be presenting their results to the Environmnetal Public Health Tracking (EPHT) workshop in Tampa FL. The PHASE project is a collab...
McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David
Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…
Akintola, S O
The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.
Department of Health , Education, and Welfare, Washington., DC. Office of the Secretary.
For potential grant applicants and for the general public, the booklet describes the programs of the six Public Health Service agencies in the American health care system. Each program is described concisely in terms of: its purpose and legal basis; applicants' eligibility for grants and the basis for their award; the special requirements made of…
... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...
Rein, Andrew S; Ogden, Lydia L
Public health has considerable capacity to reduce the drag of health spending on our nation by preventing the leading causes of disease, death, and disability with cost-efficient, population-based interventions and innovative, boundary-spanning approaches that link clinical care and community prevention. Public health is uniquely able to identify the burdens of disease and analyze the best strategies for addressing them. A 3-pronged strategy can help assure the value needed from our public health investments. First, we must center our efforts on prevention. Second, we must optimize our public health investments to achieve the greatest value for our investment. Third, public health must collaborate with traditional and new partners on initiatives and in funding. How we finance public health is critical to maximizing public health's benefits and requires thoughtful analysis of how federal funding affects state and local health agencies' programming and how allocation drives choices and design, among other topics, as discussed in this special issue of the journal.
Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F
Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research.
Levine, Robert S; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul
Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates.
Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.
Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499
Card, Alan J
Avoidable patient harm is a major public health concern, and may already have surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death in the United States. While the public health community has contributed much to one aspect of patient harm prevention, infection control, the tools and techniques of public health have far more to offer to the emerging field of patient safety science. Patient safety practice has become increasingly professionalized in recent years, but specialist degree programs in the field remain scarce. Healthcare organizations should consider graduate training in public health as an avenue for investing in the professional development of patient safety practitioners, and schools and programs of public health should support further research and teaching to support patient safety improvement.
Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.
Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885
Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305
Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits.
Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.
Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471
Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.
Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443
Coughlin, Steven S.
General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707
A theoretical reflection on public health from a standpoint of social justice, which does not overlook the individual, is presented. Based on a conceptualization of social justice, human rights and health in the framework of an epistemological analysis, a particular perspective on social justice and its implications for public health praxis, using a public health program as an example, is revealed. Some routes are identified in order to orient and put into practice the actions developed in public health programs. This requires a different way of understanding the scenarios and interchanges among people in the field of clinical practice. It is understood that these fields can also be seen as a suitable opportunity for the establishment of individuals and individualities committed to the political struggle for human rights, equity in health and recognition of a life worthy of human dignity.
McNabb, Scott J N; Koo, D; Seligman, J
Since CDC acquired its first mainframe computer in 1964, the use of information technology in public health practice has grown steadily and, during the past 2 decades, dramatically. Public health informatics (PHI) arrived on the scene during the 1990s after medical informatics (intersecting information technology, medicine, and health care) and bioinformatics (intersecting mathematics, statistics, computer science, and molecular biology). Similarly, PHI merged the disciplines of information science and computer science to public health practice, research, and learning. Using strategies and standards, practitioners employ PHI tools and training to maximize health impacts at local, state, and national levels. They develop and deploy information technology solutions that provide accurate, timely, and secure information to guide public health action.
Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth
Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.
Vaccine-hesitant parents are often portrayed as misinformed dilettantes clinging to unscientific Internet chatter and a debunked study that linked vaccines and autism. While this depiction may be an accurate portrayal of a small (but vocal) subset, scholars have unearthed a more complex picture that casts vaccine hesitancy in the context of broader notions of lack of trust in government and industry. At the same time, commentators have highlighted limitations of the vaccine injury compensation program and US Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg have argued that preemption laws that provide vaccine manufacturers with broad legal immunities create "a regulatory vacuum in which no one ensures that vaccine manufacturers adequately take account of scientific and technological advancements when designing or distributing their products." In short, the discussions surrounding vaccine hesitancy that dominate public discourse detract from serious debate as to whether amendments to vaccine-related laws can address the limitations of the existing framework governing immunizations. This commentary examines these issues through a public health law lens.
Gostin, Lawrence O.; Hodge, James G.; Valdiserri, Ronald O.
Protecting public health requires the acquisition, use, and storage of extensive health-related information about individuals. The electronic accumulation and exchange of personal data promises significant public health benefits but also threatens individual privacy; breaches of privacy can lead to individual discrimination in employment, insurance, and government programs. Individuals concerned about privacy invasions may avoid clinical or public health tests, treatments, or research. Although individual privacy protections are critical, comprehensive federal privacy protections do not adequately protect public health data, and existing state privacy laws are inconsistent and fragmented. The Model State Public Health Privacy Act provides strong privacy safeguards for public health data while preserving the ability of state and local public health departments to act for the common good. PMID:11527765
Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie
Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university–public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health. PMID:27854518
Paradis, Gilles; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie
Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university-public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health.
Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge.
Thompson, Amy; Boardley, Debra; Kerr, Dianne; Greene, Tiffany; Jenkins, Melissa
The purpose of this national study was to determine advocacy activities and level of involvement of health commissioners regarding public policy. Benefits, barriers, and perceived outcomes of advocacy efforts were also explored. A previously validated (Holtrop et al., Am J Health Behav 24(2):132-142, 2000) four-page survey was mailed to 700 health commissioners, who were randomly selected from the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) database. A three-wave mailing was performed which yielded a 50% response rate. Of these respondents, the majority (70%) were female and (88%) Caucasian. Overall, 31% of health commissioners reported being involved in influencing public policy in the last 4 years. The most common reported activities engaged in by health commissioners included voting (84%), and providing policy information to consumers or other professionals (77%). Perceived barriers to influencing policy were time, (64%), and other priorities (46%). Perceived benefits to influencing policy included improving the health of the public (94%) and making a difference in others' lives (87%). Only 15% perceived their knowledge regarding the process of changing public policy was excellent. Although health commissioners are often spokespersons for health agencies and communities, their public policy involvement is marginal. Professional preparation programs and continuing education opportunities should focus on advocacy, public policy development, and removing barriers to action.
Raup, Sarah F; Oehlke, Kristin Peterson; Edwards, Karen L
The sequencing of the human genome has provided tools to gain a better understanding of the role of genes and their interaction with environmental factors in the development of disease. However, much work remains in translating discoveries into new opportunities for disease prevention and health promotion. Both public health academia and practice have important roles to play in bridging the gap between the growth in knowledge stemming from the Human Genome Project and its application in public health. Recognizing this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, through the Association of Schools of Public Health, established Centers for Genomics and Public Health at three schools of public health in 2001: the University of Michigan, the University of North Carolina, and the University of Washington. This paper describes the experience of the University of Washington Center for Genomics and Public Health in forging partnerships with public health practitioners to translate genomic advances into public health practice.
Grannis, Shaun J.; Stevens, Kevin C.; Merriwether, Ricardo
Public health situational awareness is contingent upon timely, comprehensive and accurate information from clinical systems. Ad-hoc models for sending non-standard clinical information directly to public health are inefficient and increasingly unsustainable. Information sharing models that leverage Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) are emerging. HIEs standardize, aggregate and streamline information sharing among data partners, including public health stakeholders, and HIE has supported public health practice in Indiana for more than 10 years. To accelerate nationwide adoption of HIE-supported situational awareness processes, the CDC awarded three HIEs across the nation, including Indiana, New York and Washington/Idaho. The Indiana partners included Indiana University School of Medicine, Regenstrief Institute, Indiana Health Information Exchange, Indiana State Department of Health, Health & Hospital Corporation of Marion County, and Children’s Hospital Boston. Activities included augmenting biosurveillance processes, enabling bi-directional communication, enhancing automated detection of notifiable conditions, and demonstrating technological advances at national forums. HIE transactions destined for public health were enhanced with standardized clinical vocabulary and more complete physician contact information. During the 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak, the HIE delivered targeted public health broadcast messages to providers in Marion County, Indiana. We will review the partnership characteristics, activities, accomplishments and future directions for our health information exchange. PMID:23569586
Grannis, Shaun J; Stevens, Kevin C; Merriwether, Ricardo
Public health situational awareness is contingent upon timely, comprehensive and accurate information from clinical systems. Ad-hoc models for sending non-standard clinical information directly to public health are inefficient and increasingly unsustainable. Information sharing models that leverage Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) are emerging. HIEs standardize, aggregate and streamline information sharing among data partners, including public health stakeholders, and HIE has supported public health practice in Indiana for more than 10 years. To accelerate nationwide adoption of HIE-supported situational awareness processes, the CDC awarded three HIEs across the nation, including Indiana, New York and Washington/Idaho. The Indiana partners included Indiana University School of Medicine, Regenstrief Institute, Indiana Health Information Exchange, Indiana State Department of Health, Health & Hospital Corporation of Marion County, and Children's Hospital Boston. Activities included augmenting biosurveillance processes, enabling bi-directional communication, enhancing automated detection of notifiable conditions, and demonstrating technological advances at national forums. HIE transactions destined for public health were enhanced with standardized clinical vocabulary and more complete physician contact information. During the 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak, the HIE delivered targeted public health broadcast messages to providers in Marion County, Indiana. We will review the partnership characteristics, activities, accomplishments and future directions for our health information exchange.
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
Tchounwou, Paul B
During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.
Tchounwou, Paul B.
During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079
Context: Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Methods: Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Findings: Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants’ health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. Conclusions: This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations. PMID:20579281
Lollar, Donald J
The public health community has traditionally paid little attention to the health needs of people with disabilities. Recent activities, however, on the part of federal and international organizations mark a shift toward engaging the health concerns of this large and growing population. First, the World Health Organization published the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), a companion to the International Classification of Diseases. The ICF describes both a conceptual framework and a classification system, providing the foundation for public health science and policy. Second, a vision for the future of public health and disability is outlined in Healthy People 2010 that, for the first time, includes people with disabilities as a targeted population. The article briefly describes activities and emerging opportunities for a public health focus on people with disabilities with the ICF as a foundation and Healthy People 2010 as a vision. Public health has traditionally responded to emerging needs; people with disabilities are a group whose health needs should be targeted.
One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971
Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.
The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.
Geppert, Cynthia M A; Arndell, Cynthia L; Clithero, Amy; Dow-Velarde, Lily A; Eldredge, Jonathan D; Eldredge, Jonathan P; Kalishman, Summers; Kaufman, Arthur; McGrew, Martha C; Snyder, Tiffany M; Solan, Brian G; Timm, Craig T; Tollestrup, Kristine; Wagner, Lana K; Wiese, William H; Wiggins, Charles L; Cosgrove, Ellen M
The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) sought to train medical students in public health concepts, knowledge, and skills as a means of improving the health of communities statewide. Faculty members from every UNMSOM department collaborated to create and integrate a public health focus into all years of the medical school curriculum. They identified key competencies and developed new courses that would synchronize students' learning public health subjects with the mainstream medical school content. New courses include: Health Equity: Principles of Public Health; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Evidence-Based Practice; Community-Based Service Learning; and Ethics in Public Health. Students experiencing the new courses, first in pilot and then final forms, gave high quantitative ratings to all courses. Some students' qualitative comments suggest that the Public Health Certificate has had a profound transformative effect. Instituting the integrated Public Health Certificate at UNMSOM places it among the first medical schools to require all its medical students to complete medical school with public health training. The new UNMSOM Public Health Certificate courses reunite medicine and public health in a unified curriculum.
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
Health protection legislation has been updated through amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 to take account of emerging diseases and the risk of contamination by adopting an all hazard approach to disease protection. To further strengthen safeguards for protecting health, new health protection powers have been given to local authorities and magistrates. The powers can be used to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases and contamination. Health professionals, including district nurses, need to be aware of the health protection powers. This will enable them to take appropriate decisions in cases where voluntary measures to protect health are not possible.
Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra
The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.
Hristovski, D; Rogac, M; Markota, M
The paper describes the possibilities of using data warehousing and OLAP technologies in public health care in general and then our own experience with these technologies gained during the implementation of a data warehouse of outpatient data at the national level. Such a data warehouse serves as a basis for advanced decision support systems based on statistical, OLAP or data mining methods. We used OLAP to enable interactive exploration and analysis of the data. We found out that data warehousing and OLAP are suitable for the domain of public health and that they enable new analytical possibilities in addition to the traditional statistical approaches.
The genius of Edward Hartley Angle, (1855-1930), the founder of the dental specialty of orthodontics, to create order from chaos in the study and treatment of positional discrepancies of the teeth, jaws and face advanced greatly the cause of dental public health. Angle's innovations that had the most public health impact were (1) his identification of dental occlusion, not simply tooth irregularity, as a prime concern, (2) his development of an uncomplicated classification system for occlusal conditions, (3) his introduction of prefabricated orthodontic appliances and (4) his framing of orthodontics as a dental specialty by organizing the world's first educational program to train orthodontists.
Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey
Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…
Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Qureshi, Nadeem; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Khoury, Muin J
Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.
As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.
Wirawan, I Made Ady
Although climate change is a global concern, there are particular considerations for Indonesia as an archipelagic nation. These include the vulnerability of people living in small islands and coastal areas to rising sea levels; the expansion of the important mosquito-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue, into areas that lack of immunity; and the increase in water-borne diseases and malnutrition. This article proposes a set of public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia. Some important principles and practices in public health are highlighted, to develop effective public health approaches to climate change in Indonesia.
Recent decades have been marked by the explosive development of innovative scientific, technological and business products and processes. Despite their immense impact on health globally, little has been accomplished in the field of global public health to incorporate, address and harness such innovations in practice. In order to meet the world's growing health needs, it is essential that global public health accepts and adapts to these innovations. Moreover, such innovations must be implemented equitably in ways that will best serve their intended recipients, without deepening health- and access-related disparities. This article will briefly discuss the wide array of technologies in the pipeline that will affect global public health practice, their impact on the field and on populations and the issues facing the field in adopting these innovations.
Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice
The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.
Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria
The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.
The article analyses the position of human health in the system of social economic relationships. The notion of material and technical resources in health institutions is defined. It is demonstrated that they are characterized by number of health institutions, their structure according levels and stages of medical care provision, costs of fixed assets, their structure and wear. The conceptual characteristics of actual management of public health resources are analyzed.
Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman
Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520
Deber, Raisa; McDougall, Christopher; Wilson, Kumanan
Although public health in Canada faces concerns similar to those noted by Tilson and Berkowitz in the US, a review we conducted of how public health is financed and delivered in Canada also highlights some key differences. In both systems, public health labours under similar disadvantages: it is invisible when it succeeds; it has overtones of a "nanny state" and it focuses on often unpopular vulnerable populations. Prevention is always at risk of being raided to finance treatment. Yet, Canada, because there are fewer financial barriers to receiving medically necessary personal services, can focus more attention on what Tilson and Berkowitz term "the ecology of health." We highlight some of the strengths and ongoing challenges of the Canadian public health system. We conclude that the issue appears less the need to measure performance, than the recognition that one size does not fit all. In particular, for threats to public health that transcend borders, local failure can affect wider populations and suggests a need to look beyond local, provincial or national sovereignty. Public health is heterogeneous, and many roads may lead us to the promised land.
Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y
Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.
Background Public health professionals are increasingly expected to engage in evidence-informed decision making to inform practice and policy decisions. Evidence-informed decision making involves the use of research evidence along with expertise, existing public health resources, knowledge about community health issues, the local context and community, and the political climate. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools has identified a seven step process for evidence-informed decision making. Tools have been developed to support public health professionals as they work through each of these steps. This paper provides an overview of tools used in three Canadian public health departments involved in a study to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. Methods As part of a knowledge translation and exchange intervention, a Knowledge Broker worked with public health professionals to identify and apply tools for use with each of the steps of evidence-informed decision making. The Knowledge Broker maintained a reflective journal and interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of decision makers and public health professionals. This paper presents qualitative analysis of the perceived usefulness and usability of the tools. Results Tools were used in the health departments to assist in: question identification and clarification; searching for the best available research evidence; assessing the research evidence for quality through critical appraisal; deciphering the ‘actionable message(s)’ from the research evidence; tailoring messages to the local context to ensure their relevance and suitability; deciding whether and planning how to implement research evidence in the local context; and evaluating the effectiveness of implementation efforts. Decision makers provided descriptions of how the tools were used within the health departments and made suggestions for improvement. Overall, the tools were perceived as valuable for advancing
Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.
Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E
Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514
Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E
Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession.
Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe
This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.
Solomons, Noel W
An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.
EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.
Natividad, Maria Dulce F; Fiereck, Kirk J; Parker, Richard
The challenges posed by a globalised world have made it imperative for society to search for solutions to emerging issues and to develop new ways of looking at old problems. Current discussions about global public health demand a shift in paradigms and the strategic positioning of public health within broader policy discussions that will enable it to influence political and action agendas. Critical to responding to these challenges is the generation, transmission and dissemination of new knowledge to create value. Recognising the cutting-edge role of knowledge, as a new form of capital that drives innovation and transforms society, the formation of knowledge networks is viewed as a strategy for developing a shared intellectual, conceptual and ethical infrastructure for the field of global public health. These knowledge networks are envisioned as a vehicle for sharing diverse perspectives, encouraging debate and sustaining alternative ways of thinking about and responding to the challenges that confront global public health today and in the future.
Mallach, E Rm; Ferrao, T; MacLean, R; Kirk, S Fl
Public Health 2016, the Canadian Public Health Association's annual conference, was held from June 13 to 16, 2016, in Toronto, Canada, and showcased a wide variety of public health issues that fostered considerable discussion at the conference and on social media. The four plenary sessions, while on seemingly disparate topics including technology, violence prevention, racism and harm reduction, all revealed the need for a cultural shift in the field of public health that acknowledges and addresses the broader inequities that influence the health and well-being of populations. They also highlighted some of the key challenges that society faces in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals released in 2015.
Tesler, Laura E.
To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118
Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E
To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.
Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Arshdeep; Sandhu, Anmol Rattan Singh; Dhaliwal, Angad Prakash Singh
Oral diseases are a major public health problem, and their burden is on increase in many low- and middle-income countries. Dental public health (DPH) aims to improve the oral health of the population through preventive and curative services. However, its achievements in India are being questioned probably because of lack of proficiency and skill among DPH personnel. The literature search for the present study was conducted utilizing various search engines and electronic databases such as PubMed and MEDLINE. Documents related to the Central and State Governments of India were also considered. Finally, 26 articles were selected for the present study from which relevant information can be extracted. The present study focuses on some of the important aspects relating to DPH in India such as priority for oral health, DPH workforce and curriculum, utilization of DPH personnel in providing primary oral health care, role of mobile dental vans, and research in DPH. It was concluded that more attention should be given toward preventive oral health care by employing more number of public health dentists in public sector, strengthening DPH education and research, and combining oral health programs with general health-care programs. PMID:28348984
Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura
Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.
Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.
Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853
Malinowski, Beth; Stock, Laura
Using a social–ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union–public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners. PMID:25521905
The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…
Hoffman, Sharona; Goodman, Richard A; Stier, Daniel D
According to many experts, a public health emergency arising from an influenza pandemic, bioterrorism attack, or natural disaster is likely to develop in the next few years. Meeting the public health and medical response needs created by such an emergency will likely involve volunteers, health care professionals, public and private hospitals and clinics, vaccine manufacturers, governmental authorities, and many others. Conducting response activities in emergency circumstances may give rise to numerous issues of liability, and medical professionals and other potential responders have expressed concern about liability exposure. Providers may face inadequate resources, an insufficient number of qualified personnel, overwhelming demand for services, and other barriers to providing optimal treatment, which could lead to injury or even death in some cases. This article describes the different theories of liability that may be used by plaintiffs and the sources of immunity that are available to public health emergency responders in the public sector, private sector, and as volunteers. It synthesizes the existing immunity landscape and analyzes its gaps. Finally, the authors suggest consideration of the option of a comprehensive immunity provision that addresses liability protection for all health care providers during public health emergencies and that, consequently, assists in improving community emergency response efforts.
Pernick, M S
Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633
The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.
Reddy, K Srinath; Mathur, Manu Raj; Negi, Sagri; Krishna, Bhargav
Adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by member states of the United Nations (UN) has set a new agenda for public health action at national and global levels. The changed context calls for a reframing of what constitutes effective leadership in public health, through a construct that reflects the interdependence of leadership at multiple levels across the health system and its partners in other sectors. This is especially important in the context of Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) that are facing complex demographic and epidemiological transitions. The health system needs to exercise leadership that effectively mobilises all its resources for maximising health impact, and channels trans-disciplinary learning into well-coordinated multi-sectoral action on the wider determinants of health. Leadership is essential not only at the level of inspirational individuals who can create collective vision and commitment but also at the level of supportive institutions situated in or aligned to the health system. In turn, the health system as a whole has to exercise leadership that advances public health in the framework of sustainable development. This commentary examines the desirable attributes of effective leadership at each of these levels and explores the nature of their inter-dependence.
Kottow, Miguel H
Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.
Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer
Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health information technology implementation... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning...
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health information technology implementation... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning...
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health information technology implementation... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology implementation... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning...
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health information technology implementation... CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning...
Wetle, Terrie Fox; Scanlan, Karen
Health disparities are a public health concern in Rhode Island and around the world. Faculty members and students in the Brown University School of Public Health are working to understand, address, and ultimately eliminate disparities in health and health care affecting diverse populations. Our educational offerings and research efforts are directed toward understanding and addressing the social, cultural, and environmental factors that contribute to these health disparities. Research methods to carry out this work include implementing interdisciplinary, community-based, quantitative and qualitative research with the goal of preventing, reducing, and eliminating health disparities. This article focuses on some of the School's work with vulnerable communities confronting issues around the following: HIV/AIDS, obesity, nutrition, physical activity and delivery of health services.
Robertson, Peter J.
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Dickinson, Dena; And Others
Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related conditions (ARC) need continual care and support, at a level which can severely tax the health resources of a community. Public health nursing should have a central role in the effective and efficient response to this devastating problem. Since the early stages of the AIDS…
Altman, David G.
Sustainability remains a key challenge in public health. The perspective article by Fagen and Flay adds to our understanding of technical factors associated with sustaining health interventions in schools. In this commentary, the Fagen and Flay article (2009) is considered within the broader literature on sustainability. By taking a broad view,…
Winder, Alvin E.; Stanitis, Mary Anne
A survey of 20 public health schools and 240 university schools of nursing found that nuclear war related content was most likely to be appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention. (FMW)
Public health policy has arguably taken a new direction in the UK since 1997. This is typified by a review of the public health workforce. A key profession within this workforce is that of health visiting. Starting Well, a Scottish National Health Demonstration Project is one attempt to develop the public health role of health visitors. The project aimed to improve child health by providing intensive home visiting to families in Glasgow. This paper reports on a process study focused on whether Starting Well, an intervention exemplifying contemporary public health policy, could be operationalised through health visiting practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 44 staff responsible for developing and implementing the programme. Whilst greater contact with families allowed health visitors to develop their understanding of the life circumstances of their case-load families, the evaluation raised issues about the feasibility of systematically changing practice and demonstrated the difficulties of implementing an approach that relied as much on individual values and organisational context as formal guidelines and standardised tools. Furthermore, the ability of the systems and structures within which practitioners were operating to facilitate a broad public health approach was limited. The policy context for public health demands that increasing numbers of health workers are familiar with its principles and modus operandi. It remains, however, a contested area of work and its implementation requires change at a number of levels. This has implications for current policy assumptions about improving population health.
Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C.; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.
Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)—have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health. PMID:25706019
Ramirez, Cherie L; Gajdos, Zofia K Z; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J
Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows-including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)-have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health.
Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)
Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.
White, Paul Dudley
In Macedonia a band of devoted, associated physicians fought the plagues of the nearer Orient, a splendid example of cosmopolitan coöperation. Here is the story as viewed by American eyes of a work which is fundemental in the removal of a very serious menace to the health of the world. Imagesp15-ap15-bp16-ap17-ap17-bp18-ap19-ap20-a PMID:18010227
McKinnon, Mark F; Elizondo, Epifanio; Bonfiglio, Susan M; Hunter-Buskey, Robin N; Placide, Frances P; Bunnell, Rebecca A
Since 1798, the men and women of the Commissioned Corps of the US Public Health Service (USPHS), one of the seven US uniformed services, have served on the front lines of public health. Two hundred years after the start of the USPHS, the first physician assistant (PA) entered the service to carry on the tradition of protecting, promoting, and advancing the health and safety of the nation. These dedicated clinicians are involved in healthcare delivery to underserved and vulnerable populations, disease control and prevention, biomedical research, food and drug regulation, and national and international response efforts for natural and man-made disasters. This article describes how PAs in the Commissioned Corps of the USPHS have impacted the health and safety of not only the United States but also the international community.
O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S
Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science.
Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.
Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith
HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective
Keim, Mark E
Tsunamis have the potential to cause an enormous impact on the health of millions of people. During the last half of the twentieth century, more people were killed by tsunamis than by earthquakes. Most recently, a major emergency response operation has been underway in northeast Japan following a devastating tsunami triggered by the biggest earthquake on record in Japan. This natural disaster has been described as the most expensive in world history. There are few resources in the public health literature that describe the characteristics and epidemiology of tsunami-related disasters, as a whole. This article reviews the phenomenology and impact of tsunamis as a significant public health hazard.
Cohen, Emma RM; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A
Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues. PMID:18492256
Moore, Angela R.; Buchanan, Natasha D.; Fairley, Temeika L.; Smith, Judith Lee
Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors’ mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641
Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.
Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053
Glik, Deborah C
This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk communication for public health. Literature from four different disciplines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (a) environmental risk communication, (b) disaster management, (c) health promotion and communication, and (d) media and communication studies. Current curricula and training materials are briefly reviewed. Although this literature review suggests much progress has been made to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, and case studies suggest that public health workers have gained skills and experience, this emerging field still lacks in-depth evaluation of the effectiveness of event-specific crisis risk communication efforts.
Worldwide, a child born in 1955 had an average life expectancy at birth of only 48 years. By 2000, the average life expectancy at birth had increased to 66 years and, if past trends continue, is projected to rise to 73 years by 2025. These improvements in longevity have resulted from improved living conditions overall, advances in medical science, and a number of population-level interventions. However, major disparities persist. During the past decade, in low-income countries, average life expectancy at birth increased from 55 to 57 years (3.6%), while increasing from 78 to 80 years (2.6%) in high-income countries. Analogous to the recent MMWR report highlighting 10 public health achievements that occurred in the United States over the first 10 years of the new century, this report describes global public health achievements during the same period. Experts in global public health were asked to nominate noteworthy public health achievements that occurred outside of the United States during 2001-2010. From them, 10 have been summarized in this report. As with the previous report, the 10 global public health achievements are not ranked in any order. Additional information regarding these achievements is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6019a5_addinfo.htm.
Oliver, Thomas R
Politics, for better or worse, plays a critical role in health affairs. The purpose of this article is to articulate a role for political analysis of public health issues, ranging from injury and disease prevention to health care reform. It begins by examining how health problems make it onto the policy agenda. Perceptions regarding the severity of the problem, responsibility for the problem, and affected populations all influence governmental responses. Next, it considers how bounded rationality, fragmented political institutions, resistance from concentrated interests, and fiscal constraints usually lead political leaders to adopt incremental policy changes rather than comprehensive reforms even when faced with serious public health problems. It then identifies conditions under which larger-scale transformation of health policy can occur, focusing on critical junctures in policy development and the role of policy entrepreneurs in seizing opportunities for innovation. Finally, it reviews the challenges confronting officials and agencies who are responsible for implementing and administering health policies. Public health professionals who understand the political dimensions of health policy can conduct more realistic research and evaluation, better anticipate opportunities as well as constraints on governmental action, and design more effective policies and programs.
Bond, V.P.; Wielopolski, L.
Starting with the classical threshold-sigmoid Medical-Toxicological plot, reasons are advanced for why the coordinates of this function are not appropriate for the analysis of Public Health-Epidemiological data. Misunderstanding with respect to both the level of biological organization and the word ``dose`` are pointed out, which explain why Public Health-Epidemiological data, anomalously, yield linear functions on medical-toxicological coordinates. It is then shown why substantially different coordinates must be used to obtain a function that describes properly and completely the cancer data obtained from epidemiological studies on the atomic bomb survivors. Arguments are put forth that seriously weaken the current interpretation of the ``linear, no-threshold hypothesis``. Reasons are advanced for why, if the amount of radiation energy is expressed in the proper terms, the numerical value for the cancer ``risk coefficient`` becomes substantially smaller than it now is.
Burton, H; Adams, M
Public health genomics (PHG) is an area of public health that is vital if we are to ensure that scientific advances in genomics are effectively and responsibly translated into public and health policies. Education and training in PHG for relevant professionals in public health and wider health and public policy was thus identified in 2006 as a key issue by the Public Health Genomics European Network (PHGEN). This paper provides an outline of the educational needs and practical proposals for the development of PHG education based on a resourced educational network that will undertake work on competences, the identification and sharing of current educational resources, and the development of programs in a variety of media and settings including highly specialist resources for researchers or individuals specializing in this area of policy.
Wallack, Lawrence; Lawrence, Regina
The mission of public health—improving the health of populations—is difficult to advance in public discourse because a language to express the values animating that mission has not been adequately developed. Following on the work of Robert Bellah, Dan Beauchamp, and others, we argue that the first “language” of American culture is individualism. A second American language of community—rooted in egalitarianism, humanitarianism, and human interconnection—serves as the first language of public health. These values resonate with many Americans but are not easily articulated. Consequently, reductionist, individualistic understandings of public health problems prevail. Advancing the public health approach to the nation’s health challenges requires invigorating America’s second language by recognizing the human interconnection underlying the core social justice values of public health. PMID:15798110
Verani, Andre R; Cossa, Dalmázia; Malaica A Mbeve, Ana; Sorneta, Carla; Ramirez, Lucy; Boore, Amy L; Mucambe, Francina; Vergara, Alfredo E
Realizing the fundamental contribution of human resources to public health, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued policy recommendations for health worker retention. We reviewed Mozambique's laws and regulations and assessed the extent to which this legal and regulatory framework governing public sector health workers aligns with the WHO health worker retention recommendations. We provide guidance for future analysis of non-binding policies that may fill gaps identified in our review. We also indicate how to link legal analysis to the cycle by which research informs policy, policy informs practice, and practice leads to improvements in health systems and population health. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of understanding and analyzing the impact of domestic laws on global health. Future research should assess implementation of health worker allowances and any associations with increased hiring, more equitable distribution, and improved retention - all are essential to public health in Mozambique.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 26 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.22.
Weller, Richard E.
Veterinary oncology has seen tremendous growth since the first textbook devoted to the subject in the late 1970s. Cancer is usually at the top of the list when owners ask about health concerns for their pets (and it remains the leading cause of death among dogs and cats). The volume, Veterinary Oncology Secrets, joins others in the series by presenting in question and answer format the type of information so important to veterinary students, interns and residents, general practitioners, and specialists in a number of clinical fields.
O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.
The costs of providing antiretroviral therapy services to HIV-infected individuals presenting with advanced HIV disease at public health centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Findings from a randomised trial evaluating different health care strategies
Kimaro, Godfather Dickson; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Simms, Victoria; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Bottomley, Christian; Hawkins, Neil; Harrison, Thomas S.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Guinness, Lorna
Background Understanding the costs associated with health care delivery strategies is essential for planning. There are few data on health service resources used by patients and their associated costs within antiretroviral (ART) programmes in Africa. Material and methods The study was nested within a large trial, which evaluated screening for cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis and a short initial period of home-based adherence support for patients initiating ART with advanced HIV disease in Tanzania and Zambia. The economic evaluation was done in Tanzania alone. We estimated costs of providing routine ART services from the health service provider's perspective using a micro-costing approach. Incremental costs for the different novel components of service delivery were also estimated. All costs were converted into US dollars (US$) and based on 2012 prices. Results Of 870 individuals enrolled in Tanzania, 434 were enrolled in the intervention arm and 436 in the standard care/control arm. Overall, the median (IQR) age and CD4 cell count at enrolment were 38 [31, 44] years and 52 [20, 89] cells/mm3, respectively. The mean per patient costs over the first three months and over a one year period of follow up following ART initiation in the standard care arm were US$ 107 (95%CI 101–112) and US$ 265 (95%CI 254–275) respectively. ART drugs, clinic visits and hospital admission constituted 50%, 19%, and 19% of the total cost per patient year, while diagnostic tests and non-ART drugs (co-trimoxazole) accounted for 10% and 2% of total per patient year costs. The incremental costs of the intervention to the health service over the first three months was US$ 59 (p<0.001; 95%CI 52–67) and over a one year period was US$ 67(p<0.001; 95%CI 50–83). This is equivalent to an increase of 55% (95%CI 51%–59%) in the mean cost of care over the first three months, and 25% (95%CI 20%–30%) increase over one year of follow up. PMID:28234969
Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils
Beck, Christina S; Aubuchon, Stellina M; McKenna, Timothy P; Ruhl, Stephanie; Simmons, Nathaniel
This article explores the functions of personal celebrity health narratives in the public sphere. This study examines data about 157 celebrities, including athletes, actors, musicians, and politicians, who have shared private information regarding a personal health situation (or that of a loved one) with others in the public domain. Part of a larger project on celebrity health narratives, this article highlights three key functions that celebrity health narratives perform--education, inspiration, and activism--and discusses the implications for celebrities and for public conversations about health-related issues.
... Search Find an Academic Program Discover Discover Overview Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, ... Services and Natural Disasters Health Disparities Profiles in Public Health Study Study Overview Graduates of CEPH-accredited schools ...
Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G
The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.
Birnbaum, David; Gretsinger, Kathryn; Ellis, Ursula
Purpose The aim of this paper is to describe the experience and educational benefits of a course that has several unique educational design features. Design/methodology/approach This includes narrative description of faculty and student experience from participants in a flipped-instructional-design inter-professional education course. Findings "Improving Public Health - An Interprofessional Approach to Designing and Implementing Effective Interventions" is an undergraduate public health course open to students regardless of background. Its student activities mirror the real-life tasks and challenges of working in a public health agency, including team-building and leadership; problem and project definition and prioritization; evidence-finding and critical appraisal; written and oral presentation; and press interviews. Students successfully developed project proposals to address real problems in a wide range of communities and settings and refined those proposals through interaction with professionals from population and public health, journalism and library sciences. Practical implications Undergraduate public health education is a relatively new endeavor, and experience with this new approach may be of value to other educators. Originality/value Students in this course, journalism graduate students who conducted mock interviews with them and instructors who oversaw the course all describe unique aspects and related personal benefit from this novel approach.
Caulfield, T A; Robertson, G B
There is a growing body of literature and commentary analyzing the ethical and public policy concerns associated with xenotransplantation. While this technology holds great promise to provide an almost limitless supply of organs for transplantation, there remains grave concern about possible public health ramifications. As a result, it has been recommended that patients who undergo xenotransplantations will need to agree, inter alia, to a lifetime of close health monitoring, participation in an international database and autopsy upon death. It has been suggested that this agreement would transform the nature of informed consent into a "binding contract." Though such draconian measures are understandable given the magnitude of the risks involved, would existing common law and legislation allow their implementation? This paper analyzes relevant Canadian consent and public health law in the context of the xenotransplantation. Canada is a country with a particularly rich body of informed consent jurisprudence--jurisprudence firmly rooted (rightly or not) in the ethical principle of autonomy. In this climate, many of the suggested monitoring strategies would find little support from Canadian law. Before xenotransplantations proceed, policy makers must be sensitive to the legal barriers which exist to the implementation [of] effective public health measures. Effective surveillance programs will require novel approaches to consent and the enactment of specific public health laws.
Perdiguero, E; Bernabeu, J; Huertas, R; Rodriguez-Ocana, E
The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of the history of public health for public health research and practice itself. After summarily reviewing the current great vitality of the history of collective health oriented initiatives, we explain three particular features of the historical vantage point in public health, namely the importance of the context, the relevance of a diachronic attitude and the critical perspective. In order to illustrate those three topics, we bring up examples taken from three centuries of fight against malaria, the so called "re-emerging diseases" and the 1918 influenza epidemic. The historical approach enriches our critical perception of the social effects of initiatives undertaken in the name of public health, shows the shortcomings of public health interventions based on single factors and asks for a wider time scope in the assessment of current problems. The use of a historical perspective to examine the plurality of determinants in any particular health condition will help to solve the longlasting debate on the primacy of individual versus population factors, which has been particularly intense in recent times. Keywords: history PMID:11511647
Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn
Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to
Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael
Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.
Chakrabarty, Sanjiban; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Brand, Angela; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu
It is now recognized worldwide that anticipation and prevention of diseases have significant advantages for the health and healthy ageing of the population. Early recognition of the disease in a vulnerable population such as in children aged <5 years and adults aged >60 years enhances our preparedness for any eventualities and future burden of the diseases to society. It is also recognized that current public health practices alone cannot bring about the desired outcome. When tackling public health-related issues, such problems must be recognized and state-of-the-art principles and innovations from genomic sciences, information technologies, and medical specialties must be encompassed and embraced. These will enhance strategies for preparedness and provide us with a better understanding of how to identify, manage, and control disease burdens. The ever expanding landscape of genomics research also includes experimental and computational approaches for effectively utilizing DNA sequence information. From these perspectives, the intricacies of Mendelian single gene disorders are the least challenging compared to intricacies of multi-dimensional host factors for infectious diseases or complex disorders such as cancer. The concepts of public health in India are on firm footing; however, integration of contemporary advances to implement public health principles into practice has neither been attempted nor impacted on disease burden or our preparedness to prevent eventualities. At the same time, translational genomics is gradually paving the way for personalized medicine. Principles of personalized medicine remain to be fully understood and practiced despite the pharmacogenomics-based future of drug development, and treatment has not been as exciting as the advances in genomics we are witnessing today. The relevance, importance, and translational impediments of these advances will be discussed.
De Pinho Campos, Katia; Norman, Cameron D; Jadad, Alejandro R
Almost a decade ago, public health initiated a number of innovative ventures to attract investments from multinational drug companies for the development of new drugs and vaccines to tackle neglected diseases (NDs). These ventures - known as product development public-private partnerships (PD PPPs) - represent the participation of the public and private actors toward the discovery and development of essential medicines to reduce the suffering of over one billion people worldwide living with NDs. This systematic review aimed to identify empirical-based descriptive articles to understand critical elements in the partnership process, and propose a framework to shed light on future guidelines to support better planning, design and management of existing and new forms of PPPs for public health. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed and synthesized using qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the development stage of PD PPPs requires a careful initiation and planning process including discussion on values and shared goals, agreement on mutual interests & equality of power relation, exchange of expertise & resources, stakeholder engagement, and assessment of the local health capacity. The management stage of PD PPPs entails transparency, extensive communication and participatory decision-making among partner organizations. This review illustrates the difficulties, challenges and effective responses during the partnering process. This model of collaboration may offer a way to advance population health at present, while creating streams of innovation that can yield future social and financial dividends in enhancing the public's health more widely.
Schomberg, John P; Haimson, Oliver L; Hayes, Gillian R; Anton-Culver, Hoda
Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74% sensitivity
Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda
Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74
Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A
This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.
Information Sharing System MOU Memorandum of Understanding NBIC National Biosurveillance Integration Center NCMI National Center for...definition, have come to the fore in the literature, biosurveillance and health security. Biosurveillance , as a term, is too limited to provide the...purposes. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) in a 2006 report on public health infrastructure described biosurveillance as, “…automated
Kansas State Dept. of Health and Environment, Topeka.
Profiles are provided for innovative public health activities that focus on the health of children in day care. All are considered to be models worthy of replication. Profiles depict (1) child care in Arizona; (2) child day care licensing in Connecticut; (3) safeguarding children in day care in Kansas; (4) paired state and local inspection in…
Paim, Jairnilson; Travassos, Claudia; Almeida, Celia; Bahia, Ligia; Macinko, James
Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with widespread regional and social inequalities. In this report, we examine the historical development and components of the Brazilian health system, focusing on the reform process during the past 40 years, including the creation of the Unified Health System. A defining characteristic of the contemporary health sector reform in Brazil is that it was driven by civil society rather than by governments, political parties, or international organisations. The advent of the Unified Health System increased access to health care for a substantial proportion of the Brazilian population, at a time when the system was becoming increasingly privatised. Much is still to be done if universal health care is to be achieved. Over the past 20 years, there have been other advances, including investments in human resources, science and technology, and primary care, and a substantial decentralisation process, widespread social participation, and growing public awareness of a right to health care. If the Brazilian health system is to overcome the challenges with which it is presently faced, strengthened political support is needed so that financing can be restructured and the roles of both the public and private sector can be redefined.
Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan
Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.
Argos, Maria; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H
Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide, including severely affected populations in South and Southeast Asia. Although arsenic is an established human carcinogen and has been associated with a multitude of health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, a mode of action has yet to be determined for some aspects of arsenic toxicity. Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts.
Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes
The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.
Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Law, James
Public health approaches to communication disability challenge the profession of speech-language pathology (SLP) to reconsider both frames of reference for practice and models of education. This paper reviews the impetus for public health approaches to communication disability and considers how public health is, and could be, incorporated into SLP education, both now and in the future. The paper describes tensions between clinical services, which have become increasingly specialized, and public health approaches that offer a broader view of communication disability and communication disability prevention. It presents a discussion of these tensions and asserts that public health approaches to communication are themselves a specialist field, requiring specific knowledge and skills. The authors suggest the use of the term 'communication disability public health' to refer to this type of work and offer a preliminary definition in order to advance discussion. Examples from three countries are provided of how some SLP degree programmes are integrating public health into the SLP curriculum. Alternative models of training for communication disability public health that may be relevant in the future in different contexts and countries are presented, prompting the SLP profession to consider whether communication disability public health is a field of practice for speech-language pathologists or whether it has broader workforce implications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the future which may advance thinking, research and practice in communication disability public health.
Mascarenhas, Rodolfo Dos Santos
Federal statistic figures show that the Brazilian States altogether have, in their respective territories, a collection of taxes which is higher than the Union one. The highest collection of the Central Government which is shown at the official statistics is due to the excess of collection of the federal taxes over the ones of the States; this usually happens in five or six states, of which, in 1964 Guanabara and São Paulo were responsible for 91% of this difference. One can not change the present system of competence in Public Health Services in the three levels--central, regional and local--without modifying at the same time the present Brazilian tributary system, where the municipal governments received back in 1962 only 5.6 of the general collection of taxes. Figures from 1955 show that the per capita cost of Public Health Services in Brazil, comprising the three levels, was Cr 123 Cr dollars dollars ( 1.82 US dollars), and in 1962, Cr 827 (US 2.30 US dollars). These three levels of government reserved in 1955, 5.6% of the money spent in its total expenditure for Public Health activities; this percentage declined to 4.5% in 1962. In relation to the sum invested on Public Health government activities, the Union spent in 1962, 36.4% of the total expenses, the States 59.3% and the counties only 5.5%. There is a great disproportion in the distribution of Public Health expenditure among the various Brazilian States, ranging from a minimal percentage over the total public expenses such as the case of Goiás (1.6% in 1964) up to a maximum of 17.2% in Pará in the same year. There is also a considerable variation from one state to another and in 1964 it ranged from the lowest limit of 70 Cr dollars in Maranhão up to 5.217 in Guanabara. If we analyze the per capita expenses of each state with Public Health activities, using 1964 and 1954 figures represented in 1964 monetary values, we can verify that the expenditure of 20 states dropped of 17.2%. One can not know
Burguete, Ana; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor H; Madrid-Marina, Vicente
Genomics, as a scientific discipline responsible for genome maps, sequencing and functional analysis of genomes, allows for continually expanding knowledge of the structure and function of genomes. The influence of genomics on medicine generates a new perspective for how we perceive health and disease, knowing the influence of genetic variations on susceptibility to disease. In the area of public health, genetic epidemiology translates genetic knowledge into individual and public actions, evaluating the effect of the distribution of genetic determinants and their interaction with environmental factors involved in the etiology of human diseases. In addition, genomic medicine suggests new diagnostic systems, genetic associations and nutritional disorders, specific responses to diverse drugs, and the design of new drugs for susceptible groups. And yet, the greatest advances in genomic medicine in the field of health are forthcoming.
Wartenberg, Daniel; Thompson, W Douglas; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gross, Hillary J; Condon, Suzanne K; Kim, Nancy; Goun, Barbara D; Opiekun, Richard E
Environmental exposures cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. A major goal of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Environmental Public Health Tracking program is the development of a national network of health and environmental data with analytic tools for rapid evaluation of specific national or regional environmental health concerns. A six-state collaborative project in the northeast United States was established to assess the feasibility of such a system, assessing the possible association between ambient air quality and adverse birth outcomes. For this regional surveillance project, issues were discussed surrounding the design of a mutually acceptable protocol, obtaining human subjects' protection approvals, obtaining and organizing both the exposure and outcome data, analyzing the data both locally and regionally, and planning subsequent interventions to address identified public health concerns.
Dyson, R. J. E.
The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.
Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.
Vernick, Jon S
In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws.
Passchier, W; Knottnerus, A; Albering, H; Walda, I
Large airports with the related infrastructure, businesses and industrial activities affect the health of the population living, travelling and working in the surroundings of or at the airport. The employment and contributions to economy from the airport and related operations are expected to have a beneficial effect, which, however, is difficult to quantify. More pertinent data are available on the, largely negative, health effects of environmental factors, such as air and soil pollution, noise, accident risk, and landscape changes. Information on the concurrent and cumulative impact of these factors is lacking, but is of primary relevance for public health policy. A committee of the Health Council of The Netherlands recently reviewed the data on the health impact of large airports. It was concluded that, generally, integrated health assessments are not available. Such assessments, as part of sustainable mobility policy, should accompany the further development of the global aviation system.
Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary
A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719
Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Mánez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary
A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4-6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers.
Public health has typically investigated health issues using methods from the positivistic paradigm. Yet these approaches, although they are able to quantify the problem, may not be able to explain the social reasons of why the problem exists or the impact on those affected. This article will provide a brief overview of a sociological theory that provides methods and a theoretical framework that has proven useful in understanding public health problems and developing interventions.
The history and development of Ontario's new public health agency, Public Health Ontario, is explored. The governance model and organizational structure are identified along with an overview of the relationship with the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The strategic mission and vision are described as are the key functions. The building of the organization through new investments and divestments is explained. The paper concludes with an overview of the challenges encountered and the opportunities ahead.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...
Lang, Tim; Rayner, Geof
The paper considers the long-term trajectory of public health and whether a 'Golden Era' in Public Health might be coming to an end. While successful elements of the 20th century policy approach need still to be applied in the developing world, two significant flaws are now apparent within its core thinking. It assumes that continuing economic growth will generate sufficient wealth to pay for the public health infrastructure and improvement needed in the 21st century when, in reality, externalised costs are spiralling. Secondly, there is evidence of growing mismatch between ecosystems and human progress. While 20th century development has undeniably improved public health, it has also undermined the capacity to maintain life on a sustainable basis and has generated other more negative health consequences. For these and other reasons a rethink about the role, purpose and direction of public health is needed. While health has to be at the heart of any viable notion of progress the dominant policy path offers new versions of the 'health follows wealth' position. The paper posits ecological public health as a radical project to reshape the conditions of existence. Both of these broad paths require different functions and purposes from their institutions, professions and politicians. The paper suggests that eco-systems pressures, including climate change, are already adding to pressure for a change of course.
Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C
Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.
Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E
Historically, public health agencies have had relatively few formal partnerships with private business. However, both groups share an interest in ensuring a healthy population. Businesses have a financial interest in supporting organized public health efforts; in turn, business partnerships can increase the reach and effectiveness of public health. This paper makes the case for the business sector's participation in the broad public health system and its support of governmental public health agencies. Examples of past and current partnerships exemplify how public health efforts benefit business and suggest opportunities for future collaboration to improve the public's health.
The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.
Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman
In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006
Johnson, Hans H; Becker, Craig M
This study identifies the health-related services provided by public health educators. The investigators, with the help of practicing public health educators, created the list of health-related services. Respondents received questionnaires in 2001 and 2007. Thus, this study determined the changes in health-related services provided over a 6-year period. Respondents ranked up to five health-related services by the amount of time spent delivering each health-related service. The list of health-related services presented in a 2001 survey and a 2007 survey were identical. As in 2001, this list in the 2007 survey captured the breadth of health-related services provided, with one exception. In 2007, several participants wrote-in "emergency preparedness/bioterrorism." The types of health-related services provided did not change over the 6-year period; however, the ranking of these services did change. Most notably, nutrition education and involvement with physical activity moved up in the ranking in 2007.
O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel
The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658
Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H
To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991.
Rush, M.; Vernon, S.
The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.
Moulton, Anthony D; Albright, Ann L; Gregg, Edward W; Goodman, Richard A
The prevalence of new cases of diabetes continues to increase, and the health burden for those with diabetes remains high. This is attributable, in part, to low adoption of evidence-based interventions for diabetes prevention and control. Law is a critical tool for health improvement, yet assessments reported in this paper indicate that federal, state, and local laws give only partial support to guidelines and evidence-based interventions relevant to diabetes prevention and control. Public health practitioners and policymakers who are concerned with the human, fiscal, and economic costs of the epidemic can explore new ways to translate the evidence base for diabetes prevention and control into effective laws and policies.
Mercy, J A; Rosenberg, M L; Powell, K E; Broome, C V; Roper, W L
The current epidemic of violence in America threatens not only our physical health but also the integrity of basic social institutions such as the family, the communities in which we live, and our health care system. Public health brings a new vision of how Americans can work together to prevent violence. This new vision places emphasis on preventing violence before it occurs, making science integral to identifying effective policies and programs, and integrating the efforts of diverse scientific disciplines, organizations, and communities. A sustained effort at all levels of society will be required to successfully address this complex and deeply rooted problem.
Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela
International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.
Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.
This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)
Patient activation is a new term for a perennial problem. People know what they need to do for their health: exercise, eat right, and get enough rest--but how are they motivated to actually do these things? This is what patient activation is. From this author's vantage point as a medical librarian, public libraries are well-placed to be part of…
There is a bewildering array of nutrition information available to the public and to professionals. Nutrition messages are often conflicting, confusing, and often simply rhetoric. More consumer research is needed to understand more fully the best way to communicate health messages, recommendations, ...
Chigwedere, Pride; Essex, M
In this paper, we respond to AIDS denialist arguments that HIV does not cause AIDS, that antiretroviral drugs are not useful, and that there is no evidence of large-scale deaths from AIDS, and discuss the key implications of the relationship between AIDS denialism and public health practice. We provide a brief history of how the cause of AIDS was investigated, of how HIV fulfills Koch's postulates and Sir Bradford Hil's criteria for causation, and of the inconsistencies in alternatives offered by denialists. We highlight clinical trials as the standard for assessing efficacy of drugs, rather than anecdotal cases or discussions of mechanism of action, and show the unanimous data demonstrating antiretroviral drug efficacy. We then show how statistics on mortality and indices such as crude death rate, life expectancy, child mortality, and population growth are consistent with the high mortality from AIDS, and expose the weakness of statistics from death notification, quoted by denialists. Last we emphasize that when denialism influences public health practice as in South Africa, the consequences are disastrous. We argue for accountability for the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives, the need to reform public health practice to include standards and accountability, and the particular need for honesty and peer review in situations that impact public health policy.
Kumanyika, Shiriki K.
This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…
Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.
This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)
Honorato, Eduardo Jorge Sant Ana
This is an opinion piece that proposes a reflection on the current status of the interface between cyberculture and public health and its use as a means for research, not as a mere tool. Cyberculture thus represents a new form of interface between people. And it is precisely "through" and "by means of" social relations that individuals acquire skills and communication techniques. The forms and the means of the relationship alters, but the ends remain unchanged, namely to be in contact with other humans. In recent decades, with the advent of computers, the Internet and all the technological apparatus, human relationships are dependent on them, which is the modern so-called cyberculture. This now affects all areas of activity, and public health cannot be left behind, taking advantage of it and its benefits for its development. It is necessary to keep abreast of these changes and raise them from the theoretical to the practical plane, not only implementing public health policies but also taking the socio-virtual aspects into consideration. It is also necessary for the professionals involved to be updated on new forms of communication, interaction, research methodology, preparation of instruments, sampling approaches and all other phenomena arising from cyberculture that will work in partnership with public health.
Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero, Jaime R
This article presents the conceptual basis for veterinary public health-VPH, including historical aspects of its constitution and development, its fields of action, and its current challenges. It also presents a reflection on VPH within the frame of the veterinary services and it finally proposes that education plays a fundamental role in order to face the challenges of a new era.
Evans, Burton R.
This manual gives general control principles and specific information on control of mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, venomous arthropods, ticks and chiggers, and rodents. The specific information includes life-cycles and habitats, public health importance, non-chemical control, and control with pesticides. (BB)
Webb, Jena C; Mergler, Donna; Parkes, Margot W; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Spiegel, Jerry; Waltner-Toews, David; Yassi, Annalee; Woollard, Robert F
The intimate interdependence of human health and the ecosystems in which we are embedded is now a commonplace observation. For much of the history of public health, this was not so obvious. After over a century of focus on diseases, their biologic causes and the correction of exposures (clean water and air) and facilitation of responses (immunizations and nutrition), public health discourse shifted to embrace the concept of determinants of health as extending to social, economic and environmental realms. This moved the discourse and science of public health into an unprecedented level of complexity just as public concern about the environment heightened. To address multifactorial, dynamic impacts on health, a new paradigm was needed which would overcome the separation of humans and ecosystems. Ecosystem approaches to health arose in the 1990s from a rich background of intellectual ferment as Canada wrestled with diverse problems ranging from Great Lakes contamination to zoonotic diseases. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) played a lead role in supporting an international community of scientists and scholars who advanced ecosystem approaches to health. These collective efforts have enabled a shift to a research paradigm that embraces transdisciplinarity, social justice, gender equity, multi-stakeholder participation and sustainability.
van Gaans, D.; Ahmed, S.; D’Onise, K.; Moyon, J.; Caughey, G.; McDermott, R.
Most patients with chronic disease are prescribed multiple medications, which are recorded in their personal health records. This is rich information for clinical public health researchers but also a challenge to analyse. This paper describes the method that was undertaken within the Public Health Research Data Management System (PHReDMS) to map medication data retrieved from individual patient health records for population health researcher’s use. The PHReDMS manages clinical, health service, community and survey research data within a secure web environment that allows for data sharing amongst researchers. The PHReDMS is currently used by researchers to answer a broad range of questions, including monitoring of prescription patterns in different population groups and geographic areas with high incidence/prevalence of chronic renal, cardiovascular, metabolic and mental health issues. In this paper, we present the general notion of abstraction network, a higher level network that sits above a terminology and offers compact and more easily understandable view of its content. We demonstrate the utilisation of abstraction network methodology to examine medication data from electronic medical records to allow a compact and more easily understandable view of its content. PMID:28149446
Potter, Margaret A; Fertman, Carl I; Eggleston, Molly M; Holtzhauer, Frank; Pearsol, Joanne
The Public Health Training Center (PHTC) national program was first established at accredited schools of public health in 2000. The PHTC program used the US Health Resources and Services Administration's grants to build workforce development programs, attracting schools as training providers and the workforce as training clients. This article is a reflection on the experience of two schools, whose partnership supported one of the PHTCs, for the purpose of opening a conversation about the future of continuing education throughout schools and degree programs of public health. This partnership, the Pennsylvania & Ohio Public Health Training Center (POPHTC), concentrated its funding on more intensive training of public healthcare workers through a relatively narrow inventory of courses that were delivered typically in-person rather than by distance-learning technologies. This approach responded to the assessed needs and preferences of the POPHTC's workforce population. POPHTC's experience may not be typical among the PHTCs nationally, but the collective experience of all PHTCs is instructive to schools of public health as they work to meet an increasing demand for continuing education from the public health workforce.
Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth
The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health impact assessment' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health impact assessment process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production.
South Africa has 4 public health training institutions: the Transvaal School of Public Health, the Public Health Programme of the University of the Western Cape, the Natal Institute of Community Health Education, and the Eastern Cape School of Public Health. They are interinstitutional (universities, polytechnic schools, health service providers, statutory research councils, and nongovernmental organizations). A steering committee heads up each institution. One person leads the committee, managing all activities and making sure that all activities fulfill the requirements of the steering committee. The Epidemiological Society of Southern Africa also contributes to public health training through its annual forum for public health researchers and meetings of public health personnel, where they talk about public health training needs. Interest in public health training reemerged in the late 1980s, mainly due to the dismantling of apartheid, which called for a restructuring of the public health service. Primary health care is the focus of all South Africa's public health institutions. Courses convey community-oriented approaches in the design of health programs and research. They use a multidisciplinary approach to education. They examine socioeconomic conditions affecting health as well as the biomedical aspects of public health. The Transvaal School of Public Health targets post-basic and post-graduate health staff at the middle or senior level positions. On the other hand, the Eastern Cape School of Public Health targets field workers, primary health care workers, and public health professionals. Currently, the programs only provide a Master of Public Health. As South Africa makes its way to democracy and with adequate funding, public health training in South Africa will result in positive efforts helping all of Africa.
Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Altman, Donald
In preparation to update the Dental Public Health specialty competencies, the Expert Panel determined that a needs assessment be conducted. A nine item open and close ended survey developed by the Expert Panel was used to collect data on the Diplomates current work environment, the utility of the current set of Dental Public Health competencies, and to identify any gaps in the current competencies. In 2015, the survey was administered to all active Diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health. One hundred and nine Diplomates responded. Diplomates overwhelmingly reported that each of the ten current competencies were still relevant for Dental Public Health specialists in the 21(st) Century, but needed to be updated to be more contemporary. Domains suggested to achieve this were interprofessional care, cultural competency, health literacy, and evidence-based dentistry.
Kaufman, Nancy; Allan, Susan; Ibrahim, Jennifer
Effective use of public health law can be a powerful tool to advance the mission of public health departments to protect and promote the health of the population. However, there is little known about the way that public health officials think about law, use law, and/or interact with their legal counsel. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the beliefs and barriers facing public health officials and legal counsel in their efforts to collaborate and to describe specific opportunities to better facilitate the use of law and collaboration, particularly in the area of training and education. Our findings are based on two studies: (1) a mixed methods study of state and local public health officials and their legal counsel, including surveys and qualitative interviews; and (2) a survey-based needs assessment of training for public health law. While state health officials and legal counsel view the role of public health law in similar ways, variation exists in organization, interactions and perceptions of collaboration on issues of public health law. Tremendous opportunity exists for improving collaboration between legal counsel and public health agencies through additional education and training opportunities. Improving the use of law in public health is possible - if practitioners and legal educators work together to fulfill its promise.
Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
This report is a part of the program of the National Center for Health Statistics to provide current statistics as baseline data for the evaluation, planning, and administration of health programs. Part I presents data concerning the occupational fields: (1) administration, (2) anthropology and sociology, (3) data processing, (4) basic sciences,…
This is a brief discussion of wildfire smoke and its health effects along with tools available to provide public health guidance during wildfire events, including the Wildfire Smoke Guide for Public Health Officials
Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971
Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.
Rozek, Laura S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Omenn, Gilbert S.
Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention. PMID:24641556
Hills, Rebecca A; Baseman, Janet G; Revere, Debra; Boge, Craig L K; Oberle, Mark W; Doctor, Jason N; Lober, William B
Notifiable condition reporting and alerting are two important public health functions. Today, a variety of methods are used to transfer these types of information. The increasing use of electronic health record systems by healthcare providers makes new types of electronic communication possible. We used the XForms standard and nationally recognized technical profiles to demonstrate the communication of both notifiable condition reports and patient-tailored public health alerts. This demonstration of bi-directional communication took placein a prototypical health information exchange environment. We successfully transferred information between provider electronic health record systems and public health systems for notifiable condition reporting. Patient-specific alerts were successfully sent from public health to provider systems. In this paper we discuss the benefits of XForms, including the use of XML, advanced form controls, form initialization and reduction in scripting. We also review implementation challenges, the maturity of the technology and its suitability for use in public health. PMID:23569609
Kruk, Margaret E
Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.
Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.
During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.
Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O
This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.
Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…
Yeatts, Karin B
Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an "experience" trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.
Yeatts, Karin B.
Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an “experience” trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities. PMID:25566526
Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick
In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.
Vaithinathan, Asokan G; Asokan, Vanitha
The advances made in genomics and molecular tools aid public health programs in the investigation of outbreaks and control of diseases by taking advantage of the precision medicine. Precision medicine means "segregating the individuals into subpopulations who vary in their disease susceptibility and response to a precise treatment" and not merely designing of drugs or creation of medical devices. By 2017, the United Kingdom 100,000 Genomes Project is expected to sequence 100,000 genomes from 70,000 patients. Similarly, the Precision Medicine Initiative of the United States plans to increase population-based genome sequencing and link it with clinical data. A national cohort of around 1 million people is to be established in the long term, to investigate the genetic and environmental determinants of health and disease, and further integrated to their electronic health records that are optional. Precision public health can be seen as administering the right intervention to the needy population at an appropriate time. Precision medicine originates from a wet-lab while evidence based medicine is nurtured in a clinic. Linking the quintessential basic science research and clinical practice is necessary. In addition, new technologies to employ and analyze data in an integrated and dynamic way are essential for public health and precision medicine. The transition from evidence-based approach in public health to genomic approach to individuals with a paradigm shift of a "reactive" medicine to a more "proactive" and personalized health care may sound exceptional. However, a population perspective is needed for the precision medicine to succeed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi
This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…
Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.
There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.
Basson, J-C; Haschar-Noé, N; Honta, M
When drawing up the portrait of "urban figures of public health", in 1998, Didier Fassin considered Toulouse to be one of the worthy "local experiments". Fifteen years after his precursory work, the recently developed local public policy against health social differences gives an opportunity to question ourselves about the effectiveness of such a quality then associated to the city. A cognitive analysis of the elaboration of the Toulousian health public policy meaning enables to notice that the process of health legitimization on a local scale takes the following forms. On the one hand, renaming health as a legitimate object of public policies sets it up as a common wealth. On the other hand, local public policy puts the emphasis on health education and tries to increase the standing of social appraisal coming from associative experiments and abilities of the inhabitants themselves. Finally, it calls for citizens' mobilization and solidarity in order to promote a "health democracy" able to struggle efficiently against health social differences.
Jacobson, Robert M
Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.
Humphreys, Betsy L.
Purpose: The paper describes the expansion of the public health programs and services of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the 1990s and provides the context in which NLM's public health outreach programs arose and exist today. Brief Description: Although NLM has always had collections and services relevant to public health, the US public health workforce made relatively little use of the library's information services and programs in the twentieth century. In the 1990s, intensified emphases on outreach to health professionals, building national information infrastructure, and promoting health data standards provided NLM with new opportunities to reach the public health community. A seminal conference cosponsored by NLM in 1995 produced an agenda for improving public health access to and use of advanced information technology and electronic information services. NLM actively pursued this agenda by developing new services and outreach programs and promoting public health informatics initiatives. Method: Historical analysis is presented. Results/Outcome: NLM took advantage of a propitious environment to increase visibility and understanding of public health information challenges and opportunities. The library helped create partnerships that produced new information services, outreach initiatives, informatics innovations, and health data policies that benefit the public health workforce and the diverse populations it serves. PMID:17641764
Guix, Joan; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Armengol, Ricard; Llebaria, Xavier; Manzanera, Rafael; Plasència, Antoni
We describe the evolution of the organization of public health services in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) until the creation of the Barcelona Public Health Agency. This Agency is a consortium created by the Barcelona City Council and the Government of Catalonia as the sole entity responsible for regional and local public health services in the city. The underlying logic for the Agency's design, as well as its mission, vision and value statements, strategy, services' portfolio, and the role of leadership in the process, are analyzed. Aspects related to the Agency's quality and communication plans, as well as the design of its processes, and its policy in terms of alliances for research and training in public health, are discussed. Finally, the main challenges for the future are described.
D'Souza, R N; Dunnwald, M; Dunnvald, M; Frazier-Bowers, S; Polverini, P J; Wright, J T; de Rouen, T; Vieira, A R
Scientific opportunities have never been better than today! The completion of the Human Genome project has sparked hope and optimism that cures for debilitating conditions can be achieved and tailored to individuals and communities. The availability of reference genome sequences and genetic variations as well as more precise correlations between genotype and phenotype have facilitated the progress made in finding solutions to clinical problems. While certain craniofacial and oral diseases previously deemed too difficult to tackle have benefited from basic science and technological advances over the past decade, there remains a critical need to translate the fruits of several decades' worth of basic and clinical research into tangible therapies that can benefit patients. The fifth Annual Fall Focused Symposium, "Translational Genetics - Advancing Fronts for Craniofacial Health", was created by the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) to foster its mission to advance interdisciplinary research that is directed toward improving oral health. The symposium showcased progress made in identifying molecular targets that are potential therapeutics for common and rare dental diseases and craniofacial disorders. Speakers focused on translational and clinical applications of their research and, where applicable, on strategies for new technologies and therapeutics. The critical needs to transfer new knowledge to the classroom and for further investment in the field were also emphasized. The symposium underscored the importance of basic research, chairside clinical observations, and population-based studies in driving the new translational connections needed for the development of cures for the most common and devastating diseases involving the craniofacial complex.
Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash
Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its
The author traces the development of the concept of health promotion from 1980s policies of the World Health Organization. Two approaches that signify the modernization of public health are outlined in detail: the European Health for All targets and the settings approach. Both aim to reorient health policy priorities from a risk factor approach to strategies that address the determinants of health and empower people to participate in improving the health of their communities. These approaches combine classic public health dictums with “new” strategies, some setting explicit goals to integrate public health with general welfare policy. Health for All, health promotion, and population health have contributed to this reorientation in thinking and strategy, but the focus of health policy remains expenditure rather than investment. PMID:12604477
Frenk, Julio; Chen, Lincoln
The 20th anniversary of the groundbreaking report of the Commission on Health Research for Development inspired a Symposium to assess progress made in strengthening essential national health research capacity in developing countries and in global research partnerships. Significant aspects of the health gains achieved in the 20th century can be attributed to the advancement and translation of knowledge, and knowledge continues to occupy center stage amidst growing complexity that characterizes the global health field. The way forward will entail a reinvigoration of research-generated knowledge as a crucial ingredient for global cooperation and global health advances. To do this we will need to overcome daunting gaps, including the divides between domestic and global health, among the disciplines of research (biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, health systems), between clinical and public health approaches, public and private investments, and between knowledge gained and action implemented. Overcoming systematically these obstacles can accelerate progress towards research for equity in health and development.
Restum, Zulficar Gregory
US citizens face a growing threat of contracting communicable diseases owing to the high recidivism rate in state and federal prisons, poor screening and treatment of prisoners, and inferior follow-up health care upon their release. Insufficient education about communicable diseases--for prisoners and citizens alike--and other problems, such as prejudice against prisoners, escalating costs, and an unreliable correctional health care delivery system for inmates, all contribute to a public health problem that requires careful examination and correction for the protection of everyone involved.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397
Potter, Margaret A; Quill, Beth E; Aglipay, Geraldine S; Anderson, Elaine; Rowitz, Louis; Smith, Lillian U; Telfair, Joseph; Whittaker, Carol
This document explores the opportunity for scholarship to enhance the evidence base for academic public health practice and practice-based research. Demonstrating Excellence in Practice-Based Research for Public Health defines practice-based research; describes its various approaches, models, and methods; explores ways to overcome its challenges; and recommends actions for its stakeholders in both academic and practice communities. It is hoped that this document will lead to new partnership opportunities between public health researchers and public health practitioners to strengthen the infrastructure of public health and add new dimensions to the science of public health practice. Demonstrating Excellence in Practice-Based Research for Public Health is intended for those who produce, participate in, and use practice-based research. This includes academic researchers and educators, public health administrators and field staff, clinical health professionals, community-based organizations and professionals, and interested members of the public.
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M
Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.
Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd G M E
Improving public health services requires comprehensively integrating all services including medical, social, community, and public health ones. Therefore, developing integrated health information services has to start considering business process, rules and information semantics of involved domains. The paper proposes a business and information architecture for the specification of a future-proof national integrated system, concretely the requirements for semantic integration between public health surveillance and clinical information systems. The architecture is a semantically interoperable approach because it describes business process, rules and information semantics based on national policy documents and expressed in a standard language such us the Unified Modeling Language UML. Having the enterprise and information models formalized, semantically interoperable Health IT components/services development is supported.
Kampelmacher, E. H.
The problem of foodborne diseases, in which especially food of animals origin and the infected animal is involved, is reviewed. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of meat and poultry may today, together with parasites in meat and fish be considered as an increasing public health problem. Control and prevention measures, especially including radiation processing is summarized and with regard to specific micro-organisms and parasites and to various food commodities suitable for irradiation purposes. The possibilities of this new processing technique for reduction and probably elimination of pathogens and parasites are discussed and recommendations are given for practical application of radiation in order to eliminate health risks eliminating from contaminated food.
August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics.
Stern, Alexandra Minna
In exploring the history of involuntary sterilization in California, I connect the approximately 20 000 operations performed on patients in state institutions between 1909 and 1979 to the federally funded procedures carried out at a Los Angeles County hospital in the early 1970s. Highlighting the confluence of factors that facilitated widespread sterilization abuse in the early 1970s, I trace prosterilization arguments predicated on the protection of public health. This historical overview raises important questions about the legacy of eugenics in contemporary California and relates the past to recent developments in health care delivery and genetic screening. PMID:15983269
Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education. PMID:24350228
Davis, Faith G
In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed.
Rose, J B
The number of people who have limited access to high-quality water has increased, and while this is a growing global crisis, water issues, problems and solutions are often seen as localised. Water reuse and reclamation will play a significant role in achieving sustainability and public health protection in the future. The wastewater and reuse community should be responsible for monitoring sewage impacts and improvements as demonstrated through pathogen reduction with appropriate treatment. Viruses, Cryptosporidium and Giardia can all be reduced during treatment anywhere from 99% to 99.9999%, achieving drinking water quality, if so desired. Recommendations to achieve better access to scientific information for decision making include: 1) developing a global data base for biological contaminant loading from wastewater and 2) defining the public health protection via reuse and reclamation.
Villalbí, Joan R; Ballestín, Manuela; Casas, Conrad; Subirana, Teresa
This article describes the introduction of quality improvement actions in a public health organization. After ISO 17025 accreditation, which was legally mandated, was granted to the official control laboratory, the management decided to expand a quality policy in 2003, through a series of actions based on process analysis and proposals for improvement, further definition of standard operating procedures, exploration of users' opinions, the creation of improvement groups, and external audits or certification. The organizational response to these initiatives was diverse. External audit or certification of services seems to be the most powerful tool for change. Costing studies showed that up to 75% of the total expenditure of the agency in 2010 was spent on public health services subject to external audit or certification.
Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.
Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501
Zimmerman, W. F.
Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.
Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals’ health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the “obesogenic environment.” Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non–weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity–based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657
AbouZahr, Carla; Boerma, Ties
Public health decision-making is critically dependent on the timely availability of sound data. The role of health information systems is to generate, analyse and disseminate such data. In practice, health information systems rarely function systematically. The products of historical, social and economic forces, they are complex, fragmented and unresponsive to needs. International donors in health are largely responsible for the problem, having prioritized urgent needs for data over longer-term country capacity-building. The result is painfully apparent in the inability of most countries to generate the data needed to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Solutions to the problem must be comprehensive; money alone is likely to be insufficient unless accompanied by sustained support to country systems development coupled with greater donor accountability and allocation of responsibilities. The Health Metrics Network, a global collaboration in the making, is intended to help bring such solutions to the countries most in need. PMID:16184276
Violence--homicides, suicides, injuries caused by youth or family acts--continues in the United States. Firearms are involved in most incidents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention addresses the problem using the traditional tools of public health: epidemiologic data, individual and societal interventions based on the data, and ongoing evaluations to assess the effects of the interventions and change them if necessary. Examples of interventions are presented. PMID:7581313
Sharma, Shashi; Tandel, Kundan; Dash, P K; Parida, M M
The resurgence of Zika virus as public health emergency of an international concern with increased incidence of microcephaly has drawn attention of scientific community for its detailed understanding with regard to virus evolution, epidemiology, geographical spread, pathogenesis, etc. The scope of the present review is to discuss the detailed updated information in respect of Zika virus evolution since its inception. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Casey, Colleen; Li, Jianling; Berry, Michele
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the institutional and social forces that influence collaborative data sharing practices in cross-sector interorganizational networks. The analysis focusses on the data sharing practices between professionals in the transportation and public health sectors, areas prioritized for collaborative action to improve public health. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods design is utilized. Electronic surveys were sent to 57 public health and 157 transportation professionals in a large major metropolitan area in the USA (response rate 39.7 percent). Focus groups were held with 12 organizational leaders representing professionals in both sectors. Findings The application of the institutional-social capital framework suggests that professional specialization and organizational forces make it challenging for professionals to develop the cross-sector relationships necessary for cross-sector collaborative data sharing. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that developing the social relationships necessary for cross-sector collaboration may be resource intensive. Investments are necessary at the organizational level to overcome the professional divides that limit the development of cross-sector relationships critical for collaborative data sharing. The results are limited to the data sharing practices of professionals in one metropolitan area. Originality/value Despite mandates and calls for increased cross-sector collaboration to improve public health, such efforts often fail to produce true collaboration. The study's value is that it adds to the theoretical conceptualization of collaboration and provides a deeper understanding as to why collaborative action remains difficult to achieve. Future study of collaboration must consider the interaction between professional specialization and the social relationships necessary for success.
Gollust, Sarah E; Cappella, Joseph N
Advocates and policymakers strategically communicate about health disparities in an effort to raise public awareness, often by emphasizing the social and economic factors that influence these disparities. Previous research suggests that predisposing political orientation and values related to self-reliance and personal responsibility may produce resistance to such messages. In this study, the authors culled 4 messages about the causes of disparities in life expectancy from public discourse and randomly presented them to a nationally representative sample of 732 Americans. Three indicators of message resistance were measured: belief that messages are weak, elicitation of anger, and production of counterarguments. Expected political differences in message resistance were identified, with Republicans perceiving messages to be weaker, arousing less anger, and eliciting more counterarguing than for Democrats. Among 3 messages that described the social determinants of health disparities, a message that identified the role of personal choices (explicitly acknowledging personal responsibility) produced the least anger and counterarguing among Republicans. Political differences in anger arousal and counterarguing can be explained, in part, by predisposing values toward personal responsibility. These findings have relevance for policy advocates seeking to bridge public divides surrounding health disparities and for scholars advancing theories of reactance to policy-relevant health messaging.
Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert
The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European's health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community. Conversely, they see the least success in dealing with preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. From an employer's perspective, significant gaps between current and desired levels of performance at the job exist for all Essential Public Health Operations of World Health Organization. Based on prior research and recent European surveys of Schools and Departments of Public Health, the following recommendations are made, which emphasize the leadership role of the European public health community: (1) the preparation of public health professionals requires an interface between public health functions, competencies, and performance; (2) competence-based education is important and allows debates on the scope of the required education; (3) governments have to realize that the present lack of infrastructure and capacity is detrimental to the people's health; (4) as public health challenges are increasingly global, educational institutions have to look beyond the national boundaries and participate in European and global networks for education, research, and practice.
Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert
The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European’s health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community. Conversely, they see the least success in dealing with preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. From an employer’s perspective, significant gaps between current and desired levels of performance at the job exist for all Essential Public Health Operations of World Health Organization. Based on prior research and recent European surveys of Schools and Departments of Public Health, the following recommendations are made, which emphasize the leadership role of the European public health community: (1) the preparation of public health professionals requires an interface between public health functions, competencies, and performance; (2) competence-based education is important and allows debates on the scope of the required education; (3) governments have to realize that the present lack of infrastructure and capacity is detrimental to the people’s health; (4) as public health challenges are increasingly global, educational institutions have to look beyond the national boundaries and participate in European and global networks for education, research, and practice. PMID:28261578
Schindler, J. V.; Grant, F.
Heat waves are deadly weather-related exposures in the U.S. and account for more deaths annually than hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined. From a public health perspective, all morbidity and mortality associated with extreme heat events are completely preventable. Related environmental events that can impact health-poor air quality, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and the inability to cool at night-are all expected to increase in severity and frequency over this next century. Northrop Grumman's active program of climate science combines inputs from public health, population health analytics, advanced agent-based modeling and simulation, and high performance computing to assist the characterization of how climate change impacts human health in specific geographies. In this study, we defined heat waves as 3+ consecutive days when the high temperature is 10+ degrees (Fahrenheit) higher than the mean summer high temperature. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. We used WRF simulated temperatures at 2 meters above the surface to calculate the annual average number of days spent in heat waves. Our results indicated a significant increase in heat wave episodes-a direct consequence of steadily increasing maximum temperatures in the future. Our discussion continues with clarification of how public health must become integral to future community, civic, healthcare, and emergency preparedness planning. While continued growth in the number of persons living in urban areas will result in increased exposure to heat-related health risks
Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole
The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.
Ocfemia, Cheryl Bañez; Taylor, Candace
Diarrheal illnesses remain among the leading causes of morbidity in the United States. Approximately five million diarrheal cases occur annually (Chin, 2000; Ostroff & Leduc, 2000), with an estimated incidence of one diarrheal episode per person per year (Aranda-Michel & Giannella, 1999). Though the causes of diarrheal illnesses vary, infectious agents account for a majority of cases (Aranda-Michel & Giannella, 1999; Chin, 2000; Ostroff & Leduc, 2000). Most diarrhea-causing infectious agents are transmitted through food, water, or person-to-person via the fecal-oral route and are the cause of numerous diarrheal outbreaks. The risk for exposure to such pathogens within the general population is universal; however, persons in pediatric, geriatric, and other immunocompromised populations are at increased risk for subsequent illness and complications (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001; Ostroff & Leduc, 2000). Moreover, many persons with diarrheal illness do not seek medical care and self-treat with over-the-counter antidiarrheal agents, which have potentially serious side effects among high-risk individuals. The public health impact of diarrheal illness is apparent and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, timely notification of illness with public health implications, and coordination between healthcare professionals and public health officials to prevent and control the spread of infection.
Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.
September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.
Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara
A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.
Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O
Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174.
Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.
The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.
Gebbie, K M; Merrill, J
Although it has been of interest to public health leaders, advocates, and policy planners for many years, decades have passed since the last organized count of public health workers. This article reports on methods used by the Columbia University School of Nursing, Center for Health Policy, to enumerate the public health workforce in 57 states and territories based on existing reports, summaries, and surveys. The complexity of public health workforce data is described and the scheme utilized to characterize the workforce using public agency categories is illustrated. The resulting "best current estimate" provokes many questions regarding future policy about a public health workforce database.
Tourism has been steadily expanding in recent years and continues to do so, with the result that the health and social problems related to this new mass phenomenon are growing likewise. Urgent and serious attention to the various implications is now required on the part of relevant national and international bodies and of all sectors interested in the health and wellbeing of tourists, both in their place of origin and at their destination. Tourist health is a new branch of public health concerned with the protection and promotion of the health of tourists. The traditional role of medicine has always been to deal with the health aspects of the most important of life's activities, such as work and sport. The medical profession cannot therefore neglect a leisure-time pursuit such as tourism, in view of its wide-ranging health implications. The Italian Association for Tourist Medicine (IATM) and the Tourist Health Centre, with headquarters in Rimini, were founded in 1983 to assist in the creation of tourist health as a discipline and to promote its development. An international meeting on Prevention and control of infections in tourists in the Mediterranean area, organized in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Tourism Organization (WTO) was held in Rimini on 8-11 February 1988. The meeting recommended that the IATM act as focal point in the promotion of tourist health and tourist medicine, especially for countries in the Mediterranean area. In December 1988, the Tourist Health Centre, Rimini was designated as a WHO collaborating centre for tourist health and tourist medicine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Health promotion is one of the essential functions of public health authorities. The first pillar of health promotion is the elaboration of healthy public policy. Using the theoretical foundations of the healthy public policy concept, it can be demonstrated that public health authorities are able to develop, at their own scale, healthy public policies. Three strategic approaches are proposed in order to support public health authorities in strengthening their healthy public policy actions. First, better understand the tools or policy instruments (economic, regulation, information and persuasion) at their disposal. Second, take stock of the many types of legitimacy (theoretical, legislative, administrative and scientific) available to public health authorities as they develop healthy public policy. Third, consider the potential scientific roles that can be adopted while using the various policy instruments. These approaches can represent a pragmatic and structuring support for public health authorities wanting to strengthen their healthy public policy actions.
Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H
This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.
Swider, Susan M; Krothe, Joyce; Reyes, David; Cravetz, Michelle
This article describes the most recent efforts by the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing organizations to review and revise the competencies for PHN practice, and highlights the implications of these competencies for practice, education, and research. The Quad Council is a coalition of four nursing organizations with a focus on public health nursing and includes the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators; the Association of Public Health Nursing (known prior to July 1, 2012 as the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing); the Public Health Nursing section of the American Public Health Association; and the Council on Economics and Practice of the American Nurses' Association. The Quad Council competencies are based on the Council on Linkages competencies for public health professionals and were designed to ensure that public health nursing fits in the domain of public health science and practice.
Earnest, G Scott; Reed, Laurence D; Conover, D; Estill, C; Gjessing, C; Gressel, M; Hall, R; Hudock, S; Hudson, H; Kardous, C; Sheehy, J; Topmiller, J; Trout, D; Woebkenberg, M; Amendola, A; Hsiao, H; Keane, P; Weissman, D; Finfinger, G; Tadolini, S; Thimons, E; Cullen, E; Jenkins, M; McKibbin, R; Conway, G; Husberg, B; Lincoln, J; Rodenbeck, S; Lantagne, D; Cardarelli, J
Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Using imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience, engineers develop the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes. During the 1940s, engineers dominated the ranks of CDC scientists. In fact, the first CDC director, Assistant Surgeon General Mark Hollis, was an engineer. CDC engineers were involved in malaria control through the elimination of standing water. Eventually the CDC mission expanded to include prevention and control of dengue, typhus, and other communicable diseases. The development of chlorination, water filtration, and sewage treatment were crucial to preventing waterborne illness. Beginning in the 1950s, CDC engineers began their work to improve public health while developing the fields of environmental health, industrial hygiene, and control of air pollution. Engineering disciplines represented at CDC today include biomedical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mining, and safety engineering. Most CDC engineers are located in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Engineering research at CDC has a broad stakeholder base. With the cooperation of industry, labor, trade associations, and other stakeholders and partners, current work includes studies of air contaminants, mining, safety, physical agents, ergonomics, and environmental hazards. Engineering solutions remain a cornerstone of the traditional "hierarchy of controls" approach to reducing public health hazards.
Ali, S Harris
The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.
Bateman, D N
1. The aims of the present paper are to: (i) review progress in clinical toxicology over the past 40 years and to place it in the context of modern health care by describing its development; and (ii) illustrate the use of clinical toxicology data from Scotland, in particular, as a tool for informing clinical care and public health policy with respect to drugs. 2. A historical literature review was conducted with amalgamation and comparison of a series of published and unpublished clinical toxicology datasets from NPIS Edinburgh and other sources. 3. Clinical databases within poisons treatment centres offer an important method of collecting data on the clinical effects of drugs in overdose. These data can be used to increase knowledge on drug toxicity mechanisms that inform licensing decisions, contribute to evidence-based care and clinical management. Combination of this material with national morbidity datasets provides another valuable approach that can inform public health prevention strategies. 4. In conclusion, clinical toxicology datasets offer clinical pharmacologists a new study area. Clinical toxicology treatment units and poisons information services offer an important health resource.
IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice
Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.
This article examines the nature and role of Web 2.0 resources and their impact on health information made available though the Internet. The transition of the Web from version one to Web 2.0 is described and the main features of the new Web examined. Two characteristic Web 2.0 resources are explored and the implications for the public and practitioners examined. First, what are known as 'user reviews' or 'user testimonials', which allow people to comment on the health services delivered to them, are described. Second, new mapping applications that take advantage of the interactive potential of Web 2.0 and provide tools to visualize complex data are examined. Following a discussion of the potential of Web 2.0, it is concluded that it offers considerable opportunities for disseminating health information and creating new sources of data, as well as generating new questions and dilemmas.
Camargo, Kenneth Rochel de
Knowledge plays an important role in health care. The production and diffusion of health-related knowledge are increasingly under the control of private commercial interests, which are characterized by conflicts of interests that result in abuses of power. Considerable research has been done on the medical-industrial complex and its role in the production of power imbalances and the consequent abuses, but little attention has been dedicated to the role played by the publishing industry, which can be subject to the same problems. The widely diffused idea that 'frequent and major changes' occur in medicine, albeit unsupported by clearcut evidence, is an effective marketing tool for both the pharmaceutical and publishing industries, who feed and thrive on physicians' insecurities. The production and distribution of knowledge should be addressed as a strategic component of public health.
Riegelman, Richard K
The IOM's 2003 report Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? recommended that "...all undergraduates should have access to education in public health." They justified their recommendations stating that "public health is an essential part of the training of citizens." The IOM recommendations have catalyzed a movement linking undergraduate public health education with arts and sciences' Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP), an initiative designed to produce an educated citizenry. Schools and programs in public health rapidly adopted the IOM recommendations and efforts to reach the other 1900 4-year colleges and universities are now underway. A November 2006 Consensus Conference on Undergraduate Public Health Education brought together public health, arts and science, and clinical health professions educators. The recommendations of the Consensus Conference supported the development of core undergraduate public health curricula designed to fulfill general education requirement in institutions with and without graduate public health education. Minors built upon required core curricula, utilizing faculty and institution strengths, and providing opportunities for experiential learning such as service-learning were encouraged. A curriculum guide, faculty development program, and multiple presentations, websites, and publications have sought to implement these recommendations. The IOM has recently approved a multi-year Roundtable on Undergraduate Public Health Education to help develop the strategies and collaboration needed to bring these efforts to fruition. Enduring understandings for three core courses-Public Health 101, Epidemiology 101, and Global Health 101-are included to help guide the development of undergraduate public health education.
Leaning, Jennifer; Spiegel, Paul; Crisp, Jeff
Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003.Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction.Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions.
Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.
Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631
Karunathilake, Indika M; Liyanage, Chiranthi K
There has been dramatic advancement in health status in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) over the past 50 years. This ever-changing paradigm of public health calls for continuous review and quality improvement of public health education (PHE). Since its founding in 1984, the mission of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) has been to improve the quality and relevance of PHE to combat the diverse, dynamic, and unique challenges in the APR. Prof Walter Patrick was a forerunner in this movement and played an instrumental role in establishing APACPH's position in accreditation and improvement of PHE.
De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication
Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio
ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. PMID:27598787
TAKIAN, Amirhossein; AKBARI-SARI, Ali
Background: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to transform our world, and each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be achieved, everyone needs to do their part: governments, academia, the private sector and all people. This paper summarizes the main evidence-based recommendations made by excellent academics and scholars who discussed their experiences and views during the conference to respond to the challenges of sustainable health development. Methods: To contribute to exploring to the academia’s role in reaching SDGs, the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Health Development was held at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, on 24–25 April 2016, in Tehran, Iran. Results: In line with Goal 3 of SDGs: “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”, the conference discussed various aspects of Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as well as Global Action Plans for prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), and explained the special role of academic public health institutes in education, research and service provision in the two above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: To fulfill the requirements of SDGs, modern approaches to funding, education, teaching, research priority setting and advocacy, which in turn need novel strategies in collaboration and constructive partnerships among academic public health institutes from low, middle and high-income countries, are essential. PMID:28028502
Weber, David Jay
Today’s public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people. PMID:26180978
Carney, Timothy Jay; Weber, David Jay
Today's public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people.
The EPA and the CDC have conducted a collaborative effort entitled the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) to pilot the development of integrated air quality data sets, from routinely available sources, for specific use by public health officials.
Shannon, I.S. )
Public health's promise for the future is inextricably related to efforts which maximize human potential and which realize the world's interdependence. Public health challenges are not only constant and complex but frequently surrounded by political activities. In this environment, the public health enterprise has been enhanced by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences' report on The Future of Public Health and the assessment framework it provides. Risk reduction through preventive and health promotion activities is the primary focus of public health, but facilitation is often dependent upon society's understanding and willingness-to-pay for such services. The effectiveness of public health is related to an ability to coordinate public and private efforts at national, state, and local levels. Also in this environment, public health is empowered through its multidisciplinary approach. However, epidemiology provides a unifying framework for the collective public health effort. Based on the use of epidemiology, public health is empowered to make the argument for a national health program and to support the concept of health as a determinant of life options. Public health's promise for the future can be fulfilled by continuing to increase its scientific base for decision-making, by self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting social justice and by promoting firm partnerships with the public.
Kapoor, Ritika; Tan-Koi, Wei Chuen; Teo, Yik-Ying
Pharmacogenomics has been lauded as an important innovation in clinical medicine as a result of advances in genomic science. As one of the cornerstones in precision medicine, the vision to determine the right medication in the right dosage for the right treatment with the use of genetic information has not exactly materialised, and few genetic tests have been implemented as the standard of care in health systems worldwide. Here we review the findings from a SWOT analysis to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats around the role of pharmacogenetics in public health and clinical health care, at the micro, meso and macro levels corresponding to the perspectives of the individuals (scientists, patients and physicians), the health-care institutions and the health systems, respectively.
Livingood, W C; Woodhouse, L D; Godin, S W
OBJECTIVES. The goal of this study was to provide insight concerning the potential of credentialing public health workers through an exploratory examination of public health leaders' perceptions. METHODS. Qualitative and quantitative procedures were used. Credentialing issues were identified through the literature and through open-ended interviews with leaders and experts. A 74-item Likert-type survey was used to quantify perceptions. Key informants and survey participants were identified through pertinent organizations. RESULTS. The public health leaders leaned toward consensus on some benefits of and concerns about credentialing. There was no consensus related to a specific form of desired credentialing, although national certification was supported by a plurality. State licensing and an emphasis on the master's in public health (MPH) degree were opposed by large margins. Public health leadership survey results were similar to results of a survey of credentialing experts. CONCLUSIONS. The lack of consensus and the vehemence of some opposing positions indicate that movements toward credentialing should proceed cautiously. However, many of the response patterns indicate that the issue merits further exploration. PMID:7762707
Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi
Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories.
Afifi, Tracie O
Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.
Wagstaff, D J
Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743
International interest in the social determinants of health and their public policy antecedents is increasing. Despite evidence that the USA presents one of the worst population health profiles and public policy environments in support of health among wealthy developed nations - a result of systemic inequities in income, influence, and power - the USA public health gaze is firmly - and narrowly - focused on issues of access to health care, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, and individual behavioral risk factors. Reasons for the USA's neglect of structural and public policy issues are explored and Ten Tips for American Public Health Researchers and Workers are presented.
CDC joins the American Public Health Association (APHA) in celebration of National Public Health Week, April 3-9, 2017. Since 1995, APHA has led the observance of National Public Health Week during the first full week of April. The week recognizes the impact of public health on the health of the nation. The 2017 observance focuses on making the United States the Healthiest Nation in One Generation by 2030 by spotlighting the importance of prevention, employing successful strategies for collaboration, and promoting the critical role of a strong public health system.
Ogden, Lydia L
In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.
Beyeler, Walt; Finley, Patrick; Walser, Alex; Frazier, Chris; Mitchell, Michael
PHANTOM models logistic functions of national public health systems. The system enables public health officials to visualize and coordinate options for public health surveillance, diagnosis, response and administration in an integrated analytical environment. Users may simulate and analyze system performance applying scenarios that represent current conditions or future contingencies what-if analyses of potential systemic improvements. Public health networks are visualized as interactive maps, with graphical displays of relevant system performance metrics as calculated by the simulation modeling components.
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....
Waller, Lauren E.; Papadopoulos, Andrew
The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health... importance to the public health or safety, may make full adherence to the procedural provisions of NEPA...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health... importance to the public health or safety, may make full adherence to the procedural provisions of NEPA...