Science.gov

Sample records for advancing scientific knowledge

  1. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  2. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Transforming education into an evidence-based field depends in no small part on a strong base of scientific knowledge to inform educational policy and practice. Advancing Scientific Research in Education makes select recommendations for strengthening scientific education research and targets federal agencies, professional associations, and…

  3. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  4. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIH Roadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives by providing tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data, and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologies as well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotated using those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops in ontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research in ontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientific discovery. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  5. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: advancing biomedicine through structured organization of scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Daniel L; Lewis, Suzanna E; Mungall, Chris J; Misra, Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute, Christopher G; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease. PMID:16901225

  6. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The title of this report reveals its purpose precisely: to spur actions that will advance scientific research in education. The recommendations for accomplishing this goal, detailed in this report, build on the National Research Council (NRC) report "Scientific Research in Education" (National Research Council, 2002). That report offers an…

  8. Educational interventions to advance children's scientific thinking.

    PubMed

    Klahr, David; Zimmerman, Corinne; Jirout, Jamie

    2011-08-19

    The goal of science education interventions is to nurture, enrich, and sustain children's natural and spontaneous interest in scientific knowledge and procedures. We present taxonomy for classifying different types of research on scientific thinking from the perspective of cognitive development and associated attempts to teach science. We summarize the literature on the early--unschooled--development of scientific thinking, and then focus on recent research on how best to teach science to children from preschool to middle school. We summarize some of the current disagreements in the field of science education and offer some suggestions on ways to continue to advance the science of science instruction.

  9. Creativity, Scientific Practice, and Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this interesting article, Hisham Ghassib (2010) describes the transformation of science from its craft status in a pre-modern era to the major knowledge industry it is today. He then compares the production of scientific knowledge with industrial production, but makes the important distinction between the process of developing scientific…

  10. Exploiting scientific advances. Philip Russell.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) will hopefully accelerate the vaccine development process, make it more efficient, and produce new and better vaccines which will prevent most, if not all, of today's preventable diseases which lead to childhood mortality. The technology exists, but has simply not been exploited. Many exciting approaches to vaccine development never advance beyond the product development stage because, until now, there has been no mechanism for overseeing the entire process from the initial conception of a vaccine in the laboratory to its development by industry and its incorporation into vaccine programs. The CVI, however, has been established to provide such oversight and to coordinate the process. Recently developed technologies which could advance the attainment of CVI goals are the microencapsulation process and the use of live viral or attenuated bacterial vectors, genetically engineered to express desired vaccine antigen structures and induce immunity to specific infectious agents. The scientific obstacles are simply challenges which can be overcome. However, for the CVI to achieve its goals, it requires both adequate public sector resources and the collaboration of private industry. PMID:12321835

  11. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress?

    SciTech Connect

    Wojick, D E; Warnick, W L; Carroll, B C; Crowe, J

    2006-06-01

    With the United States federal government spending billions annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. The process by which science knowledge is spread is called diffusion. It is therefore important to better understand and measure the benefits of this diffusion of knowledge. In particular, it is important to understand whether advances in Internet searching can speed up the diffusion of scientific knowledge and accelerate scientific progress despite the fact that the vast majority of scientific information resources continue to be held in deep web databases that many search engines cannot fully access. To address the complexity of the search issue, the term global discovery is used for the act of searching across heterogeneous environments and distant communities. This article discusses these issues and describes research being conducted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).

  12. Joseph Henry's Conception of Scientific Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theerman, Paul

    1997-04-01

    Joseph Henry, America's premier physicist and physics teacher in the mid-nineteenth century, had decided views of scientific knowledge. These were expressed in two ways. First of all, scientific knowledge led to moral betterment. Thus the study of science was a morally good thing. This was not only because it led to the contemplation of God's creation, which was a standard reason justifying the study of science dating from the Scientific Revolution and even earlier. More importantly, the study of science itself was a moral discipline, imparting to scientists the habits and virtues of truthfulness, respect for others, care and diligence, and the discernment of meaningful patterns from experience. The moral ideals of science were expressed most strongly in Henry's upholding the international "Republic of Science"; conversely, cheapening science was a sign of moral failure. Second, for Henry and his generation, science provided a path to sure truth, separate from falsehood of both the politics and the quackery that characterized mid-century public life. Henry promoted this in his championing of the Smithsonian Institution a scientific establishment, against the ideas of others who wanted to make it a literary establishment or a training school for teachers. For Henry, the Smithsonian's scientific reputation would be established by relying on careful peer review in its publications, and supporting established scientists to write authoritative popular works. The purpose of both these activities was to raise the profile of science in the United States and further establish science and the scientific method as a guide to public life.

  13. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published “open access” information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe. PMID:26664857

  14. Advanced Aerobots for Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Raymond, Carol A.; Matthews, Janet B.; Nicaise, Fabien; Jones, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    The Picosat and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Systems Engineering (PAUSE) project is developing balloon-borne instrumentation systems as aerobots for scientific exploration of remote planets and for diverse terrestrial purposes that can include scientific exploration, mapping, and military surveillance. The underlying concept of balloon-borne gondolas housing outer-space-qualified scientific instruments and associated data-processing and radio-communication equipment is not new. Instead, the novelty lies in numerous design details that, taken together, make a PAUSE aerobot smaller, less expensive, and less massive, relative to prior aerobots developed for similar purposes: Whereas the gondola (including the instrumentation system housed in it) of a typical prior aerobot has a mass of hundreds of kilograms, the mass of the gondola (with instrumentation system) of a PAUSE aerobot is a few kilograms.

  15. Explanation and the Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    Explaining phenomena is a primary goal of science. Consequently, it is unsurprising that gaining a proper understanding of the nature of explanation is an important goal of science education. In order to properly understand explanation, however, it is not enough to simply consider theories of the nature of explanation. Properly understanding explanation requires grasping the relation between explanation and understanding, as well as how explanations can lead to scientific knowledge. This article examines the nature of explanation, its relation to understanding, and how explanations are used to generate scientific knowledge via inferences to the best explanation. Studying these features and applications of explanation not only provides insight into a concept that is important for science education in its own right, but also sheds light on an aspect of recent debates concerning the so-called consensus view of nature of science (NOS). Once the relation between explanation, understanding, and knowledge is clear, it becomes apparent that science is unified in important ways. Seeing this unification provides some support for thinking that there are general features of NOS of the sort proposed by the consensus view and that teaching about these general features of NOS should be a goal of science education.

  16. Two kinds of knowledge in scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Bridewell, Will; Langley, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Research on computational models of scientific discovery investigates both the induction of descriptive laws and the construction of explanatory models. Although the work in law discovery centers on knowledge-lean approaches to searching a problem space, research on deeper modeling tasks emphasizes the pivotal role of domain knowledge. As an example, our own research on inductive process modeling uses information about candidate processes to explain why variables change over time. However, our experience with IPM, an artificial intelligence system that implements this approach, suggests that process knowledge is insufficient to avoid consideration of implausible models. To this end, the discovery system needs additional knowledge that constrains the model structures. We report on an extended system, SC-IPM, that uses such information to reduce its search through the space of candidates and to produce models that human scientists find more plausible. We also argue that although people carry out less extensive search than SC-IPM, they rely on the same forms of knowledge--processes and constraints--when constructing explanatory models.

  17. Two kinds of knowledge in scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Bridewell, Will; Langley, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Research on computational models of scientific discovery investigates both the induction of descriptive laws and the construction of explanatory models. Although the work in law discovery centers on knowledge-lean approaches to searching a problem space, research on deeper modeling tasks emphasizes the pivotal role of domain knowledge. As an example, our own research on inductive process modeling uses information about candidate processes to explain why variables change over time. However, our experience with IPM, an artificial intelligence system that implements this approach, suggests that process knowledge is insufficient to avoid consideration of implausible models. To this end, the discovery system needs additional knowledge that constrains the model structures. We report on an extended system, SC-IPM, that uses such information to reduce its search through the space of candidates and to produce models that human scientists find more plausible. We also argue that although people carry out less extensive search than SC-IPM, they rely on the same forms of knowledge--processes and constraints--when constructing explanatory models. PMID:25163620

  18. 77 FR 62231 - DOE/Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    .../Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing...: Melea Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building;...

  19. 76 FR 31945 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION... the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melea Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown...

  20. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    PubMed

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge.

  1. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    PubMed

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. PMID:26900164

  2. Relationship between scientific knowledge and fortune-telling.

    PubMed

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2014-10-01

    This study takes on a relational and situated perspective to understand the relationship between scientific knowledge and fortune-telling. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of scientific facts and methods, and fortune-telling beliefs and practices. A sample of 1863 adults was drawn from a population of Taiwanese citizens using the method of probability proportional to size. The findings showed that knowledge of scientific methods was negatively associated with fortune-telling beliefs. However, knowledge of scientific facts was, by and large, positively associated with engagement in fortune-telling practices, a phenomenon known as cognitive polyphasia. This study does not imply that science communication or education have no effect on promoting scientific knowledge; rather, it hopes to encourage researchers and practitioners to use a culturally sensitive lens to rethink the role of science in society and its relationship with other forms of knowledge and belief.

  3. Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of The Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…

  4. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  5. 78 FR 6087 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department of...

  6. 75 FR 9887 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing... Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U.S. Department...

  7. 76 FR 9765 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, SC-21/Germantown Building, U.S. Department of...

  8. 78 FR 41046 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION... hereby given that the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year... (DOE), on the Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program managed by the Office of...

  9. 75 FR 64720 - DOE/Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    .../Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing... Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department...

  10. 76 FR 41234 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee Charter Renewal AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of... Administration, notice is hereby given that the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee will be renewed... concerning the Advanced Scientific Computing program in response only to charges from the Director of...

  11. 78 FR 56871 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing... Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U.S. Department...

  12. 77 FR 45345 - DOE/Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    .../Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing... Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U.S. Department...

  13. 75 FR 43518 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department of...

  14. 77 FR 12823 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Advanced Scientific Computing..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, SC-21/Germantown Building, U.S. Department of...

  15. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing

  16. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called “first-person” knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer’s first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing

  17. Maternal immunization: opportunities for scientific advancement.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Richard H; Fortner, Kimberly B; Munoz, Flor M; Roberts, Jeff; Gordon, Jennifer L; Han, Htay Htay; Glenn, Greg; Dormitzer, Philip R; Gu, Xing Xing; Read, Jennifer S; Edwards, Kathryn; Patel, Shital M; Swamy, Geeta K

    2014-12-15

    Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to prevent and/or minimize the severity of infectious diseases in pregnant women and their infants. Based on the success of vaccination programs to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, maternal immunization has been well received in the United States and globally as a promising strategy for the prevention of other vaccine-preventable diseases that threaten pregnant women and infants, such as influenza and pertussis. Given the promise for reducing the burden of infectious conditions of perinatal significance through the development of vaccines against relevant pathogens, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a series of meetings to foster progress toward clinical development of vaccines for use in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary group of stakeholders convened at the NIH in December 2013 to identify potential barriers and opportunities for scientific advancement in maternal immunization. PMID:25425719

  18. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  19. 75 FR 57742 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION... Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770...: Melea Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building;...

  20. 78 FR 50404 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ] ACTION... Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melea Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown...

  1. Effects of Students' Prior Knowledge on Scientific Reasoning in Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Il-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Ju; Kim, Young-Shin; Jang, Myoung-Duk; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Kuk-Tae

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of students' prior knowledge on the scientific reasoning processes of performing the task of controlling variables with computer simulation and identifies a number of problems that students encounter in scientific discovery. Involves (n=27) 5th grade students and (n=33) 7th grade students. Indicates that students' prior…

  2. The Notion of Scientific Knowledge in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morante, Silvia; Rossi, Giancarlo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to reconsider and critically discuss the conceptual foundations of modern biology and bio-sciences in general, and provide an epistemological guideline to help framing the teaching of these disciplines and enhancing the quality of their presentation in High School, Master and Ph.D. courses. After discussing the methodological problems that arise in trying to construct a sensible and useful scientific approach applicable to the study of living systems, we illustrate what are the general requirements that a workable scheme of investigation should meet to comply with the principles of the Galilean method. The amazing success of basic physics, the Galilean science of election, can be traced back to the development of a radically " reductionistic" approach in the interpretation of experiments and a systematic procedure tailored on the paradigm of " falsifiability" aimed at consistently incorporating new information into extended models/theories. The development of bio-sciences seems to fit with neither reductionism (the deeper is the level of description of a biological phenomenon the more difficult looks finding general and simple laws), nor falsifiability (not always experiments provide a yes-or-no answer). Should we conclude that biology is not a science in the Galilean sense? We want to show that this is not so. Rather in the study of living systems, the novel interpretative paradigm of " complexity" has been developed that, without ever conflicting with the basic principles of physics, allows organizing ideas, conceiving new models and understanding the puzzling lack of reproducibility that seems to affect experiments in biology and in other modern areas of investigation. In the delicate task of conveying scientific concepts and principles to students as well as in popularising bio-sciences to a wider audience, it is of the utmost importance for the success of the process of learning to highlight the internal logical consistency of

  3. The Development of Scientific Knowledge of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobes, Gavin; Martin, Alan E.; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of children's knowledge of the Earth can reveal much about the origins, content and structure of scientific knowledge, and the processes of conceptual change and development. Vosniadou and Brewer (1992, claim that children construct coherent mental models of a flat, flattened, or hollow Earth based on a framework theory and intuitive…

  4. A Brief Comment on the Surge of Modern Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Ghassib (2010) presents three intriguing and novel ideas which are worth anyone's attention. Firstly, that the constantly increasing amount of scientific knowledge can be…

  5. Contribution of Meta-Strategic Knowledge to Scientific Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Adi; Zohar, Anat

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of Meta-strategic Knowledge (MSK) on scientific inquiry learning. MSK is a subcomponent of metacognition defined as general, explicit knowledge about thinking strategies. Following earlier studies that showed considerable effects of explicit instruction of MSK regarding the strategy of…

  6. The Cultural Interface of Islander and Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The interface between Indigenous knowledge systems and Western scientific knowledge systems is a contested space where the difficult dialogue between us and them is often reduced to a position of taking sides. Storytelling is however a very familiar tradition in Indigenous families where we can and do translate expertly difficult concepts from one…

  7. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease.

    PubMed

    Choupina, Altino Branco; Estevinho, Letícia; Martins, Ivone M

    2014-05-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species secrete large amounts of elicitins, a group of unique highly conserved proteins that are able to induce hypersensitive response (HR) and enhances plant defense responses in a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) manner against infection by different pathogens. Some other proteins involved in mechanisms of infection by P. cinnamomi were identified by our group: endo-1,3-beta-glucanase (complete cds); exo-glucanase (partial cds) responsible by adhesion, penetration, and colonization of host tissues; glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP) (complete cds) responsible by the suppression of host defense responses; necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) (partial cds); and transglutaminase (partial cds) which inducts defense responses and disease-like symptoms. In this mini-review, we present some scientifically advanced solutions that can contribute to the resolution of ink disease.

  8. Knowledge Discovery from Secondary Uses of Petascale Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    I will describe the largest data-producing astronomy project that is being proposed for the coming decade: the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). I will highlight the scientific knowledge discovery challenges that are imposed by this 100-petabyte science data repository, including its image archive and science database. Plans for sharing these data with the community, with educators, and with the general public will be presented, with a special focus on the anticipated scientific knowledge discovery potential from the secondary uses of these scientific data by educators, students, and the general public. The primary motivation for these secondary uses is the fact that the volume of data far exceeds the capacity of the primary LSST science collaboration teams, and consequently many more eyes on the data are required in order to maximize the scientific return from this enormous data collection.

  9. Mapping scientific frontiers : the quest for knowledge visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-08-01

    multi-dimensional scaling, advanced dimensional reduction, social network analysis, Pathfinder network scaling, and landscape visualizations. No algorithms are given here; rather, these techniques are described from the point of view of enabling 'visual thinking'. The Generalized Similarity Analysis (GSA) technique used by Chen in his recent published papers is also introduced here. Information and computer science professionals would be wise not to skip through these early chapters. Although principles of gestalt psychology, cartography, thematic maps, and association techniques may be outside their technology comfort zone, or interest, these predecessors lay a groundwork for the 'visual thinking' that is required to create effective visualizations. Indeed, the great challenge in information visualization is to transform the abstract and intangible into something visible, concrete, and meaningful to the user. The second part of the book, covering the final three chapters, extends the mapping metaphor into the realm of scientific discovery through the structuring of literatures in a way that enables us to see scientific frontiers or paradigms. Case studies are used extensively to show the logical progression that has been made in recent years to get us to this point. Homage is paid to giants of the last 20 years including Michel Callon for co-word mapping, Henry Small for document co-citation analysis and specialty narratives (charting a path linking the different sciences), and Kate McCain for author co-citation analysis, whose work has led to the current state-of-the-art. The last two chapters finally answer the question - 'What does a scientific paradigm look like?' The visual answer given is specific to the GSA technique used by Chen, but does satisfy the intent of the book - to introduce a way to visually identify scientific frontiers. A variety of case studies, mostly from Chen's previously published work - supermassive black holes, cross-domain applications of

  10. 76 FR 45786 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC). Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melea Baker, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown...

  11. 78 FR 64931 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION... Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC). This meeting replaces the cancelled ASCAC meeting that was to be held... Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department of Energy;...

  12. 76 FR 64330 - Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION... Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770..., Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; SC-21/Germantown Building; U. S. Department of...

  13. Advanced Scientific Computing Environment Team new scientific database management task

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J.P.; Roberts, J.C.; Sims, R.N.; Smetana, A.O.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1991-06-01

    The mission of the ASCENT Team is to continually keep pace with, evaluate, and select emerging computing technologies to define and implement prototypic scientific environments that maximize the ability of scientists and engineers to manage scientific data. These environments are to be implemented in a manner consistent with the site computing architecture and standards and NRTSC/SCS strategic plans for scientific computing. The major trends in computing hardware and software technology clearly indicate that the future computer'' will be a network environment that comprises supercomputers, graphics boxes, mainframes, clusters, workstations, terminals, and microcomputers. This network computer'' will have an architecturally transparent operating system allowing the applications code to run on any box supplying the required computing resources. The environment will include a distributed database and database managing system(s) that permits use of relational, hierarchical, object oriented, GIS, et al, databases. To reach this goal requires a stepwise progression from the present assemblage of monolithic applications codes running on disparate hardware platforms and operating systems. The first steps include converting from the existing JOSHUA system to a new J80 system that complies with modern language standards, development of a new J90 prototype to provide JOSHUA capabilities on Unix platforms, development of portable graphics tools to greatly facilitate preparation of input and interpretation of output; and extension of Jvv'' concepts and capabilities to distributed and/or parallel computing environments.

  14. OPENING REMARKS: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2006 and Denver. I share greetings from the new Undersecretary for Energy, Ray Orbach. Five years ago SciDAC was launched as an experiment in computational science. The goal was to form partnerships among science applications, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians to take advantage of the potential of emerging terascale computers. This experiment has been a resounding success. SciDAC has emerged as a powerful concept for addressing some of the biggest challenges facing our world. As significant as these successes were, I believe there is also significance in the teams that achieved them. In addition to their scientific aims these teams have advanced the overall field of computational science and set the stage for even larger accomplishments as we look ahead to SciDAC-2. I am sure that many of you are expecting to hear about the results of our current solicitation for SciDAC-2. I’m afraid we are not quite ready to make that announcement. Decisions are still being made and we will announce the results later this summer. Nearly 250 unique proposals were received and evaluated, involving literally thousands of researchers, postdocs, and students. These collectively requested more than five times our expected budget. This response is a testament to the success of SciDAC in the community. In SciDAC-2 our budget has been increased to about 70 million for FY 2007 and our partnerships have expanded to include the Environment and National Security missions of the Department. The National Science Foundation has also joined as a partner. These new partnerships are expected to expand the application space of SciDAC, and broaden the impact and visibility of the program. We have, with our recent solicitation, expanded to turbulence, computational biology, and groundwater reactive modeling and simulation. We are currently talking with the Department’s applied energy programs about risk assessment, optimization of complex systems - such

  15. Cold Fusion and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Trevor

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the early stages of the cold fusion controversy. Shows how ideas in the sociology of scientific knowledge such as "symmetry,""interpretative flexibility," and "experimenter's regress" are applicable to the controversy. Argues that there is nothing exceptional about the dynamics of the debate, apart from the media attention. (SR)

  16. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  17. Inventing Scientific Discourse: Dimensions of Rhetorical Knowledge in Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, Ann Madeline

    Rhetorical studies of science have emphasized the textual products of scientific activity. In this dissertation, I depart from such traditional analyses of scientific texts and present, instead, a socio-rhetorical analysis of the activities of three physicists presenting their work on the computer simulation of biological molecules to physicists, biologists, and chemists. My analysis focuses, not on a single rhetorical artifact (e.g., the scientific journal article), but on the whole rhetorical process by which the physicists sought to position their work for long-term acceptance. My inquiry was prompted by two questions: "How do scientific artifacts attain public space?" and "How does publicity get achieved and worked out in science?". The findings of my research correct as well as elaborate theoretical assumptions about the rhetorical process as it occurs in science. I argue that scientific persuasion does not occur solely through a text, but that the acceptance of scientific ideas depends on an ongoing social process through which scientists publicize and position their work for long-term acceptance. A central component of this process is audience. Contrary to Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's suggestion that scientific audiences are nonrhetorical entities determined by the larger institution (1969), the physicists' concerns suggest that scientists consciously select their audiences as well as the most suitable forums for reaching those audiences. Further, the physicists' frequent interactions with members of their audiences suggest that audience, more generally, is an internal construct acquired through external means. Scientists acquire knowledge through ongoing social involvement occurring throughout their professional lifetimes. The findings of my research also suggest that scientists use audience knowledge to aid the development and presentation of ideas. Such links between audience and rhetorical invention suggest that rhetoric functions epistemically to aid

  18. Pre-Service Science Teachers in Xinjiang "Scientific Inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry is one of the science curriculum content, "Scientific inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge is the face of scientific inquiry and teachers - of course pedagogical content knowledge and scientific inquiry a teaching practice with more direct expertise. Pre-service teacher training phase of acquisition of knowledge is…

  19. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Damevski, Kostadin

    2009-03-30

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discover through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedened computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative hig-performance scientific computing.

  20. Advances in scientific balloon thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohaboj, T.; Cathey, H.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has long acknowledged that the accurate modeling of balloon performance and flight prediction is dependant on how well the balloon is thermally modeled. This ongoing effort is focused on developing accurate balloon thermal models that can be used to quickly predict balloon temperatures and balloon performance. The ability to model parametric changes is also a driver for this effort. This paper will present the most recent advances made in this area. This research effort continues to utilize the ``Thermal Desktop'' addition to AUTO CAD for the modeling. Recent advances have been made by using this analytical tool. A number of analyses have been completed to test the applicability of this tool to the problem with very positive results. Progressively detailed models have been developed to explore the capabilities of the tool as well as to provide guidance in model formulation. A number of parametric studies have been completed. These studies have varied the shape of the structure, material properties, environmental inputs, and model geometry. These studies have concentrated on spherical ``proxy models'' for the initial development stages and then to transition to the natural shaped zero pressure and super pressure balloons. An assessment of required model resolution has also been determined. Model solutions have been cross checked with known solutions via hand calculations. The comparison of these cases will also be presented. One goal is to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed full models. This paper presents the step by step advances made as part of this effort, capabilities, limitations, and the lessons learned. Also presented are the plans for further thermal modeling work.

  1. Reflections on Peter Slezak and the 'Sociology of Scientific Knowledge`

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchting, W. A.

    The paper examines central parts of the first of two papers in this journal by Peter Slezak criticising sociology of scientific knowledge and also considers, independently, some of the main philosophical issues raised by the sociologists of science, in particular David Bloor. The general conclusion is that each account alludes to different and crucial aspects of the nature of knowledge without, severally or jointly, being able to theorise them adequately. The appendix contains epistemological theses central to a more adequate theory of scientific knowledge.... our Histories of six Thousand Moons make no Mention of any other, than the two great Empires of Lilliput and Blefuscu. Which mighty Powers have ... been engaged in a most obstinate War for six and thirty Moons past. It began upon the following Occasion. It is allowed on all Hands, that the primitive Way of breaking Eggs before we eat them, was upon the larger End: But ... the Emperor [of Lilliput] ... published an Edict, commanding all his Subjects, upon great Penalties, to break the smaller End of their Eggs. The People so resented this Law, that ... there have been six Rebellions raised on that Account ... These civil Commotions were constantly fomented by the Monarchs of Blefuscu ... It is computed, that eleven Thousand have, at several Times, suffered Death, rather than break Eggs at the smaller End. Many hundred large Volumes have published upon this Controversy ...

  2. Scientific literacy for decisionmaking and the social construction of scientific knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingle, Wade H.; Gaskell, P. James

    Citizens are often required to make decisions about socioscientific issues in a climate characterized by conflict within both the scientific community and the larger society. Central to the process of decisionmaking is a critical examination of the relevant scientific knowledge involved. Individuals capable of performing this task can be considered scientifically literate in a decisionmaking sense. In this article we explore two ways of critically examining scientific knowledge in the context of a current socioscientific dispute: NASA's Galileo Mission to Jupiter. The two approaches we outline, termed the positivist and social constructivist positions, are examined in terms of their inherent views concerning the nature of scientific knowledge, in particular their use of constitutive and contextual values when evaluating knowledge claims. Because the social constructivist position acknowledges the importance of contextual values, it provides citizens with accessible standards for evaluating scientific knowledge claims. The positivist position, on the other hand, relies on constitutive values which we show are normally inaccessible to ordinary citizens. The positivist position, however, is most closely associated with the predominant social issues approach to science-technology-society (STS) education. Implications little consensus about which statements are fact (i.e., will remain stable when challenged) and which opinion, (i.e., will be modified when challenged). All knowledge is potentially unreliable when one is dealing with a socioscientific dispute.The adoption of a social constructivist view of scientific knowledge and its inherent way of evaluating knowledge claims clearly has implications for future approaches to STS education. Although one approach might be to offer a course in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science, this would not be useful without reference to the way in which such knowledge can help students to understand the context of a

  3. Simulation methods for advanced scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, T.E.; Carlson, J.A.; Forster, R.A.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to create effective new algorithms for solving N-body problems by computer simulation. The authors concentrated on developing advanced classical and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. For simulations of phase transitions in classical systems, they produced a framework generalizing the famous Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithms for Ising and Potts models. For spin-glass-like problems, they demonstrated the effectiveness of an extension of the multicanonical method for the two-dimensional, random bond Ising model. For quantum mechanical systems, they generated a new method to compute the ground-state energy of systems of interacting electrons. They also improved methods to compute excited states when the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method is used and to compute longer time dynamics when the stationary phase quantum Monte Carlo method is used.

  4. Diversifying science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as scientific worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today. Research has shown that as issues increase in both size and complexity, so does the need for cultural and intellectual diverse frames of reference for identifying solutions to problems. By necessity Indigenous peoples have developed their own science-based understandings of the world. Passed on through oral traditions, Indigenous peoples have both maintained and expanded their understandings over time. Until recently Indigenous worldviews have been forcefully removed and placed outside of the realm of science. Focusing on Indigenous stories as scientific knowledge-wells and storytelling as a vital means of transmitting that knowledge, I discuss science through the stories of four Indigenous educators and practitioners. In addition, I highlight the importance of relationships: relationships to place, to each other, to the stories, and to the storyteller. In particular I examine relational accountability, a framework in which the researcher is held accountable to the people, research, and elements around him or her because of their strong foundational relationships to them. Using relational accountability as a base and stories and storytelling as the methodology, I argue that although IKS look and feel different than the colonizer's dominant Western science paradigm, IKS are supersaturated with scientific information that needs to be brought into the scientific discussions for policy and practice today.

  5. Scientific knowledge suppresses but does not supplant earlier intuitions.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-08-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naïve theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly as possible: statements whose truth value was the same across both naïve and scientific theories of a particular phenomenon (e.g., "The moon revolves around the Earth") and statements involving the same conceptual relations but whose truth value differed across those theories (e.g., "The Earth revolves around the sun"). Participants verified the latter significantly more slowly and less accurately than the former across 10 domains of knowledge (astronomy, evolution, fractions, genetics, germs, matter, mechanics, physiology, thermodynamics, and waves), suggesting that naïve theories survive the acquisition of a mutually incompatible scientific theory, coexisting with that theory for many years to follow.

  6. Knowledge-Based Parallel Performance Technology for Scientific Application Competitiveness Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-08-15

    The primary goal of the University of Oregon's DOE "œcompetitiveness" project was to create performance technology that embodies and supports knowledge of performance data, analysis, and diagnosis in parallel performance problem solving. The target of our development activities was the TAU Performance System and the technology accomplishments reported in this and prior reports have all been incorporated in the TAU open software distribution. In addition, the project has been committed to maintaining strong interactions with the DOE SciDAC Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) and Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). This collaboration has proved valuable for translation of our knowledge-based performance techniques to parallel application development and performance engineering practice. Our outreach has also extended to the DOE Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS) collection and project. Throughout the project we have participated in the PERI and TASCS meetings, as well as the ACTS annual workshops.

  7. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Subcommittee Report on Scientific and Technical Information

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, Tony; Agarwal, Deborah; Borgman, Christine; Cartaro, Concetta; Crivelli, Silvia; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese; Luce, Richard; Arjun, Shankar; Trefethen, Anne; Wade, Alex; Williams, Dean

    2015-09-04

    The Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged to form a standing subcommittee to review the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and to begin by assessing the quality and effectiveness of OSTI’s recent and current products and services and to comment on its mission and future directions in the rapidly changing environment for scientific publication and data. The Committee met with OSTI staff and reviewed available products, services and other materials. This report summaries their initial findings and recommendations.

  8. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, J.E.; Lessard, V.C.; Spaeth, K.E.; Shaver, P.L.; Dayton, R.S.; Pyke, D.A.; Jolley, L.; Goebel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  9. National ecosystem assessments supported by scientific and local knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Lessard, Veronica C.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Shaver, Patrick L.; Dayton, Robert S.; Pyke, David A.; Jolley, Leonard; Goebel, J. Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the extent of land degradation and recovery is necessary to guide land-use policy and management, yet currently available land-quality assessments are widely known to be inadequate. Here, we present the results of the first statistically based application of a new approach to national assessments that integrates scientific and local knowledge. Qualitative observations completed at over 10 000 plots in the United States showed that while soil degradation remains an issue, loss of biotic integrity is more widespread. Quantitative soil and vegetation data collected at the same locations support the assessments and serve as a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of policy and management initiatives, including responses to climate change. These results provide the information necessary to support strategic decisions by land managers and policy makers.

  10. A knowledge based system for scientific data visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senay, Hikmet; Ignatius, Eve

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge-based system, called visualization tool assistant (VISTA), which was developed to assist scientists in the design of scientific data visualization techniques, is described. The system derives its knowledge from several sources which provide information about data characteristics, visualization primitives, and effective visual perception. The design methodology employed by the system is based on a sequence of transformations which decomposes a data set into a set of data partitions, maps this set of partitions to visualization primitives, and combines these primitives into a composite visualization technique design. Although the primary function of the system is to generate an effective visualization technique design for a given data set by using principles of visual perception the system also allows users to interactively modify the design, and renders the resulting image using a variety of rendering algorithms. The current version of the system primarily supports visualization techniques having applicability in earth and space sciences, although it may easily be extended to include other techniques useful in other disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics, finite-element analysis and medical imaging.

  11. How Historical Experiments Can Improve Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: The Cases of Boiling Water and Electrochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hasok

    2011-01-01

    I advance some novel arguments for the use of historical experiments in science education. After distinguishing three different types of historical experiments and their general purposes, I define "complementary experiments", which can recover lost scientific knowledge and extend what has been recovered. Complementary experiments can help science…

  12. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  13. Recent advances in knowledge of BTV‑host‑vector interaction.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Peter; Venter, Estelle H

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) has since 1998 extended its distribution further North than where it has previously been encountered. Changes in the epidemiology of Bluetongue (BT), as well as novel features of recent outbreaks of BTV in Europe, have stimulated research on BTV‑vector‑host interaction. The outbreak of BTV‑8 in Northern Europe from 2006‑2008 is particular noteworthy in this regard, as the European strain of BTV‑8 demonstrated novel properties, including high virulence - especially for cattle - and the capability to cross the ruminant placenta. The virus was in addition transmitted by indigenous European Culicoides species that had not previously been implicated in the widespread transmission of BTV. Recent advances in the scientific understanding of BTV‑vector‑host interaction include increased knowledge of the virus' replication cycle, the role of biotic factors in influencing viral infection of the insect vector, increased knowledge of BTV immunology and pathogenesis in the mammalian host, and increased knowledge of virulence and pathogenicity features of newly discovered serotypes/strains of the virus. New research on aspects of BTV‑vector‑host interaction has been driven in part by developments in molecular biology and experimental infection biology, of which next generation sequencing, the expression of individual viral proteins in cell culture, the establishment of a reverse genetics system for the virus, the development of novel in vitro and in vivo infection models, and refinement of existing BTV experimental infection methodologies have proven instrumental. Moreover, these developments have also provided the opportunity for the development of novel vaccine strategies. This article provides a synopsis of selected recent advances that have been made in the understanding of BTV‑vector‑host interaction, with a particular focus on research that has been conducted in Europe over the last 5 years. PMID:26741246

  14. Using Advanced Scientific Diving Technologies to Assess the Underwater Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Southard, John A.; Williams, Greg D.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Blanton, Michael L.

    2003-03-31

    Scientific diving can provide unique information for addressing complex environmental issues in the marine environment and is applied to a variety of increasingly important issues throughout Puget Sound, including habitat degradation, endangered species, biological availability of contaminants, and the effects of overwater structures and shoreline protection features. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory uses trained scientific divers in conjunction with advanced technologies to collect in-situ information best obtained through direct observation and requiring minimal environmental disturbance. For example, advances in underwater communications allow divers to discuss observations and data collection techniques in real time, both with each other and with personnel on the surface. Other examples include the use of Dual frequency IDentification SONar (DIDSON), an underwater camera used to capture digital images of benthic structures, fish, and organisms during low light and high turbidity levels; the use of voice-narrated underwater video; and the development of sediment collection methods yielding one-meter cores. The combination of using trained scientific SCUBA divers and advanced underwater technologies is a key element in addressing multifaceted environmental problems, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the underwater environment and more reliable data with which to make resource management decisions.

  15. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    of its intricacies. Beyond weakening research capacities and outputs across comparative biology, this Denigration of Natural History impacts on the integrity of knowledge itself, undermining progress and pedagogy throughout science. Unprecedented advances in knowledge are set to follow on consummate inventories of biodiversity, including the protists. These opportunities challenge us to survey biodiversity representatively—detailing the natural history of species. Research strategies cannot continue to ignore arguments for such an unprecedented investment in idiographic natural history. Idiographic shortcuts to general (nomothetic) insights simply do not exist. The biodiversity sciences face a stark choice. No matter how charismatic its portrayed species, an incomplete ‘Brochure of Life’ cannot match the scientific integrity of the ‘Encyclopedia of Life’. PMID:21472034

  16. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, Fenton P D; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    of its intricacies. Beyond weakening research capacities and outputs across comparative biology, this Denigration of Natural History impacts on the integrity of knowledge itself, undermining progress and pedagogy throughout science. Unprecedented advances in knowledge are set to follow on consummate inventories of biodiversity, including the protists. These opportunities challenge us to survey biodiversity representatively-detailing the natural history of species. Research strategies cannot continue to ignore arguments for such an unprecedented investment in idiographic natural history. Idiographic shortcuts to general (nomothetic) insights simply do not exist. The biodiversity sciences face a stark choice. No matter how charismatic its portrayed species, an incomplete 'Brochure of Life' cannot match the scientific integrity of the 'Encyclopedia of Life'.

  17. Integrating entertainment and scientific rigor to facilitate a co-creation of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The advancing research on the changing climate system and on its impacts has uncovered the magnitude of the expectable societal implications. It therefore created substantial awareness of the problem with stakeholders and the general public. But despite this awareness, unsustainable trends have continued untamed. For a transition towards a sustainable world it is, apparently, not enough to disseminate the "scientific truth" and wait for the people to "understand". In order to remedy this problem it is rather necessary to develop new entertaining formats to communicate the complex topic in an integrated and comprehensive way. Beyond that, it could be helpful to acknowledge that science can only generate part of the knowledge that is necessary for the transformation. The nature of the problem and its deep societal implications call for a co-creation of knowledge by science and society in order to enable change. In this spirit the RAMSES project (Reconciling Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development for Cities) follows a dialogic communication approach allowing for a co-formulation of research questions by stakeholders. A web-based audio-visual guidance application presents embedded scientific information in an entertaining and intuitive way on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. It aims at enabling decision making despite uncertainty and it entails a reframing of the project's research according to applied and local knowledge.

  18. Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research in special education has yielded beneficial outcomes for students with disabilities as well as typical achieving students. The authors provide examples of the valuable knowledge special education research has generated, including the elements of response to intervention (e.g., screening and progress monitoring), instructional practices…

  19. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  20. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  1. Advances in knowledge-based software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this work is that a rigorous and comprehensive software reuse methodology can bring about a more effective and efficient utilization of constrained resources in the development of large-scale software systems by both government and industry. It is also believed that correct use of this type of software engineering methodology can significantly contribute to the higher levels of reliability that will be required of future operational systems. An overview and discussion of current research in the development and application of two systems that support a rigorous reuse paradigm are presented: the Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment (KBSEE) and the Knowledge Acquisition fo the Preservation of Tradeoffs and Underlying Rationales (KAPTUR) systems. Emphasis is on a presentation of operational scenarios which highlight the major functional capabilities of the two systems.

  2. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technology information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.

  3. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    DOE PAGES

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technologymore » information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.« less

  4. [Nurses' knowledge about the health care proxy and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Georget, Jean-Philippe; Cecire-Denoyer, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    The Basse-Normandie palliative care nurses' group carried out a survey regarding nurses' knowledge of the health care proxy and advance directives. The study revealed a lack of connection between these two arrangements, poor knowledge about advance directives but an understanding of the role of the health care proxy. How, therefore, can patients be effectively informed? How should they be supported in this process of determining themselves the conditions of their end of life? PMID:26146326

  5. The Relationship between Scientific Knowledge and Behaviour: An HIV/AIDS Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia; Ebersohn, Liesel

    2016-01-01

    Debates on the role of scientific knowledge to affect behaviour are continuing. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that behaviour is influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and not by knowledge. However, a large body of knowledge argues that increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge leads to the adoption of…

  6. Knowledge Management Platform in Advanced Product Quality Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiliban, Bogdan; Baral, Lal Mohan; Kifor, Claudiu

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of organizational competitiveness. This vital resource must be managed correctly within organizations in order to achieve desired performance levels within all undertakings. The process of managing knowledge is a very difficult one due to the illusive nature of the resource itself. Knowledge is stored within every aspect of an organization starting from people and ending with documents and processes. The Knowledge Management Platform is designed as a facilitator for managers and employees in all endeavours knowledge related within the Advanced Product Quality Planning Procedure

  7. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  8. Conceptualizing a Framework for Advanced Placement Statistics Teaching Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to sketch a conceptualization of a framework for Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Teaching Knowledge. Recent research continues to problematize the lack of knowledge and preparation among secondary level statistics teachers. The College Board's AP Statistics course continues to grow and gain popularity, but is a…

  9. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  10. Communication and the Social Representation of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievrouw, Leah A.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the process of disseminating scientific information to the public. Explores the particular steps and strategies that scientists use in taking research findings to a popular audience. Examines the popularization of cold-fusion research. (RS)

  11. Human Sociobiology, Education, and the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albury, Randall

    1981-01-01

    Examines sociobiology (the biological study of human and animal social behavior on the basis of population genetics), which appears to have rapidly become scientifically acceptable, to determine if it constitutes good science. (PB)

  12. National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization at UNAM - Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Varela, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) joined the family of Universities and Research Centers where advanced visualization and computing plays a key role to promote and advance missions in research, education, community outreach, as well as business-oriented consulting. This initiative provides access to a great variety of advanced hardware and software resources and offers a range of consulting services that spans a variety of areas related to scientific visualization, among which are: neuroanatomy, embryonic development, genome related studies, geosciences, geography, physics and mathematics related disciplines. The National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization delivers services through three main infrastructure environments: the 3D fully immersive display system Cave, the high resolution parallel visualization system Powerwall, the high resolution spherical displays Earth Simulator. The entire visualization infrastructure is interconnected to a high-performance-computing-cluster (HPCC) called ADA in honor to Ada Lovelace, considered to be the first computer programmer. The Cave is an extra large 3.6m wide room with projected images on the front, left and right, as well as floor walls. Specialized crystal eyes LCD-shutter glasses provide a strong stereo depth perception, and a variety of tracking devices allow software to track the position of a user's hand, head and wand. The Powerwall is designed to bring large amounts of complex data together through parallel computing for team interaction and collaboration. This system is composed by 24 (6x4) high-resolution ultra-thin (2 mm) bezel monitors connected to a high-performance GPU cluster. The Earth Simulator is a large (60") high-resolution spherical display used for global-scale data visualization like geophysical, meteorological, climate and ecology data. The HPCC-ADA, is a 1000+ computing core system, which offers parallel computing resources to applications that requires

  13. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  14. The University, Scientific Research and the Ownership of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonin, Leonard G.

    The concept of owning knowledge is somewhat ethereal and until recently had little relevance to academic institutions. In principle any object that is capable of being controlled is capable of being owned. The most basic control concerns decisions about whether to communicate knowledge. The philosophical foundation which is the basis of the legal…

  15. Networked Experiments and Scientific Resource Sharing in Cooperative Knowledge Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikic, Sabine; Jeschke, Sabina; Ludwig, Nadine; Sinha, Uwe; Thomsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative knowledge spaces create new potentials for the experimental fields in natural sciences and engineering because they enhance the accessibility of experimental setups through virtual laboratories and remote technology, opening them for collaborative and distributed usage. A concept for extending existing virtual knowledge spaces for the…

  16. Metaphor, Multiplicative Meaning and the Semiotic Construction of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yu; Owyong, Yuet See Monica

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discourse is characterized by multi-semiotic construction and the resultant semantic expansions. To date, there remains a lack of analytical methods to explicate the multiplicative nature of meaning. Drawing on the theories of systemic functional linguistics, this article examines the meaning-making processes across language and…

  17. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  18. Scientific opportunities with advanced facilities for neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lander, G.H.; Emery, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    The present report documents deliberations of a large group of experts in neutron scattering and fundamental physics on the need for new neutron sources of greater intensity and more sophisticated instrumentation than those currently available. An additional aspect of the Workshop was a comparison between steady-state (reactor) and pulsed (spallation) sources. The main conclusions were: (1) the case for a new higher flux neutron source is extremely strong and such a facility will lead to qualitatively new advances in condensed matter science and fundamental physics; (2) to a large extent the future needs of the scientific community could be met with either a 5 x 10/sup 15/ n cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ steady state source or a 10/sup 17/ n cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ peak flux spallation source; and (3) the findings of this Workshop are consistent with the recommendations of the Major Materials Facilities Committee.

  19. Recent Scientific Advances Towards the Development of Tendon Healing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Eli T.; Sandy, John D.; Virk, Mandeep S.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Wysocki, Robert W.; Galante, Jorge O.; Trella, Katie J.; Plaas, Anna; Wang, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    There exists a range of surgical and non-surgical approaches to the treatment of both acute and chronic tendon injuries. Despite surgical advances in the management of acute tears and increasing treatment options for tendinopathies, strategies frequently are unsuccessful, due to impaired mechanical properties of the treated tendon and/or a deficiency in progenitor cell activities. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutic strategies to augment intrinsic and/or surgical repair. Such approaches can benefit both tendinopathies and tendon tears which, due to their severity, appear to be irreversible or irreparable. Biologic therapies include the utilization of scaffolds as well as gene, growth factor, and cell delivery. These treatment modalities aim to provide mechanical durability or augment the biologic healing potential of the repaired tissue. Here, we review the emerging concepts and scientific evidence which provide a rationale for tissue engineering and regeneration strategies as well as discuss the clinical translation of recent innovations. PMID:26753125

  20. Media Articles Describing Advances in Scientific Research as a Vehicle for Student Engagement Fostering Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassell, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    "Records of Global Climate Change" enables students to fulfill the science component of an undergraduate distribution requirement in "Critical Approaches" at IU Bloomington. The course draws students from all disciplines with varying levels of understanding of scientific approaches and often limited familiarity with climate issues. Its discussion sessions seek to foster scientific literacy via an alternating series of assignments focused on a combination of exercises that involve either examination and interpretation of on-line climate data or consideration and assessment of the scientific basis of new discoveries about climate change contained in recently published media articles. The final assignment linked to the discussion sessions requires students to review and summarize the topics discussed during the semester. Their answers provide direct evidence of newly acquired abilities to assimilate and evaluate scientific information on a range of topics related to climate change. In addition, student responses to an end-of-semester survey confirm that the vast majority considers that their knowledge and understanding of climate change was enhanced, and unsolicited comments note that the discussion sessions contributed greatly to this advancement. Many students remarked that the course's emphasis on examination of paleoclimate records helped their comprehension of the unprecedented nature of present-day climate trends. Others reported that their views on the significance of climate change had been transformed, and some commented that they now felt well equipped to engage in discussions about climate change because they were better informed about its scientific basis and facts.

  1. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  2. Community Intelligence in Knowledge Curation: An Application to Managing Scientific Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Dong; Li, Ang; Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Fei; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Wang, Xumin; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world’s population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn). ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation. PMID:23451119

  3. Community intelligence in knowledge curation: an application to managing scientific nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lin; Xu, Chao; Tian, Ming; Sang, Jian; Zou, Dong; Li, Ang; Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Fei; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Wang, Xumin; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world's population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn). ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation. PMID:23451119

  4. Diversifying Science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as Scientific Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today.…

  5. Discovering Communicable Scientific Knowledge from Spatio-Temporal Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how we used regression rules to improve upon a result previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  6. Student Knowledge of Scientific and Natural Resource Concepts Concerning Acidic Deposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed is the level of scientific and natural resource knowledge possessed by fourth-, eighth- and eleventh-grade students. Misconceptions are noted. Discussed are implications for teaching about acidic deposition. (CW)

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; Jeff B. Benson; James I. Cole; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-03-01

    In 2007, the United States Department of Energy designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory, as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer's physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, and obtained access to additional PIE equipment. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program enables and facilitates user access to several university and national laboratories. So far, seven universities and one national laboratory have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these universities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user's technical needs. Universities and laboratories included in the ATR NSUF partnership program are as follows: (1) Nuclear Services Laboratories at North Carolina State University; (2) PULSTAR Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University; (3) Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator) at the University of Michigan; (4) Irradiated Materials at the University of Michigan; (5) Harry Reid Center Radiochemistry Laboratories at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; (6) Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (7) Tandem Accelerator Ion Beam. (1.7 MV terminal voltage tandem ion accelerator) at the University of Wisconsin

  8. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Componet Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaraju, Madhusudhan

    2010-10-31

    Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2010Report Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software: Distributed CCA State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 13902 Summary The overall objective of Binghamton's involvement is to work on enhancements of the CCA environment, motivated by the applications and research initiatives discussed in the proposal. This year we are working on re-focusing our design and development efforts to develop proof-of-concept implementations that have the potential to significantly impact scientific components. We worked on developing parallel implementations for non-hydrostatic code and worked on a model coupling interface for biogeochemical computations coded in MATLAB. We also worked on the design and implementation modules that will be required for the emerging MapReduce model to be effective for scientific applications. Finally, we focused on optimizing the processing of scientific datasets on multi-core processors. Research Details We worked on the following research projects that we are working on applying to CCA-based scientific applications. 1. Non-Hydrostatic Hydrodynamics: Non-static hydrodynamics are significantly more accurate at modeling internal waves that may be important in lake ecosystems. Non-hydrostatic codes, however, are significantly more computationally expensive, often prohibitively so. We have worked with Chin Wu at the University of Wisconsin to parallelize non-hydrostatic code. We have obtained a speed up of about 26 times maximum. Although this is significant progress, we hope to improve the performance further, such that it becomes a practical alternative to hydrostatic codes. 2. Model-coupling for water-based ecosystems: To answer pressing questions about water resources requires that physical models (hydrodynamics) be coupled with biological and chemical models. Most hydrodynamics codes are written in Fortran, however, while most ecologists work in MATLAB. This

  9. Different Contexts in Electronic Communication: Some Remarks on the Communicability of Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Adriana; Luzi, Daniela

    2000-01-01

    Explores how the appearance and wide use of information and communication technologies may enhance scientific communication and knowledge. Analyzes the use of email; summarizes the results of relevant international studies and surveys on computer-mediated communication; compares business and scientific communication; and examines the relationship…

  10. Preservice Teachers' Views about Nature of Scientific Knowledge Development: An International Collaborative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Chen, Sufen; Chen, Xian; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Adams, April Dean; Macklin, Monica; Ebenezer, Jazlin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an international collaborative investigation into preservice teachers' views on the nature of scientific knowledge development with respect to six elements: observations and inferences, tentativeness, scientific theories and laws, social and cultural embeddedness, creativity and imagination, and scientific…

  11. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.

  12. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  13. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  14. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient.

  15. From the Horse's Mouth: What Scientists Say about Scientific Investigation and Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Siu Ling; Hodson, Derek

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify prominent features of the nature of science (NOS) embedded in authentic scientific inquiry. Thirteen well-established scientists from different parts of the world, working in experimental or theoretical research, in both traditional fields such as astrophysics and rapidly growing research fields such as molecular…

  16. Probing Preservice Teachers' Understandings of Scientific Knowledge by Using a Vignette in Conjunction with a Paper and Pencil Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how prospective middle school science teachers understood and identified types of scientific knowledge in a presented vignette. Also, their definitions and views of the relationships between types of scientific knowledge (i.e. scientific facts, concepts, generalizations, theories, and scientific laws) were…

  17. Scientific advances provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.

    2004-01-01

    The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.

  18. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Collin J. Knight; Jeff B. Benson; Frances M. Marshall; Mitchell K. Meyer; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was designated by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by approved researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide those researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer’s physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, obtained access to additional PIE equipment, taken steps to enable the most advanced post-irradiation analysis possible, and initiated an educational program and digital learning library to help potential users better understand the critical issues in reactor technology and how a test reactor facility could be used to address this critical research. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program invited universities to nominate their capability to become part of a broader user facility. Any university is eligible to self-nominate. Any nomination is then peer reviewed to ensure that the addition of the university facilities adds useful capability to the NSUF. Once added to the NSUF team, the university capability is then integral to the NSUF operations and is available to all users via the proposal process. So far, six universities have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these university capabilities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user’s technical needs. The current NSUF partners are

  19. Methyl isocyanate and carcinogenesis: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Sah, Nand Kishore; Ganesh, Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    Methyl isocyanate may have a role in cancer etiology, although the link is unclear. There is evidence in the literature that it can induce cancer in animals but the carcinogenic potency is weak. Pheochromocytoma of adrenal medulla and acinar cell tumors of pancreas have been observed in methyl isocyanate exposed animals. Conversely, emerging data from population-based epidemiological studies are contradictory since there is no evidence of such cancers in methyl isocyanate exposed humans. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of breast and lung cancers in such a population in Bhopal. In vitro findings appearing in the latest scientific literature suggest that genomic instability is caused by methyl isocyanate analogs in lung, colon, kidney, ovary epithelial cells, and that hepatocytes may undergo oncogenic transformation, have obvious implications. The conflicting information prompted us to present this update over the last three decades on methyl isocyanate-induced cancers after an extensive literature search using PubMed. While the pertinent literature remains limited, with a scarcity of strong laboratory analyses and field-epidemiological investigations, our succinct review of animal and human epidemiological data including in vitro evidences, should hopefully provide more insight to researchers, toxicologists, and public health professionals concerned with validation of the carcinogenicity of methyl isocyanate in humans.

  20. Coupling visualization and data analysis for knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data.

    PubMed

    Rübel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E Wes; Biggin, Mark D; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Depace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B; Fowlkes, Charless C; Geddes, Cameron G R; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keränen, Soile V E; Knowles, David W; Hendriks, Cris L Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H; Wu, Kesheng

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies -such as efficient data management- supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach.

  1. Coupling visualization and data analysis for knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data

    PubMed Central

    Rübel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keränen, Soile V. E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies —such as efficient data management— supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach. PMID:23762211

  2. Coupling Visualization and Data Analysis for Knowledge Discovery from Multi-dimensional Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Chris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat,; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng

    2010-06-08

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies"such as efficient data management" supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach.

  3. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: Analysis and Representation of Student Conceptions Concerning Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Problems concerning conceptual change from existing knowledge (accumulated from everyday experiences or earlier teaching) to new scientific knowledge concerning natural phenomena are fundamentally the same for Western and non-Western students. However, difficulties experienced by non-Western students are magnified by factors such as their cultural…

  4. Simultaneous Mapping of Interactions between Scientific and Technological Knowledge Bases: The Case of Space Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the knowledge structure of the field of space communications using bibliometric mapping techniques based on textual analysis. Presents a new approach with the aim of visualizing simultaneously the configuration of the scientific and technological knowledge bases at a worldwide level, and discusses results that show different…

  5. Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerer, Robin Wall

    2012-01-01

    Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

  6. On the relationships between (relatively) advanced mathematical knowledge and (relatively) advanced problem-solving behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-03-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of three mathematical worlds; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of proof schemes and heuristic behaviours. The relationships between mathematical knowledge and problem-solving behaviours are analysed in the contexts of solving an insight geometry problem, posing algebraic problems and calculus exploration. A particularly knowledgeable and skilled university student was involved in all the episodes. The presented examples substantiate the claim that advanced mathematical knowledge and advanced problem-solving behaviours do not always support each other. More advanced behaviours were observed when the student worked within her conceptual-embodied mathematical world, and less advanced ones when she worked within her symbolic and formal-axiomatic worlds. Alternative explanations of the findings are discussed. It seems that the most comprehensive explanation is in terms of the Principle of Intellectual Parsimony. Implications for further research are drawn.

  7. Social justice pedagogies and scientific knowledge: Remaking citizenship in the non-science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jane L.

    This dissertation contributes to efforts to rethink the meanings of democracy, scientific literacy, and non-scientist citizenship in the United States. Beginning with questions that emerged from action research and exploring the socio-political forces that shape educational practices, it shows why non-science educators who teach for social justice must first recognize formal science education as a primary site of training for (future) non-scientist citizens and then prepare to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship offered by formal science education. This model of citizenship defines (and limits) appropriate behavior for non-scientist citizens as acquiescing to the authority of science and the state by actively demarcating science from non-science, experts from non-experts, and the rational from the irrational. To question scientific authority is to be scientifically illiterate. This vision of 'acquiescent democracy' seeks to end challenges to the authority of science and the state by ensuring that scientific knowledge is privileged in all personal and public decision-making practices, producing a situation in which it becomes natural for non-scientist citizens to enroll scientific knowledge to naturalize oppression within our schools and society. It suggests that feminist and equity-oriented science educators, by themselves, are unable or unwilling to challenge certain assumptions in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship. Therefore, it is the responsibility of non-science educators who teach for social justice to articulate oppositional models of non-scientist citizenship and democracy in their classrooms and to challenge the naturalized authority of scientific knowledge in all aspects of our lives. It demonstrates how research in the field of Science & Technology Studies can serve as one resource in our efforts to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship and to support a model of

  8. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group) allatra-science.org, last accessed 10 April 2016. , offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  9. When scientific knowledge becomes scientific discovery: the disappearance of classical conditioning before Pavlov.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, scientific materials in experimental physiology changed dramatically. In this context, phenomena that had been widely accepted were lost, sometimes to be reintroduced later as "discoveries." I describe the loss of the phenomenon of classical conditioning, later rediscovered by Ivan Pavlov. In 1896, Austrian physiologist Alois Kreidl demonstrated experimentally that animals anticipate the occurrence of food that is cued by a variety of stimuli. Kreidl stated, moreover, that the fact that animals can be called to food had been widely known to science since the 1830s. I describe Kreidl's work and discuss several factors that may have led to the disappearance of conditioning prior to its rediscovery by Pavlov.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor - A National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford J. Stanley

    2008-05-01

    The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected nuclear research reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The unique serpentine configuration of the fuel elements creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) and nine flux traps. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 additional irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. There are also 34 low-flux irradiation positions in the irradiation tanks outside the core reflector tank. The ATR is designed to provide a test environment for the evaluation of the effects of intense radiation (neutron and gamma). Due to the unique serpentine core design each of the five lobes can be operated at different powers and controlled independently. Options exist for the individual test trains and assemblies to be either cooled by the ATR coolant (i.e., exposed to ATR coolant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and neutron flux) or to be installed in their own independent test loops where such parameters as temperature, pressure, flow rate, neutron flux, and energy can be controlled per experimenter specifications. The full-power maximum thermal neutron flux is ~1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec with a maximum fast flux of ~5.0 x1014 n/cm2-sec. The Advanced Test Reactor, now a National Scientific User Facility, is a versatile tool in which a variety of nuclear reactor, nuclear physics, reactor fuel, and structural material irradiation experiments can be conducted. The cumulative effects of years of irradiation in a normal power reactor can be duplicated in a few weeks or months in the ATR due to its unique design, power density, and operating flexibility.

  11. Rapid Scientific Promotion of Scientific Productions in Stem Cells According to The Indexed Papers in The ISI (web of knowledge)

    PubMed Central

    Alijani, Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective In recent years emphasis has been placed on evaluation studies and the publication of scientific papers in national and international journals. In this regard the publication of scientific papers in journals in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database is highly recommended. The evaluation of scientific output via articles in journals indexed in the ISI database will enable the Iranian research authorities to allocate and organize research budgets and human resources in a way that maximises efficient science production. The purpose of the present paper is to publish a general and valid view of science production in the field of stem cells. Materials and Methods In this research, outputs in the field of stem cell research are evaluated by survey research, the method of science assessment called Scientometrics in this branch of science. A total of 1528 documents was extracted from the ISI database and analysed using descriptive statistics software in Excel. Results The results of this research showed that 1528 papers in the stem cell field in the Web of Knowledge database were produced by Iranian researchers. The top ten Iranian researchers in this field have produced 936 of these papers, equivalent to 61.3% of the total. Among the top ten, Soleimani M. has occupied the first place with 181 papers. Regarding international scientific participation, Iranian researchers have cooperated to publish papers with researchers from 50 countries. Nearly 32% (452 papers) of the total research output in this field has been published in the top 10 journals. Conclusion These results show that a small number of researchers have published the majority of papers in the stem cell field. International participation in this field of research unacceptably low. Such participation provides the opportunity to import modern science and international experience into Iran. This not only causes scientific growth, but also improves the research and enhances opportunities

  12. When scientific knowledge becomes scientific discovery: the disappearance of classical conditioning before Pavlov.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, scientific materials in experimental physiology changed dramatically. In this context, phenomena that had been widely accepted were lost, sometimes to be reintroduced later as "discoveries." I describe the loss of the phenomenon of classical conditioning, later rediscovered by Ivan Pavlov. In 1896, Austrian physiologist Alois Kreidl demonstrated experimentally that animals anticipate the occurrence of food that is cued by a variety of stimuli. Kreidl stated, moreover, that the fact that animals can be called to food had been widely known to science since the 1830s. I describe Kreidl's work and discuss several factors that may have led to the disappearance of conditioning prior to its rediscovery by Pavlov. PMID:12404270

  13. The Time Is Now: Attention Increases to Transgender Health in the United States but Scientific Knowledge Gaps Remain.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari L; Nunn, Amy; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Operario, Don

    2015-12-01

    Attention to transgender health has dramatically increased in the U.S. Scientific knowledge gaps in empirical research, however, remain and act as barriers to achieving transgender-related health equity. We conducted a search using PubMed and PsycINFO to identify gaps in empirical, peer-reviewed publications related to adult transgender health in the U.S. between 1981 and 2013. We synthesized these findings and commented on opportunities for improving health research. Reducing health disparities and advancing transgender-related health equity requires greater investment in research that addresses current gaps to more comprehensively respond to the diverse health needs of transgender people.

  14. A decade of human genome project conclusion: Scientific diffusion about our genome knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Fernanda; Góes, Andréa

    2016-05-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003. It aimed to sequence the whole human genome. Although it represented an advance in understanding the human genome and its complexity, many questions remained unanswered. Other projects were launched in order to unravel the mysteries of our genome, including the ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This review aims to analyze the evolution of scientific knowledge related to both the HGP and ENCODE projects. Data were retrieved from scientific articles published in 1990-2014, a period comprising the development and the 10 years following the HGP completion. The fact that only 20,000 genes are protein and RNA-coding is one of the most striking HGP results. A new concept about the organization of genome arose. The ENCODE project was initiated in 2003 and targeted to map the functional elements of the human genome. This project revealed that the human genome is pervasively transcribed. Therefore, it was determined that a large part of the non-protein coding regions are functional. Finally, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure emerged. The mechanistic functioning of the genome has been redrafted, revealing a much more complex picture. Besides, a gene-centric conception of the organism has to be reviewed. A number of criticisms have emerged against the ENCODE project approaches, raising the question of whether non-conserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Thus, HGP and ENCODE projects accomplished a great map of the human genome, but the data generated still requires further in depth analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:215-223, 2016.

  15. Contrasting Scientific Knowledge with Knowledge from the Lifeworld: The Dialogic Inclusion Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padros, Maria; Garcia, Rocio; de Mello, Roseli; Molina, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Dialogic Inclusion Contract (DIC) consists in an agreement between the scientific community and social agents to define successful actions aimed at overcoming social exclusion in highly underprivileged areas. Taking the case of a Spanish neighborhood that is generating important transformations, this article explores the process of defining…

  16. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  17. [Chaulmoogra oil as scientific knowledge: the construction of a treatment for leprosy].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fernando Sergio Dumas; de Souza, Letícia Pumar Alves; Siani, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates how knowledge of medicinal plants and related treatment practices are assimilated and transformed. Taking as its focus the use of chaulmoogra oil to treat leprosy, it examines how information on this plant was incorporated and transformed into scientifically validated knowledge when 'Brazilian chaulmoogra' came onto the scene. Pointing to the addition of chaulmoogra byproducts to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz's production agenda in the 1920s, the study establishes links between productive processes and relates these to the period's scientific context. From the late nineteenth century until the 1940s, chaulmoogra oil was the great hope in efforts to cure leprosy. During this period, chaulmoogric treatment earned a place as scientific knowledge thanks to research studies conducted in laboratories throughout the Western world.

  18. Protecting Traditional Knowledge Related to Biological Resources: Is Scientific Research Going to Become More Bureaucratized?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prashant; Lakshmikumaran, Malathi

    2015-10-01

    For the past several decades, there has been a world debate on the need for protecting traditional knowledge. A global treaty appears to be a distant reality. Of more immediate concern are the steps taken by the global community to protect access to biological resources in the name of protecting traditional knowledge. The Indian experience with implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity has created substantial legal uncertainty in collaborative scientific research between Indians and foreigners apart from bureaucratizing the entire process of scientific research, especially with regard to filing of applications for intellectual property rights. The issue therefore is whether the world needs to better balance the needs of the scientific community with the rights of those who have access to traditional knowledge. PMID:26101205

  19. Protecting Traditional Knowledge Related to Biological Resources: Is Scientific Research Going to Become More Bureaucratized?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prashant; Lakshmikumaran, Malathi

    2015-06-22

    For the past several decades, there has been a world debate on the need for protecting traditional knowledge. A global treaty appears to be a distant reality. Of more immediate concern are the steps taken by the global community to protect access to biological resources in the name of protecting traditional knowledge. The Indian experience with implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity has created substantial legal uncertainty in collaborative scientific research between Indians and foreigners apart from bureaucratizing the entire process of scientific research, especially with regard to filing of applications for intellectual property rights. The issue therefore is whether the world needs to better balance the needs of the scientific community with the rights of those who have access to traditional knowledge.

  20. Diffusion and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge within state and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, I.; Flanary, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art is reviewed concerning current knowledge of processes by which technological innovation and scientific information are disseminated among state and local governments. The effectiveness of various mechanisms, strategies, and approaches by which federal agencies have sought to transfer technology to state, regional, and city governments are assessed. It is concluded that the existing relationships between the state and local governments, and the scientific communities are not adequate.

  1. The real-time learning mechanism of the Scientific Research Associates Advanced Robotic System (SRAARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Alexander Y.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific research associates advanced robotic system (SRAARS) is an intelligent robotic system which has autonomous learning capability in geometric reasoning. The system is equipped with one global intelligence center (GIC) and eight local intelligence centers (LICs). It controls mainly sixteen links with fourteen active joints, which constitute two articulated arms, an extensible lower body, a vision system with two CCD cameras and a mobile base. The on-board knowledge-based system supports the learning controller with model representations of both the robot and the working environment. By consecutive verifying and planning procedures, hypothesis-and-test routines and learning-by-analogy paradigm, the system would autonomously build up its own understanding of the relationship between itself (i.e., the robot) and the focused environment for the purposes of collision avoidance, motion analysis and object manipulation. The intelligence of SRAARS presents a valuable technical advantage to implement robotic systems for space exploration and space station operations.

  2. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  3. Advancing landscape change research through the incorporation of Inupiaq knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Brower, Ronald H.

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is a valuable but under-used source of information relevant to landscape change research. We interviewed Iñupiat elders, hunters, and other knowledge-holders in the villages of Barrow and Atqasuk on the western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to gain further insight into the processes governing the ubiquitous lakes and the dynamics of landscape change in this region of continuous permafrost. The interviews provided a suite of information related to lakes and associated drained lake basins, as well as knowledge on landforms, environmental change, human events, and other phenomena. We were able to corroborate many observations independently and verify the timing of several large and significant lake drainage events using either aerial photography or remotely sensed time series. Data collected have been incorporated into a geodatabase to develop a multi-layer Geographic Information System that will be useful for local and scientific communities. This research demonstrates that indigenous knowledge can reveal a new understanding of landscape changes on the Arctic Coastal Plain in general and on lake processes in particular. We advocate ongoing, community-oriented research throughout the Arctic as a means of assessing and responding to the consequences of rapid environmental change.

  4. Mobile knowledge and the media: The movement of scientific information in the context of environmental controversy.

    PubMed

    Bocking, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the role of the news media in transnational flows of knowledge. Its focus is on salmon aquaculture, an industry operating in Europe, Canada, and elsewhere. To examine the movement of knowledge from Europe to Canada, a sample of 323 news stories mentioning European aquaculture was drawn from 1261 stories about aquaculture published in Canadian newspapers between 1982 and 2007. Their analysis demonstrates the role of the media in selectively moving and shaping scientific knowledge. This role has been influenced by numerous factors, including journalistic norms, source strategies, and the assertion of trust, relevance and scientific credibility. This analysis corrects the common assumption in the internet era that information flows freely: new technology has not obviated the role of social factors. The media's role in the movement of knowledge also has implications for the geography of science, and for the status of science as a situated practice. PMID:23832156

  5. Mobile knowledge and the media: The movement of scientific information in the context of environmental controversy.

    PubMed

    Bocking, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the role of the news media in transnational flows of knowledge. Its focus is on salmon aquaculture, an industry operating in Europe, Canada, and elsewhere. To examine the movement of knowledge from Europe to Canada, a sample of 323 news stories mentioning European aquaculture was drawn from 1261 stories about aquaculture published in Canadian newspapers between 1982 and 2007. Their analysis demonstrates the role of the media in selectively moving and shaping scientific knowledge. This role has been influenced by numerous factors, including journalistic norms, source strategies, and the assertion of trust, relevance and scientific credibility. This analysis corrects the common assumption in the internet era that information flows freely: new technology has not obviated the role of social factors. The media's role in the movement of knowledge also has implications for the geography of science, and for the status of science as a situated practice.

  6. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

  7. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    PubMed

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it. PMID:26411238

  8. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; James I. Cole; Jeff B. Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the world’s premier test reactors for studying the effects of intense neutron radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR began operation in 1967, and has operated continuously since then, averaging approximately 250 operating days per year. The combination of high flux, large test volumes, and multiple experiment configuration options provide unique testing opportunities for nuclear fuels and material researchers. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected highly-enriched uranium fueled, reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The ATR peak thermal flux can reach 1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec, and the core configuration creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) that can be operated at different powers during the same operating cycle. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. The test positions range from 0.5” to 5.0” in diameter and are all 48” in length, the active length of the fuel. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. Goals of the ATR NSUF are to define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light water reactors, and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. The ATR NSUF has developed partnerships with other universities and national laboratories to enable ATR NSUF researchers to perform research at these other facilities, when the research objectives

  9. Knowledge of insect diversity in Brazil: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Rafael, José A; Aguiar, Alexandre P; Amorim, Dalton de S

    2009-01-01

    Insects will soon reach one million known species worldwide. Brazil, with about 9% of this total, and possibly another 400 thousand species yet to be discovered, harbors the highest insect diversity in the world. The country has a complement of about 140 active taxonomists, which means a quota of 3,600 insect species per professional. Each Brazilian taxonomist publishes, on average, about 100 species during a professional life span, so it would take 2-3 thousand years to only know the country's insect diversity. Some of the problems hindering the development of insect taxonomy in Brazil are: difficulties with international loans; difficulties with permission for dissecting loaned type specimens; low scientific esteem of taxonomic journals as assessed by the Impact Factor index; academic low esteem of taxonomy knowledge; legal restrictions to field work and disregard of the Brazilian legislation that regulates the final destination of biological material. If truly responsible actions towards preserving biological diversity are to be undertaken nationwide, key problems must be addressed and solved: creation of a national center of information on entomological diversity; investment in a core of institutions that would act as an axis for the development of taxonomic knowledge; investment in the formation of a new generation of taxonomists; elimination of bureaucratic obstacles currently hampering the accomplishment of the constitutional mandate for developing knowledge on biological diversity and developing organized actions to control the deforestation of highly biodiverse areas. PMID:19943001

  10. Revitalizing Instruction in Scientific Genres: Connecting Knowledge Production with Writing to Learn in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Carolyn W.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history and theoretical paradigms associated with writing to learn in science. Asserts that the unique features of writing in traditional scientific genres such as experiment, explanation, and report promote reflection and the production of new knowledge, especially through the formation of meaningful inferences for data. Recasts the…

  11. Enhancing Students' NOS Views and Science Knowledge Using Facebook-Based Scientific News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsi-Yu; Wu, Hui-Ling; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lin, Yu-Ren

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how the different discussion approaches in Facebook influenced students' scientific knowledge acquisition and the nature of science (NOS) views. Two eighth- and two ninth-grade classes in a Taiwanese junior high school participated in the study. In two of the classes students engaged in synchronous discussion, and in…

  12. Measuring the Disparities between Biology Undergraduates' Perceptions and Their Actual Knowledge of Scientific Literature with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates an innovative method used to determine the need for information literacy among science undergraduate students at Adelphi University. Using clickers technology, this study measured the disconnect between biology undergraduates' perceived and actual knowledge of scientific literature. The quantitative data collected in the…

  13. Teachers' Knowledge Structures for Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry and Their Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these views necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of the considerable research that has examined teachers'…

  14. The Cultivation of Esteem and Retrieval of Scientific Knowledge in Physician Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchik, Daniel A.; Meltzer, David O.

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates how physicians draw upon scientific and other forms of knowledge in different professional communities. We argue that because physicians will draw upon clinical research findings to improve their reputation with colleagues, and because the terms for accruing esteem in an academic hospital may differ depending on the dominant…

  15. Influence of Gender and Knowledge on Secondary School Students' Scientific Creativity Skills in Nakuru District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okere, Mark I. O.; Ndeke, Grace C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and knowledge on scientific creativity among form three biology students (third year in secondary school cycle) in Nakuru district in Kenya. The cross- sectional survey research was employed. A sample of eight schools with a total of 363 students was selected from the population…

  16. Pedagogical Link-Making: A Fundamental Aspect of Teaching and Learning Scientific Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Phil; Mortimer, Eduardo; Ametller, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the concept of pedagogical link-making in the context of teaching and learning scientific conceptual knowledge. Pedagogical link-making is concerned with the ways in which teachers and students make connections between ideas in the ongoing meaning-making interactions of classroom teaching and learning. First…

  17. Teachers' Knowledge Structures for Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry: Conceptions and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Stephen A.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these conceptions necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of considerable research that has examined…

  18. From Comparison between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge: Leonardo and Galileo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the…

  19. Meta-Sticks: Having Children Consider the Source of Knowledge Promotes Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Mason

    2016-01-01

    Many elementary science teachers understand that the best way to enhance reasoning and thinking skills in their students is to have them engage in scientific negotiation. They know that teaching is not the simple transmission of information but a complex act that requires teachers to apply knowledge from multiple sources, including student…

  20. A Third Use of Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: A Lens for Studying Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Avery, Leanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, science educators and science education researchers have grown increasingly interested in utilising insights from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) to inform their work and research. To date, researchers in science education have focused on two applications: results of sociological studies of science have been…

  1. From Comparison Between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge. Leonardo and Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-03-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the contributions of scientists addressing similar or the same subject could not only enrich the picture of scientific enterprise, but also possess a special appealing power promoting genuine understanding of the concept considered. This approach draws on the historical tradition from Plutarch in distant past and Koyré in the recent history and philosophy of science. It gains a new support in the discipline-culture structuring of the physics curriculum, seeking cultural content knowledge (CCK) of the subject matter. Here, we address two prominent individuals of Italian Renaissance, Leonardo and Galileo, in their dealing with issues relevant for introductory science courses. Although both figures addressed similar subjects of scientific content, their products were essentially different. Considering this difference is educationally valuable, illustrating the meaning of what students presently learn in the content knowledge of mechanics, optics and astronomy, as well as the nature of science and scientific knowledge.

  2. The Influence of Anomalies on Knowledge Construction and Scientific Reasoning during Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Marissa

    The knowledge construction and scientific reasoning of two classes of seventh grade students (22 to 24 students in each class) were examined during a 3-week inquiry unit in genetics, in which anomalies were used as a catalyst for conceptual change. During the unit, students used genetics simulation software to mate fruit flies that varied on a…

  3. Anomalies as a Catalyst for Middle School Students' Knowledge Construction and Scientific Reasoning during Science Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Marissa

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge construction and scientific reasoning were examined during a unit in genetics, in which anomalies were used as a catalyst for student learning. Students used genetics simulation software to develop hypotheses and run tests of fruit fly crosses to develop mental models of simple dominance trait transmission. Instruction was intended to…

  4. Comparison of Pre-Service Teachers' Metaphors Regarding the Concept of "Scientific Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Eren, Canan Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze pre-service teachers' perceptions of the concept "scientific knowledge" through metaphors. Phenomenology, one of qualitative research designs, was used in the study. A total of 189 pre-service teachers, including 158 females and 31 males, studying at different departments in the education faculty…

  5. Representations of the Nature of Scientific Knowledge in Turkish Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irez, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Considering the impact of textbooks on learning, this study set out to assess representations of the nature of scientific knowledge in Turkish 9th grade biology textbooks. To this end, the ten most commonly used 9th grade biology textbooks were analyzed. A qualitative research approach was utilized and the textbooks were analyzed using…

  6. Issues in knowledge representation to support maintainability: A case study in scientific data preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Kandt, R. Kirk; Roden, Joseph; Burleigh, Scott; King, Todd; Joy, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Scientific data preparation is the process of extracting usable scientific data from raw instrument data. This task involves noise detection (and subsequent noise classification and flagging or removal), extracting data from compressed forms, and construction of derivative or aggregate data (e.g. spectral densities or running averages). A software system called PIPE provides intelligent assistance to users developing scientific data preparation plans using a programming language called Master Plumber. PIPE provides this assistance capability by using a process description to create a dependency model of the scientific data preparation plan. This dependency model can then be used to verify syntactic and semantic constraints on processing steps to perform limited plan validation. PIPE also provides capabilities for using this model to assist in debugging faulty data preparation plans. In this case, the process model is used to focus the developer's attention upon those processing steps and data elements that were used in computing the faulty output values. Finally, the dependency model of a plan can be used to perform plan optimization and runtime estimation. These capabilities allow scientists to spend less time developing data preparation procedures and more time on scientific analysis tasks. Because the scientific data processing modules (called fittings) evolve to match scientists' needs, issues regarding maintainability are of prime importance in PIPE. This paper describes the PIPE system and describes how issues in maintainability affected the knowledge representation used in PIPE to capture knowledge about the behavior of fittings.

  7. Final Scientific Report - Wireless and Sensing Solutions Advancing Industrial Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Budampati, Rama; McBrady, Adam; Nusseibeh, Fouad

    2009-09-28

    The project team's goal for the Wireless and Sensing Solution Advancing Industrial Efficiency award (DE-FC36-04GO14002) was to develop, demonstrate, and test a number of leading edge technologies that could enable the emergence of wireless sensor and sampling systems for the industrial market space. This effort combined initiatives in advanced sensor development, configurable sampling and deployment platforms, and robust wireless communications to address critical obstacles in enabling enhanced industrial efficiency.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Catherine Thelen; Todd R. Allen

    2011-05-01

    This is the 2010 ATR National Scientific User Facility Annual Report. This report provides an overview of the program for 2010, along with individual project reports from each of the university principal investigators. The report also describes the capabilities offered to university researchers here at INL and at the ATR NSUF partner facilities.

  9. Recent advances in our knowledge of Australian anisakid nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh

    2014-01-01

    Anisakidosis is an emerging infection associated with a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans caused by members of the family Anisakidae. Anisakid nematodes have a cosmopolitan distribution and infect a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates during their life cycles. Since the first report of these parasites in humans during the early 60s, anisakid nematodes have attracted considerable attention as emerging zoonotic parasites. Along with rapid development of various molecular techniques during last several decades, this has caused a significant change in the taxonomy and systematics of these parasites. However, there are still huge gaps in our knowledge on various aspects of the biology and ecology of anisakid nematodes in Australia. Although the use of advanced morphological and molecular techniques to study anisakids had a late start in Australia, great biodiversity was found and unique species were discovered. Here an updated list of members within the family and the current state of knowledge on Australian anisakids will be provided. Given that the employment of advanced techniques to study these important emerging zoonotic parasites in Australia is recent, further research is needed to understand the ecology and biology of these socio economically important parasites. After a recent human case of anisakidosis in Australia, such understanding is crucial if control and preventive strategies are to be established in this country. PMID:25180162

  10. Final Report for "Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software"

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software is to fundamentally changing the way scientific software is developed and used by bringing component-based software development technologies to high-performance scientific and engineering computing. The role of Tech-X work in TASCS project is to provide an outreach to accelerator physics and fusion applications by introducing TASCS tools into applications, testing tools in the applications and modifying the tools to be more usable.

  11. Recent scientific advances in the use of radar in scientific hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1993-01-01

    The data needs in scientific hydrology involve measurements of system states and fluxes. The microwave region is particularly well suited for measuring the system states of soil moisture and snow and the major flux into the earth as rainfall. This paper discusses the unique data needs of hydrology and presents some recent examples from AIRSAR experiments.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  13. Advancing Information and Communication Technology Knowledge for Undergraduate Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is a dynamic profession; for registered nurses their role is increasingly requiring greater information process understanding and the effective management of information to ensure high quality safe patient care. This paper outlines the design and implementation of Systems of eCare. This is a course which advances information and communication technology knowledge for undergraduate nursing students within a Faculty of Health and Wellbeing appropriately preparing nurses for their professional careers. Systems of eCare entwines throughout the three year programme mapping to the curriculum giving meaning to learning for the student. In conclusion comments from students convey their appreciation of the provision of this element of the undergraduate programme. PMID:24199114

  14. Advanced Scientific Computing Environment Team new scientific database management task. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J.P.; Roberts, J.C.; Sims, R.N.; Smetana, A.O.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1991-06-01

    The mission of the ASCENT Team is to continually keep pace with, evaluate, and select emerging computing technologies to define and implement prototypic scientific environments that maximize the ability of scientists and engineers to manage scientific data. These environments are to be implemented in a manner consistent with the site computing architecture and standards and NRTSC/SCS strategic plans for scientific computing. The major trends in computing hardware and software technology clearly indicate that the future ``computer`` will be a network environment that comprises supercomputers, graphics boxes, mainframes, clusters, workstations, terminals, and microcomputers. This ``network computer`` will have an architecturally transparent operating system allowing the applications code to run on any box supplying the required computing resources. The environment will include a distributed database and database managing system(s) that permits use of relational, hierarchical, object oriented, GIS, et al, databases. To reach this goal requires a stepwise progression from the present assemblage of monolithic applications codes running on disparate hardware platforms and operating systems. The first steps include converting from the existing JOSHUA system to a new J80 system that complies with modern language standards, development of a new J90 prototype to provide JOSHUA capabilities on Unix platforms, development of portable graphics tools to greatly facilitate preparation of input and interpretation of output; and extension of ``Jvv`` concepts and capabilities to distributed and/or parallel computing environments.

  15. [Causes of death and the relation between scientific and popular knowledge].

    PubMed

    Perdiguero Gil, E

    1993-01-01

    "The framework of this contribution is the nexus between scientific and popular knowledge, and their importance assessing diagnostical expressions when studying death causes in times prior to the setting of a standard for the definition of illness. By means of a particular example, the expression teething, we shall show some nuances concerning the loanwords and equivalences between popular and academic knowledge, and their deep, if sometimes hidden, influence upon the diagnostical expressions informing us about the death causes as shown in the records of life and death statistics." The geographical focus is on Spain. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12318740

  16. Scientific reasoning during adolescence: The influence of instruction in science knowledge and reasoning strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, M. C.; Clement, C.; Pulos, S.; Sullivan, P.

    The mechanism linking instruction in scientific topics and instruction in logical reasoning strategies is not well understood. This study assesses the role of science topic instruction combined with logical reasoning strategy instruction in teaching adolescent students about blood pressure problems. Logical reasoning instruction for this study emphasizes the controlling-variables strategy. Science topic instruction emphasizes variables affecting blood pressure. Subjects receiving logical reasoning instruction link their knowledge of blood pressure variables to their knowledge of controlling variables more effectively than those receiving science topic instruction alone - their specific responses show how they attempt to integrate their understanding.Received: 15 April 1988

  17. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Consolidated Progress Report July 2006 - March 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, D E; McInnes, L C; Govindaraju, M; Bramley, R; Epperly, T; Kohl, J A; Nieplocha, J; Armstrong, R; Shasharina, S; Sussman, A L; Sottile, M; Damevski, K

    2009-04-14

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  18. Center for Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kostadin, Damevski

    2015-01-25

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)1 tackles these these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  19. Dynamical interplay between the dissemination of scientific knowledge and rumor spreading in emergency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Liang'an; Song, Naixiang

    2016-11-01

    Rumor is an important form of social interaction and its spreading has a significant impact on human lives. Accounting to rumors' spread, we present a way of analysis on interaction between two processes, and a frame about the dissemination of scientific knowledge in order to prevent rumor transition. Based on this analysis, a 4D dynamic model is established and numerical simulations are performed. Mathematical analysis of the system with regard to boundedness of solutions, local and global stability of the feasible equilibria and persistence of the system are presented. When the rate of scientific knowledge dissemination reaches a critical value, it can be concluded that the strictly positive interior equilibria undergoes Hopf-bifurcation. The rumor spreading rate also plays an important role on the dynamic behavior of our system, which can be showed from our simulation results that lower rumor spreading rate drives the rumormongers to extinction.

  20. Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossard, Dominique; Lewenstein, Bruce; Bonney, Rick

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants’ attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of the scientific process. The project had an impact on participants’ knowledge of bird biology. No statistically significant change in participants’ attitudes toward science or the environment, or in participants’ understanding of the scientific process, could be detected. The results suggest that projects must make explicit to participants the issues that they are experiencing. In addition, the results suggest that more sensitive measures need to be designed to assess attitude change among environmentally aware citizens.

  1. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  2. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  3. Advances in knowledge management for pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Torr-Brown, Sheryl

    2005-05-01

    There are two assumptions that are taken for granted in the pharmaceutical industry today. Firstly, that we can generate an unprecedented amount of drug-related information along the research and development (R&D) pipeline, and secondly, that researchers are more connected to each other than they have ever been, owing to the internet revolution of the past 15 years or so. Both of these aspects of the modern pharmaceutical company have brought many benefits to the business. However, the pharmaceutical industry is currently under fire due to allegations of decreased productivity despite significant investments in R&D, which if left to continue at the present pace, will reach almost US 60 billion dollars by 2006. This article explores the role of knowledge in the industry and reviews recent developments and emerging opportunities in the field of knowledge management (KM) as it applies to pharmaceutical R&D. It is argued that systematic KM will be increasingly necessary to optimize the value of preceding advances in high-throughput approaches to R&D, and to fully realize the anticipated increase in productivity. The application of KM principles and practices to the business can highlight opportunities for balancing the current reliance on blockbuster drugs with a more patient-centric focus on human health, which is now becoming possible. PMID:15892246

  4. Advances in knowledge management for pharmaceutical research and development.

    PubMed

    Torr-Brown, Sheryl

    2005-05-01

    There are two assumptions that are taken for granted in the pharmaceutical industry today. Firstly, that we can generate an unprecedented amount of drug-related information along the research and development (R&D) pipeline, and secondly, that researchers are more connected to each other than they have ever been, owing to the internet revolution of the past 15 years or so. Both of these aspects of the modern pharmaceutical company have brought many benefits to the business. However, the pharmaceutical industry is currently under fire due to allegations of decreased productivity despite significant investments in R&D, which if left to continue at the present pace, will reach almost US 60 billion dollars by 2006. This article explores the role of knowledge in the industry and reviews recent developments and emerging opportunities in the field of knowledge management (KM) as it applies to pharmaceutical R&D. It is argued that systematic KM will be increasingly necessary to optimize the value of preceding advances in high-throughput approaches to R&D, and to fully realize the anticipated increase in productivity. The application of KM principles and practices to the business can highlight opportunities for balancing the current reliance on blockbuster drugs with a more patient-centric focus on human health, which is now becoming possible.

  5. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    PubMed

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  6. Using the Scientific Python ecosystem to advance open radar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, S. M.; Helmus, J.

    2015-12-01

    The choice of a programming language or environment is rarely made with consideration of its benefits and disadvantages. Often it is something inherited from mentor or enforced by an institution. Python, developed as a "hobby" programming project, has seen increased migration of users from more traditional domain specific environments. This presentation charts our own journey in using the scientific python ecosystem, first as users and then as the developers of a community based toolkit for working with weather radar data, the Python ARM Radar Toolkit, Py-ART. We will highlight how a data model driven design approach can extend the usefulness and reusability of code and act as a bridge between amorphous mathematical algorithms and domain specific data. Finally we will showcase how Python and Py-ART can be used on clusters to tackle pleasantly parallel problems like deriving climatologies swiftly, painlessly and most importantly: reproducibly.

  7. Scientific Society Partnerships & Effective Strategies for Advancing Policy Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, P. W.; Greenamoyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    From the perspective of Congress, science is just another interest group that seeks a generous slice of an increasingly shrinking federal budget pie. Traditionally, the science community has not been effective at lobbying for the legislative advances and federal appropriations that enable the R&D enterprise. However, over the last couple decades, science societies have become more strategic in their outreach to Congress and the President. Indeed, many societies have lobbyists on staff, many of whom have a background in science. Yet, while science societies are beginning to be more effective as a political interest group, their members have been much slower to come around to this perspective as an important component of their professional lives. In this talk, we will illustrate how the American Institute of Physics partners with AGU and other science societies to identify joint policy priorities and then reach out to Congress and the President to advance these priorities. The biggest issue is funding for R&D, but science education is increasingly important as is other issues such as publishing policy. We will draw from a number examples, such as the NSF budget, funding for Pu-238, K-12 physical science education policy, and Open Access to illustrate how partnerships work and how scientists can be engaged as powerful political actors in the process.

  8. Advanced I/O for large-scale scientific applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Klasky, Scott; Schwan, Karsten; Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald F., II

    2010-01-01

    As scientific simulations scale to use petascale machines and beyond, the data volumes generated pose a dual problem. First, with increasing machine sizes, the careful tuning of IO routines becomes more and more important to keep the time spent in IO acceptable. It is not uncommon, for instance, to have 20% of an application's runtime spent performing IO in a 'tuned' system. Careful management of the IO routines can move that to 5% or even less in some cases. Second, the data volumes are so large, on the order of 10s to 100s of TB, that trying to discover the scientifically valid contributions requires assistance at runtime to both organize and annotate the data. Waiting for offline processing is not feasible due both to the impact on the IO system and the time required. To reduce this load and improve the ability of scientists to use the large amounts of data being produced, new techniques for data management are required. First, there is a need for techniques for efficient movement of data from the compute space to storage. These techniques should understand the underlying system infrastructure and adapt to changing system conditions. Technologies include aggregation networks, data staging nodes for a closer parity to the IO subsystem, and autonomic IO routines that can detect system bottlenecks and choose different approaches, such as splitting the output into multiple targets, staggering output processes. Such methods must be end-to-end, meaning that even with properly managed asynchronous techniques, it is still essential to properly manage the later synchronous interaction with the storage system to maintain acceptable performance. Second, for the data being generated, annotations and other metadata must be incorporated to help the scientist understand output data for the simulation run as a whole, to select data and data features without concern for what files or other storage technologies were employed. All of these features should be attained while

  9. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    2013-07-01

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in their bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)

  10. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  11. How scientific experiments are designed: Problem solving in a knowledge-rich, error-rich environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Lisa M.

    While theory formation and the relation between theory and data has been investigated in many studies of scientific reasoning, researchers have focused less attention on reasoning about experimental design, even though the experimental design process makes up a large part of real-world scientists' reasoning. The goal of this thesis was to provide a cognitive account of the scientific experimental design process by analyzing experimental design as problem-solving behavior (Newell & Simon, 1972). Three specific issues were addressed: the effect of potential error on experimental design strategies, the role of prior knowledge in experimental design, and the effect of characteristics of the space of alternate hypotheses on alternate hypothesis testing. A two-pronged in vivo/in vitro research methodology was employed, in which transcripts of real-world scientific laboratory meetings were analyzed as well as undergraduate science and non-science majors' design of biology experiments in the psychology laboratory. It was found that scientists use a specific strategy to deal with the possibility of error in experimental findings: they include "known" control conditions in their experimental designs both to determine whether error is occurring and to identify sources of error. The known controls strategy had not been reported in earlier studies with science-like tasks, in which participants' responses to error had consisted of replicating experiments and discounting results. With respect to prior knowledge: scientists and undergraduate students drew on several types of knowledge when designing experiments, including theoretical knowledge, domain-specific knowledge of experimental techniques, and domain-general knowledge of experimental design strategies. Finally, undergraduate science students generated and tested alternates to their favored hypotheses when the space of alternate hypotheses was constrained and searchable. This result may help explain findings of confirmation

  12. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences.

  13. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences. PMID:21096556

  14. Communication, Interventions, and Scientific Advances in Autism: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Llaneza, Danielle C.; DeLuke, Susan V.; Batista, Myra; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Christodulu, Kristin V.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect approximately 1 in 150 children across the U.S., and are characterized by abnormal social actions, language difficulties, repetitive or restrictive behaviors, and special interests. ASD include autism (autistic disorder), Asperger syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS or atypical autism). High-functioning individuals may communicate with moderate-to-high language skills, although difficulties in social skills may result in communication deficits. Low-functioning individuals may have severe deficiencies in language, resulting in poor communication between the individual and others. Behavioral intervention programs have been developed for ASD, and are frequently adjusted to accommodate specific individual needs. Many of these programs are school-based and aim to support the child in the development of their skills, for use outside the classroom with family and friends. Strides are being made in understanding the factors contributing to the development of ASD, particularly the genetic contributions that may underlie these disorders. Mutant mouse models provide powerful research tools to investigate the genetic factors associated with ASD and its co-morbid disorders. In support, the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain incorporates ASD-like social and communication deficits and high levels of repetitive behaviors. This commentary briefly reviews the reciprocal relationship between observations made during evidence-based behavioral interventions of high- versus low-functioning children with ASD and the accumulating body of research in autism, including animal studies and basic research models. This reciprocity is one of the hallmarks of the scientific method, such that research may inform behavioral treatments, and observations made during treatment may inform subsequent research. PMID:20093134

  15. Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced Scientific Literacy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzino, Dean William

    This thesis investigates the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) in the high school science classroom as an introduction to argumentation and socioscientific reasoning, with the goal of improving students' scientific literacy (SL). Current research is reviewed that supports the likelihood of students developing a greater conceptual understanding of scientific theories as well as a deeper understanding of the nature of science (NOS), through participation in informal and formal forms of argumentation in the context of SSI. Significant gains in such understanding may improve a student's ability to recognize the rigor, legitimacy, and veracity of scientific claims and better discern science from pseudoscience. Furthermore, students that participate in significant SSI instruction by negotiating a range of science-related social issues can make significant gains in content knowledge and develop the life-long skills of argumentation and evidence-based reasoning, goals not possible in traditional lecture-based science instruction. SSI-based instruction may therefore help students become responsible citizens. This synthesis also suggests that that the improvements in science literacy and NOS understanding that develop from sustained engagement in SSI-based instruction will better prepare students to examine and scrutinize socially controversial scientific theories (i.e., evolution, global warming, and the Big Bang).

  16. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group) allatra-science.org, last accessed 10 April 2016.

  17. Does Anyone Really Know Anything? An Exploration of Constructivist Meaning and Identity in the Tension between Scientific and Religious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the tension created by religion and science in one student's understanding of knowledge and truth by exploring two questions: "How do individuals accommodate their religious beliefs with their understanding of science?" and "How does religious knowledge interact with scientific knowledge to construct meaning?" A…

  18. Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India

    PubMed Central

    Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of

  19. The Microcosm of Scientific Knowledge: Sceintists are Talking but Mostly to Each Other

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleski, J.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    There is no question that scientists are communicating en masse. But with publication in journals as the main form of communication of research results, modern scientific communication methods are contributing to a major chasm of knowledge between the scientific community and the mainstream public. While publication in a scientific journal is an effective means to communicate results to the scientific community, it is an ineffective means to communicate to the general public that turns to mainstream news media to learn about scientific discoveries. With little effort made to communicate beyond the borders of journals, an alarmingly small number of papers ever are reported on in mainstream publications. During the target years of 1990-1992 and 1998-2000 there were over 5,300 accredited scientific journals in print. However, in those same years, less than 0.0005% of the papers published in those journals gained any attention from mainstream news media and mainstream audiences. This begs the question, that as scientists, is it sufficient to publish results in highly technical formats with only scientists as the intended audience? Or, has this trend lead to a great disparity between the knowledgeable elite and the general population? The recent catastrophe encountered in the United States Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina is a striking example of published scientific research failing to reach the general public. Hundreds of papers were published during the years 1980-2005 discussing the topic of the potential threat of hurricanes to the gulf coast, yet many citizens of the area were unaware of the severity of a possible storm and subsequent flooding. In the target years researched, none of the papers published on this topic was reported on in mainstream news media, severely restricting the audience. While the intended audiences of the papers went beyond the general public, information in the hands of the people who inhabit the area would have directly by action and

  20. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  1. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Valera, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a “Community Collaborative Board” (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles. Steps: (1) Engaging membership, (2) Developing relationships, (3) Exchanging information, (4) Negotiation and decision-making, (5) Retaining membership, and (6) Studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: 1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; 2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and 3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  2. Theme section on mesophotic coral ecosystems: advances in knowledge and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Yossi; Eyal, Gal; Treibitz, Tali; Lesser, Michael P.; Appeldoorn, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The Second International Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems (MCEs) workshop was held in Eilat, Israel, October 26-31, 2014. Here we provide an account of: (1) advances in our knowledge of MCE ecology, including the central question of the potential vertical connectivity between MCEs and shallow-water reefs (SWRs), and that of the validity of the deep-reef refugia hypothesis (DRRH); (2) the contribution of the 2014 MCE workshop to the central question presented in (1), as well as its contribution to novel MCE studies on corals, sponges, fish, and crabs; and (3) gaps, priorities, and recommendations for future research stemming from the workshop. Despite their close proximity to well-studied SWRs, and the growing evidence of their importance, our scientific knowledge of MCEs is still in its infancy. During the last five years, we have witnessed an ever-increasing scientific interest in MCEs, expressed in the exponential increase in the number of publications studying this unique environment. The emerging consensus is that lower MCE benthic assemblages represent unique communities, either of separate species or genetically distinct individuals within species, and any significant support for the DRRH will be limited to upper MCEs. Determining the health and stability of MCEs, their biodiversity, and the degree of genetic connectivity among SWRs and MCEs, will ultimately indicate the ability of MCEs to contribute to the resilience of SWRs and help to guide future management and conservation strategies. MCEs deserve therefore management consideration in their own right. With the technological advancements taking place in recent years that facilitate access to MCEs, the prospects for exciting and innovative discoveries resulting from MCE research, spanning a wide variety of fields, are immense.

  3. [Technology development as social process: prospects and frontiers of social scientific elucidation of technological advancement].

    PubMed

    Dierkes, M

    1990-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the new developments in social scientific technology research which have changed considerably as a result of public debate and reactions to the importance of advancements in technology. The shift in emphasis, away from the effects of technology to its shaping, is described and certain hypotheses and concepts of advancement in the study of the social conditions underlying technical development processes are presented.

  4. The nature of middle school students' knowledge construction and scientific reasoning during inquiry in genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Marissa

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of middle school students' scientific reasoning and knowledge construction during a three-week inquiry unit in genetics. During the unit, students used genetics simulation software to investigate how traits were transmitted in fruit flies and plants in order to develop mental models of trait transmission for simple dominance single trait inheritance patterns. Using a participant/observer design, data were collected consisting of a pretest/posttest assessment, audiotaped/videotaped discourse, computer logs, student recorded logs, homework, final reports, and researcher field notes. Qualitative analyses were used to determine categories of student content knowledge and scientific reasoning. For content knowledge, categories of student explanations were formed for both standard and anomalous inheritance patterns. Standard inheritance patterns were those that could be predicted based on the appearance of the parents. Anomalous inheritance patterns were those that could not. For scientific reasoning, categories of student hypotheses, tests, and conclusions were formed. Quantitative analyses were used to determine patterns of significance in the qualitative data. Based on pre-post analyses, students made a significant shift from less sophisticated to more sophisticated explanations of anomalous inheritance patterns. Changes in scientific reasoning were more subtle. Some students shifted from less complex to more complex hypotheses, and from descriptive to evaluative conclusions. Some students also shifted from less comprehensive to more comprehensive testing. Student ability to explain two different anomalous patterns seemed to be linked to the extent to which they encountered each anomalous outcome during their investigations; greater exposure was associated with an increased number of students being able to explain that pattern. Novice tendencies found in the extant literature on students' lack of systematicity during

  5. Advancing Knowledge-Building Discourse through Judgments of Promising Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bodong; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating promisingness of ideas is an important but underdeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which Grade 3 students could make promisingness judgments to facilitate knowledge-building discourse. A Promising Ideas Tool was added to Knowledge Forum software to better support…

  6. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  7. Masculine Knowledge, the Public Good, and the Scientific Household of Réaumur.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris (founded 1666), expressions of a masculine culture of science echoed contemporary language used to articulate the aristocracy's value to crown and state--even though the academy was not an aristocratic institution as such. In the eighteenth century, the pursuit of science became a new form of manly service to the crown, often described in terms of useful knowledge and benefit to the public good [le bien public]. This article explores the connection of academic scientific knowledge to the domestic spaces where it was made and, in particular, to the household of R.-A. Ferchault de Réaumur, an exemplary academician. Although Réaumur had neither wife nor children, a complex net of affective ties, some of them familial, linked the members of the household, which accommodated women (the artist Hélène Dumoustier and her female relatives) as well as men (a series of assistants, many of whom eventually entered the academy). As head of this dynamic household, Réaumur produced not only scientific results but also future academicians.

  8. The cultivation of esteem and retrieval of scientific knowledge in physician networks.

    PubMed

    Menchik, Daniel A; Meltzer, David O

    2010-06-01

    This article evaluates how physicians draw upon scientific and other forms of knowledge in different professional communities. We argue that because physicians will draw upon clinical research findings to improve their reputation with colleagues, and because the terms for accruing esteem in an academic hospital may differ depending on the dominant task structure of the organization, the form of knowledge that is valued by a physician will vary with his or her hospital's level of prestige. We use social network and multivariate analyses to test this theory in six U.S. hospitals with varying levels of prestige. We find that in lower-prestige hospitals, physicians can improve their reputation by reading a relatively broad range of scientific journals, whereas in higher-prestige hospitals, esteem is allocated to those with a more elite medical school pedigree. Statistically significant differences also exist between hospitals in terms of whether work with patients is valued, with physicians who engage in more clinical activity in the highest-ranked hospitals receiving less esteem from their colleagues. We finish by discussing how the functioning of higher- and lower-prestige hospitals is interconnected in ways that sustain both the development of innovations and their widespread adoption. PMID:20617755

  9. The Cultivation of Esteem and Retrieval of Scientific Knowledge in Physician Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menchik, Daniel A.; Meltzer, David O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates how physicians use scientific and other forms of knowledge in different professional communities. We argue that because physicians will draw upon clinical research findings to improve their reputation with colleagues, and since the terms for accruing esteem in an academic hospital may differ depending on the dominant task structure of the organization, the form of knowledge that is therefore valued by physicians will vary with their hospital’s level of prestige. Social network and multivariate analyses are used to test this theory in six U.S. hospitals with varying levels of prestige. We find that in lower-prestige hospitals physicians can improve their reputation by reading a relatively broad range of scientific journals, whereas in higher-prestige hospitals esteem is allocated to those with a more elite medical school pedigree. Statistically significant differences also exist between hospitals in terms of whether work with patients is valued, with physicians who engage in more clinical activity in the highest-ranked hospitals receiving less esteem from their colleagues. We finish by discussing how the functioning of higher and lower prestige hospitals are interconnected in ways that sustain both the development of innovations and their widespread adoption. PMID:20617755

  10. The nature of scientific knowledge and student learning: Two longitudinal case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Keith B.; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1996-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between students' views of the nature of scientific knowledge and their own learning of physics, and the evolution of this relationship over time. Twenty-three students enrolled in a physics course that emphasised laboratory work and discussions about the nature of science. Over a 15-month period, an extensive data base was established including student essays and interviews regarding their views of the nature of science and teaching and learning of physics. As part of an extensive data generation, students read a book on the epistemology of physics, wrote reflective essays, and subsequently discussed the epistemology of physics in class. Two intensive case studies are used to illustrate our understanding of students' views over time. Changes in students' views concerning the nature of scientific knowledge and of the science teaching and learning process, which were not always complementary, are described with the aid of a model. The findings of this research have direct relevance to the planning and implementation of science courses in which the development of understandings of the nature of science is an objective.

  11. The cultivation of esteem and retrieval of scientific knowledge in physician networks.

    PubMed

    Menchik, Daniel A; Meltzer, David O

    2010-06-01

    This article evaluates how physicians draw upon scientific and other forms of knowledge in different professional communities. We argue that because physicians will draw upon clinical research findings to improve their reputation with colleagues, and because the terms for accruing esteem in an academic hospital may differ depending on the dominant task structure of the organization, the form of knowledge that is valued by a physician will vary with his or her hospital's level of prestige. We use social network and multivariate analyses to test this theory in six U.S. hospitals with varying levels of prestige. We find that in lower-prestige hospitals, physicians can improve their reputation by reading a relatively broad range of scientific journals, whereas in higher-prestige hospitals, esteem is allocated to those with a more elite medical school pedigree. Statistically significant differences also exist between hospitals in terms of whether work with patients is valued, with physicians who engage in more clinical activity in the highest-ranked hospitals receiving less esteem from their colleagues. We finish by discussing how the functioning of higher- and lower-prestige hospitals is interconnected in ways that sustain both the development of innovations and their widespread adoption.

  12. Controlled human malaria infection trials: How tandems of trust and control construct scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Else M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bijker, Wiebe E

    2016-02-01

    Controlled human malaria infections are clinical trials in which healthy volunteers are deliberately infected with malaria under controlled conditions. Controlled human malaria infections are complex clinical trials: many different groups and institutions are involved, and several complex technologies are required to function together. This functioning together of technologies, people, and institutions is under special pressure because of potential risks to the volunteers. In this article, the authors use controlled human malaria infections as a strategic research site to study the use of control, the role of trust, and the interactions between trust and control in the construction of scientific knowledge. The authors argue that tandems of trust and control play a central role in the successful execution of clinical trials and the construction of scientific knowledge. More specifically, two aspects of tandems of trust and control will be highlighted: tandems are sites where trust and control coproduce each other, and tandems link the personal, the technical, and the institutional domains. Understanding tandems of trust and control results in setting some agendas for both clinical trial research and science and technology studies.

  13. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  14. Scientific Evidence as Content Knowledge: A Replication Study with English and Turkish Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ros; Sahin-Pekmez, Esin

    2012-01-01

    Pre-service teachers around the world need to develop their content knowledge of scientific evidence to meet the requirements of recent school curriculum developments which prepare pupils to be scientifically literate. This research reports a replication study in Turkey of an intervention originally carried out with pre-service primary teachers in…

  15. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  16. Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: Bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupnik, Igor; Ray, G. Carleton

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents and evaluates two perspectives on changing climate-walrus-human relationships in the Beringian region, from the viewpoints of marine biology and ecology, and from that of indigenous hunters. Bridging these types of knowledge is vital in order to grasp the complexity of the processes involved and for advancing understanding of subarctic marine ecosystems that are currently experiencing rapid ecological and social change. We argue that despite substantial gaps and distinctions, information generated by scientists and indigenous hunters have many similarities. Differences in interpretation are primarily due to scaling and temporal rates of change of knowledge, which could be rectified through more active sharing of expertise and records, enhanced documentation of indigenous observations, more collaborative research, and increased insight from the social sciences.

  17. KNODWAT: A scientific framework application for testing knowledge discovery methods for the biomedical domain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Professionals in the biomedical domain are confronted with an increasing mass of data. Developing methods to assist professional end users in the field of Knowledge Discovery to identify, extract, visualize and understand useful information from these huge amounts of data is a huge challenge. However, there are so many diverse methods and methodologies available, that for biomedical researchers who are inexperienced in the use of even relatively popular knowledge discovery methods, it can be very difficult to select the most appropriate method for their particular research problem. Results A web application, called KNODWAT (KNOwledge Discovery With Advanced Techniques) has been developed, using Java on Spring framework 3.1. and following a user-centered approach. The software runs on Java 1.6 and above and requires a web server such as Apache Tomcat and a database server such as the MySQL Server. For frontend functionality and styling, Twitter Bootstrap was used as well as jQuery for interactive user interface operations. Conclusions The framework presented is user-centric, highly extensible and flexible. Since it enables methods for testing using existing data to assess suitability and performance, it is especially suitable for inexperienced biomedical researchers, new to the field of knowledge discovery and data mining. For testing purposes two algorithms, CART and C4.5 were implemented using the WEKA data mining framework. PMID:23763826

  18. Dealing with uncertainty: integrating local and scientific knowledge of the climate and weather.

    PubMed

    Kniveton, Dominic; Visman, Emma; Tall, Arame; Diop, Mariane; Ewbank, Richard; Njoroge, Ezekiel; Pearson, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    While climate science has made great progress in the projection of weather and climate information, its uptake by local communities remains largely elusive. This paper describes two innovative approaches that strengthen understanding between the providers and users of weather and climate information and support-appropriate application: (1) knowledge timelines, which compare different sources and levels of certainty in community and scientific weather and climate information; and (2) participatory downscaling, which supports users to translate national and regional information into a range of outcomes at the local level. Results from piloting these approaches among flood-prone communities in Senegal and drought-prone farmers in Kenya highlight the importance of co-producing 'user-useful' climate information. Recognising that disaster risk management actions draw on a wide range of knowledge sources, climate information that can effectively support community-based decision-making needs to be integrated with local knowledge systems and based on an appreciation of the inherent uncertainty of weather and climate information.

  19. Effect of simulation on knowledge of advanced cardiac life support, knowledge retention, and confidence of nursing students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of simulation on nursing students' knowledge of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), knowledge retention, and confidence in applying ACLS skills. An experimental, randomized controlled (pretest-posttest) design was used. The experimental group (n = 40) attended an ACLS simulation scenario, a 4-hour PowerPoint presentation, and demonstration on a static manikin, whereas the control group (n = 42) attended the PowerPoint presentation and a demonstration only. A paired t test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of ACLS and confidence was higher in both groups. The experimental group showed higher knowledge of ACLS and higher confidence in applying ACLS, compared with the control group. Traditional training involving PowerPoint presentation and demonstration on a static manikin is an effective teaching strategy; however, simulation is significantly more effective than traditional training in helping to improve nursing students' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and confidence about ACLS.

  20. Does anyone really know anything? An exploration of constructivist meaning and identity in the tension between scientific and religious knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Lisa J.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper I discuss the tension created by religion and science in one student's understanding of knowledge and truth by exploring two questions: "How do individuals accommodate their religious beliefs with their understanding of science?" and "How does religious knowledge interact with scientific knowledge to construct meaning?" A constructivist framework sheds light on the answers to both questions in the context of process and product.

  1. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years.

  2. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years. PMID:26369763

  3. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  4. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Collaboration Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, H.; Stoitsov, M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Bulgac, A.; Hagen, G.; Kortelainen, M.; Maris, P.; Pei, J. C.; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The demands of cutting-edge science are driving the need for larger and faster computing resources. With the rapidly growing scale of computing systems and the prospect of technologically disruptive architectures to meet these needs, scientists face the challenge of effectively using complex computational resources to advance scientific discovery. Multi-disciplinary collaborating networks of researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds are needed to address these complex challenges. The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper describes UNEDF and identifies attributes that classify it as a successful computational collaboration. We illustrate significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integrative solutions using the most reliable theoretical approaches, most advanced algorithms, and leadership-class computational resources.

  5. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Collaboration Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, H.; Stoitsov, M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Bulgac, A.; Hagen, G.; Kortelainen, M.; Maris, P.; Pei, J. C.; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.

    2012-12-20

    The demands of cutting-edge science are driving the need for larger and faster computing resources. With the rapidly growing scale of computing systems and the prospect of technologically disruptive architectures to meet these needs, scientists face the challenge of effectively using complex computational resources to advance scientific discovery. Multi-disciplinary collaborating networks of researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds are needed to address these complex challenges. The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper describes UNEDF and identifies attributes that classify it as a successful computational collaboration. Finally, we illustrate significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integrative solutions using the most reliable theoretical approaches, most advanced algorithms, and leadership-class computational resources.

  6. Final Technical Report - Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, Alan

    2014-10-21

    This is a final technical report for the University of Maryland work in the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). The Maryland work focused on software tools for coupling parallel software components built using the Common Component Architecture (CCA) APIs. Those tools are based on the Maryland InterComm software framework that has been used in multiple computational science applications to build large-scale simulations of complex physical systems that employ multiple separately developed codes.

  7. Linking environmental risk assessment and communication: An experiment in co-evolving scientific and social knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  8. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  9. Investigating Knowledge and Sources of Scientific Information of University Students and Lifelong Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Romine, James; Nieberding, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Using 25 years of data, we have been conducting a long-term study of undergraduate students’ science literacy. Based on questions developed for the National Science Board’s survey of the US public, we have gathered data from students enrolled in astronomy courses to help us understand their basic science knowledge as well as attitudes towards and beliefs about science. Science literacy of students in this study has remained relatively unchanged over a quarter of a century. Additionally, students’ beliefs and attitudes were associated with their overall knowledge in science. Less predictive were their self-reported majors, year in school, and number of college science courses taken. Students in this study consistently outperformed the general public surveyed by the NSB.Three years ago we broadened to our study to include an investigation of where students get their information about science and what sources they believe are the most and least reliable for that information. This past year, we have collected parallel data from lifelong learners from around the globe enrolled in a Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) in astronomy, 70% of this audience lives outside the US and represent 170 countries. We will present results of these new studies of almost 700 undergraduate students and over 2500 lifelong learners. Overall, the lifelong learners possess a greater interest in science and better knowledge in science despite less overall college science course experience. Using online sources of scientific information were prevalent for both traditional college students and lifelong learners, although there were distinct differences between how different groups of learners perceived the reliability of online information. We will discuss the implications of teaching science in both traditional in-person college classes and in online learning environments as sources of scientific information and information literacy.This material is based upon work supported by the

  10. Ethics and the politics of advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-04-01

    The politics of academia involve intricate human relationships that are political in nature as nurse leaders and scholars struggle to advance nursing science with complex leading-following situations. This article begins a dialogue of considering potential meanings for what it means to be political within competing interest groups in academia, and within the discipline of nursing. What is most important in the struggle for identity and what possibilities surface when potential competing interests in academia collide? The ethical tenets of humanbecoming and the leading-following model are used to illustrate issues surrounding academic integrity and possibilities for the advancement of nursing scholarship in future generations.

  11. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Bender, Mariana G; Machado, Gustavo R; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J; Ferreira, Carlos E L

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness. PMID:25333661

  12. Local Ecological Knowledge and Scientific Data Reveal Overexploitation by Multigear Artisanal Fisheries in the Southwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Mariana G.; Machado, Gustavo R.; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R.; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J.; Ferreira, Carlos E. L.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches – combining anecdotal and scientific data – as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness. PMID:25333661

  13. Knowledge engineering tools for reasoning with scientific observations and interpretations: a neural connectivity use case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We address the goal of curating observations from published experiments in a generalizable form; reasoning over these observations to generate interpretations and then querying this interpreted knowledge to supply the supporting evidence. We present web-application software as part of the 'BioScholar' project (R01-GM083871) that fully instantiates this process for a well-defined domain: using tract-tracing experiments to study the neural connectivity of the rat brain. Results The main contribution of this work is to provide the first instantiation of a knowledge representation for experimental observations called 'Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design' (KEfED) based on experimental variables and their interdependencies. The software has three parts: (a) the KEfED model editor - a design editor for creating KEfED models by drawing a flow diagram of an experimental protocol; (b) the KEfED data interface - a spreadsheet-like tool that permits users to enter experimental data pertaining to a specific model; (c) a 'neural connection matrix' interface that presents neural connectivity as a table of ordinal connection strengths representing the interpretations of tract-tracing data. This tool also allows the user to view experimental evidence pertaining to a specific connection. BioScholar is built in Flex 3.5. It uses Persevere (a noSQL database) as a flexible data store and PowerLoom® (a mature First Order Logic reasoning system) to execute queries using spatial reasoning over the BAMS neuroanatomical ontology. Conclusions We first introduce the KEfED approach as a general approach and describe its possible role as a way of introducing structured reasoning into models of argumentation within new models of scientific publication. We then describe the design and implementation of our example application: the BioScholar software. This is presented as a possible biocuration interface and supplementary reasoning toolkit for a larger, more specialized

  14. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Bender, Mariana G; Machado, Gustavo R; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J; Ferreira, Carlos E L

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.

  15. Synergy between scientific advancement and technological innovation, illustrated by a mechanism-based model characterizing sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Ng, Chee M; List, James F; Pfister, Marc

    2010-09-01

    Advances in experimental medicine and technological innovation during the past century have brought tremendous progress in modern medicine and generated an ever-increasing amount of data from bench and bedside. The desire to extend scientific knowledge motivates effective data integration. Technological innovation makes this possible, which in turn accelerates the advancement in science. This mutually beneficial interaction is illustrated by the development of an expanded mechanism-based model for understanding a novel mechanism, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 SGLT2 inhibition for potential treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Performance Teachers' Identity and Professional Knowledge in Advanced Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafyllaki, Angeliki

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship between performance teachers' professional identity and the various forms of professional knowledge they bring to their work. The data derive from an ethnographic case study conducted across a period of 12 weeks in each of two distinct music training institutions in Greece--a University Music Department…

  17. Human Relationships That Nurture and Advance the Construction of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Gwaltney, Thomas M.

    This paper reviews the historical antecedents and theoretical foundation for a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. One neglected characteristic of constructivism apparent in the professional literature is the need to better understand that human relationships in the classroom are often pivotal in helping students construct knowledge.…

  18. Does television reflect the evolution of scientific knowledge? The case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder coverage on French television.

    PubMed

    Bourdaa, Mélanie; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Sécail, Claire; Venturini, Tommaso; Veyrat-Masson, Isabelle; Gonon, Francois

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical findings mature from uncertain observations to validated facts. Although subsequent studies often refute initial appealing findings, newspapers privilege the latter and often fail to cover refutations. Thus, biomedical knowledge and media reporting may diverge with time. Here we investigated how French television reported on three scientific questions relative to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from 1995 to 2010: i) is ADHD mainly genetic in origin, ii) does methylphenidate treatment decrease the risk of academic underachievement, and iii) are brain imaging techniques able to reveal ADHD in individual patients? Although scientific evidence regarding these questions has evolved during these 16 years, we observed that nine out of ten TV programs broadcast between 2007 and 2010 still expressed only opinions against the current scientific consensuses. The failure of TV programs to reflect the evolution of the scientific knowledge might be related to a biased selection of medical experts. PMID:23825292

  19. Knowledge first, critique later: why it is a mistake for science education to encourage junior students to discuss, challenge and debate scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-02-01

    In UK educational circles it has long been regarded as a platitude that a good scientific education at school and undergraduate level should aim to teach critical thinking and encourage students to challenge mainstream science, debate scientific issues and express their personal opinions. However, I believe that this strategy is usually mistaken, and that such educational strategies probably do more harm than good. For most students, at most levels, for most of the time; science education should be focused on the inculcation of established knowledge. This is for the simple reason that critique is educationally-counterproductive and scientifically-worthless unless or until underpinned by adequate knowledge and competence. Instead, for the early years of science teaching, the basic assumption ought to be that the student is there to learn science; not to confront science. The basic attitude being taught should be one of humility before the science being studied.

  20. The Spanish toxic oil syndrome 20 years after its onset: a multidisciplinary review of scientific knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Gelpí, Emilio; de la Paz, Manuel Posada; Terracini, Benedetto; Abaitua, Ignacio; de la Cámara, Agustín Gómez; Kilbourne, Edwin M; Lahoz, Carlos; Nemery, Bénoit; Philen, Rossanne M; Soldevilla, Luis; Tarkowski, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    In 1981, in Spain, the ingestion of an oil fraudulently sold as olive oil caused an outbreak of a previously unrecorded condition, later known as toxic oil syndrome (TOS), clinically characterized by intense incapacitating myalgias, marked peripheral eosinophilia, and pulmonary infiltrates. Of the 20,000 persons affected, approximately 300 died shortly after the onset of the disease and a larger number developed chronic disease. For more than 15 years, a scientific committee supported by the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe and by the Institute of Health Carlos III in Madrid has guided investigation intended to identify the causal agent(s), to assess toxicity and mode of action, to establish the pathogenesis of the disease, and to detect late consequences. This report summarizes advances in research on this front. No late mortality excess has been detected. Among survivors, the prevalence of some chronic conditions (e.g., sclerodermia, neurologic changes) is high. Attempts to reproduce the condition in laboratory animals have been unsuccessful, and no condition similar to TOS has been reported in the scientific literature. Laboratory findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism for TOS, such as high levels of seric soluble interleukin-2 receptor. Epidemiologic studies integrated with chemical analyses of case-related oils have shown that the disease is strongly associated with the consumption of oils containing fatty acid esters of 3-(N-phenylamino)-1,2-propanediol (PAP). These chemicals have also been found in oils synthesized under conditions simulating those hypothesized to have occurred when the toxic oil was produced in 1981. Whether PAP esters are simply markers of toxicity of oils or have the capability to induce the disease remains to be elucidated. PMID:12003748

  1. Chest surgical disorders in ancient Egypt: evidence of advanced knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Weder, Walter

    2012-03-01

    The ancient Egyptians laid the foundation for the development of the earliest recorded systems of medical treatment. Many specialties such as gynecology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and chest disorders were subject to diagnosis, which were followed by an appropriate treatment. Here, we elucidate the remarkable level of their knowledge and understanding of anatomy and physiology in the field of chest medicine. Furthermore, we look at how ancient Egyptian physicians came to a diagnosis and treatment based on the thoracic cases in the Edwin Smith papyrus.

  2. Advancing the use of local ecological knowledge for assessing data-poor species in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Anne H; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-03-01

    Many of the world's most vulnerable and rapidly changing ecosystems are also among the most data-poor, leading to an increased interest in use of local ecological knowledge (LEK) to document long-term environmental change. The integration of multiple knowledge sources for assessing species abundance and distribution has gained traction over the past decade as a growing number of case studies show concordance between LEK and scientific data. This study advances the use of quantitative approaches for synthesizing LEK by presenting a novel application of bootstrapping and statistical modeling to evaluate variance in ecological observations of fisheries practitioners. We developed an historical record of abundance for 22 marine species in Puget Sound, Washington (USA), using LEK, and we quantified variation in perceptions of abundance trends among fishers, divers, and researchers. These individuals differed in aspects of their information environments, which are characterized by how, when, and where an individual has acquired ecological information. Abundance trends derived from interviews suggest that populations of long-lived rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) have been in decline since at least the 1960s and that three rockfishes protected under the Endangered Species Act were perceived as relatively less abundant than other species. Differences in perception of rockfish abundance trends among age groups were consistent with our hypothesis that the reported magnitude of decline in abundance would increase with age, with younger respondents more likely to report high abundance than older individuals across all periods. Temporal patterns in the mean and variance of reported rockfish abundance indices were qualitatively similar between fishers and researchers; however, fishers reported higher indices of abundance than researchers for all but one rockfish species. The two respondent groups reported similar changes in rockfish abundance from the 1940s to 2000s, except for two

  3. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  4. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in solid organ transplant recipients: The current scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Assfalg, Volker; Hüser, Norbert

    2016-03-24

    Exposure to heparin is associated with a high incidence of immunization against platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. A subgroup of immunized patients is at risk of developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune mediated prothrombotic adverse drug effect. Transplant recipients are frequently exposed to heparin either due to the underlying end-stage disease, which leads to listing and transplantation or during the transplant procedure and the perioperative period. To review the current scientific knowledge on anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies and HIT in transplant recipients a systematic PubMed literature search on articles in English language was performed. The definition of HIT is inconsistent amongst the publications. Overall, six studies and 15 case reports have been published on HIT before or after heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplantation, respectively. The frequency of seroconversion for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies ranged between 1.9% and 57.9%. However, different methods to detect anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were applied. In none of the studies HIT-associated thromboembolic events or fatalities were observed. More importantly, in patients with a history of HIT, reexposure to heparin during transplantation was not associated with thrombotic complications. Taken together, the overall incidence of HIT after solid organ transplantation seems to be very low. However, according to the current knowledge, cardiac transplant recipients may have the highest risk to develop HIT. Different alternative suggestions for heparin-free anticoagulation have been reported for recipients with suspected HIT albeit no official recommendations on management have been published for this special collective so far. PMID:27011914

  5. Advanced Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching Practice: Perceptions of Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of our research we define Advanced Mathematical Knowledge (AMK) as knowledge of the subject matter acquired during undergraduate studies at colleges or universities. We examine the responses of secondary school teachers about their usage of AMK in teaching. We find that the majority of teachers focus on the purposes and advantages…

  6. A Learning Framework for Knowledge Building and Collective Wisdom Advancement in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yongcheng; Zhu, Zhiting

    2007-01-01

    This study represents an effort to construct a learning framework for knowledge building and collective wisdom advancement in a virtual learning community (VLC) from the perspectives of system wholeness, intelligence wholeness and dynamics, learning models, and knowledge management. It also tries to construct the zone of proximal development (ZPD)…

  7. Chest surgical disorders in ancient Egypt: evidence of advanced knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Weder, Walter

    2012-03-01

    The ancient Egyptians laid the foundation for the development of the earliest recorded systems of medical treatment. Many specialties such as gynecology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and chest disorders were subject to diagnosis, which were followed by an appropriate treatment. Here, we elucidate the remarkable level of their knowledge and understanding of anatomy and physiology in the field of chest medicine. Furthermore, we look at how ancient Egyptian physicians came to a diagnosis and treatment based on the thoracic cases in the Edwin Smith papyrus. PMID:22330033

  8. Promoting knowledge integration of scientific principles and environmental stewardship: Assessing an issue-based approach to teaching evolution and marine conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Timothy David

    2005-11-01

    Students and citizens need to apply science to important issues every day. Yet the design of science curricula that foster integration of science and everyday decisions is not well understood. For example, can curricula be designed that help learners apply scientific reasons for choosing only environmentally sustainable seafood for dinner? Learners must develop integrated understandings of scientific principles, prior experiences, and current decisions in order to comprehend how everyday decisions impact environmental resources. In order to investigate how such integrated understandings can be promoted within school science classes, research was conducted with an inquiry-oriented curriculum that utilizes technology and a visit to an informal learning environment (aquarium) to promote the integration of scientific principles (adaptation) with environmental stewardship. This research used a knowledge integration approach to teaching and learning that provided a framework for promoting the application of science to environmental issues. Marine biology, often forsaken in classrooms for terrestrial biology, served as the scientific context for the curriculum. The curriculum design incorporated a three-phase pedagogical strategy and new technology tools to help students integrate knowledge and experiences across the classroom and aquarium learning environments. The research design and assessment protocols included comparisons among and within student populations using two versions of the curriculum: an issue-based version and a principle-based version. These inquiry curricula were tested with sophomore biology students attending a marine-focused academy within a coastal California high school. Pretest-posttest outcomes were compared between and within the curricular treatments. Additionally, comparisons were made between the inquiry groups and seniors in an Advanced Placement biology course who attend the same high school. Results indicate that the inquiry curricula

  9. Sociology of scientific knowledge and science education part 2: Laboratory life under the microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezak, Peter

    1994-10-01

    This article is the second of two that examine some of the claims of contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and the bearing of these claims upon the rationale and practice of science teaching. In the present article the celebrated work Laboratory Life of Latour and Woolgar is critically examined. Its radical, iconoclastic view of science is shown to be not merely without foundation but an extravagant deconstructionist nihilism according to which all science is fiction and the world is said to be socially constructed by negotiation. On this view, the success of a theory is not due to its intellectual merits or explanatory plausibility but to the capacity of its proponents to “extract compliance” from others. If warranted, such views pose a revolutionary challenge to the entire Western tradition of science and the goals of science education which must be misguided and unrealizable in principle. Fortunately, there is little reason to take these views seriously, though their widespread popularity is cause for concern among science educators.

  10. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  11. Arguing to Learn and Learning to Argue: Case Studies of How Students' Argumentation Relates to Their Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Aufschnaiter, Claudia; Erduran, Sibel; Osborne, Jonathan; Simon, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated junior high school students' processes of argumentation and cognitive development in science and socioscientific lessons. Detailed studies of the relationship between argumentation and the development of scientific knowledge are rare. Using video and audio documents of small group and classroom discussions, the…

  12. Targeting the Development of Content Knowledge and Scientific Reasoning: Reforming College-Level Chemistry for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Justin H.; Jessa, Yasmin; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2015-01-01

    A liberal education curriculum requires discipline-specific courses that develop intellectual and practical skills. With this promise of development, it is crucial that instruction focuses on content knowledge as well as the thinking patterns associated with the content. In chemistry, scientific reasoning is one such skill that students should…

  13. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Report: Exascale Computing Initiative Review

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel; Berzins, Martin; Pennington, Robert; Sarkar, Vivek; Taylor, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    On November 19, 2014, the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged with reviewing the Department of Energy’s conceptual design for the Exascale Computing Initiative (ECI). In particular, this included assessing whether there are significant gaps in the ECI plan or areas that need to be given priority or extra management attention. Given the breadth and depth of previous reviews of the technical challenges inherent in exascale system design and deployment, the subcommittee focused its assessment on organizational and management issues, considering technical issues only as they informed organizational or management priorities and structures. This report presents the observations and recommendations of the subcommittee.

  14. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  15. Knowledge Building and Mathematics: Shifting the Responsibility for Knowledge Advancement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joan; Beatty, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Three classrooms of Grade 4 students from different schools and diverse backgrounds collaborated in early algebra research to solve a series of linear and quadratic generalizing problems. Results revealed that high- and low-achieving students were able to solve problems of recognized difficulty. We discuss Knowledge Building principles and…

  16. From "sit and listen" to "shake it out yourself": Helping urban middle school students to bridge personal knowledge to scientific knowledge through a collaborative environmental justice curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Shamu Fenyvesi

    Science education and environmental education are not meeting the needs of marginalized communities such as urban, minority, and poor communities (Seller, 2001; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 1996). There exists an equity gap characterized by the racial and socioeconomic disparities in: levels of participation in scientific and environmental careers and environmental organizations (Lewis & James, 1995; Sheppard, 1995), access to appropriate environmental education programs (U.S. EPA, 1996), exposure to environmental toxins (Bullard, 1993), access to environmental amenities and legal protections (Bullard, 1993), and in grades and standardized test scores in K-12 science (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; Johnston & Viadero, 2000). Researchers point to the cultural divide between home and school culture as one of the reasons for the equity gap in science education (Barton, 2003; Delpit, 1995; Seiler, 2001). This study is designed to address the equity gap by helping students connect personal/cultural knowledge to scientific knowledge. A collaborative action research study was conducted in 8th-grade science classrooms of low-income African American and Latino students. The participating teacher and the researcher developed, enacted and evaluated a curriculum that elicited students' personal and cultural knowledge in the investigation of local community issues. Using qualitative methods, data were collected through student and teacher interviews, observation, and written documents. Data were analyzed to answer questions on student participation and learning, bridging between personal and scientific knowledge, and student empowerment. The most compelling themes from the data were described as parts of three stories: tensions between the empire of school and the small student nation, bridging between the two nations, and students gaining empowerment. This study found that the bridging the curriculum intended was successful in that many students brought personal

  17. Sharing the World's Advanced Rheology Knowledge through Rheo-Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, H. Henning

    2008-07-01

    Recent advances in rheometer design and rheology theory have led to an abundance of rheological information, both experimental and theoretical. In response to this wonderful opportunity, many of the world's leading rheologists began to share their expert software codes with the wider community of materials researchers and practitioners. This became possible through "Rheo-Hub", a central computer platform from which the user interrogates rheological expert codes ("engines") and rheological data by comparing, merging, and funneling these into further interrogations and explorations. In this virtual environment, results are returned to the computer screen as visuals so that the visual intelligence of the user gets involved in the cognition process. Rheological explorations may be repeated in different ways (using different expert codes for answering the same research question) and viewed from different graphical viewpoints. This creates the multi-scale and multi-expertise workspace that is needed to support quantitative rheological explorations and to prepare for discovery. The virtual environment technology will be presented and examples will be shown. Rheo-Hub's strengths are data analysis, integration of experimental results with theoretically predicted rheology, visuals for communicating results, and introduction of a rheological data standard.

  18. How Quality Improvement Practice Evidence Can Advance the Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    OʼRourke, Hannah M; Fraser, Kimberly D

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the evaluation of quality improvement interventions have been made in order to improve the evidence base of whether, to what extent, and why quality improvement interventions affect chosen outcomes. The purpose of this article is to articulate why these recommendations are appropriate to improve the rigor of quality improvement intervention evaluation as a research endeavor, but inappropriate for the purposes of everyday quality improvement practice. To support our claim, we describe the differences between quality improvement interventions that occur for the purpose of practice as compared to research. We then carefully consider how feasibility, ethics, and the aims of evaluation each impact how quality improvement interventions that occur in practice, as opposed to research, can or should be evaluated. Recommendations that fit the evaluative goals of practice-based quality improvement interventions are needed to support fair appraisal of the distinct evidence they produce. We describe a current debate on the nature of evidence to assist in reenvisioning how quality improvement evidence generated from practice might complement that generated from research, and contribute in a value-added way to the knowledge base. PMID:27584696

  19. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Palmer, M V

    2014-11-01

    Fifty years ago, bacteria in the genus Brucella were known to cause infertility and reproductive losses. At that time, the genus was considered to contain only 3 species: Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis. Since the early 1960s, at least 7 new species have been identified as belonging to the Brucella genus (Brucella canis, Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella microti, Brucella neotomae, Brucella ovis, and Brucella pinnipedialis) with several additional new species under consideration for inclusion. Although molecular studies have found such high homology that some authors have proposed that all Brucella are actually 1 species, the epidemiologic and diagnostic benefits for separating the genus based on phenotypic characteristics are more compelling. Although pathogenic Brucella spp have preferred reservoir hosts, their ability to infect numerous mammalian hosts has been increasingly documented. The maintenance of infection in new reservoir hosts, such as wildlife, has become an issue for both public health and animal health regulatory personnel. Since the 1960s, new information on how Brucella enters host cells and modifies their intracellular environment has been gained. Although the pathogenesis and histologic lesions of B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis in their preferred hosts have not changed, additional knowledge on the pathology of these brucellae in new hosts, or of new species of Brucella in their preferred hosts, has been obtained. To this day, brucellosis remains a significant human zoonosis that is emerging or reemerging in many parts of the world.

  20. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Subcommittee (ASCAC) Report: Top Ten Exascale Research Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert; Ang, James; Bergman, Keren; Borkar, Shekhar; Carlson, William; Carrington, Laura; Chiu, George; Colwell, Robert; Dally, William; Dongarra, Jack; Geist, Al; Haring, Rud; Hittinger, Jeffrey; Hoisie, Adolfy; Klein, Dean Micron; Kogge, Peter; Lethin, Richard; Sarkar, Vivek; Schreiber, Robert; Shalf, John; Sterling, Thomas; Stevens, Rick; Bashor, Jon; Brightwell, Ron; Coteus, Paul; Debenedictus, Erik; Hiller, Jon; Kim, K. H.; Langston, Harper; Murphy, Richard Micron; Webster, Clayton; Wild, Stefan; Grider, Gary; Ross, Rob; Leyffer, Sven; Laros III, James

    2014-02-10

    Exascale computing systems are essential for the scientific fields that will transform the 21st century global economy, including energy, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and materials science. Progress in these fields is predicated on the ability to perform advanced scientific and engineering simulations, and analyze the deluge of data. On July 29, 2013, ASCAC was charged by Patricia Dehmer, the Acting Director of the Office of Science, to assemble a subcommittee to provide advice on exascale computing. This subcommittee was directed to return a list of no more than ten technical approaches (hardware and software) that will enable the development of a system that achieves the Department's goals for exascale computing. Numerous reports over the past few years have documented the technical challenges and the non¬-viability of simply scaling existing computer designs to reach exascale. The technical challenges revolve around energy consumption, memory performance, resilience, extreme concurrency, and big data. Drawing from these reports and more recent experience, this ASCAC subcommittee has identified the top ten computing technology advancements that are critical to making a capable, economically viable, exascale system.

  1. The Nature of What Teachers Know: Exploring Teacher Knowledge through Novel Scientific Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jill Voorhies

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the nature of what teachers know by examining trends in teacher knowledge research, specifically the use of conventional metaphors to describe teacher knowledge. Contending that conventional metaphors fail to acknowledge the complex and multidimensional nature of teacher knowledge, the author argues that novel metaphors should…

  2. Understanding the translation of scientific knowledge about arsenic risk exposure among private well water users in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Chappells, Heather; Campbell, Norma; Drage, John; Fernandez, Conrad V; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic is a class I human carcinogen that has been identified as the second most important global health concern in groundwater supplies after contamination by pathogenic organisms. Hydrogeological assessments have shown naturally occurring arsenic to be widespread in groundwater across the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Knowledge of arsenic risk exposure among private well users in these arsenic endemic areas has not yet been fully explored but research on water quality perceptions indicates a consistent misalignment between public and scientific assessments of environmental risk. This paper evaluates knowledge of arsenic risk exposure among a demographic cross-section of well users residing in 5 areas of Nova Scotia assessed to be at variable risk (high-low) of arsenic occurrence in groundwater based on water sample analysis. An integrated knowledge-to-action (KTA) methodological approach is utilized to comprehensively assess the personal, social and local factors shaping perception of well water contaminant risks and the translation of knowledge into routine water testing behaviors. Analysis of well user survey data (n=420) reveals a high level of confidence in well water quality that is unrelated to the relative risk of arsenic exposure or homeowner adherence to government testing recommendations. Further analysis from the survey and in-depth well user interviews (n=32) finds that well users' assessments of risk are influenced by personal experience, local knowledge, social networks and convenience of infrastructure rather than by formal information channels, which are largely failing to reach their target audiences. Insights from interviews with stakeholders representing government health and environment agencies (n=15) are used to reflect on the institutional barriers that mediate the translation of scientific knowledge into public awareness and stewardship behaviors. The utilization of local knowledge brokers, community-based networks and

  3. On Scaling of Scientific Knowledge Production in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants) compared to larger cities. The latter result is indicative of the critical mass required to establish a scientific center in a particular discipline. Finally, we observe that the largest cities publish much less than the scaling law would predict, indicating that the largest cities are relatively unattractive locations for scientific research. PMID:25353686

  4. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: The Influence of Methods of Questioning and Analysis on the Interpretation of Children's Conceptions of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Valerie; Nobes, Gavin; Frappart, Soren; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Troadec, Bertrand; Martin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Studies of children's knowledge of the Earth have led to very different conclusions: some appear to show that children construct their own, non-scientific "theories" (mental models) of the flat, hollow or dual Earth. Others indicate that many young children have some understanding of the spherical (scientific) Earth, and that their knowledge lacks…

  5. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  6. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Complex Networked Systems: A Program Plan for DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2009-05-01

    Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems

  7. Private Science and Public Knowledge: The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal and its Use of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, T. J.; Collins, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Shows the part played by formal/informal literatures in the social construction of scientific knowledge, analyzing the work of the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Claims of the Paranormal" (which critically investigates fringe-sciences). Indicates that popular literature can deconstruct facts while scientific controversy reveals…

  8. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: Analysis and Representation of Student Conceptions Concerning Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G. A'B.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated (1) conceptions 40 African students used in solving floating/sinking problems; (2) nature of these conceptions; (3) kinds of arguments of epistemological commitment they displayed in their responses; and (4) if their conceptions differed from scientific conceptions. (JN)

  9. Operational Philosophy for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. Benson; J. Cole; J. Jackson; F. Marshall; D. Ogden; J. Rempe; M. C. Thelen

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). At its core, the ATR NSUF Program combines access to a portion of the available ATR radiation capability, the associated required examination and analysis facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and INL staff expertise with novel ideas provided by external contributors (universities, laboratories, and industry). These collaborations define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high-temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light-water reactors (LWRs), and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. To make possible the broadest access to key national capability, the ATR NSUF formed a partnership program that also makes available access to critical facilities outside of the INL. Finally, the ATR NSUF has established a sample library that allows access to pre-irradiated samples as needed by national research teams.

  10. Estimating increases in outpatient dialysis costs resulting from scientific and technological advancement.

    PubMed

    Ozminkowski, R J; Hassol, A; Firkusny, I; Noether, M; Miles, M A; Newmann, J; Sharda, C; Guterman, S; Schmitz, R

    1995-04-01

    The Medicare program's base payment rate for outpatient dialysis services has never been adjusted for the effects of inflation, productivity changes, or scientific and technological advancement on the costs of treating patients with end-stage renal disease. In recognition of this, Congress asked the Prospective Payment Assessment Commission to annually recommend an adjustment to Medicare's base payment rate to dialysis facilities. One component of this adjustment addresses the cost-increasing effects of technological change--the scientific and technological advances (S&TA) component. The S&TA component is intended to encourage dialysis facilities to adopt technologies that, when applied appropriately, enhance the quality of patient care, even though they may also increase costs. We found the appropriate increase to the composite payment rate for Medicare outpatient dialysis services in fiscal year 1995 to vary from 0.18% to 2.18%. These estimates depend on whether one accounts for the lack of previous adjustments to the composite rate. Mathematically, the S&TA adjustment also depends on whether one considers the likelihood of missing some dialysis sessions because of illness or hospitalization. The S&TA estimates also allow for differences in the incremental costs of technological change that are based on the varying advice of experts in the dialysis industry. The major contributors to the cost of technological change in dialysis services are the use of twin-bag disconnect peritoneal dialysis systems, automated peritoneal dialysis cyclers, and the new generation of hemodialysis machines currently on the market. Factors beyond the control of dialysis facility personnel that influence the cost of patient care should be considered when payment rates are set, and those rates should be updated as market conditions change. The S&TA adjustment is one example of how the composite rate payment system for outpatient dialysis services can be modified to provide appropriate

  11. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  12. Implicit advance knowledge effects on the interplay between arm movements and postural adjustments in catching.

    PubMed

    Tijtgat, Pieter; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bennett, Simon J; De Clercq, Dirk; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-06-19

    This study examined if, and how, implicit advance knowledge of upcoming ball speed influences the interplay between arm movements and concomitant postural adjustments in one-handed catching. While standing, subjects were asked to catch balls that were presented with or without implicit advance knowledge of four different ball speeds. Full body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured, which allowed the assessment of arm movements and postural adjustments through the momentum of the arm, rest of the body and whole body. Providing implicit advance knowledge induced a forward arm raising movement scaled to ball speed in the initial transport phase. However, the accompanying backward postural adjustments were unaffected, which is suggestive of a passive control mechanism. In the subsequent grasping phase, the scaling of arm raising movement exhibited in the presence of implicit advance knowledge resulted in a reduced need for postural adjustments, particularly at the highest ball speed. Together, these findings suggest that cortical involvement based on previous experience not only shapes the arm movements but also the subsequent interplaying postural responses.

  13. Multi-Level Assessment of Scientific Content Knowledge Gains Associated with Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the impact of using a socioscientific issue (SSI) based curriculum on developing science content knowledge. Using a multi-level assessment design, student content knowledge gains were measured before and after implementation of a three-week unit on global warming (a prominent SSI) that explored both the relevant science content…

  14. Negotiating Curriculum Change in the French University: The Case of "Regionalising" Social Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the curricular change in French universities that has taken place over the last two decades and especially since the implementation of the "LMD Reform" in 2002. Curricula tend to become "regionalised-knowledge" courses, by regrouping disciplinary knowledge and looking forward to economic and social needs. The article aims at…

  15. The Development of Scientific Knowledge in Elementary School Children: A Context of Meaning Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Children in grade one (n=8) and grade five (n=9) were interviewed to determine the influence of contexts of meaning on their knowledge of earthworms. Four components of contexts of meaning were identified and discussed: episodic knowledge, metaphors, interpretive frameworks, and emotions-values-aesthetics. (Contains 20 references.) (MDH)

  16. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies.

    PubMed

    Mielby, Henrik; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person's knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A random sample of the Danish population (n = 2000) was presented with questionnaires. The respondent's knowledge was measured by a number of textbook questions on biology. The results indicated that knowledge increases the likelihood that a person will have differentiated opinions on medical and agricultural applications, but decreases the likelihood that he or she will differentiate between cisgenic and transgenic cereals. We discuss the implication that knowledge makes people more likely to base their acceptance on judgements of risks and benefits, rather than on judgements of naturalness. The article concludes that the effect of knowledge on acceptance cannot be generalised wholesale from one application, or method, to others. PMID:23833022

  17. Connections between experience, beliefs, scientific knowledge, and self-evaluated expertise among investigators of child sexual abuse in Finland.

    PubMed

    Finnilä-Tuohimaa, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Sainio, Mikael; Niemi, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinicians investigating child sexual abuse (CSA) rely more on scientific knowledge or on clinical experience when evaluating their own expertise. Another goal was to check what kind of pre-trial beliefs the clinicians had. The connections between these different factors were investigated. A questionnaire covering items concerning demographic data, experience, knowledge about CSA, self-evaluated expertise and beliefs about CSA was given to 126 social workers, 60 child psychiatrists and 134 psychologists. The results showed that the clinicians relied more on their clinical experience than on scientific knowledge when evaluating their expertise as investigators of CSA. Furthermore, social workers possessed stronger attitudes in favor of children than the other groups, while child psychiatrists had more negative attitudes towards the criminal justice system. Male participants had less strong beliefs than did the female participants. The findings indicate that the education of CSA investigators should focus more on theoretical knowledge and decision-making processes as well as the role of pre-trial beliefs.

  18. The Developing of the Scientific Knowledge and the Change of the Human Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzi, Giordano Diambrini

    2005-04-01

    In this short review we will show how the new scientific development mainly born in the western countries has produced since the end of 1700s an enormous increase in the level of life and of the number of their inhabitant, as never happened since the beginning of the human species. With the export of the scientific and technological culture in the other countries, like eastern Europe, in north and south America, and later in China and India (to quote the main examples), also their welfare condition have increased or are developing now. For what is concerning the second part of this short review, we try to explain why the most important future needs would be to insert, step by step, the developing countries inside the community of "interacting minds", in order to propagate the scientific culture (but not only) and to make it evolving by the contribution of the full humanity.

  19. EarthCube: Advancing Partnerships, Collaborative Platforms and Knowledge Networks in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Diggs; Lee, Allison

    2014-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative aims to create a community-driven data and knowledge management system that will allow for unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. More than 2,500 participants through forums, work groups, EarthCube events, and virtual and in-person meetings have participated. The individuals that have engaged represent the core earth-system sciences of solid Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, and Polar Sciences. EarthCube is a cornerstone of NSF's Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21) initiative, whose chief objective is to develop a U.S. nationwide, sustainable, and community-based cyberinfrastructure for researchers and educators. Increasingly effective community-driven cyberinfrastructure allows global data discovery and knowledge management and achieves interoperability and data integration across scientific disciplines. There is growing convergence across scientific and technical communities on creating a networked, knowledge management system and scientific data cyberinfrastructure that integrates Earth system and human dimensions data in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube does not intend to replicate these efforts, but build upon them. An agile development process is underway for the development and governance of EarthCube. The agile approach was deliberately selected due to its iterative and incremental nature while promoting adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness.

  20. Attitude, Certainty and Allusions to Common Knowledge in Scientific Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsantoni, Dimitra

    2004-01-01

    Acceptance of claims made in scientific research articles depends on the "stance" authors take and their resources for "appraisal" (Martin and White, http://www.grammatics.com/appraisal). "Stance" has been defined as "the ways authors project themselves into their texts to communicate their relationship to subject matter and the readers",…

  1. Using JournalMap to improve discovery and visualization of rangeland scientific knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the ecological research conducted around the world is tied to specific places; however, that location information is locked up in the text and figures of scientific articles in myriad forms that are not easily searchable. While access to ecological literature has improved dramatically in the...

  2. Development of Scientific Literacy: The Evolution of Ideas in a Grade Four Knowledge-Building Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Beverly; Lamon, Mary

    This study describes cognitive and social aspects of children's development of scientific literacy in a Schools For Thought (SFT) classroom. SFT is an educational reform project that applies cognitive research about the active, reflective, and social nature of learning into classroom practice. Participants were fourth graders from a…

  3. History and the Relationship between Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge: Anatomy Lectures Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Friesen, Norm

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, school science has been the target of increasing critique for two reasons. On the one hand, it is said to enforce "epic" images of science that celebrate the heroes and heroic deeds that established the scientific canon and its methods and thereby falsifies the history and nature of science. On the other hand, the…

  4. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  5. Excellence in the Knowledge-Based Economy: From Scientific to Research Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new "Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence." This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts to define it through quantitative indicators…

  6. Assessing Preservice Elementary Teachers' Views on the Nature of Scientific Knowledge: A Dual-Response Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Chen, Sufen; Chen, Xian; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Adams, April Dean; Macklin, Monica; Ebenezer, Jazlin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development and revision of a dual-response instrument entitled, "Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry" ("SUSSI"). Built on the most recent science education reform documents and existing literature on the nature of science, SUSSI blends Likert-type items and related open-ended questions to assess…

  7. The Tentative Nature of Scientific Knowledge: Why Should We Teach More about Diabetes Mellitus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol A.

    1993-01-01

    Almost 70 years of scientific research leaves many unanswered questions concerning diabetes mellitus. This disease can be viewed as an illustration of the complexity of biological systems. Textbooks stress normal rather than abnormal physiology and rarely share the difficulties encountered in understanding those abnormal conditions (PR)

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes of Future Schoolteachers in the Scientific-Mathematical Sphere: Some Evidences for Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerici, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the university careers of students who are training to become primary school teachers has shown that a certain number have real difficulty in passing examinations in the scientific and methodological fields. This paper uses both objective and subjective data to analyse the levels of competence in this cultural field, and the propensity…

  9. Scientific Reasoning and Argumentation: Advancing an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Frank; Kollar, Ingo; Ufer, Stefan; Sodian, Beate; Hussmann, Heinrich; Pekrun, Reinhard; Neuhaus, Birgit; Dorner, Birgit; Pankofer, Sabine; Fischer, Martin; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Heene, Moritz; Eberle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific reasoning and scientific argumentation are highly valued outcomes of K-12 and higher education. In this article, we first review main topics and key findings of three different strands of research, namely research on the development of scientific reasoning, research on scientific argumentation, and research on approaches to support…

  10. Observations on the workshop as a means of improving communication between holders of traditional and scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry P; Brown-Schwalenberg, Patricia K; Frost, Kathryn J; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E; Norton, David W; Rosenberg, Daniel H

    2002-12-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and the information and insights it offers to natural resource research and management have been given much attention in recent years. On the practical question of how TEK is accessed and used together with scientific knowledge, most work to date has examined documentation and methods of recording and disseminating information. Relatively little has been done regarding exchanges between scientific and traditional knowledge. This paper examines three workshop settings in which such exchanges were intended outcomes. The Barrow Symposium on Sea Ice, the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Program Synthesis/Information Workshops, and the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee illuminate certain features of the preparation, format, and context of workshops or series of workshops and their eventual outcomes and influence. The examples show the importance of long-term relationships among participants and thorough preparation before the actual workshop. Further research should look more systematically at the factors that influence the success of a given workshop and the various ways in which participants perceive success. PMID:12402093

  11. [The applicability of the ecology of knowledge in health and environment and its permeability in the scientific literature].

    PubMed

    Giatti, Leandro Luiz; Landin, Rubens; de Toledo, Renata Ferraz

    2014-10-01

    A new epistemology makes it imperative for different knowledge to be incorporated in order to understand and interact with the complex problems that affect humanity, especially those associated with health and the environment. The study aims to explore the applicability of the ecology of knowledge in the midst of traditional scientific literature, focusing on participatory approaches to questions of health and the environment. The methodology involved a bibliographic review of an international scientific database, with the inclusion of 170 papers that were classified by their participatory approaches as: timely; multi-tool; and ongoing/cyclic. Although timely and multi-tool approaches may be effective in terms of aggregating popular knowledge, which is systematically marginalized by traditional science, it is in the ongoing/cyclic approaches that a higher level of potential dialogue is achieved, since it is possible to identify aspects inherent to more symmetric participation processes, with the prospect of empowerment of the social actors and legitimate incorporation of subjectivity and diversity. This corresponds to the premise that promoting global cognitive justice is indispensable for achieving global social justice. PMID:25272118

  12. Summary of the ACAT Round Table Discussion: Open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Federico; Perret-Gallix, Denis; Riemann, Tord

    2014-06-01

    Round table discussions are in the tradition of ACAT. This year's plenary round table discussion was devoted to questions related to the use of scientific software in High Energy Physics and beyond. The 90 minutes of discussion were lively, and quite a lot of diverse opinions were spelled out. Although the discussion was, in part, controversial, the participants agreed unanimously on several basic issues in software sharing: • The importance of having various licensing models in academic research; • The basic value of proper recognition and attribution of intellectual property, including scientific software; • The user respect for the conditions of use, including licence statements, as formulated by the author. The need of a similar discussion on the issues of data sharing was emphasized and it was recommended to cover this subject at the conference round table discussion of next ACAT. In this contribution, we summarise selected topics that were covered in the introductory talks and in the following discussion.

  13. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown. PMID:17143465

  14. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-11-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown.

  15. Fostering Second Graders' Scientific Explanations: A Beginning Elementary Teacher's Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching science as explanation is fundamental to reform efforts but is challenging for teachers--especially new elementary teachers, for whom the complexities of teaching are compounded by high demands and little classroom experience. Despite these challenges, few studies have characterized the knowledge, beliefs, and instructional practices that…

  16. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and…

  17. Students' Multi-Modal Re-Presentations of Scientific Knowledge and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koren, Yitzhak; Klavir, Rama; Gorodetsky, Malka

    2005-01-01

    The paper brings the results of a project that passed on to students the opportunity for re-presenting their acquired knowledge via the construction of multi-modal "learning resources". These "learning resources" substituted for lectures and books and became the official learning sources in the classroom. The rational for the project was multiple:…

  18. Environmental Education: From the Perspective of Scientific Knowledge for Constructivist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giron, Graciela; Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; López, Juan Sánchez; Bañuelos, Antonio Ayón

    2012-01-01

    Environmental education is not merely a modern form for the didactics of natural science, but is, on the contrary, an educational process that integrates ecological knowledge, philosophy, politics, economics and sociology, among others. This is because its purpose is to change the relationships of production, social structures of economics and…

  19. [The dissemination of scientific knowledge, social networks and historians creating new histories: an interview with Bruno Leal].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Bruno Leal Pastor; Benchimol, Jaime L; Cerqueira, Roberta Cardoso; Papi, Camilo; Lemle, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The interview with historian and journalist Bruno Leal deals with the creation of the Café História blog and the relationship between the internet, communications and the work of historians. His blog has become an important channel to promote historical material, with bibliographical references, helpful information about films, scientific events and videos related to this area. The interviewee stressed the importance of actions that combine communications with history, made criticisms of the current training given to historians and affirmed the need for curricular reform that enables new ways of producing and disseminating historical knowledge. PMID:26331662

  20. [The dissemination of scientific knowledge, social networks and historians creating new histories: an interview with Bruno Leal].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Bruno Leal Pastor; Benchimol, Jaime L; Cerqueira, Roberta Cardoso; Papi, Camilo; Lemle, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The interview with historian and journalist Bruno Leal deals with the creation of the Café História blog and the relationship between the internet, communications and the work of historians. His blog has become an important channel to promote historical material, with bibliographical references, helpful information about films, scientific events and videos related to this area. The interviewee stressed the importance of actions that combine communications with history, made criticisms of the current training given to historians and affirmed the need for curricular reform that enables new ways of producing and disseminating historical knowledge.

  1. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Willi; Patterson, David J; Agosti, Donat; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background. The 7(th) Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European Union to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme "Horizon 2020" aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights. We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information. Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an impediment to the

  2. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Willi; Patterson, David J.; Agosti, Donat; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European Union to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights. We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information. Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an

  3. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Ogden

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights • Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. • Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. • Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. • Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. • Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. • John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  5. Scientific and popular health knowledge in the education work of community health agents in Rio de Janeiro shantytowns.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, M S; Kolawole Salami, B; Perreault, M; Leite, L C

    2012-08-01

    Health education for socially marginalized populations challenges the efficacy of existing strategies and methods, and the pertinence of the educational and philosophical principles that underpin them. The Brazilian Community Health Agents Initiative (CHAI) hires residents of deprived marginalized communities to undertake health promotion and education in their communities. The ultimate goal of the CHAI is to connect populations with the public healthcare system by promoting social re-affiliation, protecting civil rights and enhancing equity of access to health services. In this article, we present the education work of community health agents through interplay between popular and scientific health knowledge in nine Rio de Janeiro shantytowns. A critical ethnographic research design, using thematic analysis, allowed us to explore agents' education work to enhance family health literacy in shantytowns. Local culture and social practices inspire Agents to create original strategies to reconcile forms of health knowledge in their work.

  6. Divine action in the framework of scientific knowledge: From quantum theory to divine action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameter, Christoph

    During the Enlightenment, many theologians gave up the claim that God could act in the universe because the world was envisioned to be completely describable and governed by scientific laws. Surprisingly the development of quantum theory has resulted in the discovery of limits to causality, the universe is no longer conceived to be a closed system and therefore an account of divine action compatible with scientific theories might be possible now. First, the concept of divine intervention as envisioned in the nineteenth century is investigated and then a survey of the development of quantum theory is provided. The disputed character of the interpretation of quantum theory and of the measurement problem noted. It is suggested that the controversy continues because the straightforward acceptance of quantum theory---as already suggested by von Neumann in 1932---would imply a connection between mind and matter and question the notion of an objective, observer independent universe. It is shown using the literature on quantum theory that other solutions to the measurement problem are questionable on scientific grounds alone. Henry Stapp's recent rearticulation of von Neumann's arguments integrating them with Heisenberg's thinking is then selected as a potential basis for a theory of divine action. Existing theories of divine action are investigated starting with William James's idea of an indeterministic universe and ending with the contemporary approaches by Robert Russell and Nancey Murphy. Contemporary proposals are based on the notion of quantum events. A search is made for a scientific basis for quantum events but it is found that none of the interpretations of quantum theory would be compatible with the proposed idea of quantum events. Finally, a new theory of divine action is proposed understanding divine action as a holistic act, analogous to personal agency, through quantum determination. The universe is creating potentialities that are then collapsed by

  7. A comment on Andrew C. Papanicolaou's "Beyond Eddington's argument": pragmatism in scientific knowledge and perception.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    I agree with Andrew C. Papanicolaou's claim that human beings' cognitive ability can reach to the real world, but don't agree with his claim that the order of this world is akin to our thought. In this commentary paper, I will first defend a recent pragmatic scientific realism called as "entity realism" or "referential realism" which affirms that we are able to reach the real world not by inference but by technological, engineering settings. In the second half of this paper, I will also affirm that our perceptual ability directly reaches the reality too, in referring to the ecological psychology of James J. Gibson.

  8. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology(http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leadinginformaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIHRoadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allowscientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information andknowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1)to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology developmentby promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create,manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so thatscientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data,(3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation,integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated toolsand theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and(4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify,evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to thebiomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives byproviding tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data,and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologiesas well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotatedusing those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops inontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research inontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientificdiscovery. Through the research activities within the Center,collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedicalcommunity, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in thee-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution,data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing,and understand human disease.

  9. Passport to Knowledge: Electronic Field Trips to Scientific Frontiers Via Interactive TV and the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines-Stiles, Geoff

    1995-01-01

    The Passport to Knowledge project delivered its initial 3-year NASA supported activity in December 1994 and January 1995. Live from Antarctica was an integrated, multimedia activity, including four one hour-long video programs, all with live components as well as taped segments, together with an extensive online element containing interactive as well as background information, and the printed Live from Antarctica Teacher's Guide, suggesting hands-on, in-class activities.

  10. Geoethical implications in the L'Aquila case: scientific knowledge and communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    On October 22nd 2012, three and a half years after the earthquake that destroyed the city of L'Aquila (central Italy), killing more than 300 people and wounding about 1,500, a landmark judgment for the scientific research established the condemnation of six members of the Major Risks Committee of the Italian Government and a researcher of INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia), called to provide information about the evolution of the seismic sequence. The judge held that these Geoscientists were negligent during the meeting of 31st March 2009, convened to discuss the scientific aspects of the seismic risk of this area, affected by a long seismic sequence, also in the light of repeated warnings about the imminence of a strong earthquake, on the base of measurements of radon gas by an Italian independent technician, transmitted to the population by mass-media. Without going into the legal aspects of the criminal proceedings, this judgment strikes for the hardness of the condemnation to be paid by the scientists (six years of imprisonment, perpetual disqualification from public office and legal disqualification during the execution of the penalty, compensation for victims up to several hundred thousands of Euros). Some of them are scientists known worldwide for their proven skills, professionalism and experience. In conclusion, these scientists were found guilty of having contributed to the death of many people, because they have not communicated in an appropriate manner all available information on the seismic hazard and vulnerability of the area of L'Aquila. This judgment represents a watershed in the way of looking at the social role of geoscientists in the defense against natural hazards and their responsibility towards the people. But, in what does this responsibility consist of? It consists of the commitment to conduct an updated and reliable scientific research, which provides for a detailed analysis of the epistemic uncertainty for a more

  11. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. PMID:20110713

  12. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 57; US Scientific and Technical Information Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.

  14. The Harvard case of Xu Xiping: exploitation of the people, scientific advance, or genetic theft?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    A unique history and make-up of a population may make it an attractive research target for population geneticists and pharmaco-genomic investors. The promise of pharmaceutical profits and advances in medical knowledge attracted Harvard researchers and the company Millennium Pharmaceuticals to remote areas in Anhui Province, Central China, leading to international diplomatic disagreements about issues such as the ownership of genetic material and informed consent (IC). This article discusses the role of genomics and genetic sampling in China, the way it is related to population policies (the new eugenics), the national importance of genetic materials and the conflicts it led to between the Chinese government and Harvard University. Here many consider the Xu Xiping case as textbook example of ruthless Western exploitation of development countries, illustrating the cold rationality of science in the process of globalisation. Ten perspectives on this case show that this view is simplistic and contributes little to an understanding of bioethical issues important to the population actually donating the samples. Viewing the Xu Xiping case as the nexus of the intertwinement of international, transnational, national, and local interest groups shows how different interest groups make use of different units of analysis. It also clarifies why the same practice of genetic sampling continues under a different regime, and why the discussion about genetic sampling has shifted from a concern with health care of the poor to an issue of international exploitation, terrorism and development. PMID:16552917

  15. The Harvard case of Xu Xiping: exploitation of the people, scientific advance, or genetic theft?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    A unique history and make-up of a population may make it an attractive research target for population geneticists and pharmaco-genomic investors. The promise of pharmaceutical profits and advances in medical knowledge attracted Harvard researchers and the company Millennium Pharmaceuticals to remote areas in Anhui Province, Central China, leading to international diplomatic disagreements about issues such as the ownership of genetic material and informed consent (IC). This article discusses the role of genomics and genetic sampling in China, the way it is related to population policies (the new eugenics), the national importance of genetic materials and the conflicts it led to between the Chinese government and Harvard University. Here many consider the Xu Xiping case as textbook example of ruthless Western exploitation of development countries, illustrating the cold rationality of science in the process of globalisation. Ten perspectives on this case show that this view is simplistic and contributes little to an understanding of bioethical issues important to the population actually donating the samples. Viewing the Xu Xiping case as the nexus of the intertwinement of international, transnational, national, and local interest groups shows how different interest groups make use of different units of analysis. It also clarifies why the same practice of genetic sampling continues under a different regime, and why the discussion about genetic sampling has shifted from a concern with health care of the poor to an issue of international exploitation, terrorism and development.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  17. Knowledge About and Perceptions of Advance Care Planning and Communication of Chinese-American Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Cote, Sarah; Enguidanos, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP. Focus groups with Chinese older adults (n = 34) were conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, and English, and transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Identified themes included knowledge and experience with ACP and end-of-life care options, health as a factor in timing of ACP and communication, and communication of end-of-life care preferences. Knowledge of and experience with ACP and end-of-life decision-making varied according to focus group, although few participants had an advance directive. Findings suggest that Chinese older adults prefer to use indirect communication strategies, such as commenting on the circumstances of others rather than directly stating their wishes, and informal contexts, such as during a family dinner rather than formal meeting, to convey their care preferences to loved ones and may employ similar tactics when communicating with clinicians. This is particularly important given the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide reimbursement to physicians for engaging in advance care planning conversations. PMID:27584825

  18. A New Approach in Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for High-Performance Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-01-28

    Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.

  19. How to apply modern scientific and technological advances to the practice of clinical gastroenterology in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ha, M V

    1997-06-01

    There are some differences between the spectrum of gastroenterological diseases in Vietnam compared with those of more developed countries. These may be due to different living standards, quality of nutrition, and different infection rates of intestinal parasites and hepatotropic viruses. Gastric carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are leading malignancies, while colorectal cancer is less frequent. Bile duct stones often have Ascaris eggs in the centre, and they prevail in incidence over gall-bladder stones. The majority of digestive cancers are detected at a very late stage. The Vietnamese Association of Gastroenterology aims to contribute to the development of modern gastroenterology (GE) in Vietnam, to study and apply recent advances in imaging technology, such as fibre-optic diagnostic and therapeutical endoscopy, ultrasonography, laparoscopic surgery etc. and to do further work in molecular biology. For this purpose, besides our self-reliance, we need, and ask for, support and assistance from the Japanese Society of GE (JSGE), the Asian Pacific Association of GE (APAGE) and the Organisation Mondiale de GE (OMEGE). At the same time, we suggest a choice be made among the different technologies, bearing in mind their cost-effectiveness, and to give preference to measures for the primary prevention and early detection of the diseases. Japanese experience in the early detection of gastric cancer and HCC, and in the Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy (PEIT) for treatment of HCC, are highly appreciated. We recommend also a judicious and scientific combination of traditional medicine and modern technology in the research and the struggle against digestive diseases.

  20. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling

  1. Earthquake ethics through scientific knowledge, historical memory and societal awareness: the experience of direct internet information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A

  2. Implementing interactive decision support: A case for combining cyberinfrastructure, data fusion, and social process to mobilize scientific knowledge in sustainability problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geosciences are becoming increasingly data intensive, particularly in relation to sustainability problems, which are multi-dimensional, weakly structured and characterized by high levels of uncertainty. In the case of complex resource management problems, the challenge is to extract meaningful information from data and make sense of it. Simultaneously, scientific knowledge alone is insufficient to change practice. Creating tools, and group decision support processes for end users to interact with data are key challenges to transforming science-based information into actionable knowledge. The ENCOMPASS project began as a multi-year case study in the Atacama Desert of Chile to design and implement a knowledge transfer model for energy-water-mining conflicts in the region. ENCOMPASS combines the use of cyberinfrastructure (CI), automated data collection, interactive interfaces for dynamic decision support, and participatory modelling to support social learning. A pilot version of the ENCOMPASS CI uses open source systems and serves as a structure to integrate and store multiple forms of data and knowledge, such as DEM, meteorological, water quality, geomicrobiological, energy demand, and groundwater models. In the case study, informatics and data fusion needs related to scientific uncertainty around deep groundwater flowpaths and energy-water connections. Users may upload data from field sites with handheld devices or desktops. Once uploaded, data assets are accessible for a variety of uses. To address multi-attributed decision problems in the Atacama region a standalone application with touch-enabled interfaces was created to improve real-time interactions with datasets by groups. The tool was used to merge datasets from the ENCOMPASS CI to support exploration among alternatives and build shared understanding among stakeholders. To date, the project has increased technical capacity among stakeholders, resulted in the creation of both for-profit and non

  3. The personal is scientific: Women, gender, and the production of sexological knowledge in Germany and Austria, 1900-1931.

    PubMed

    Leng, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    This article addresses the roles women and gender played in the production of sexological knowledge in the early 20th century, particularly in German-speaking Europe. Although existing scholarship focuses almost exclusively on the work of "founding fathers" such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Magnus Hirschfeld, women in fact made important contributions to the field. Based on analysis of texts written between 1900 and 1931, this article shows how women were able to successfully mobilize their gender as a privileged form of "situated knowledge," and thereby assert their authority over and superior insights into certain subject areas, namely, female sexualities and sexual difference. At the same time, however, this article also highlights the constraints upon women's gendered standpoint. It shows that women's sexological writing was not just informed by their gender but also by their class and race. Moreover, because gender threatened to cast their work as insufficiently objective and scientific, women cleaved to sexology's rules of evidence and argumentation, and adopted the field's ideological trappings in order to participate in discursive contestations over sexual truths. By interrogating gender, this article introduces much-needed nuance into existing understandings of sexology, and reframes sexology itself as a site wherein new sexual subjectivities were imagined, articulated, and debated. However, it also raises fundamental questions about women sexologists' capacity to create knowledge about women and female sexualities that was truer, more correct, and more authentic than that produced by men. PMID:26375153

  4. The personal is scientific: Women, gender, and the production of sexological knowledge in Germany and Austria, 1900-1931.

    PubMed

    Leng, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    This article addresses the roles women and gender played in the production of sexological knowledge in the early 20th century, particularly in German-speaking Europe. Although existing scholarship focuses almost exclusively on the work of "founding fathers" such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Magnus Hirschfeld, women in fact made important contributions to the field. Based on analysis of texts written between 1900 and 1931, this article shows how women were able to successfully mobilize their gender as a privileged form of "situated knowledge," and thereby assert their authority over and superior insights into certain subject areas, namely, female sexualities and sexual difference. At the same time, however, this article also highlights the constraints upon women's gendered standpoint. It shows that women's sexological writing was not just informed by their gender but also by their class and race. Moreover, because gender threatened to cast their work as insufficiently objective and scientific, women cleaved to sexology's rules of evidence and argumentation, and adopted the field's ideological trappings in order to participate in discursive contestations over sexual truths. By interrogating gender, this article introduces much-needed nuance into existing understandings of sexology, and reframes sexology itself as a site wherein new sexual subjectivities were imagined, articulated, and debated. However, it also raises fundamental questions about women sexologists' capacity to create knowledge about women and female sexualities that was truer, more correct, and more authentic than that produced by men.

  5. Integrating indigenous ecological and scientific hydro-geological knowledge using a Bayesian Network in the context of water resource development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedloff, A. C.; Woodward, E. L.; Harrington, G. A.; Jackson, S.

    2013-08-01

    The contributions indigenous ecological knowledge can make to better inform water management decisions are currently undervalued leading to an underrepresentation of indigenous values in water planning and policy. This paper outlines a novel approach in which indigenous ecological knowledge informs cause and effect relationships between species and aquatic habitats to promote broader ecosystem understanding. A Bayesian Network was developed to synthesise the seasonal aquatic knowledge of a group of Gooniyandi Aboriginal language speakers, including fish species’ availability, condition and required habitat, and integrate it with hydrogeological understanding obtained from research undertaken in a stretch of the Fitzroy River, Western Australia. This river system, like most in northern Australia, is highly seasonal and entirely dependent upon groundwater for maintaining flow during prolonged dry seasons. We found that potential changes in river flow rates caused by future water resource development, such as groundwater extraction and surface water diversion, may have detrimental effects on the ability to catch the high value aquatic food species such as Barramundi and Sawfish, but also that species such as Black Bream may benefit. These findings result from changes in availability of habitats at times when Gooniyandi understanding shows they are important for providing aquatic resources in good condition. This study raises awareness of the potential outcomes of future water management and stimulates communication between indigenous people, the scientific community and water managers by developing a model of indigenous understanding from which to predict eco-hydrological change.

  6. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  7. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  8. Participatory methods of incorporating scientific with traditional knowledge for volcanic hazard management on Ambae Island, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Shane J.; Gaylord, David R.; Charley, Douglas; Alloway, Brent V.; Wallez, Sandrine; Esau, Job W.

    2004-10-01

    Ambae Island is the largest of Vanuatu’s active volcanoes. It is also one of the nation’s potentially most dangerous, with 60 million m3 of lake-water perched at over 1340 m in the summit caldera and over the active vent. In 1995, small phreatic explosions, earthquake swarms and heightened gas release led to calls for evacuation preparation and community volcanic hazard awareness programs for the ~9500 inhabitants. Differences in perspective or world-view between the island dwellers adhering to traditional beliefs (Kastom) and external scientists and emergency managers led to a climate of distrust following this crisis. In an attempt to address these issues, rebuild dialogue and respect between communities, outside scientists and administrators, and move forward in volcanic hazard education and planning for Ambae, we adapted and applied Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approaches. Initial gender-segregated PRA exercises from two representative communities provided a mechanism for cataloguing local traditional viewpoints and hazard perceptions. Ultimately, by combining elements of these viewpoints and perceptions with science-based management structures, we derived volcanic hazard management guidelines, supported by an alert system and map that were more readily accepted by the test communities than the earlier “top-down” plans imposed by outside governmental and scientific agencies. The strength of PRA approaches is that they permit scientists to understand important local perspective issues, including visualisations of volcanic hazards, weaknesses in internal and external communication systems, and gender and hierarchy conflicts, all of which can hinder community emergency management. The approach we describe has much to offer both developing and industrialised communities that wish to improve their awareness programs and mitigative planning. This approach should also enhance communication and understanding between volcanologists and the communities

  9. Representation of knowledge in image understanding. Annual scientific report, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Spinelli, D.N.

    1985-03-01

    The author believes that understanding adaptation and knowledge representation is fundamental to make progress in image understanding by animal brains. He has been studying the anatomical structures and the temporal requirements that lead to adaptation. This report makes a brief excursion into some experiments that have been demonstrated in the past. Also discussed is the enormous complexity of the problem at hand, and it is concluded that only a method that allows the reading out of recognizable visual memories has any chance to make progress in this complex endeavor. Determined were some of the parameters that produce powerful adaptation and have methods that allow memory read-outs. A preliminary conclusion is that image understanding requires a learning principle that takes into account the nature of the information and not just temporal and/or spatial relationships. Animal brains possess extremely effective vision systems. Architectural and functional principles gained by studying them will certainly lead to new ideas for new computer architectures especially in the fields of machine vision, adaptation, and parallel computation.

  10. Drawing on Experience: How Domain Knowledge Is Reflected in Sketches of Scientific Structures and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Benjamin D.; Gentner, Dedre; Uttal, David H.; Sageman, Bradley; Forbus, Kenneth; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Ormand, Carol J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil

    2014-12-01

    Capturing the nature of students' mental representations and how they change with learning is a primary goal in science education research. This can be challenging in spatially intense domains, such as geoscience, architecture, and engineering. In this research, we test whether sketching can be used to gauge level of expertise in geoscience, using new technology designed to facilitate this process. We asked participants with differing levels of geoscience experience to copy two kinds of geoscience images—photographs of rock formations and causal diagrams. To permit studying the process of sketching as well as the structure and content of the sketches, we used the CogSketch system (Forbus et al. 2011, Topics in Cognitive Science 3:648-666) to record the time course of sketching and analyze the sketches themselves. Relative to novices, geoscience students included more geological structures and relational symbols in their sketches of geoscience materials and were more likely to construct their sketches in a sequence consistent with the order of causal events. These differences appear to stem from differences in domain knowledge, because they did not show up in participants' sketches of materials from other fields. The findings and methods of this research suggest new ways to promote and assess science learning, which are well suited to the visual-spatial demands of many domains.

  11. Environmental genotoxicants/carcinogens and childhood cancer: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lucy M

    2006-09-28

    Cancer in children is a major concern in many countries. An important question is whether these childhood cancers are caused by something, or are just tragic random events. Causation of at least some children's cancers is suggested by direct and indirect evidence, including epidemiological data, and animal studies that predict early life sensitivity of humans to carcinogenic effects. Candidate risk factors include genotoxic agents (chemicals and radiation), but also diet/nutrition, and infectious agents/immune responses. With regard to likelihood of risks posed by genotoxicants, there are pros and cons. The biological properties of fetuses and infants are consistent with sensitivity to preneoplastic genotoxic damage. Recent studies of genetic polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes confirm a role for chemicals. On the other hand, in numerous epidemiological studies, associations between childhood cancers and exposure to genotoxicants, including tobacco smoke, have been weak and hard to reproduce. Possibly, sensitive genetic or ontogenetic subpopulations, and/or co-exposure situations need to be discovered to allow identification of susceptible individuals and their risk factors. Among the critical knowledge gaps needing to be bridged to aid in this effort include detailed tissue and cellular ontogeny of carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair enzymes, and associations of polymorphisms in DNA repair enzymes with childhood cancers. Perinatal bioassays in animals of specific environmental candidates, for example, benzene, could help guide epidemiology. Genetically engineered animal models could be useful for identification of chemical effects on specific genes. Investigations of interactions between factors may be key to understanding risk. Finally, fathers and newborn infants should receive more attention as especially sensitive targets. PMID:16829162

  12. [Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin American in the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marta de

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

  13. Charting a Course to Advance Educators' Knowledge and Perceptions of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards presents climate change as a crosscutting concept with applicability across all domains of science. It is therefore important that both formal and informal environmental and science educators have an understanding of the science of climate change. This research study examined changes in knowledge and perceptions about climate change held by fifteen graduate students as they participated in an elective course on global climate change education in an environmental education masters program. The students in this study, typical of many environmental education students, had diverse backgrounds and several had weak academic preparation in science. Modules from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education project, Climate Science Investigations: South Florida (CSI), were piloted throughout the course. Students also learned to develop evidence-based scientific arguments, which is a key practice integrated throughout the new science standards. Students' knowledge of and perceptions about climate change significantly increased after completing the course as measured by a pre-post administration of the Climate Science Inventory of Knowledge and Inventory of Perceptions About Climate Change. Students' journals were analyzed for insights on the effectiveness of the curriculum and instructional approach of the course. Students reported that the argumentation project contributed most to their understanding of the science. Because these students will pursue informal and formal environmental education careers, this study has important implications for the communication of science, and climate change in particular, in the context of public environmental education and formal school settings.

  14. Treatment manuals and the advancement of psychoanalytic knowledge: The Treatment Manual of the Tavistock Adult Depression Study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper has two aims: first, it seeks to understand the absence of treatment manuals in psychoanalysis. Secondly, it summarizes the treatment manual of the Tavistock Adult Depression Study, which describes the form of psychoanalytic psychotherapy whose effectiveness has been evaluated both in the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS); and in the German Die Langzeittherapie bei chronischen Depressionen (LAC) Studie. Throughout the history of psychoanalysis, opinions about treatment manuals, empirical research and their antecedents have been deeply divided. After tracing the often polarized unfolding of these matters, the paper proposes that emotional and cognitive difficulties as well as scientific ones underpin their persistence. It is suggested that greater familiarity with them may lead to better combinations of outcome research and psychoanalysis: for example, the Tavistock manual seeks to match one account of the objects, aims, values, spirit and methods of psychoanalysis (as well as of connected forms of psychoanalytic psychotherapy); and also to meet what is required of treatment manuals by random allocation controlled trials. It has been a crucial element in the above studies of the outcome of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapies with chronically depressed patients. After describing the Tavistock Manual, the paper concludes suggesting that, if appropriately constructed, treatment manuals can make a contribution to the advancement of specifically psychoanalytic knowledge. PMID:26173890

  15. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  16. Combining social policy and scientific knowledge with stakeholder participation can benefit on salted grassland production in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deli; Yang, Zhiming; Wang, Ling; Sun, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a serious environmental problem across the Eurasian steppes, where millions people have been living for at least five thousand years and will still depend on it in the near future. During the last several decades, ecologists and grassland scientists have done much research on rational grassland utilization avoiding land degradation and reduction in ecological services. Meanwhile, the central and local governments took some attempts of agricultural policy and ecological subsidy to mitigate large scale land salinization in Northeast China. Fortunately, more and more farmers and stakeholders begin to adopt rational grassland management with the guidance of scientists and the help of local governments. However, up to date, there is still a gap between farmers, scientists and governments, which often negatively affect grassland production and remission of soil salinization in these areas. We conducted a case study on sustainable grassland production adapted to steppe salinization funded by EC project from 2011 to 2013. Our goal is trying to establish a mode of adaptive grassland management integrating previous scientific knowledge (grazing and seeding), current agricultural policies (ecological subsidy) and stakeholders' participation or performance. The study showed that: A. Despite of some grassland utilization techniques available for stakeholders (regulating stocking rate and seeding in pastures, or planting high quality forages), they tended to take the simplest action to enhance animal production and prevent grassland salinization; B. Compared to educating or training stakeholders, demonstration of grazing management is the most effective mean for knowledge dissemination or technology transfer; C. Ecological subsidy is absolutely welcome to the local people, and technology transfer became easier when combined with ecological subsidy; D. There was a contrasting effect in grassland production and land degradation mitigation for experimental farm

  17. Knowledge Style Profiling: An Exploration of Cognitive, Temperament, Demographic and Organizational Characteristics among Decision Makers Using Advanced Analytical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Vincent A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the possibilities of identifying knowledge style factors that could be used as central elements of a professional business analyst's (PBA) performance attributes at work for those decision makers that use advanced analytical technologies on decision making tasks. Indicators of knowledge style were…

  18. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-Scientific Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students' arguments…

  19. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  20. Constructing Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kathleen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which students explore the conditions necessary for a candle to stay lit. Enables students to construct an accurate concept to explain their observation of water rising inside a tube in which a candle has burned out. (JRH)

  1. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories and Scientific Instruments and Sensors Capability Roadmaps: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Dan; Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  2. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction versus Task Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children's ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 55 fifth-graders randomly assigned to one of…

  3. New space technology advances knowledge of the remote polar regions. [Arctic and Antarctic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery is rapidly increasing man's knowledge of polar regions. Products compiled from this imagery at scales of 1:250,000, 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 are already providing valuable information to earth scientists working in Antarctica. Significant finds detected by these bench mark products were glaciological changes, advancement in ice fronts, discovery of new geographic features, and the repositioning of nunataks, islands, and ice tongues. Tests conducted in Antarctica have proven the feasibility of tracking Navy navigation satellites to establish ground control for positioning ERTS-1 imagery in remote areas. ERTS imagery coupled with satellite geodesy shows great promise and may prove to be the most practical and cost effective way to meet the small-scale cartographic requirements of the polar science community.

  4. Literature-Based Scientific Learning: A Collaboration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan L.; Somerville, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Amidst exponential growth of knowledge, student insights into the knowledge creation practices of the scientific community can be furthered by science faculty collaborations with university librarians. The Literature-Based Scientific Learning model advances undergraduates' disciplinary mastery and information literacy through experience with…

  5. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  6. School Psychology Publishing Contributions to the Advancement of Knowledge, Science, and Its Application: An Introduction to the Themed Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Hintze, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This introductory article briefly reviews the studies and commentaries making up this themed issue on the process and products of professional publications in school psychology. Each article highlights important considerations for advancing scholarly scientific publishing in the field of school psychology. A case is made that enhancing the quality…

  7. Guidelines for incorporating scientific knowledge and practice on rare diseases into higher education: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses as a model disorder.

    PubMed

    Cismondi, Inés Adriana; Kohan, Romina; Adams, Heather; Bond, Mike; Brown, Rachel; Cooper, Jonathan D; de Hidalgo, Perla K; Holthaus, Sophia-Martha Kleine; Mole, Sara E; Mugnaini, Julia; de Ramirez, Ana María Oller; Pesaola, Favio; Rautenberg, Gisela; Platt, Frances M; Noher de Halac, Inés

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses the educational issues associated with rare diseases (RD) and in particular the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs, or CLN diseases) in the curricula of Health Sciences and Professional's Training Programs. Our aim is to develop guidelines for improving scientific knowledge and practice in higher education and continuous learning programs. Rare diseases (RD) are collectively common in the general population with 1 in 17 people affected by a RD in their lifetime. Inherited defects in genes involved in metabolism are the commonest group of RD with over 8000 known inborn errors of metabolism. The majority of these diseases are neurodegenerative including the NCLs. Any professional training program on NCL must take into account the medical, social and economic burdens related to RDs. To address these challenges and find solutions to them it is necessary that individuals in the government and administrative authorities, academia, teaching hospitals and medical schools, the pharmaceutical industry, investment community and patient advocacy groups all work together to achieve these goals. The logistical issues of including RD lectures in university curricula and in continuing medical education should reflect its complex nature. To evaluate the state of education in the RD field, a summary should be periodically up dated in order to assess the progress achieved in each country that signed up to the international conventions addressing RD issues in society. It is anticipated that auditing current practice will lead to higher standards and provide a framework for those educators involved in establishing RD teaching programs world-wide.

  8. Integrating diverse scientific and practitioner knowledge in ecological risk analysis: a case study of biodiversity risk assessment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dana, G V; Kapuscinski, A R; Donaldson, J S

    2012-05-15

    Ecological risk analysis (ERA) is a structured evaluation of threats to species, natural communities, and ecosystem processes from pollutants and toxicants and more complicated living stressors such as invasive species, genetically modified organisms, and biological control agents. Such analyses are typically conducted by a narrowly-focused group of scientific experts using technical information. We evaluate whether the inclusion of more diverse experts and practitioners in ERA improved the ecological knowledge base about South African biodiversity and the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops. We conducted two participatory ERA workshops in South Africa, analyzing potential impacts of GM maize on biodiversity. The first workshop involved only four biological scientists, who were joined by 18 diverse scientists and practitioners in the second, and we compared the ERA process and results between the two using descriptive statistics and semi-structured interview responses. The addition of diverse experts and practitioners led to a more comprehensive understanding of biological composition of the agro-ecosystem and a more ecologically relevant set of hazards, but impeded hazard prioritization and the generation of precise risk assessment values. Results suggest that diverse participation can improve the scoping or problem formulation of the ERA, by generating an ecologically robust set of information on which to base the subsequent, more technical risk assessment. The participatory ERA process also increased the transparency of the ERA by exposing the logic and rationale for decisions made at each step.

  9. New Sensors for In-Pile Temperature Detection at the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw; K. G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. As a user facility, the ATR is supporting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, as they conduct basic and applied nuclear research and development to advance the nation’s energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the strategy for determining what instrumentation is needed and the program for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available and under development for in-pile detection of temperature at various irradiation locations in the ATR.

  10. Rapid Scientific Response as an Educational Opportunity Integrating Geoscience and Advanced Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskin, M. E.; Kellogg, L. H.; Team, K.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters provide important opportunities to conduct original scientific research. We present the results of a graduate course at the University of California, Davis centered on rapid scientific response to the 24 August magnitude 6.0 South Napa earthquake. Students from both geoscience and computer visualization formed collaborative teams to conduct original research, choosing from diverse research topics including mapping of the surface rupture, both in the field and remotely, production and analysis of three-dimensional scans of offset features, topographic point-cloud differencing, identification and mapping of pre-historic earthquake scarps, analysis of geodetic data for pre-earthquake fault loading rate and modeling of finite fault offset, aftershock distribution, construction and 3D visualization of earth structure and seismic velocity models, shaking intensity from empirical models, and earthquake rupture simulation.

  11. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-10-01

    The Nuclear Energy Computational Fluid Dynamics Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-CAMS) system is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Utah State University (USU), and other interested parties with the objective of developing and implementing a comprehensive and readily accessible data and information management system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) verification and validation (V&V) in support of nuclear energy systems design and safety analysis. The two key objectives of the NE-CAMS effort are to identify, collect, assess, store and maintain high resolution and high quality experimental data and related expert knowledge (metadata) for use in CFD V&V assessments specific to the nuclear energy field and to establish a working relationship with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a CFD V&V database, including benchmark cases, that addresses and supports the associated NRC regulations and policies on the use of CFD analysis. In particular, the NE-CAMS system will support the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program, which aims to develop and deploy advanced modeling and simulation methods and computational tools for reliable numerical simulation of nuclear reactor systems for design and safety analysis. Primary NE-CAMS Elements There are four primary elements of the NE-CAMS knowledge base designed to support computer modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy arena as listed below. Element 1. The database will contain experimental data that can be used for CFD validation that is relevant to nuclear reactor and plant processes, particularly those important to the nuclear industry and the NRC. Element 2. Qualification standards for data evaluation and classification will be incorporated and applied such that validation data sets will result in well

  12. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC): Advancing the frontiers of computational science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, J.

    1996-11-01

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) provides researchers with high-performance computing tools to tackle science`s biggest and most challenging problems. Founded in 1974 by DOE/ER, the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Computer Center was the first unclassified supercomputer center and was the model for those that followed. Over the years the center`s name was changed to the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center and then to NERSC; it was relocated to LBNL. NERSC, one of the largest unclassified scientific computing resources in the world, is the principal provider of general-purpose computing services to DOE/ER programs: Magnetic Fusion Energy, High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Health and Environmental Research, and the Office of Computational and Technology Research. NERSC users are a diverse community located throughout US and in several foreign countries. This brochure describes: the NERSC advantage, its computational resources and services, future technologies, scientific resources, and computational science of scale (interdisciplinary research over a decade or longer; examples: combustion in engines, waste management chemistry, global climate change modeling).

  13. Knowledge Orientations of Prospective Early Childhood Teachers: A Study of Students' Scientific versus Subjective Orientations in Teacher Education Courses in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Hendler, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes in the system of early childhood teacher education in Germany raise the question of whether different academic levels of early childhood teacher education lead to different beliefs and orientations. In this study, prospective early childhood teachers' orientations to scientific knowledge and to research were explored. A…

  14. Fourth-Grade Emergent Bilingual Learners' Scientific Reasoning Complexity, Controlled Experiment Practices, and Content Knowledge When Discussing School, Home, and Play Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.; Salinas, Ale; Mahotiere, Margarette; Lee, Okhee; Secada, Walter G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In exploring how emergent bilingual learners' prior knowledge from home and play contexts might influence their scientific reasoning, this study drew upon two distinct research traditions: (a) experimental research from the developmental and cognitive psychology tradition, and (b) research on culturally and linguistically diverse…

  15. Students' Knowledge of Nuclear Science and Its Connection with Civic Scientific Literacy in Two European Contexts: The Case of Newspaper Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Hartzavalos, Sotiris; Nakiboglu, Canan

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science has uses and applications that are relevant and crucial for world peace and sustainable development, so knowledge of its basic concepts and topics should constitute an integral part of civic scientific literacy. We have used two newspaper articles that deal with uses of nuclear science that are directly relevant to life, society,…

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about the Course on Scientific Research Methods and the Levels of Knowledge and Skills They Gained in This Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the…

  17. Advanced Light Source First-Phase Scientific Program, 1993/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This composite document outlines ten different experiments planned for the beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Researchers from various parts of the country have detailed their methods and equipment to be used in experiments in biology and physics. X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy are the common topics to these experiments. (GHH)

  18. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Stoitsov, Mario; Nam, Hai Ah; Nazarewicz, Witold; Bulgac, Aurel; Hagen, Gaute; Kortelainen, E. M.; Pei, Junchen; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S.

    2011-01-01

    The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper illustrates significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integration of the theoretical approaches, advanced numerical algorithms, and leadership class computational resources.

  19. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

  20. Secondary School Congress on Environment and Sustainable Development (CEMADS): an efficient tool to improve student knowledge on scientific research and communication.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarque, Pilar; García-Paz, Maria; Olivares, Conchi; Fernández-Boán, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    Secondary school students in Spain commonly show little knowledge on the way science is produced and diffused. To familiarize students with the scientific method and scientific communication, we have simulated a scientific congress on Earth Sciences at the secondary school level. Since 2002, the congress takes place yearly and it is attended by teachers and students from high schools of our hometown and beyond. Since its onset, the project follows several phases: (i) In the first phase (First Call), 14- to 18-year-old students are invited to register by means of brochures containing basic information on the congress (terms, conditions and main topics). (ii) Teachers from each participating school explain students the basis of scientific posters and oral presentations and encourage them to participate in the congress. (iii) Students prepare presentations describing the results of small scientific experiments carried out for this purpose and present them to the local organizing committee. (iv) The committee then reviews all presentations and select the best ones for public exposition. (v) In the final phase, the congress takes place. It includes registration, opening ceremony attended by educational authorities, plenary conference delivered by an outstanding local scientist, coffee break, oral presentations and closing ceremony. The project lasts for one day. It has been attended by an average of 250 students and teachers from 4 schools, and has been widely reported in the local media. Post-congress evaluation shows that the project is highly motivating for students and it improves student knowledge on scientific research and communication.

  1. New directions in scientific computing: impact of advances in microprocessor architecture and system design.

    PubMed

    Malyj, W; Smith, R E; Horowitz, J M

    1984-01-01

    The new generation of microcomputers has brought computing power previously restricted to mainframe and supermini computers within the reach of individual scientific laboratories. Microcomputers can now provide computing speeds rivaling mainframes and computational accuracies exceeding those available in most computer centers. Inexpensive memory makes possible the transfer to microcomputers of software packages developed for mainframes and tested by years of experience. Combinations of high level languages and assembler subroutines permit the efficient design of specialized applications programs. Microprocessor architecture is approaching that of superminis, with coprocessors providing major contributions to computing power. The combined result of these developments is a major and perhaps revolutionary increase in the computing power now available to scientists.

  2. The Effect of Active Learning Based Science Camp Activities on Primary School Students' Opinions towards Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydede Yalçin, Meryem Nur

    2016-01-01

    It is important for people to be able to judge the nature while actually living in it to gain the scientific perspective which is an important skill nowadays. Within this importance, the general purpose of this study is to examine the effect of active learning based science camp activities on sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' opinions…

  3. Do Scientific Advancements Lean on the Shoulders of Giants? A Bibliometric Investigation of the Ortega Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bornmann, Lutz; de Moya Anegón, Félix; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Background In contrast to Newton's well-known aphorism that he had been able “to see further only by standing on the shoulders of giants,” one attributes to the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset the hypothesis saying that top-level research cannot be successful without a mass of medium researchers on which the top rests comparable to an iceberg. Methodology/Principal Findings The Ortega hypothesis predicts that highly-cited papers and medium-cited (or lowly-cited) papers would equally refer to papers with a medium impact. The Newton hypothesis would be supported if the top-level research more frequently cites previously highly-cited work than that medium-level research cites highly-cited work. Our analysis is based on (i) all articles and proceedings papers which were published in 2003 in the life sciences, health sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences, and (ii) all articles and proceeding papers which were cited within these publications. The results show that highly-cited work in all scientific fields more frequently cites previously highly-cited papers than that medium-cited work cites highly-cited work. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that papers contributing to the scientific progress in a field lean to a larger extent on previously important contributions than papers contributing little. These findings support the Newton hypothesis and call into question the Ortega hypothesis (given our usage of citation counts as a proxy for impact). PMID:20967252

  4. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  5. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    NE-KAMS knowledge base will assist computational analysts, physics model developers, experimentalists, nuclear reactor designers, and federal regulators by: (1) Establishing accepted standards, requirements and best practices for V&V and UQ of computational models and simulations, (2) Establishing accepted standards and procedures for qualifying and classifying experimental and numerical benchmark data, (3) Providing readily accessible databases for nuclear energy related experimental and numerical benchmark data that can be used in V&V assessments and computational methods development, (4) Providing a searchable knowledge base of information, documents and data on V&V and UQ, and (5) Providing web-enabled applications, tools and utilities for V&V and UQ activities, data assessment and processing, and information and data searches. From its inception, NE-KAMS will directly support nuclear energy research, development and demonstration programs within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS), the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), the Small Modular Reactors (SMR), and the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) programs. These programs all involve computational modeling and simulation (M&S) of nuclear reactor systems, components and processes, and it is envisioned that NE-KAMS will help to coordinate and facilitate collaboration and sharing of resources and expertise for V&V and UQ across these programs. In addition, from the outset, NE-KAMS will support the use of computational M&S in the nuclear industry by developing guidelines and recommended practices aimed at quantifying the uncertainty and assessing the applicability of existing analysis models and methods. The NE-KAMS effort will initially focus on supporting the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermal hydraulics (T/H) analysis for M&S of nuclear

  6. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH- trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration-a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group's previous study) and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber's law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group's previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping. PMID:27199718

  7. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH− trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH− trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration—a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH− and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study) and a block wherein PH− and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH− and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping. PMID:27199718

  8. Outposts of science; the knowledge trade and the expansion of scientific community in post-Civil War America.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    By the second half of the nineteenth century, local and regional voluntary societies were among the most widespread, accessible, and familiar public scientific institutions in America. Collectively, they made up an institutional network that converted individuals' private interest in science into a public activity. They played an essential role in the dissemination of scientific information, the growth of a scientifically literate population, and the extension of public support for science in the decades after the Civil War. This essay delineates and maps the spread of these societies throughout the country, as well as the flow of scientific information both among societies and between a society and its regional hinterland. Using the Davenport [Iowa] Academy of Natural Sciences as an example, it demonstrates how local societies were embedded in a national scientific community and mediated between it and local scientific enthusiasts, to the benefit of both.

  9. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  10. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million

  11. Effect of the science teaching advancement through modeling physical science professional development workshop on teachers' attitudes, beliefs and content knowledge and students' content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Laura

    The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.

  12. S2PLOT: a Straightforward Library for Advanced 3-dimensional Scientific Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2008-08-01

    S2PLOT is a user-oriented programming library for generating and exploring 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific plots and diagrams. It provides a lightweight interface---inspired by the simple yet widely-used PGPLOT---to produce hardware-accelerated visualisations of point, line, image and volumetric data. S2PLOT provides C and FORTRAN interfaces, and supports monoscopic, stereoscopic and curved (eg. dome) display devices. PGPLOT-savvy astronomers can usually write their first S2PLOT program in less than ten minutes. In this paper, we introduce the latest S2PLOT version and highlight major new additions to the library, including volume rendering and isosurfacing of astronomical data. We describe a simple extension that enables the embedding of large-area FITS images directly into S2PLOT programs using standard World Coordinate Systems, and we introduce the Python interface to S2PLOT.

  13. Admixed human embryos and stem cells: legislative, ethical and scientific advances.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, G; Iqbal, M; Malik, S; Sanyal, A; Wafa, R; Noble, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the regulatory framework currently governing the creation of animal-human hybrids and chimera embryos in stem cell research, and some of the ethical implications of such research. It discusses the findings of a recent government select committee that considered the topic. It considers the debate around the precise definition of a human embryo, and whether such hybrids therefore fall within the remit of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. It outlines the advantages of such hybrids, in lessening the need for human egg donors, as well as the moral objections to species boundary violation. It calls for an examination of the scientific benefits of such research to inform debate on the question, and argues for the need to take genuine account of the public's views on this matter.

  14. The Present Conditions of the Advances in Modernizing Scientific and Technical Information Processing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Written By Tongbao; Li, Translated By Guohua

    The trends of modernization (computerization) in information activities were outlined in focussing on the national computer-based information retrieval system, which was pushed by the State Science and Technology Commission in the 6th National Five-Year Plan. Secondary, the Plan to be promoted by the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC) as a central and integrated information center in China was also described for the 7th National Five-Year Plan on the occasion of the movement to the new ISTIC building. Finally, author's views on information programs to be further stressed were introduced, which include the production of reference and fact databases in Chinese and English, the consolidation of online network, standardization, etc.

  15. New Sensors for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Heng Ban; Brandon Fox; Gordon Kohse

    2009-06-01

    A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the selection strategy of what instrumentation is needed, and the program generated for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF with data from irradiation tests using these sensors. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users advanced methods for detecting temperature, fuel thermal conductivity, and changes in sample geometry.

  16. Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-3) Partnership Project Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Forest M.; Bochev, Pavel B.; Cameron-Smith, Philip J..; Easter, Richard C; Elliott, Scott M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lowrie, Robert B.; Lucas, Donald D.; Ma, Po-lun; Sacks, William J.; Shrivastava, Manish; Singh, Balwinder; Tautges, Timothy J.; Taylor, Mark A.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Worley, Patrick H.

    2014-01-15

    The Applying Computationally Efficient Schemes for BioGeochemical Cycles ACES4BGC Project is advancing the predictive capabilities of Earth System Models (ESMs) by reducing two of the largest sources of uncertainty, aerosols and biospheric feedbacks, with a highly efficient computational approach. In particular, this project is implementing and optimizing new computationally efficient tracer advection algorithms for large numbers of tracer species; adding important biogeochemical interactions between the atmosphere, land, and ocean models; and applying uncertainty quanti cation (UQ) techniques to constrain process parameters and evaluate uncertainties in feedbacks between biogeochemical cycles and the climate system.

  17. Recent scientific advances in leiomyoma (uterine fibroids) research facilitates better understanding and management.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Darlene K; Holthouser, Kristine; Segars, James H; Leppert, Phyllis C

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most prevalent medical problem of the female reproductive tract, but there are few non-surgical treatment options. Although many advances in the understanding of the molecular components of these tumors have occurred over the past five years, an effective pharmaceutical approach remains elusive. Further, there is currently no clinical method to distinguish a benign uterine leiomyoma from a malignant leiomyosarcoma prior to treatment, a pressing need given concerns about the use of the power morcellator for minimally invasive surgery. This paper reviews current studies regarding the molecular biology of uterine fibroids, discusses non-surgical approaches and suggests new cutting-edge therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.

  18. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John; Arnott, James; Wright, Alyson

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  19. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  20. Mathematics Teachers' Development, Exploration, and Advancement of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching and Learning of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This article describes experiences from a professional development project designed to prepare in-service eighth-grade mathematics teachers to develop, explore, and advance technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) in the teaching and learning of Algebra I. This article describes the process of the participating teachers' mathematical…

  1. Development of an Instrument to Assess Student Knowledge Necessary to Critically Evaluate Scientific Claims in the Popular Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strimaitis, Anna M.; Schellinger, Jennifer; Jones, Anthony; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Students need to learn how to engage in several scientific practices in order to be considered proficient in science. Many of these practices are needed to evaluate scientific claims made in the popular media. Yet, there are few instruments available that science educators can use to assess whether students can apply what they know about…

  2. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the scientific results stemming from six Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (Action Chair: Lara Pajewski, STSM Manager: Marian Marciniak). STSMs are important means to develop linkages and scientific collaborations between participating institutions involved in a COST Action. Scientists have the possibility to go to an institution abroad, in order to undertake joint research and share techniques/equipment/infrastructures that may not be available in their own institution. STSMs are particularly intended for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), i.e., young scientists who obtained their PhD since no more than 8 years when they started to be involved in the Action. Duration of a standard STSM can be from 5 to 90 days and the research activities carried out during this short stay shall specifically contribute to the achievement of the scientific objectives of the supporting COST Action. The first STSM was carried out by Lara Pajewski, visiting Antonis Giannopoulos at The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). The research activities focused on the electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses to complex targets. A set of test scenarios was defined, to be used by research groups participating to Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208, to test and compare different electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering methods; these scenarios were modelled by using the well-known finite-difference time-domain simulator GprMax. New Matlab procedures for the processing and visualization of GprMax output data were developed. During the second STSM, Iraklis Giannakis visited Lara Pajewski at Roma Tre University (Italy). The study was concerned with the numerical modelling of horn antennas for GPR. An air-coupled horn antenna was implemented in GprMax and tested in a realistically

  3. Recent scientific advances in leiomyoma (uterine fibroids) research facilitates better understanding and management.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Darlene K; Holthouser, Kristine; Segars, James H; Leppert, Phyllis C

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most prevalent medical problem of the female reproductive tract, but there are few non-surgical treatment options. Although many advances in the understanding of the molecular components of these tumors have occurred over the past five years, an effective pharmaceutical approach remains elusive. Further, there is currently no clinical method to distinguish a benign uterine leiomyoma from a malignant leiomyosarcoma prior to treatment, a pressing need given concerns about the use of the power morcellator for minimally invasive surgery. This paper reviews current studies regarding the molecular biology of uterine fibroids, discusses non-surgical approaches and suggests new cutting-edge therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26236472

  4. Recent scientific advances in leiomyoma (uterine fibroids) research facilitates better understanding and management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Darlene K.; Holthouser, Kristine; Segars, James H.; Leppert, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most prevalent medical problem of the female reproductive tract, but there are few non-surgical treatment options. Although many advances in the understanding of the molecular components of these tumors have occurred over the past five years, an effective pharmaceutical approach remains elusive. Further, there is currently no clinical method to distinguish a benign uterine leiomyoma from a malignant leiomyosarcoma prior to treatment, a pressing need given concerns about the use of the power morcellator for minimally invasive surgery. This paper reviews current studies regarding the molecular biology of uterine fibroids, discusses non-surgical approaches and suggests new cutting-edge therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26236472

  5. Bulgarian Activities in the Project COSMOS: An Advanced Scientific Repository for Science Teaching and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchev, D.; Kyurkchieva, D.; Borisov, B.; Radeva, V.

    2010-09-01

    One of the main purposes of the European educational project COSMOS (co-funded by the European Commission under the program eContentplus), is to create an experimental laboratory for the school of tomorrow in order to improve the education in astronomy by expanding the resources for teaching and learning in schools and universities and by providing more challenging and authentic learning experiences for students. A large educational database was created as a result of the project activities made by 15 partner institutions. The unusual electronic "library" offers to students and teachers unique educational resources: learning scenarios, images, presentations, videos and animations (most of them are impossible to produce in any scientific laboratory). It is freely accessible to anyone, anywhere, anytime. Our poster presents the contribution of the Shumen university (the only partner from Bulgaria) in the project: uploading more than 12000 astronomical images in the COSMOS portal; creation of 45 learning scenarios; holding 5 teaching workshops at different places for more than 100 Bulgarian teachers to use the possibilities of the COSMOS portal (including creation of their own learning scenarios). Our analysis of the questionnaires filled-in by the participating teachers shows the necessity of such projects and workshops.

  6. Advancement of scientific research on Helicobacter pylori in humans: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Andrabi, S A H; Shamila, H; Masooda, S

    2012-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with humans for millions of years and its association wih gastroduodenal diseases has well been established. Research explosion has added vastly to the current dimensions. The new and unusual pattern of involvement in the form of diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (DDNLH) due to specific strain of H. pylorii has been reported from Kashmir recently, which heckles early recognition and treatment and on the other hand, we continue to face challenges so far as the prevention of carcinoma of stomach, a worst sequlae of H. pylori is concerned although population screening and prevention surveys are underway in many countries. Continued scientific work has now unfolded involvement of H.pylori in extragastric diseases like cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anaemia, mental diseases, and collagen vascular disease .Moreover the beneficial effects of H. pylori with respect to allergic diseases and obesity are clear. Problem of drug resistance for eradication of H. pylori has arisen for which novel treatments are tried. Lactobacillus reuteri having ant H.pylori action is one of the promising treatment as is now available in India for usage. The main challenges which remain are prevention of H. pylori related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine which can address all these issues including beneficial aspects of H. pylori. PMID:23136708

  7. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-02-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children's ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 55 fifth-graders randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Children in the control condition investigated a four-variable inquiry task without additional support. Performance of this task in the direct instruction condition was preceded by a short training in experimental design, whereas children in the task structuring condition, who did not receive the introductory training, were given a version of the task that addressed the four variables one at a time. Analysis of children's experimentation behavior confirmed that direct instruction and task structuring are equally effective and superior to unguided inquiry. Both interventions also evoked more determinate predictions and valid inferences. These findings demonstrate that the effect of short-term interventions designed to promote unconfounded experimentation extends beyond the control of variables.

  8. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - Site Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2008-12-03

    This report summarizes LLNL's progress for the period April through September of 2008 for the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) SciDAC. The TASCS project is organized into four major thrust areas: CCA Environment (72%), Component Technology Initiatives (16%), CCA Toolkit (8%), and User and Application Outreach & Support (4%). The percentage of LLNL's effort allocation is shown in parenthesis for each thrust area. Major thrust areas are further broken down into activity areas, LLNL's effort directed to each activity is shown in Figure 1. Enhancements, Core Tools, and Usability are all part of CCA Environment, and Software Quality is part of Component Technology Initiatives. The balance of this report will cover our accomplishments in each of these activity areas.

  9. ANDRILL: INVOLVING TEACHERS IN FIELD RESEARCH ENHANCES THE TRANSFER OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE TO CLASSROOMS AND TO OTHER EDUCATORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.; Huffman, L. T.; Trummel, B.

    2009-12-01

    For most educators, the end of a field research experience is truly the beginning. From the knowledge gained and the excitement of living and working in a harsh environment like Antarctica, ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) participants create enhanced learning experiences and resources for their students and for the professional development of other teachers. ANDRILL (Antarctic geological DRILLing) is an multi-national and interdisciplinary research project involving Italy, Germany , New Zealand, and USA. The core concept of its Education and Public Outreach Program is to embed educators as integral members on the science research teams, allowing them to participate in every phase of the mission. Their primary goal is to develop effective and innovative educational approaches for the communication of the scientific and technical aspects of the drilling program. ANDRILL has developed an exemplary teacher research experience model that differs from most by supporting a collaborative team of international educators rather than just one teacher. During the first two years of drilling projects, 2006 and 2007, ANDRILL took 16 educators from 4 countries to Antarctica. From those experiences, a growing collaborative network of polar science educators is nurtured, many valuable resources and examples of professional development have been created, and lessons have been learned and evaluated for future teacher research immersion experiences. An Italian ARISE participant and ANDRILL’s Education and Outreach Coordinator will present how ARISE has been at the core of developing transformational programs and resources in both countries including: [1] Flexhibit, a digital series of climate change materials designed for informal and formal learning environments that have been translated into Italian, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, and New Zealand English, (2) C2S2: Climate Change Student Summits, which provide professional development and resources for

  10. Circulation and production of knowledge and scientific practices in southern America in the eighteenth century: an analysis of Materia medica misionera, a manuscript by Pedro Montenegro (1710).

    PubMed

    Fleck, Eliane Cristina Deckmann; Poletto, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes a 1790 manuscript copy of Materia medica misionera, a book written in 1710 by a Jesuit, Pedro Montenegro. Alongside knowledge of a magical or religious nature, and exotic ingredients for the recipes, this work also contains the unmistakable presence of Hippocratic and Galenic conceptions and a growing empiricism, characteristic of the scientific transformations seen in the eighteenth century. The analysis of this work also prompts reflections about the diffusion, circulation and production of pharmacological and medical knowledge in the first half of the eighteenth century within the missions and colleges installed in the area that was the Jesuit Province of Paraguay, southern America. PMID:23295653

  11. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Hathaway, John E.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Dirks, James A.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Stephan, Eric G.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  12. The effects of a socioscientific issues instructional model in secondary agricultural education on students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess the impacts of a nine-week unit that incorporated a socioscientific issue into instruction on secondary agriculture students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. The population for this study was Florida's secondary students enrolled in agricultural education. The accessible population was students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations classes in Florida. A convenience sample of Florida's Agriscience Foundations teachers attending a summer professional development or Chapter Officer Leadership Training session was taken. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to determine the impact the treatment had on students' agriscience content knowledge on distal and proximal assessments, as well as on students' scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills related to number of argumentation justifications and quality of those justifications, and views of the nature of science. Paired-samples t tests were also conducted to determine whether the treatment yielded results with middle school or high school students. Statistical analysis found significant improvements in students' agriscience content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and argumentation skills. High school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and argumentation justification quality. Middle school students' scores resulted in significant improvements in proximal content knowledge assessments and scientific reasoning ability. No significant difference was found between students' views of the nature of science before and after

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  14. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  15. Providing Chemistry Teachers with Opportunities to Enhance Their Knowledge in Contemporary Scientific Areas: A Three-Stage Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Blonder, Ron; Hofstein, Avi

    2010-01-01

    In order to help teachers to bring their students into contact with the frontiers of chemistry, a special program for enhancing chemistry teachers' content knowledge as well as their pedagogical knowledge was launched at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The program, which was specifically designed for the chemistry teachers, consists of three…

  16. How primary trainee teachers perceive the development of their own scientific knowledge: links between confidence, content and competence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shallcross, Tony; Spink, Elaine; Stephenson, Philip; Warwick, Paul

    2002-12-01

    The significance of subject knowledge in the education of science teachers is much debated nationally and internationally. Part of this debate is about what the term 'science subject knowledge' means. This paper examines two UK research studies, one from Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) and one from Homerton College, Cambridge, into initial teacher education (ITE) trainees' confidence with their science knowledge. Both surveys revealed the importance of school experience in developing this knowledge. The MMU survey also identified a disproportionate requirement being placed on trainees to teach particular science topics in schools. The paper discusses the implications of these surveys for the design of ITE primary core science programmes in the UK and raises questions about current approaches to the assessment of trainees' subject knowledge in ITE, which are of generic interest. How do we verify trainees' mastery of content? Does such mastery equate with competent teaching? Answers to both questions are proposed.

  17. Local and scientific knowledge for assessing the use of fallows and mature forest by large mammals in SE Brazil: identifying singularities in folkecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been discussed in terms of its similarities to and its potential to complement normative scientific knowledge. In this study, we compared the knowledge of a Brazilian quilombola population regarding the habitat use and life habits of large mammals with in situ recordings of the species. We also tested the hypothesis that quilombola LEK has a special focus on the anthropogenic portion of the landscape. Methods The habitats investigated were anthropogenic secondary forests and mature forests in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. We conducted the faunal survey using the camera-trap method. The sampling effort consisted of deploying 1,217 cameras/day in the mature forests and 1,189 cameras/day in the secondary forests. Statistical comparisons regarding the habitat use of the species were based on the randomization procedure. We interviewed 36 men who were more than 40 years old in the three communities studied. Informal, semi-structured and structured interviews were used. Two variables were considered in the LEK analyses: level of internal agreement and level of convergence with the scientific data. Results The camera trap sampling resulted in a total of 981 records. Animals such as opossums, tayras, armadillos and deer showed a non-selective pattern in the use of habitats. In contrast, the coati was more common in mature forests. We found that nearly 40% of the interviewees’ responses converged with the scientific data on the use of habitats. However, the LEK on the species’ life habits was highly convergent with the scientific data. The hypothesis that secondary forests would have a greater relevance for local knowledge was validated for four of the five analyzed species. Conclusions We suggest two principal considerations of ecological and ethnoecological interest: (1) In the Atlantic Forest of the Ribeira Valley, the secondary forests resulting from shifting cultivation were as attractive to the species

  18. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  19. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at

  20. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  1. Semantics for E-Learning: An Advanced Knowledge Management Oriented Metadata Schema for Learning Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    The research described in this paper is concentrated on the demand for high quality interchangeable knowledge objects capable of supporting dynamic learning initiatives. The general metadata models (Dublin Core, IMS, LOM, SCORM) for knowledge objects enrichment are reviewed and a critique is provided in order to claim the importance of the…

  2. Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge: Advancements in the Measurement of Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cianciolo, Anna T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Gil, Guillermo; Drebot, Michael E.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Practical intelligence as measured by tacit-knowledge inventories generally has shown a weak relation to other intelligence constructs. However, the use of assessments capturing specialized, job-related knowledge may obscure the generality of practical intelligence and its relation to general intelligence. This article presents three studies in…

  3. The application of knowledge synthesis methods in agri-food public health: recent advancements, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality

  4. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Shelley I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  5. Advancing Coordinated Care in Four Provincial Healthcare Systems: Evaluating a Knowledge-Exchange Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Renee; Parker, Victoria; Phillips, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research project created and evaluated a knowledge-exchange intervention designed to facilitate an increase in organizational readiness for implementing coordinated stroke care in four primarily rural provincial healthcare systems. Intervention: Knowledge brokers were linked to networks within, across and outside the provinces to support, inform and disseminate best practice recommendations for coordinated stroke care within the provincial healthcare systems. Findings: The intervention increased awareness and dissemination of recommendations, which stimulated the implementation of coordinated stroke care. Similar knowledge-exchange interventions might work in other healthcare jurisdictions with similar demographics, to promote evidence-informed improvements in healthcare. PMID:22851988

  6. [Public scientific knowledge distribution in health information, communication and information technology indexed in MEDLINE and LILACS databases].

    PubMed

    Packer, Abel Laerte; Tardelli, Adalberto Otranto; Castro, Regina Célia Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the distribution of international, regional and national scientific output in health information and communication, indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, between 1996 and 2005. A selection of articles was based on the hierarchical structure of Information Science in MeSH vocabulary. Four specific domains were determined: health information, medical informatics, scientific communications on healthcare and healthcare communications. The variables analyzed were: most-covered subjects and journals, author affiliation and publication countries and languages, in both databases. The Information Science category is represented in nearly 5% of MEDLINE and LILACS articles. The four domains under analysis showed a relative annual increase in MEDLINE. The Medical Informatics domain showed the highest number of records in MEDLINE, representing about half of all indexed articles. The importance of Information Science as a whole is more visible in publications from developed countries and the findings indicate the predominance of the United States, with significant growth in scientific output from China and South Korea and, to a lesser extent, Brazil.

  7. The Scientific Method: Modus Operandi or Supreme Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailman, Jack P.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a schema to replace the generally accepted notion of the scientific method being described as an individual scientist's behavior. The schema is described as the summary process by which scientific understanding of the universe is advanced, how knowledge is created and tested, and how workable models emerge. (EB)

  8. A Breach in the Relationship between Correctness and Scientific Conceptual Knowledge for the Meaningful Solving of a Problem about Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June T.

    Expert/novice studies of conceptually rich problem solving have demonstrated a relationship between the correctness of a solution and the extent and organization of the solver's conceptual knowledge. This study examines meaningful problem solving and the relationship between the correctness of a solution and the extent of the solver's scientific…

  9. Sexuality and Human Reproduction: A Study of Scientific Knowledge, Behaviours and Beliefs of Portuguese Future Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…

  10. OECD/NEA Data Bank Scientific and Intergral Experiments Databases in Support of Knowledge Preservation and Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Briggs; E. Sartori; J. Gado; A. Hasegawa; P. D'hondt; I. Kodeli; F. J. Mompean; W. Wiesenack; A. Zaetta

    2004-09-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: — Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications. — Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use. — Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: — IRPhE – International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, — SINBAD – a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), — IFPE – International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, — TDB – The Thermochemical Database Project, — ICSBE – International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations [1], — CCVM – CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients [2]. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 9: Information intermediaries and the transfer of aerospace Scientific and Technical Information (STI): A report from the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eveland, J. D.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    From the NASA/DOD survey data, there can be no way of inferring what strategy for knowledge transfer is best; indeed, given the fact that the respondents were all presumably well qualified professionals, the data tend to call into serious question the idea that any one model might meet the needs of more than a distinct minority of possible users. The evidence to date appears to reinforce the concept that different information environments take many different shapes, and interact with each other and with formal data transmission sources in many different and equally valuable ways. Any overall strategy for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of scientific and technical information sharing must take this divergence into account, and work toward the creation of systems that reinforce true interactive knowledge utilization rather than simply disseminating data.

  12. Where Experts Meet to Exchange Knowledge: Biotechnet's Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Science and progress thrive on an open mind and a transnational exchange of ideas and experience. That's why, in 2005, two scientists with a vision launched the biotechnet Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology. This year, too, the Summer School - now held at ZHAW in Waedenswil - is attracting researchers from all over the globe, and is also celebrating its 10(th) anniversary.

  13. Advancing Understanding Using Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation and Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Meng Yew; Lee, Shuh Shing

    2013-01-01

    Nonaka's model of knowledge creation can provide guidance for designing learning environments and activities. However, Bereiter is critical of the model because it does not address whether understanding is deepened in the process of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization. To address this issue of understanding, this…

  14. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of…

  15. Transformational Learning and Human Resource Development: Advances toward a Knowledge Based Society through Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    A common thread within a growing globalism is the creation of an emerging knowledge-based workforce. This paper will discuss a message supported by adult education theory that is beginning to manifest itself in human resource development and the growing globalism that steeped in communication and information. Theoretical implications are reviewed…

  16. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  17. The Unintended Consequences of a Standardized Knowledge Base in Advancing Educational Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The quest for a "knowledge base" in educational administration resulting in the construction of national standards for preparing school leaders has brought with it an unexpected downside. Purpose: It is argued that instead of raising the bar for preparing educational leaders, the standards have lowered them, first by embracing only a…

  18. Neoliberalism and the Global Restructuring of Knowledge and Education. Routledge Advances in Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the influence of neoliberal ideas and practices on the way knowledge has been conceptualized, produced, and disseminated over the last few decades at different levels of public education and in various national contexts around the world. Contents of this book include: (1) Introduction: The Contemporary Politics of Knowing and…

  19. Career Pathways: Aligning Public Resources to Support Individual and Regional Economic Advancement in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes career pathways, a framework or approach by which regions can better align publicly supported systems and programs to build a knowledge-economy workforce customized to the needs of local labor markets. A career pathway is a series of connected education and training programs and support services that enable individuals to…

  20. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the scientific results stemming from six Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (Action Chair: Lara Pajewski, STSM Manager: Marian Marciniak). STSMs are important means to develop linkages and scientific collaborations between participating institutions involved in a COST Action. Scientists have the possibility to go to an institution abroad, in order to undertake joint research and share techniques/equipment/infrastructures that may not be available in their own institution. STSMs are particularly intended for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), i.e., young scientists who obtained their PhD since no more than 8 years when they started to be involved in the Action. Duration of a standard STSM can be from 5 to 90 days and the research activities carried out during this short stay shall specifically contribute to the achievement of the scientific objectives of the supporting COST Action. The first STSM was carried out by Lara Pajewski, visiting Antonis Giannopoulos at The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). The research activities focused on the electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses to complex targets. A set of test scenarios was defined, to be used by research groups participating to Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208, to test and compare different electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering methods; these scenarios were modelled by using the well-known finite-difference time-domain simulator GprMax. New Matlab procedures for the processing and visualization of GprMax output data were developed. During the second STSM, Iraklis Giannakis visited Lara Pajewski at Roma Tre University (Italy). The study was concerned with the numerical modelling of horn antennas for GPR. An air-coupled horn antenna was implemented in GprMax and tested in a realistically

  1. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  2. An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay; Zenick, Harold

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins. The US Congress mandated a Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms in the 2004 reauthorization of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act. To further the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established an interagency committee to organize the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). A theoretical framework to define scientific issues and a systems approach to implement the assessment and management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms were developed as organizing themes for the symposium. Seven major topic areas and 23 subtopics were addressed in Workgroups and platform sessions during the symposium. The primary charge given to platform presenters was to describe the state of the science in the subtopic areas, whereas the Workgroups were charged with identifying research that could be accomplished in the short- and long-term to reduce scientific uncertainties. The proceedings of the symposium, published in this monograph, are intended to inform policy determinations and the mandated Scientific Assessment by describing the scientific knowledge and areas of uncertainty concerning freshwater harmful algal blooms.

  3. Applying knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery methods to advance clinical and translational research: the OAMiner project

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Best, Thomas M; Borlawsky, Tara B; Lai, Albert M; James, Stephen; Gurcan, Metin N

    2012-01-01

    The conduct of clinical and translational research regularly involves the use of a variety of heterogeneous and large-scale data resources. Scalable methods for the integrative analysis of such resources, particularly when attempting to leverage computable domain knowledge in order to generate actionable hypotheses in a high-throughput manner, remain an open area of research. In this report, we describe both a generalizable design pattern for such integrative knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery operations and our experience in applying that design pattern in the experimental context of a set of driving research questions related to the publicly available Osteoarthritis Initiative data repository. We believe that this ‘test bed’ project and the lessons learned during its execution are both generalizable and representative of common clinical and translational research paradigms. PMID:22647689

  4. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  5. Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting early nineteenth-century scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Secord, Anne

    2002-03-01

    In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.

  6. Historical data analyses and scientific knowledge suggest complete removal of the abnormal toxicity test as a quality control test.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Joerg H O; Ausborn, Susanne; Beggs, Claire; Bopst, Martin; Joos, Angelika; Kitashova, Alexandra A; Kovbasenco, Olga; Schiller, Claus-Dieter; Schwinger, Martina; Semenova, Natalia; Smirnova, Lilia; Stodart, Fraser; Visalli, Thomas; Vromans, Lisette

    2014-11-01

    In the early 1900s, the abnormal toxicity test (ATT) was developed as an auxiliary means to ensure safe and consistent antiserum production. Today, the ATT is utilized as a quality control (QC) release test according to pharmacopoeial or other regulatory requirements. The study design has not been changed since around 1940. The evidence of abnormal toxicity testing as a prediction for harmful batches is highly questionable and lacks a scientific rationale. Numerous reviews of historical ATT results have revealed that no reliable conclusions can be drawn from this QC measure. Modern pharmaceutical manufacturers have thorough control of the manufacturing process and comply with good manufacturing practice rules. Contaminants are appropriately controlled by complying with the validated manufacturing processes and strict QC batch release confirming batch-to-batch consistency. Recognizing that product safety, efficacy, and stability can be ensured with strict QC measures, nowadays most regulatory authorities do not require the ATT for most product classes. In line with the replacement, reduction, and refinement (3Rs) initiative, the test requirement has been deleted from approximately 80 monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and for the majority of product classes in the United States. For these reasons, it is recommended that the ATT should be consistently omitted world-wide and be removed from pharmacopoeias and other regulatory requirements.

  7. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  8. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-Scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and…

  9. Win-win: advancing written language knowledge and practice through university clinics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Lauren A; Fallon, Karen A

    2015-02-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are uniquely suited for assessing and treating individuals with both spoken and written language disorders. Yet as students move from the elementary grades into the middle and high school grades, SLPs tend to provide fewer direct language services to them. Although spoken language disorders become written language disorders, SLP are not receiving sufficient training in the area of written language, and this is reflected in the extent to which they believe they have the knowledge and skills to provide services to struggling readers and writers on their caseloads. In this article, we discuss these problems and present effective methods for addressing them. PMID:25633143

  10. Integrating movement in academic classrooms: understanding, applying and advancing the knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Webster, C A; Russ, L; Vazou, S; Goh, T L; Erwin, H

    2015-08-01

    In the context of comprehensive and coordinated approaches to school health, academic classrooms have gained attention as a promising setting for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time among children. The aims of this paper are to review the rationale and knowledge base related to movement integration in academic classrooms, consider the practical applications of current knowledge to interventions and teacher education, and suggest directions for future research. Specifically, this paper (i) situates movement integration amid policy and research related to children's health and the school as a health-promoting environment; (ii) highlights the benefits of movement integration; (iii) summarizes movement integration programs and interventions; (iv) examines factors associated with classroom teachers' movement integration; (v) offers strategies for translating research to practice and (vi) forwards recommendations for future inquiry related to the effectiveness and sustainability of efforts to integrate movement into classroom routines. This paper provides a comprehensive resource for developing state-of-the-art initiatives to maximize children's movement in academic classrooms as a key strategy for important goals in both education and public health.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  12. Advancing knowledge of right ventricular pathophysiology in chronic pressure overload: Insights from experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Guihaire, Julien; Noly, Pierre Emmanuel; Schrepfer, Sonja; Mercier, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    The right ventricle (RV) has to face major changes in loading conditions due to cardiovascular diseases and pulmonary vascular disorders. Clinical experience supports evidence that the RV better compensates for volume than for pressure overload, and for chronic than for acute changes. For a long time, right ventricular (RV) pathophysiology has been restricted to patterns extrapolated from left heart studies. However, the two ventricles are anatomically, haemodynamically and functionally distinct. RV metabolic properties may also result in a different behaviour in response to pathological conditions compared with the left ventricle. In this review, current knowledge of RV pathophysiology is reported in the setting of chronic pressure overload, including recent experimental findings and emerging concepts. After a time-varying compensated period with preserved cardiac output despite overload conditions, RV failure finally occurs, leading to death. The underlying mechanisms involved in the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to maladaptive remodelling are not completely understood.

  13. [Advances in the knowledge of the use of micronutrients in artificial nutrition].

    PubMed

    Muñoz García, M; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrients are defined as those compounds necessary for the adequate physiological status of the organism and that may be administered through the daily diet either enteral or parenteral. The term micronutrient encompasses the vitamins and oligoelements, also termed trace elements. Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the organism and are categorized in two groups: water-soluble vitamins (the vitamin B group, C, folic acid, and biotin) and lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Oligoelements are found in small amounts in the human body, and copper, cobalt, chrome, iron, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc are considered to be essential. The important role of micronutrients in critically-ill patients has been demonstrated, and their influence on the immune system, cancer, burnt, septic, and poly-traumatized patients has extensively been put in evidence. It is important to establish the micronutrients demands for each individual in order to achieve an adequate intake. However, there is little evidence on the necessary intake to achieve proper physiological functioning under different pathologies; therefore, studies bringing light to this situation are needed. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge on micronutrients supplementation in the adult population with pathologies such as cancer, coronary and cardiovascular disease, bowel inflammatory disease, short-bowel syndrome, cystic fibrosis, liver disease, renal failure, respiratory failure, the surgical patient, big-burnt patient, pancreatitis, poly-traumatized patients, sepsis and HIV. After the bibliographical search, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding micronutrients intake in artificial nutrition under the above-mentioned pathologies. PMID:21519728

  14. Advanced Knowledge of Three Important Classes of Grape Phenolics: Anthocyanins, Stilbenes and Flavonols

    PubMed Central

    Flamini, Riccardo; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Rosso, Mirko; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins) functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry. PMID:24084717

  15. Advanced knowledge of three important classes of grape phenolics: anthocyanins, stilbenes and flavonols.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Riccardo; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Rosso, Mirko; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins) functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry. PMID:24084717

  16. The trophodynamics of marine top predators: Current knowledge, recent advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jock W.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Cook, Timothée R.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Lorrain, Anne; Olson, Robert J.; Allain, Valerie; Menkes, Christophe; Patterson, Toby; Nicol, Simon; Lehodey, Patrick; Kloser, Rudy J.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Anela Choy, C.

    2015-03-01

    We review present understanding of the spatial and temporal diet variability (trophodynamics) of a range of pelagic marine top predators, at both early and adult life history stages. We begin with a review of methodologies used to advance our understanding of the trophodynamics of marine top predators, particularly in relation to climate change. We then explore how these developments are informing our understanding of the major trophic groups in food webs leading to, and including, marine top predators. We examine through specific examples how the impacts of ocean warming may affect pelagic food web relationships from both top-down and bottom-up perspectives. We examine the potential, in the absence of long-term data sets, of using large-scale spatial studies to examine how potential changes in biological oceanography could impact the biomass and composition of prey species, particularly the role of phytoplankton size spectra. We focus on examples from regions where biotic change with respect to climate change is likely. In particular, we detail the effects of climate change on oceanographic and bathymetric "hotspots" and provide the example involving seabirds in the Benguela Current system. We end by urging the development of international collaborations and databases to facilitate comprehensive ocean-scale understanding of climate impacts on marine top predators.

  17. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  18. Integrating Indigenous Traditional, Local and Scientific Knowledge for Improved Management, Policy and Decision-Making in Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Aissi-Wespi, Rita L.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities begin to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This paper describes a new GIs-based system being designed to bring local and indigenous traditional knowledge together with scientific data and information, remote sensing, and information technologies to address health-related environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision/policy-making for reindeer husbandry. The system is building an easily-accessible archive of relevant current and historical, traditional, local and remotely-sensed and other data and observations for shared analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest. Protection of indigenous culturally sensitive information will be respected through appropriate data protocols. A mechanism which enables easy information sharing among all participants, which is real time and geo-referenced and which allows interconnectivity with remote sites is also being designed into the system for maximum communication among partners. A preliminary version of our system will be described for a Russian reindeer test site, which will include a combination of indigenous knowledge about local conditions and issues, remote sensing and ground-based data on such parameters as the vegetation state and distribution, snow cover, temperature, ice condition, and infrastructure.

  19. Students' Knowledge of Nuclear Science and Its Connection with Civic Scientific Literacy in Two European Contexts: The Case of Newspaper Articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Hartzavalos, Sotiris; Nakiboğlu, Canan

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear science has uses and applications that are relevant and crucial for world peace and sustainable development, so knowledge of its basic concepts and topics should constitute an integral part of civic scientific literacy. We have used two newspaper articles that deal with uses of nuclear science that are directly relevant to life, society, economy, and international politics. One article discusses a new thermonuclear reactor, and the second one is about depleted uranium and its danger for health. 189 first-year undergraduate physics and primary education Greek students were given one of the two articles each, and asked to answer a number of accompanying questions dealing with knowledge that is part of the Greek high school curriculum. The study was repeated with 272 first-year undergraduate physics, physics education, science education, and primary education Turkish students. Acceptable or partially acceptable answers were provided on average by around 20 % of Greek and 11 % of Turkish students, while a large proportion (on the average, around 50 % of Greek and 27 % of Turkish students) abstained from answering the questions. These findings are disappointing, but should be seen in the light of the limited or no coverage of the relevant learning material in the Greek and the Turkish high-school programs. Student conceptual difficulties, misconceptions and implications for research and high school curricula are discussed.

  20. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  1. Advancing knowledge gained from sediment budgets through sediment age dating and fingerprinting in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Gellis, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Hupp, C. R.; Larsen, L.; Noe, G. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schenk, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics and long-term trajectories of fine sediment generally remain poorly quantified in rivers, which have implications for nutrient and contaminant transport and remediation strategies. Here we focus on two streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Difficult Run and Accotink Creek. These streams have varying degrees of urbanization and diverse best management practices, making possible a comparison of sediment sources, sinks, and residence times to illuminate how land management impacts fine sediment transport. Bank erosion and floodplain accumulation in Difficult Run has been previously determined and is ongoing in Accotink Creek. Current work advances sediment budgets by quantifying the role of in-channel fine sediment storage in the bed and margins. To understand the relative storage timescales for various geomorphic features (floodplain, in-channel, etc.) and develop age distributions, sediment is dated using radionuclides of varying half-lives such as Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, bomb radiocarbon, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). To determine the source of sediment that is transported in suspension, sediment fingerprinting has been completed in Difficult Run and initiated in Accotink Creek. Furthermore, the present study furthers our understanding of fine sediment dynamics by fingerprinting sources of stored sediment and evaluating how they evolve over storm events and stream size. For this, we sampled sediment in storage zones before and after storm events of a specified magnitude to determine their chemical signatures with respect to various source-tracking elements and isotopes. This study represents the first such work to integrate sediment dating, sediment fingerprinting and an analysis of storage zones to understand fine sediment dynamics and long-term trajectories.

  2. [Educational research and the production of knowledge at science museums].

    PubMed

    Marandino, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The article examines the processes by which scientific knowledge is socialized, based on the concepts of museographical/didactical transposition and recontextualization within the realm of science museums. Ways of producing knowledge in museums are analyzed, alongside a discussion of the potential challenges and possibilities involved when applying these concepts to research on dissemination and education in a museum setting. Some considerations are advanced on how these may contribute to the development of pedagogical practice in museums. The processes by which scientific knowledge is transformed for the purpose of educating and disseminating knowledge do not merely simplify ideas and concepts, since new knowledge is constructed inside the realm of museum culture.

  3. Advanced imaging techniques III: a scalable and modular dome illumination system for scientific microphotography on a budget

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A scalable and modular LED illumination dome for microscopic scientific photography is described and illustrated, and methods for constructing such a dome are detailed. Dome illumination for insect specimens has become standard practice across the field of insect systematics, but many dome designs ...

  4. Advance the Harmonious Development of Higher Education Institutions under the Guidance of the Scientific Concept of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jiang-qiao

    2006-01-01

    To build up and carry out the scientific concept of development will have a major and directive significance in solving the problems and conflicts of the development of higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper is based on drawing up the development strategy of a university, and brings up the idea of grasping the strategic opportunity,…

  5. Representation of probabilistic scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Larisa N; Rzhetsky, Andrey; De Grave, Kurt; King, Ross D

    2013-04-15

    The theory of probability is widely used in biomedical research for data analysis and modelling. In previous work the probabilities of the research hypotheses have been recorded as experimental metadata. The ontology HELO is designed to support probabilistic reasoning, and provides semantic descriptors for reporting on research that involves operations with probabilities. HELO explicitly links research statements such as hypotheses, models, laws, conclusions, etc. to the associated probabilities of these statements being true. HELO enables the explicit semantic representation and accurate recording of probabilities in hypotheses, as well as the inference methods used to generate and update those hypotheses. We demonstrate the utility of HELO on three worked examples: changes in the probability of the hypothesis that sirtuins regulate human life span; changes in the probability of hypotheses about gene functions in the S. cerevisiae aromatic amino acid pathway; and the use of active learning in drug design (quantitative structure activity relation learning), where a strategy for the selection of compounds with the highest probability of improving on the best known compound was used. HELO is open source and available at https://github.com/larisa-soldatova/HELO. PMID:23734675

  6. Representation of probabilistic scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The theory of probability is widely used in biomedical research for data analysis and modelling. In previous work the probabilities of the research hypotheses have been recorded as experimental metadata. The ontology HELO is designed to support probabilistic reasoning, and provides semantic descriptors for reporting on research that involves operations with probabilities. HELO explicitly links research statements such as hypotheses, models, laws, conclusions, etc. to the associated probabilities of these statements being true. HELO enables the explicit semantic representation and accurate recording of probabilities in hypotheses, as well as the inference methods used to generate and update those hypotheses. We demonstrate the utility of HELO on three worked examples: changes in the probability of the hypothesis that sirtuins regulate human life span; changes in the probability of hypotheses about gene functions in the S. cerevisiae aromatic amino acid pathway; and the use of active learning in drug design (quantitative structure activity relation learning), where a strategy for the selection of compounds with the highest probability of improving on the best known compound was used. HELO is open source and available at https://github.com/larisa-soldatova/HELO PMID:23734675

  7. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  8. Facilitating Preschoolers' Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2011-10-01

    Educational researchers have suggested that computer games have a profound influence on students' motivation, knowledge construction, and learning performance, but little empirical research has targeted preschoolers. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of implementing a computer game that integrates the prediction-observation-explanation (POE) strategy (White and Gunstone in Probing understanding. Routledge, New York, 1992) on facilitating preschoolers' acquisition of scientific concepts regarding light and shadow. The children's alternative conceptions were explored as well. Fifty participants were randomly assigned into either an experimental group that played a computer game integrating the POE model or a control group that played a non-POE computer game. By assessing the students' conceptual understanding through interviews, this study revealed that the students in the experimental group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the concepts regarding "shadow formation in daylight" and "shadow orientation." However, children in both groups, after playing the games, still expressed some alternative conceptions such as "Shadows always appear behind a person" and "Shadows should be on the same side as the sun."

  9. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  10. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  11. The Cuban “Exception”: The Development of an Advanced Scientific System in an Underdeveloped Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracca, Angelo

    Science, education, politics, social development and economics are today considered to be highly interdependent. Although none of these factors can exist on their own, they have nevertheless often been considered in isolation from one other, or studies of their interactions have been confined to the consideration of more or less local contexts. When it comes to studying the history of physics in Cuba, however, it is not only inconceivable to separate scientific developments from their social, political, and cultural contexts. But, as this volume shows, the history of physics in Cuba cannot just focus on local contexts since it is closely entangled with global history, from colonialism to the Cold War.

  12. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-04-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account.

  13. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20 years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced ‘omics’ technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. PMID:26631274

  14. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329

  15. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.

  16. Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundle Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support in order to continue toward a career in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, or socioeconomic status). The authors define “asset bundles” as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329

  17. Learning To Use Scientific Knowledge in Education and Practice Settings: An Evaluation of the Contribution of the Biological Behavioural and Social Sciences to Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Programmes. Researching Professional Education. Research Reports Series Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraut, Michael; And Others

    A research project evaluated the contribution of biological, behavioral, and social sciences to nursing and midwifery education programs in Britain. The study of scientific knowledge relevant to recently qualified nurses and midwives was confined to six topics: fluids, electrolytes, and renal systems; nutrition; acute pain; shock; stress; and…

  18. The Effects of a Socioscientific Issues Instructional Model in Secondary Agricultural Education on Students' Content Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning Ability, Argumentation Skills, and Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to…

  19. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  20. Landslide risk assessment and landslide disaster risk management: on the missing link between scientific knowledge, decision making and practice (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2016-04-01

    Different investigations have been developed to address the uncertainty and quality evaluations leading to improve landslide hazard and risk assessment. With no doubt, and by using a wide range of scientific and technical approaches, they have contributed to a major extent to the understanding of the dynamics of landslide processes at different scales. Nonetheless, in a similar fashion than other hazards, it has been rather difficult to assess in a precise manner the multi-dimensions of their associated vulnerability and what is more, to effectively link risk assessments with disaster risk management. Owing to the double-character of landslide events, as natural and socio-natural hazards, mass movements turn out to be very complex processes, as their occurrence is also enhanced by population growth, socio-economic inequality, urbanization processes, land-degradation, unsustainable practices and mounting hazard exposure. Disaster Risk Management rope in the actions to attain Disaster Risk Reduction. The latter aims at decreasing existing hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, in addition to strengthening resilience, and very importantly, avoiding the construction of future disaster risk (UNISDR, 2015a). More specifically, and along the same line of ideas, the new-fangled Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 (UNISDR, 2015b) points towards reducing disaster risk and losses by engaging in a series of actions at local, national and global levels. Among them and of utterly significance are those initiatives related to the need of moving from risk assessment into disaster risk management. Consequently, and beyond championing scientific and technical capacity to strengthen landslide knowledge to assess vulnerability, hazard exposure and disaster risks, the challenge remains in the realm of promoting and improving permanent communication, dialogue and partnership among the science and technology communities, policymakers and other stakeholders

  1. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  2. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  3. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  4. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  5. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  6. Does Creativity Impact Scientific Aptitude of School Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Of all the equalities man possesses, creative thinking has been the most important for his well being and advancement. Creativity means to make, to bring into being, to originate or to invent something. Scientific aptitude is considered to be a unique or unusual potential or ability of an individual to acquire general knowledge and skill in…

  7. The Scientific Revolution: A Unit of Study for Grades 7-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Carole Collier

    This unit is one of a series that presents specific moments in history from which students focus on the meanings of landmark events. The purpose of this unit is for the student to explore the advances in scientific knowledge made in Europe in the mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth centuries. These advances, beginning with Copernicus, radically…

  8. Introducing the Intellectual Capital Interplay Model: Advancing Knowledge Frameworks in the Not-for-Profit Environment of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm-Stevens, Roxanne; Brown, Kneeland C.; Russell, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management has the potential to develop strategic advantage and enhance the performance of an organization in terms of productivity and business process efficiency. For this reason, organizations are contributing significant resources to knowledge management; investing in information location and implementing knowledge management…

  9. Toward a Theory of Web-Mediated Knowledge Synthesis: How Advanced Learners Used the Web to Construct Knowledge about Climate Change Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation utilized a multiple case study design to explore how advanced learners synthesize information about ill-structured topics when reading-to-learn and reading-to-do on the Web. Eight graduate students provided data in the form of think-alouds, interviews, screen video, digital trails, and task artifacts. Data analysis was based on…

  10. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end‐of‐life care: a cross‐sectional study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Geraldine; Weathers, Elizabeth; Friedman, M. Isabel; Gallo, Katherine; Ehrenfeld, Mally; Chan, Sophia; Li, William H.C.; Poletti, Piera; Zanotti, Renzo; Molloy, D. William; McGlade, Ciara; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.; Itzhaki, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Nurses' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end‐of‐life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end‐of‐life care. This study investigated nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end‐of‐life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross‐sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients' symptoms at end‐of‐life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end‐of‐life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end‐of‐life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end‐of‐life care. PMID:26823112

  11. State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" - research activities and scientific advance in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Sushko, V; Chumak, A; Buzunov, V; Talko, V; Yanovych, L

    2014-09-01

    Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2013 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. Key points include the research results of XRCC1 and XPD gene polymorphism in thyroid cancer patients, CD38 gene GG genotype as a risk factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, frequency of 185delAG and 5382insC mutations in BRCA1 gene in women with breast cancer, cognitive function and TERF1, TERF2, TERT gene expression both with telomere length in human under the low dose radiation exposure. The "source-scattering/shielding structures- man" models for calculation of partial dose values to the eye lens and new methods for radiation risk assessment were developed and adapted. Radiation risks of leukemia including chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the cohort of liquidators were published according to the "case-control" study results after 20 years of survey. Increase of non-tumor morbidity in liquidators during the 1988-2011 with the maximum level 12-21 years upon irradiation was found. Incidence in evacuees appeared being of two-peak pattern i.e. in the first years after the accident and 12 years later. Experimental studies have concerned the impact of radio-modifiers on cellular systems, reproductive function in the population, features of the child nutrition in radiation contamination area were studied. Report also shows the results of scientific and organizational, medical and preventive work, staff training, and implementation of innovations. The NRCRM Annual Report was approved at the Scientific Council meeting of NAMS on March 3, 2014. PMID:25536544

  12. State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" - research activities and scientific advance in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Sushko, V; Chumak, A; Buzunov, V; Talko, V; Yanovych, L

    2014-09-01

    Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2013 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. Key points include the research results of XRCC1 and XPD gene polymorphism in thyroid cancer patients, CD38 gene GG genotype as a risk factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, frequency of 185delAG and 5382insC mutations in BRCA1 gene in women with breast cancer, cognitive function and TERF1, TERF2, TERT gene expression both with telomere length in human under the low dose radiation exposure. The "source-scattering/shielding structures- man" models for calculation of partial dose values to the eye lens and new methods for radiation risk assessment were developed and adapted. Radiation risks of leukemia including chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the cohort of liquidators were published according to the "case-control" study results after 20 years of survey. Increase of non-tumor morbidity in liquidators during the 1988-2011 with the maximum level 12-21 years upon irradiation was found. Incidence in evacuees appeared being of two-peak pattern i.e. in the first years after the accident and 12 years later. Experimental studies have concerned the impact of radio-modifiers on cellular systems, reproductive function in the population, features of the child nutrition in radiation contamination area were studied. Report also shows the results of scientific and organizational, medical and preventive work, staff training, and implementation of innovations. The NRCRM Annual Report was approved at the Scientific Council meeting of NAMS on March 3, 2014.

  13. State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Índio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are highly important for the global climate regulation and for global biodiversity. However, these ecosystems are characterized by nutrient-poor and highly weathered soils and by high turnover rates of organic matter. Thus, they are fragile ecosystems prone to loss of ecosystem services when anthropogenically disturbed. Currently, the major threat to these ecosystems is deforestation leading to irreversible destruction of rainforests. Surprising and not expected is that within these ecosystems small patches of highly fertile soils occur which are known as Anthropogenic Dark Earths or terra preta de Índio (terra preta). These soils exhibit high nutrient and soil organic matter stocks and allow sustainable agriculture. Frequent occurrence of pot-sherds of pre-Columbian origin and further evidence for settlement activities clearly demonstrate that terra preta is of anthropogenic origin. In recent years, the terra preta phenomenon has gained increasing interest because it is assumed that terra preta could act as a model for promoting sustainable agricultural practices in the humid tropics and because terra preta is an example for long-term CO2 sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems with additional positive benefits for ecosystem services. These potentials of terra preta initiated a great number of studies but also stimulated fantasy about their genesis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the scientific knowledge about terra preta properties and to discuss their genesis. From our own and literature data it is evident that terra preta is the product of inorganic [e.g. ash, bones (esp. fish)] and organic (e.g. biomass wastes, manure, excrements, urine, and biochar) amendments to infertile Ferralsols. These ingredients were microbially metabolized and stabilized by humification in soil, fungi playing a bigger role in this process compared to bacteria in surrounding ecosystems. Biochar is a key component for this process due to its

  14. The relative timing between eye and hand in rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, F J A; van Polanen, V; Savelsbergh, G J P; Bennett, S J

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were manipulated, such that timing constraints were high (ISI = 300 ms) or low (ISI = 450 ms) and advance knowledge of the target location was present (fixed order) or absent (random order). Analysis of eye and finger onset and completion times per segment of the sequence indicated that oculo-manual behaviour was in general characterized by eye movements preceding the finger, as well as 'gaze anchoring' (i.e. eye fixation of the first target until completion of the finger movement towards that target). Advance knowledge of future target locations lead to shorter latency times of eye and hand, and smaller eye-hand lead times, which in combination resulted in shorter total movement times. There was, however, no effect of advance knowledge on the duration of gaze anchoring. In contrast, gaze anchoring did change as a function of the interval between successive stimuli and was shorter with a 300 ms ISI versus 450 ms ISI. Further correlation analysis provided some indication that shorter residual latency is associated with shorter pointing duration, without affecting accuracy. These results are consistent with a neural mechanism governing the coupling of eye and arm movements, which has been suggested to reside in the superior colliculus. The temporal coordination resulting from this coupling is a function of the time pressure on the visuo-manual system resulting from the appearance of external stimuli. PMID:21744087

  15. A conversation about practice development and knowledge translation as mechanisms to align the academic and clinical contexts for the advancement of nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Kitson, Alison; Cross, Wendy; Thoms, Debra; Thornton, Anna; Moss, Cheryle; Campbell, Steve; Graham, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Practice development (PD) and knowledge translation (KT) have emerged recently as methodologies which assist advancement in gathering and using evidence in practice. For nursing to benefit from these methodologies there is a need to advance the dialogue between academia and the service sector concerning the use and further development of these methodologies as well as how we create the most effective partnerships between academia and practice. To advance this dialogue and to gain insights into the similarities and differences between KT and PD and between the academic and the service sectors, four conversations from different leaders in these sectors have been gathered and are presented here. These four discrete narratives are presented to showcase the diversity of sector contexts in relation to PD and KT methodologies. Narrative One focuses on some of the theoretical and policy issues related to creating partnerships between traditional "knowledge creation systems" (universities) and "knowledge utilization systems" Narrative Two discusses how a large school of nursing responded to the challenge of creating partnerships for practice development in an attempt to bridge the academic/service divide and produce benefits to both organisations. Narratives Three and Four describe the view of practice development from the service side. The final section of the paper presents an agenda for discussion and action based on the emerging set of principles.

  16. Using an Advance Organizer to Improve Knowledge Application by Medical Students in Computer-Based Clinical Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahn, Corrie G.; Blanchaer, Marcel C.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of using the advance organizer as a device to improve medical students' understanding of a clinical case simulation on the microcomputer and to enhance performance on a posttest. Advance organizers were found to be effective and most consistent with Mayer's assimilation theory. (MBR)

  17. A survey of Existing V&V, UQ and M&S Data and Knowledge Bases in Support of the Nuclear Energy - Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung Lee; Rich Johnson, Ph.D.; Kimberlyn C. Moussesau

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear Energy - Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Utah State University and others. The objective of this consortium is to establish a comprehensive knowledge base to provide Verification and Validation (V&V) and Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and other resources for advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) in nuclear reactor design and analysis. NE-KAMS will become a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, the national laboratories, the U.S. NRC and the public to help ensure the safe operation of existing and future nuclear reactors. A survey and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of existing V&V and M&S databases, including the Department of Energy and commercial databases, has been performed to ensure that the NE-KAMS effort will not be duplicating existing resources and capabilities and to assess the scope of the effort required to develop and implement NE-KAMS. The survey and evaluation have indeed highlighted the unique set of value-added functionality and services that NE-KAMS will provide to its users. Additionally, the survey has helped develop a better understanding of the architecture and functionality of these data and knowledge bases that can be used to leverage the development of NE-KAMS.

  18. The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the scientific advancement of women in the early 20th century: the example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist.

  19. The Knowledge Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1970-01-01

    Although human knowledge has expanded rapidly, especially during the scientific era, man is far from the limits of knowledge about the human learning process itself. Greatly increased effort in this area of inquiry is required for survival. (JH)

  20. The Effect of Use of Animations on the Academic Achievements of the Students, Retention of the Knowledge Learned, and the Scientific Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the animation on the academic achievements of the students, retention of this achievement, and the development of scientific process skills in the unit of force and motion of the science and technology course of the 6th grade basic education and to find out the student's views. The…

  1. Foundations of Science Literacy: Using Instruction-Embedded Formative Assessment to Strengthen the Relation between Gains in Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Children's Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Chiarelli, Nancy; Gropen, Jess; Fuccillo, Janna; Hoisington, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    The need for a scientifically-literate American population has gained great prominence on the educational landscape of priorities over the past decade; young children will be increasingly exposed to the STEM fields and encouraged to excel in these areas. Professional development is key to assuring that early childhood teachers provide children…

  2. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. PMID:24788267

  3. Acquisition of the Constraints on "Wanna" Contraction by Advanced Second Language Learners: Universal Grammar and Imperfect Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kweon, Soo-Ok; Bley-Vroman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Contraction of "want to" to "wanna" is subject to constraints that have been related to the operation of Universal Grammar. Contraction appears to be blocked when the trace of an extracted "wh"-word intervenes. Evidence for knowledge of these constraints by young English-speaking children has been taken to show the operation of Universal Grammar…

  4. In response to "The Knowledge of Our Knowledge": a reflection on McAndrews' view of epistemology.

    PubMed

    Winterstein, James

    2012-12-01

    This commentary considers one of the articles published in the first volume of this journal and reflects on the status of research and knowledge at that time. The chiropractic profession has witnessed advancement in the use of the scientific method in the past several decades, and scholarly journals have helped support this substantial growth.

  5. Facilitating Preschoolers' Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers have suggested that computer games have a profound influence on students' motivation, knowledge construction, and learning performance, but little empirical research has targeted preschoolers. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of implementing a computer game that integrates the…

  6. "It's All Scientific to Me": Focus Group Insights into Why Young People Do Not Apply Safe-Sex Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Alan; Watson, Anne-Frances; Dore, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Despite rising levels of safe-sex knowledge in Australia, sexually transmitted infection notifications continue to increase. A culture-centred approach suggests it is useful in attempting to reach a target population first to understand their perspective on the issues. Twenty focus groups were conducted with 89 young people between the ages of 14…

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  8. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  9. Continuing the cultural competency journey through exploration of knowledge, attitudes, and skills with advanced practice psychiatric nursing students: an exemplar.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Mary M; Robbins, Leslie K

    2011-06-01

    Numerous training and education programs have evolved to address culturally competent health care delivery. This article describes an exemplar educational approach used to teach cultural competency to beginning graduate psychiatric mental health nursing students. Using interactive strategies delivered within the 4 phases of the curriculum, the approach has been shown to facilitate students' ongoing journey to cultural competence. Building on baccalaureate nursing competencies, the course addresses attitudes, knowledge, skills, and cultural humility to strengthen cultural self-assessment, cross-cultural clinical practice expertise, and the use of culturally appropriate research for graduate students.

  10. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  11. Science Inquiry as Knowledge Transformation: Investigating Metacognitive and Self-regulation Strategies to Assist Students in Writing about Scientific Inquiry Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Timothy A.

    2011-12-01

    Science inquiry is central to the science education reform efforts that began in the early 1990's. It is both a topic of instruction and a process to be experienced. Student engagement in the process of scientific inquiry was the focus of this study. The process of scientific inquiry can be conceived as a two-part task. In the initial part of the task, students identify a question or problem to study and then carry out an investigation to address the issue. In the second part of the task, students analyze their data to propose explanations and then report their findings. Knowing that students struggle with science inquiry tasks, this study sought to investigate ways to help students become more successful with the communication demands of science inquiry tasks. The study took place in a high school chemistry class. Students in this study completed a total of three inquiry tasks over the course of one school year. Students were split into four experimental groups in order to determine the effect of goal setting, metacognitive prompts, and sentence stems on student inquiry tasks. The quality of the student written work was assessed using a scoring rubric familiar to the students. In addition, students were asked at four different times in the school year to respond to a self-efficacy survey that measured student self-efficacy for chemistry content and science inquiry processes. Student self-efficacy for the process of scientific inquiry was positive and did not change over the course of the study while student scores on the science inquiry tasks rose significantly. The metacognitive prompts and instruction in goal setting did not have any effect on student inquiry scores. Results related to the effect of the sentence stems were mixed. An analysis of student work indicated that students who received high marks on their initial inquiry task in this study were the ones that adopted the use of the sentence stems. Students who received low marks on their initial inquiry

  12. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This

  13. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  16. [A report on staff development in advanced knowledge and technology of gene diagnosis for medical technologists by the Japanese Association of Medical Technologists: the view of medical technologists].

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, S; Ueno, I

    2000-10-01

    With advancement of the molecular biology, gene diagnosis is widely utilized in clinical application of medicine. For medical technologists, it is necessary to receive continued education to practice such advanced scientific trends. The Japanese Association of Medical Technologists established a working group for a staff development program of gene diagnosis and chromosome analysis in 1996, and has continued its activities in making inquiries about the present conditions, publishing a textbook, and providing seminars. The internal laboratory utilization of gene diagnosis was 8.7%(213 of 2437 hospitals). Based on the fact that about half of the hospitals use external laboratory, staff development for the internal utilization of gene diagnosis is an urgent issue. We have been providing seminars to meet the educational needs of our members. In addition to those activities, we have continued our efforts in providing a manual with clinically useful information, standardizing methods, establishing an information network, and conducting a controlled survey. The role of the working group is now shared by the local prefecture to further increase the numbers of those with expertise in gene diagnosis. We, medical technologists, need to have a global view of professional growth, and also to cooperate with academic societies related to gene diagnosis to establish a certification system. PMID:11215100

  17. Studies on cambial activity: advances and challenges in the knowledge of growth dynamics of Brazilian woody species.

    PubMed

    Callado, Cátia H; Vasconcellos, Thaís J de; Costa, Monique S; Barros, Claudia F; Roig, Fidel A; Tomazello-Filho, Mário

    2014-03-01

    The lack of specific research on the sequence of events that determine plant growth from meristem until wood formation represents a gap in the knowledge of growth dynamics in woody species. In this work, we surveyed published studies concerning cambial activity of Brazilian native species aiming at allowing the comparison of applied methods and obtained results. The annual cambial seasonality was observed in all the investigated species. Nevertheless, we found high heterogeneity in the used methodologies. As a result from this analysis, our opinion points to the need for standardizing sampling protocols and for discussing the suitability of experimental designs. This will help to define with greater precision the factors that determine the radial growth in the different tropical ecosystems.

  18. FluxSuite: a New Scientific Tool for Advanced Network Management and Cross-Sharing of Next-Generation Flux Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from

  19. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  20. [Variations on the "scientific culture" in four Brazilian authors].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Marina Assis; Oliveira, Bernardo Jefferson de

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "scientific culture" varies historically, and the examination of its continuities and transformations can help us understand the relationship between the scientific community and society. The views on the role of science in society go far beyond the advancement of a particular form of knowledge and its possible or promising fruit. They involve values, postures and practices to be disseminated and reveal expectations of social and cultural advancement. This article discusses four expressive visions of different moments in Brazilian history. The formulations of four influential authors in scientific and educational policies of the country at different times are presented and analyzed: Miguel Ozorio de Almeida, Anísio Teixeira, Maurício Rocha e Silva and Carlos Vogt. PMID:26038856