Science.gov

Sample records for advancing translational sciences

  1. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip to main content Menu Research Pre-Clinical Innovation Improving the Drug Development Process Repurposing Drugs Testing & Predictive Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases ...

  2. 78 FR 50069 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: Cures Acceleration Network...

  3. 78 FR 66021 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... NCATS might optimally exercise its flexible research authority by using transactions other than grants... include the name, address, telephone number and when applicable, the business or professional affiliation... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Advancing Translational...

  4. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  5. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities. PMID:26244479

  6. Science Explorers Translation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Dolores

    This paper describes a pilot project of Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) to translate a science education curriculum for junior and senior high school students into Navajo. The project consisted of translating a video, a teacher's guide, and an interactive multimedia product on the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the Four Corners area…

  7. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    and the disease from global translational science perspective. PMID:25592846

  8. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    and the disease from global translational science perspective.

  9. Early science books and their women translators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badilescu, Simona

    1998-12-01

    By the late eighteenth century, women wrote books popularizing the major scientific advances of the times. From even an earlier stage, women translated popular science books, many written especially for the ``use of the Ladies.'' From Aphra Behn's translation of Fontenelle's famous Entretiens sur la Pluralité des Mondes in 1686 to Mary Somerville's 1831 lucid exposition in English of Laplace's well-known book, The Mechanism of the Heavens, translation moved gradually toward professional scientific exposition. Who were these women and what sparked their interest in science? How had they acquired the knowledge necessary to translate science books? The aim of this article is to shed some light on a little known area of women's activities-the translation of science books-and to show their contribution to the diffusion of the scientific knowledge.

  10. 77 FR 75180 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed belowin advance of the... government-issued photo ID, driver's license, or passport) and to state the purpose of their...

  11. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    PubMed

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  12. Preparedness of the CTSA's structural and scientific assets to support the mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Gordon R.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) brings new promise for moving basic and discoveries to clinical practice, ultimately improving the health of the nation. The CTSA sites, now housed with NCATS, are organized and prepared to support in this endeavor. The CTSAs provide a foundation for capitalizing on such promise through provision of a disease-agnostic infrastructure devoted to C&T science, maintenance of training programs designed for C&T investigators of the future, by incentivizing institutional reorganization and by cultivating institutional support. PMID:22507116

  13. ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), global leader in advancing translational science to create science-based solutions for a sustainable, healthier world.

    PubMed

    Takei, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is a non-profit scientific research organization based in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. HESI was established in 1989 as a global branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) to provide an international forum to advance the understanding of scientific issues related to human health, toxicology, risk assessment and the environment. For the last 25 years, HESI has been the global leader to advance application of new science and technologies in the areas of human health, toxicology, risk assessment and environment. The core principle of "tripartite approach" and the multi-sector operational model have successfully supported HESI's scientific programs to create science-based solutions for a sustainable and healthier world. HESI's achievements include the dataset to guide the selection of appropriate supporting assays for carcinogenicity testing, a new testing framework for agricultural chemicals with enhanced efficacy, predictivity, and reduced animal usage, novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity which provide data on the location of timing of drug effects in the kidney allowing for enhanced drug development, etc.

  14. Translational genetics: advancing fronts for craniofacial health.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, R N; Dunnwald, M; Dunnvald, M; Frazier-Bowers, S; Polverini, P J; Wright, J T; de Rouen, T; Vieira, A R

    2013-12-01

    Scientific opportunities have never been better than today! The completion of the Human Genome project has sparked hope and optimism that cures for debilitating conditions can be achieved and tailored to individuals and communities. The availability of reference genome sequences and genetic variations as well as more precise correlations between genotype and phenotype have facilitated the progress made in finding solutions to clinical problems. While certain craniofacial and oral diseases previously deemed too difficult to tackle have benefited from basic science and technological advances over the past decade, there remains a critical need to translate the fruits of several decades' worth of basic and clinical research into tangible therapies that can benefit patients. The fifth Annual Fall Focused Symposium, "Translational Genetics - Advancing Fronts for Craniofacial Health", was created by the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) to foster its mission to advance interdisciplinary research that is directed toward improving oral health. The symposium showcased progress made in identifying molecular targets that are potential therapeutics for common and rare dental diseases and craniofacial disorders. Speakers focused on translational and clinical applications of their research and, where applicable, on strategies for new technologies and therapeutics. The critical needs to transfer new knowledge to the classroom and for further investment in the field were also emphasized. The symposium underscored the importance of basic research, chairside clinical observations, and population-based studies in driving the new translational connections needed for the development of cures for the most common and devastating diseases involving the craniofacial complex. PMID:24097854

  15. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems. PMID:23254806

  16. Disentangling the translational sciences: a social science perspective.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Louis D

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author first attempts to disentangle a number of issues in translational science from a social science perspective. As expected in a fledgling field of study being approached from various disciplines, there are marked differences in the research literature on terminology, definition of terms, and conceptualization of staging of clinical research from the pilot phase to widespread dissemination in the community. The author asserts that translational efforts in the social sciences are at a crossroads, and its greatest challenge involves the movement of interventions gleaned from clinical trials to community settings. Four strategies for reaching this goal are discussed: the use of methods derived from health services research, a yet-to-be-developed strategy where decisions to modify aspects of an intervention derived from a clinical trial are triggered by data-based criteria, community based participatory action research (CBPR), and a hybrid system wherein methods from CBPR and traditional experimental procedures are combined to achieve translation. The author ends on an optimistic note, emphasizing the impressive advances in the area over the existing barriers and calling for a unified interdisciplinary science of translation.

  17. Translational Science: Epistemology and the Investigative Process

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2009-01-01

    The term “translational science” has recently become very popular with its usage appearing to be almost exclusively related to medicine, in particular, the “translation” of biological knowledge into medical practice. Taking the perspective that translational science is somehow different than science and that sound science is grounded in an epistemology developed over millennia, it seems imperative that the meaning of translational science be carefully examined, especially how the scientific epistemology manifests itself in translational science. This paper examines epistemological issues relating mainly to modeling in translational science, with a focus on optimal operator synthesis. It goes on to discuss the implications of epistemology on the nature of collaborations conducive to the translational investigative process. The philosophical concepts are illustrated by considering intervention in gene regulatory networks. PMID:19794882

  18. Evolution in translational science: Whither the CTSAs?

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Awards-funded institutions are naturally equipped to drive research on human phenotyping and, in turn, shape the practice of precision medicine in the clinic of the future. PMID:25904737

  19. Bioinformatic Primer for Clinical and Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, Randolph S.; Chiriac, Anca; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies has accelerated generation and expansion of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data. Acquisition of high-dimensional datasets requires archival systems that permit efficiency of storage and retrieval, and so, multiple electronic repositories have been initiated and maintained to meet this demand. Bioinformatic science has evolved, from these intricate bodies of dynamically updated information and the tools to manage them, as a necessity to harness and decipher the inherent complexity of high-volume data. Large datasets are associated with a variable degree of stochastic noise that contributes to the balance of an ordered, multistable state with the capacity to evolve in response to stimulus, thus exhibiting a hallmark feature of biological criticality. In this context, the network theory has become an invaluable tool to map relationships that integrate discrete elements that collectively direct global function within a particular –omic category, and indeed, the prioritized focus on the functional whole of the genomic, transcriptomic, or proteomic strata over single molecules is a primary tenet of systems biology analyses. This new biology perspective allows inspection and prediction of disease conditions, not limited to a monogenic challenge, but as a combination of individualized molecular permutations acting in concert to effect a phenotypic outcome. Bioinformatic integration of multidimensional data within and between biological layers thus harbors the potential to identify unique biological signatures, providing an enabling platform for advances in clinical and translational science. PMID:19690627

  20. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  1. Roadblocks to translational advances on metastasis research.

    PubMed

    Brabletz, Thomas; Lyden, David; Steeg, Patricia S; Werb, Zena

    2013-09-01

    Promising advances in cancer therapy stemming from an increasing understanding of the molecular and genetic underpinnings of the tumorigenic process have been fueled by a strong, determined scientific community, influential patient advocacy groups and committed funding bodies. Despite these efforts, the development of effective drugs to prevent systemic dissemination of cancer cells or to eliminate overt metastasis in secondary organs remains a challenge to both researchers and physicians. In an attempt to tackle the most relevant and timely translational issues, a meeting held in 2012 as a result of a successful partnership between the Volkswagen Foundation and Nature Medicine brought together a group of metastasis research experts to identify the most important hurdles and help create a framework for potential clinical and translational strategies. PMID:24013756

  2. Evaluation Guidelines for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs)

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, William M.; Rubio, Doris M.; Thomas, Veronica G.

    2014-01-01

    The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, currently funds the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs), a national consortium of 61 medical research institutions in 30 states and the District of Columbia. The program seeks to transform the way biomedical research is conducted, speed the translation of laboratory discoveries into treatments for patients, engage communities in clinical research efforts, and train a new generation of clinical and translational researchers.. An endeavor as ambitious and complex as the CTSA program requires high-quality evaluations in order to show that the program is well implemented, efficiently managed, and demonstrably effective. In this article, the Evaluation Key Function Committee of the CTSA Consortium presents an overall framework for evaluating the CTSA program and offers policies to guide the evaluation work. The guidelines set forth are designed to serve as a tool for education within the CTSA community by illuminating key issues and practices that should be considered during evaluation planning, implementation, and utilization. Additionally, these guidelines can provide a basis for ongoing discussions about how the principles articulated in this article can most effectively be translated into operational reality. PMID:23919366

  3. Putting translational science on to a global stage.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Zuk, Dorit; Kocis, Petr; Johnson, Mike; Hay, Stewart; Hajduch, Marian; Bietrix, Florence; Aversa, Gregorio; Austin, Christopher P; Ussi, Anton E

    2016-04-01

    Global collaboration in translational science promises to accelerate the discovery, development and dissemination of new medical interventions. Here, we introduce a new international collaboration of translational science organizations and highlight our initial strategy to reduce or remove bottlenecks in translation. PMID:27032820

  4. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    PubMed

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond. PMID:27606600

  5. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    PubMed

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  6. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim; Bug, William; Samwald, Matthias; Bodenreider, Olivier; Chen, Helen; Doherty, Donald; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gao, Yong; Kashyap, Vipul; Kinoshita, June; Luciano, Joanne; Marshall, M Scott; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Rees, Jonathan; Stephens, Susie; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Wu, Elizabeth; Zaccagnini, Davide; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Neumann, Eric; Herman, Ivan; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2007-01-01

    Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG), set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of

  7. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  8. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  9. Finding translational science publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with translational science filters.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of "translational" filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E-Utilities, a user's query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively.

  10. Designing Biomedical Informatics Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paz Lillo, Ariel Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) rests largely on information flowing smoothly at multiple levels, in multiple directions, across multiple locations. Biomedical Informatics (BI) is seen as a backbone that helps to manage information flows for the translation of knowledge generated and stored in silos of basic science into bedside…

  11. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    PubMed

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  12. Advanced Computing for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hut, Piet; Sussman, Gerald Jay

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributions that high-speed computing is making to the study of science. Emphasizes the use of computers in exploring complicated systems without the simplification required in traditional methods of observation and experimentation. Provides examples of computer assisted investigations in astronomy and physics. (TW)

  13. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  14. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published “open access” information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe. PMID:26664857

  15. A gaze through the lens of decision theory toward knowledge translation science.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    Research findings become evidence when an individual decides that the information is relevant and useful to a particular circumstance. Prior to that point, they are unrelated facts. For research translation to occur, research evidence needs filtering, interpretation, and application by individuals to the specific situation. For this reason, decision science is complementary to knowledge translation science. Both aim to support the individual in deciding the most appropriate action in a dynamic environment where there are masses of uncensored and nonprioritized information readily available. Decision science employs research theories to study the cognitive processes underpinning the filtering and integration of current scientific information into changing contexts. Two meta-theories, coherence and correspondence theories, have been used to provide alternative views and prompt significant debate to advance the science. The aim of this article is to stimulate debate about the relationship between decision theory and knowledge translation. Discussed is the critical role of cognition in clinical decision making, with a focus on knowledge translation. A critical commentary of the knowledge utilization modeling papers is presented from a decision science perspective. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications for knowledge translation when viewed through the lens of decision science.

  16. The Cinderella Effect: Does Athletic Success Translate into Advancement Gains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores how athletic success translates into advancement gains. He shares the Cinderella story of the Butler University's Butler Bulldogs which became the prototypical college sports Cinderella during its star turn in the 2010 tournament. Many institutions say that their athletic accomplishments have brought them…

  17. Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: Translational advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in translational research in and technology for confocal microscopy of skin cancers, toward clinical applications, are described. Advances in translational research are in diagnosis of melanoma in vivo, pre-operative mapping of lentigo maligna melanoma margins to guide surgery and intra-operative imaging of residual basal cell carcinomas to guide shave-biopsy. Advances in technology include mosaicing microscopy for detection of basal cell carcinomas in large areas of excised tissue, toward rapid pathology-at-the-bedside, and development of small, simple and low-cost line-scanning confocal microscopes for worldwide use in diverse primary healthcare settings. Current limitations and future opportunities and challenges for both clinicians and technologists are discussed. PMID:19964286

  18. Advancing translational research with next-generation protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo; Petritis, Brianne; LaBaer, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology used increasingly in translational research, seeking to apply basic science findings to enhance human health. In addition to assessing protein levels, posttranslational modifications, and signaling pathways in patient samples, protein microarrays have aided in the identification of potential protein biomarkers of disease and infection. In this perspective, the different types of full-length protein microarrays that are used in translational research are reviewed. Specific studies employing these microarrays are presented to highlight their potential in finding solutions to real clinical problems. Finally, the criteria that should be considered when developing next-generation protein microarrays are provided. PMID:26749402

  19. Advancing Translational Research Through the NHLBI Gene Therapy Resource Program (GTRP)

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet; Cornetta, Kenneth; Diggins, Margaret; Johnston, Julie C.; Sepelak, Susan; Wang, Gensheng; Wilson, James M.; Wright, J. Fraser; Skarlatos, Sonia I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Translational research is a lengthy, complex, and necessary endeavor in order to bring basic science discoveries to clinical fruition. The NIH offers several programs to support translational research including an important resource established specifically for gene therapy researchers—the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Gene Therapy Resource Program (GTRP). This paper reviews the core components of the GTRP and describes how the GTRP provides researchers with resources that are critical to advancing investigational gene therapy products into clinical testing. PMID:23692378

  20. Antiviral RNAi: Translating Science Toward Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Viruses continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment that involves transmission between hosts and sometimes species, immune responses, and in some cases therapeutic interventions. Given the high mutation rate of viruses relative to the timescales of host evolution and drug development, novel drug classes that are readily screened and translated to the clinic are needed. RNA interference (RNAi) – a natural mechanism for specific degradation of target RNAs that is conserved from plants to invertebrates and vertebrates – can potentially be harnessed to yield therapies with extensive specificity, ease of design, and broad application. In this review, we discuss basic mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications of RNAi, including design considerations and areas for future development in the field. PMID:21826573

  1. Science Translator: An Interview with Louisa Stark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2015-07-01

    The Genetics Society of America's Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes significant and sustained impact on genetics education. The 2015 awardee, Louisa Stark, has made a major impact on global access to genetics education through her work as director of the University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center. The Center's Learn.Genetics and Teach.Genetics websites are the most widely used online genetic education resources in the world. In 2014, they were visited by 18 million students, educators, scientists, and members of the public. With over 60 million page views annually, Learn.Genetics is among the most used sites on the Web. PMID:26170441

  2. Science Translator: An Interview with Louisa Stark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2015-07-01

    The Genetics Society of America's Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes significant and sustained impact on genetics education. The 2015 awardee, Louisa Stark, has made a major impact on global access to genetics education through her work as director of the University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center. The Center's Learn.Genetics and Teach.Genetics websites are the most widely used online genetic education resources in the world. In 2014, they were visited by 18 million students, educators, scientists, and members of the public. With over 60 million page views annually, Learn.Genetics is among the most used sites on the Web.

  3. Nanotechnologies for biomedical science and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Heath, James R.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 the United States launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative and, along with it, a well-defined set of goals for nanomedicine. This Perspective looks back at the progress made toward those goals, within the context of the changing landscape in biomedicine that has occurred over the past 15 years, and considers advances that are likely to occur during the next decade. In particular, nanotechnologies for health-related genomics and single-cell biology, inorganic and organic nanoparticles for biomedicine, and wearable nanotechnologies for wellness monitoring are briefly covered. PMID:26598663

  4. Nanotechnologies for biomedical science and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Heath, James R

    2015-11-24

    In 2000 the United States launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative and, along with it, a well-defined set of goals for nanomedicine. This Perspective looks back at the progress made toward those goals, within the context of the changing landscape in biomedicine that has occurred over the past 15 years, and considers advances that are likely to occur during the next decade. In particular, nanotechnologies for health-related genomics and single-cell biology, inorganic and organic nanoparticles for biomedicine, and wearable nanotechnologies for wellness monitoring are briefly covered.

  5. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  6. e-Science, caGrid, and Translational Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Joel; Kurc, Tahsin; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Gurcan, Metin; Permar, Justin; Ferreira, Renato; Payne, Philip; Catalyurek, Umit; Caserta, Enrico; Leone, Gustavo; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Madhavan, Subhashree; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Siegel, Eliot

    2011-01-01

    Translational research projects target a wide variety of diseases, test many different kinds of biomedical hypotheses, and employ a large assortment of experimental methodologies. Diverse data, complex execution environments, and demanding security and reliability requirements make the implementation of these projects extremely challenging and require novel e-Science technologies. PMID:21311723

  7. A Thematic Analysis of Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fisher, Cheryl A.; Hastings, Clare E.; Silverman, Leanne B.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. Purpose This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Method Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes; (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge; (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry; (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. Discussion This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. Conclusions A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes. PMID:21074646

  8. Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M; Wise, P H; Norton, M E; Druzin, M L; Valantine, H A; McFarland, D A

    2013-04-01

    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or 'constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles.

  9. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  10. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  11. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient.

  12. Values in Translation: How Asking the Right Questions Can Move Translational Science Toward Greater Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Maureen; Edwards, Kelly; Starks, Helene; Fullerton, Stephanie M; James, Rosalina; Goering, Sara; Holland, Suzanne; Disis, Mary L; Burke, Wylie

    2012-01-01

    The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value questions—ethical, social, economic, and cultural—that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these questions visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions. Who is involved with those discussions will determine which research projects, populations, and methods get prioritized. We argue that some upfront investment in community and interdisciplinary engagement, shaped by familiar questions in ethics, social justice, and cultural knowledge, can save time and resources in the long run because interventions and strategies will be aimed in the right direction, that is, toward health improvements for all. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 445–451 PMID:23253665

  13. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will…

  14. Genomics and bioinformatics resources for translational science in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sook; Main, Dorrie

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in biology promise unprecedented opportunities for rapid and sustainable advancement of crop quality. Following this trend, the Rosaceae research community continues to generate large amounts of genomic, genetic and breeding data. These include annotated whole genome sequences, transcriptome and expression data, proteomic and metabolomic data, genotypic and phenotypic data, and genetic and physical maps. Analysis, storage, integration and dissemination of these data using bioinformatics tools and databases are essential to provide utility of the data for basic, translational and applied research. This review discusses the currently available genomics and bioinformatics resources for the Rosaceae family.

  15. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community. PMID:27223900

  16. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community.

  17. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    PubMed

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods. PMID:26187079

  18. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    PubMed

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods.

  19. A virtual national laboratory for reengineering clinical translational science.

    PubMed

    Dilts, David M; Rosenblum, Daniel; Trochim, William M

    2012-01-25

    Clinical research is burdened by inefficiencies and complexities, with a poor record of trial completion, none of which is desirable. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium, including more than 60 clinical research institutions, supports a unified national effort to become, in effect, a virtual national laboratory designed to identify, implement, evaluate, and extend process improvements across all parts of clinical research, from conception to completion. If adequately supported by academic health centers, industry, and funding agencies, the Consortium could become a test bed for improvements that can dramatically reduce wasteful complexity, thus increasing the likelihood of clinical trial completion. PMID:22277966

  20. Translation of science to surgery: linking emerging concepts in biological cartilage repair to surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Moran, C J; Shannon, F J; Barry, F P; O'Byrne, J M; O'Brien, T; Curtin, W

    2010-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery is in an exciting transitional period as modern surgical interventions, implants and scientific developments are providing new therapeutic options. As advances in basic science and technology improve our understanding of the pathology and repair of musculoskeletal tissue, traditional operations may be replaced by newer, less invasive procedures which are more appropriately targeted at the underlying pathophysiology. However, evidence-based practice will remain a basic requirement of care. Orthopaedic surgeons can and should remain at the forefront of the development of novel therapeutic interventions and their application. Progression of the potential of bench research into an improved array of orthopaedic treatments in an effective yet safe manner will require the development of a subgroup of specialists with extended training in research to play an important role in bridging the gap between laboratory science and clinical practice. International regulations regarding the introduction of new biological treatments will place an additional burden on the mechanisms of this translational process, and orthopaedic surgeons who are trained in science, surgery and the regulatory environment will be essential. Training and supporting individuals with these skills requires special consideration and discussion by the orthopaedic community. In this paper we review some traditional approaches to the integration of orthopaedic science and surgery, the therapeutic potential of current regenerative biomedical science for cartilage repair and ways in which we may develop surgeons with the skills required to translate scientific discovery into effective and properly assessed orthopaedic treatments.

  1. Advances in engineering science, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on engineering advances are presented, including materials science, fracture mechanics, and impact and vibration testing. The tensile strength and moisture transport of laminates are also discussed.

  2. Advancing Research on Undergraduate Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan Rundell

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…

  3. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  4. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2015-12-01

    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will conclude with an explanation of flipped classes as well as how they may be a solution to the reform challenges teachers are experiencing as they seek to incorporate more inquiry-based activities.

  5. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Pecoul, Bernard; Rijal, Suman; Boehme, Catharina; Aksoy, Serap; Malecela, Mwelecele; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Reeder, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world’s greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12]), additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts. PMID:26934395

  6. A journey in science: medical scientist in translation.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Göran K

    2014-09-05

    Real innovations in medicine and science are historic and singular; the stories behind each occurrence are precious. At Molecular Medicine we have established the Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine to document and preserve these histories. The monographs recount the seminal events as told in the voice of the original investigators who provided the crucial early insight. These essays capture the essence of discovery, chronicling the birth of ideas that created new fields of research; and launched trajectories that persisted and ultimately influenced how disease is prevented, diagnosed and treated. In this volume, the Cerami Award Monograph is by Göran K Hansson, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institute. A visionary in the field of cardiovascular research, this is the story of Dr. Hansson's scientific journey.

  7. Nutritional translation blended with food science: 21st century applications.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Peterson, Devin G; Singh, R Paul; Schwartz, Steven J; Freedman, Marjorie R

    2012-11-01

    This paper, based on the symposium "Real-World Nutritional Translation Blended With Food Science," describes how an integrated "farm-to-cell" approach would create the framework necessary to address pressing public health issues. The paper describes current research that examines chemical reactions that may influence food flavor (and ultimately food consumption) and posits how these reactions can be used in health promotion; it explains how mechanical engineering and computer modeling can study digestive processes and provide better understanding of how physical properties of food influence nutrient bioavailability and posits how this research can also be used in the fight against obesity and diabetes; and it illustrates how an interdisciplinary scientific collaboration led to the development of a novel functional food that may be used clinically in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. A Journey in Science: Medical Scientist in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Göran K

    2014-01-01

    Real innovations in medicine and science are historic and singular; the stories behind each occurrence are precious. At Molecular Medicine we have established the Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine to document and preserve these histories. The monographs recount the seminal events as told in the voice of the original investigators who provided the crucial early insight. These essays capture the essence of discovery, chronicling the birth of ideas that created new fields of research; and launched trajectories that persisted and ultimately influenced how disease is prevented, diagnosed and treated. In this volume, the Cerami Award Monograph is by Göran K Hansson, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institute. A visionary in the field of cardiovascular research, this is the story of Dr. Hansson’s scientific journey. PMID:25356751

  9. Advances in welding science - a perspective

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T.

    1995-02-01

    The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes.

  10. Vaccine research, development, and innovation in Brazil: a translational science perspective.

    PubMed

    Homma, Akira; Tanuri, Amilcar; Duarte, Alberto J S; Marques, Ernesto; de Almeida, Alexandre; Martins, Reinaldo; Silva-Junior, Jarbas B; Possas, Cristina

    2013-04-18

    This article examines the Brazilian innovation policy for vaccines and its impact on infectious diseases, with emphasis on advances in translational science. The results indicate significant progress, with a rapid increase over the past two decades in the number of vaccine research groups, indicating scientific excellence. Advances and gaps in technological development and in public-private partnership initiatives were also identified. We stress the crucial role of partnerships, technology transfer, and targeted policies that could accelerate Brazil's participation in global vaccine research and development. We propose that new strategies should be urgently conceived to strengthen the links between the scientific and technological policies, the National Health System, and the National Immunizations Program in Brazil to provide access to low-cost vaccines to address major public health challenges. We also discuss the lessons learned from the Brazilian experience in the implementation of governmental policies on vaccine innovation that could be applicable to other developing countries.

  11. Information Model Translation to Support a Wider Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Ritschel, Bernd; Hardman, Sean; Joyner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's long-term archive for solar system exploration data, has just released PDS4, a modernization of the PDS architecture, data standards, and technical infrastructure. This next generation system positions the PDS to meet the demands of the coming decade, including big data, international cooperation, distributed nodes, and multiple ways of analysing and interpreting data. It also addresses three fundamental project goals: providing more efficient data delivery by data providers to the PDS, enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive, and enabling services for the data consumer to find, access, and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. The PDS4 information architecture is used to describe all PDS data using a common model. Captured in an ontology modeling tool it supports a hierarchy of data dictionaries built to the ISO/IEC 11179 standard and is designed to increase flexibility, enable complex searches at the product level, and to promote interoperability that facilitates data sharing both nationally and internationally. A PDS4 information architecture design requirement stipulates that the content of the information model must be translatable to external data definition languages such as XML Schema, XMI/XML, and RDF/XML. To support the semantic Web standards we are now in the process of mapping the contents into RDF/XML to support SPARQL capable databases. We are also building a terminological ontology to support virtually unified data retrieval and access. This paper will provide an overview of the PDS4 information architecture focusing on its domain information model and how the translation and mapping are being accomplished.

  12. Translational Science at the National Institute of Mental Health: Can Social Work Take Its Rightful Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, John S.; Ell, Kathleen; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2007-01-01

    Several recent national reports have noted that there is a 20-year gap between knowledge generated from our best clinical research and the utilization of that knowledge in our health and mental health care sectors. One solution to this dilemma has been the emergence of translational science. Translational science has become a top priority of the…

  13. Cancer stem cells in basic science and in translational oncology: can we translate into clinical application?

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC, mechanisms underlying resistance of CSC against various targeted drugs, and the biochemical basis and function of stroma cell-CSC interactions in the so-called 'stem cell niche.' Additional aspects that have to be taken into account when considering CSC elimination as primary treatment-goal are the genomic plasticity and extensive subclone formation of CSC. Notably, various cell fractions with different combinations of molecular aberrations and varying proliferative potential may display CSC function in a given neoplasm, and the related molecular complexity of the genome in CSC subsets is considered to contribute essentially to disease evolution and acquired drug resistance. In the current article, we discuss new developments in the field of CSC research and whether these new concepts can be exploited in clinical practice in the future.

  14. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education.

  15. Multi-level models of internalizing disorders and translational developmental science: Seeking etiological insights that can inform early intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Nicholas B.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the articles in this special section with an emphasis on the specific utility of multivariate, multi-level models in developmental psychopathology for ultimately contributing to both etiologic insights and translational advances. These issues are considered not only in terms of the specific papers, but also within a larger set of questions regarding the opportunities (and challenges) currently facing the field. We describe why we believe this an exciting time for integrative team-science approaches to tackle these challenges—a time that holds great promise for rapid advances in integrative developmental science that includes a biological level of mechanistic understanding. In order to facilitate this, we outline a range of approaches within both translational neuroscience and translational developmental science that can be used as frameworks for understanding how such research can provide etiologic insights regarding real-world targets at the level of social, behavioral, and affective processes that can be modified during key developmental windows of opportunity. We conclude that a “construct validity” framework, where biological data form a critical, but not privileged, component of key etiological mechanisms, combined with a developmental perspective on key period of sensitivity to intervention effects, is most likely to provide significant translational outcomes. PMID:25947071

  16. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students.

  17. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students. PMID:24127920

  18. Translating complex science into life-course health promoting strategies.

    PubMed

    Buttriss, Judith L

    2011-02-01

    These days, we are bombarded with nutrition information from diverse sources and of varying quality. There has been a dramatic increase in communication channels, including more television channels with airtime to fill, and the emergence of the Internet and 'new media' such as social networking sites. Part of this culture is to deliver ever changing and novel angles. The background 'noise' that this creates can make delivery of evidence-based advice about healthy eating that generally carries less novelty value, a huge challenge. This paper illustrates ways in which complex scientific information can be translated into meaningful health promoting strategies that can be applied across the life course. The examples used are nutrition in the context of healthy ageing, communicating the concept of energy density in the context of satiety, healthy hydration, health effects of probiotics and resources for use by teachers in the classroom. This selection of examples demonstrates the processes adopted at the British Nutrition Foundation to identify the evidence base for a particular topic and then to communicate this information to various target audiences. The British Nutrition Foundation's approach typically starts with preparation of a detailed review of the evidence, often with the involvement of external expertise, followed by peer review. For much of this work conventional science communication routes are used, but use is also made of the Internet and various forms of new media.

  19. Advancing Careers in Information Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Wilbur W.; Templeton, Dennie E.; Chase, Joe D.; Rose, Melinda; Eaton, Carlotta

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss the joining of 12 Virginia community colleges from the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia with Radford University to form the Regional Technology Education Consortium (RTEC), a three-year project funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education program and designed to develop articulation…

  20. Advances in the Science of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Jang, Eunice E.; Chu, Man-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Designing, developing, and administering assessments has remained fairly unchanged across the past century. However, recent developments in instructional technology, learning science theory, and advances in the design of assessments necessitate a newfound perspective on assessment. The objective of the present article is to review the topic of…

  1. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  2. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  3. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  4. Advanced Sciences and Technology Research for Astrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jah, M.

    The Advanced Sciences and Technology Research Institute for Astrodynamics (ASTRIA) has been created as a research endeavor that focuses all astrodynamics R&D within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). ASTRIA is mainly a consortium of academic partners brought together to bear on the nation's challenges as related to astrodynamics sciences and technologies. An overview of ASTRIA is presented as well as examples of several research efforts that are relevant to data/track association, UCT/cross-tagging mitigation, and attitude recovery from light curve data.

  5. Advancing Water Science through Improved Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. J.; Miles, B.; Rai, A.; Ahalt, S.; Band, L. E.; Minsker, B.; Palmer, M.; Williams, M. R.; Idaszak, R.; Whitton, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major scientific advances are needed to help address impacts of climate change and increasing human-mediated environmental modification on the water cycle at global and local scales. However, such advances within the water sciences are limited in part by inadequate information infrastructures. For example, cyberinfrastructure (CI) includes the integrated computer hardware, software, networks, sensors, data, and human capital that enable scientific workflows to be carried out within and among individual research efforts and across varied disciplines. A coordinated transformation of existing CI and development of new CI could accelerate the productivity of water science by enabling greater discovery, access, and interoperability of data and models, and by freeing scientists to do science rather than create and manage technological tools. To elucidate specific ways in which improved CI could advance water science, three challenges confronting the water science community were evaluated: 1) How does ecohydrologic patch structure affect nitrogen transport and fate in watersheds?, 2) How can human-modified environments emulate natural water and nutrient cycling to enhance both human and ecosystem well-being?, 3) How do changes in climate affect water availability to support biodiversity and human needs? We assessed the approaches used by researchers to address components of these challenges, identified barriers imposed by limitations of current CI, and interviewed leaders in various water science subdisciplines to determine the most recent CI tools employed. Our preliminary findings revealed four areas where CI improvements are likely to stimulate scientific advances: 1) sensor networks, 2) data quality assurance/quality control, 3) data and modeling standards, 4) high performance computing. In addition, the full potential of a re-envisioned water science CI cannot be realized without a substantial training component. In light of these findings, we suggest that CI

  6. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64864. This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  7. How the UK Can Lead the Terrestrial Translation of Biomedical Advances Arising from Lunar Exploration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial translation of biomedical advances is insufficient justification for lunar exploration. However, terrestrial translation should be viewed as a critical part of the cycle of mission planning, execution and review, both in terms of the progress of space exploration, but also of sustained life on Earth. Thus, both the mission and its potential to benefit mankind are increased by the adoption of human-based exploration of the lunar surface. Whilst European biomedical sciences have grown in stature, there remains a gap between space biomedical science and terrestrial medical application. As such, an opportunity for the UK to take a sustainable leadership role exists by utilising its biomedical science community, socialised health care system (National Health Service) and defined mechanisms to determine the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness upon health and wellbeing (i.e. National Institute Clinical Excellence), aiding the difficult process of health care rationing. By focusing upon exploitation of the more scientifically rewarding, potentially long-term and more terrestrially analogous challenge of lunar habitation, the UK would circumnavigate the current impediments to International Space Station utilisation. Early engagement in lunar exploration would promote the UK, and its adoption of a leadership role incorporating a considered approach to the development of space biomedicine with an eye to its terrestrial value. For instance, prolonged lunar habitation could provide an `ideal controlled environment' for investigation of medical interventions, in particular multiple interactions (e.g. between exercise and nutrition), a model of accelerated aging and a number of chronic pathologies, including those related to disuse. Lunar advances could provide a springboard for individualized medicine, insights into occupational and de-centralised medicine (e.g. telemedicine) and act as a stimulus for biomedical innovation and understanding. Leadership in

  8. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    PubMed

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development. PMID:27012259

  9. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    PubMed

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  10. Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

  11. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    PubMed

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.

  12. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Reichert, Johannes Christian; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Gbureck, Uwe; Rackwitz, Lars; Nöth, Ulrich; Jakob, Franz; Rudert, Maximilian; Groll, Jürgen; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2013-04-01

    biomaterials lists a large number of excellent review articles which core is to present and discuss the basic sciences on the topic of smart biomaterials. On the other hand, the purpose of our review is to assess state of the art and future perspectives of the so called "smart biomaterials" from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view. Our aim is to filter out and discuss which biomedical advances and innovations help us to achieve the objective to translate smart biomaterials from bench to bedside. The authors predict that analyzing the field of smart biomaterials from a clinical point of view, looking back 50 years from now, it will show that this is our heritage in the 21st century.

  13. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Reichert, Johannes Christian; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Gbureck, Uwe; Rackwitz, Lars; Nöth, Ulrich; Jakob, Franz; Rudert, Maximilian; Groll, Jürgen; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2013-04-01

    biomaterials lists a large number of excellent review articles which core is to present and discuss the basic sciences on the topic of smart biomaterials. On the other hand, the purpose of our review is to assess state of the art and future perspectives of the so called "smart biomaterials" from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view. Our aim is to filter out and discuss which biomedical advances and innovations help us to achieve the objective to translate smart biomaterials from bench to bedside. The authors predict that analyzing the field of smart biomaterials from a clinical point of view, looking back 50 years from now, it will show that this is our heritage in the 21st century. PMID:22820527

  14. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  15. Recent advances in chemical proteomics: exploring the post-translational proteome.

    PubMed

    Tate, Edward W

    2008-11-01

    Identification and quantification of multiple proteins from complex mixtures is a central theme in post-genomic biology. Despite recent progress in high-throughput proteomics, proteomic analysis of post-translationally modified (PTM) proteins remains particularly challenging. This mini-review introduces the emerging field of chemical proteomics and reviews recent advances in chemical proteomic technology that are offering striking new insights into the functional biology of post-translational modification.

  16. Translations of Scientific Practice to "Students' Images of Science"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Michiel; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the science education research literature, it often appears to be assumed that students "possess" more or less stable "images of science" that directly correspond to their experiences with scientific practice in science curricula. From cultural-historical and sociocultural perspectives, this assumption is problematic because scientific…

  17. Revisiting the Translation of Nature of Science Understandings into Instructional Practice: Teachers' Nature of Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahbeh, Nader; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    This study (a) assessed the influence of an integrated nature of science (NOS) instructional intervention on inservice secondary science teachers' understandings, retention of those understandings, and their NOS instructional planning and practices; and (b) examined factors that mediated the translation of teachers' NOS understandings…

  18. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    PubMed Central

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability. PMID:26934409

  19. Advanced science and applications space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J.; Runge, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for and descriptions of the mission equipment, subsystems, configuration, utilities, and interfaces for an Advanced Science and Applications Space Platform (ASASP) are developed using large space structure technology. Structural requirements and attitude control system concepts are emphasized. To support the development of ASASP requirements, a mission was described that would satisfy the requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. Platform subsystems are defined which support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept is developed. Structural system requirements which include utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements are developed. An attitude control system concept is also described. The resultant ASASP is analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems are recommended.

  20. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  1. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  2. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  3. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  4. A logic model for community engagement within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards consortium: can we measure what we model?

    PubMed

    Eder, Milton Mickey; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hurd, Thelma C; Rumala, Bernice B; Wallerstein, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) initiative calls on academic health centers to engage communities around a clinical research relationship measured ultimately in terms of public health. Among a few initiatives involving university accountability for advancing public interests, a small CTSA workgroup devised a community engagement (CE) logic model that organizes common activities within a university-community infrastructure to facilitate CE in research. Whereas the model focuses on the range of institutional CE inputs, it purposefully does not include an approach for assessing how CE influences research implementation and outcomes. Rather, with communities and individuals beginning to transition into new research roles, this article emphasizes studying CE through specific relationship types and assessing how expanded research teams contribute to the full spectrum of translational science.The authors propose a typology consisting of three relationship types-engagement, collaboration, and shared leadership-to provide a foundation for investigating community-academic contributions to the new CTSA research paradigm. The typology shifts attention from specific community-academic activities and, instead, encourages analyses focused on measuring the strength of relationships through variables like synergy and trust. The collaborative study of CE relationships will inform an understanding of CTSA infrastructure development in support of translational research and its goal, which is expressed in the logic model: better science, better answers, better population health.

  5. Translational science and the hidden research system in universities and academic hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lander, Bryn; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2011-02-01

    Innovation systems (IS) and science policy scholarship predominantly focus on linkages between universities and industry, and the commercial translation of academic discoveries. Overlooked in such analyses are important connections between universities and academic hospitals, and the non-commercial aspects of translational science. The two types of institutions tend to be collapsed into a single entity-'the university'-and relational flows are lost. Yet the distinctions and flows between the two are crucial elements of translational science and the biomedical innovation system. This paper explores what has been called the 'hidden research system' that connects hospitals, universities, and their resources, with the clinical and scientific actors who make the linkages possible. Then, using a novel conceptual model of translational science, we examine the individual interactions and dynamics involved in a particular example of the biomedical innovation system at work: the diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency, a rare immunological disorder, and the translational flows that result. Contra to conventional IS analyses, we are able to point to the strong role of public-sector institutions, and the weak role of the private-sector, in the translational processes described here. Our research was conducted within a Canadian network of scientists and clinician-scientists studying the pathogenomics of immunological disorders and innate immunity.

  6. Recent clinical and translational advances in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a child population increase in BP level and an increase in prevalence of hypertension, that is largely, but not entirely, driven by a concurrent increase in childhood obesity. Given current estimates, ≈10% of adolescents have hypertension or prehypertension. In addition to obesity, dietary salt intake and waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are found to be independently associated with the rise in BP among children and adolescents. Dietary salt intake in urban children is well above recommended levels largely because of consumption of processed and fast foods. Childhood exposures, such as stress,52 salt, and fructose, as well as lifestyles, including food sources, sleep patterns, and reductions in physical activity may have a role in obesity-high BP associations. In addition, clinical and translational evidence is mounting that intrauterine exposures alter can effect changes in fetal development that have an enduring effect on cardiovascular and metabolic function later in life. These effects can be detected even in children who are products of a term otherwise normal pregnancy. Hypertension in childhood has been defined statistically (BP ≥ 95th percentile) because of lack of outcome data that links a BP level with heightened risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, primary hypertension had been considered a risk factor for later hypertension in adulthood. Intermediate markers of TOD, including cardiac hypertrophy, vascular stiffness, and increases in cIMT, are detectable in adolescents with primary hypertension. Evidence that vascular injury is present in the early phase of hypertension and even in prehypertension warrants consideration on the current definition of pediatric hypertension. With further studies on TOD and other risk factors in addition to high BP, it may be possible to shift from a statistical definition to a definition of childhood hypertension that is evidence based. Preventing or

  7. Recent clinical and translational advances in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a child population increase in BP level and an increase in prevalence of hypertension, that is largely, but not entirely, driven by a concurrent increase in childhood obesity. Given current estimates, ≈10% of adolescents have hypertension or prehypertension. In addition to obesity, dietary salt intake and waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are found to be independently associated with the rise in BP among children and adolescents. Dietary salt intake in urban children is well above recommended levels largely because of consumption of processed and fast foods. Childhood exposures, such as stress,52 salt, and fructose, as well as lifestyles, including food sources, sleep patterns, and reductions in physical activity may have a role in obesity-high BP associations. In addition, clinical and translational evidence is mounting that intrauterine exposures alter can effect changes in fetal development that have an enduring effect on cardiovascular and metabolic function later in life. These effects can be detected even in children who are products of a term otherwise normal pregnancy. Hypertension in childhood has been defined statistically (BP ≥ 95th percentile) because of lack of outcome data that links a BP level with heightened risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, primary hypertension had been considered a risk factor for later hypertension in adulthood. Intermediate markers of TOD, including cardiac hypertrophy, vascular stiffness, and increases in cIMT, are detectable in adolescents with primary hypertension. Evidence that vascular injury is present in the early phase of hypertension and even in prehypertension warrants consideration on the current definition of pediatric hypertension. With further studies on TOD and other risk factors in addition to high BP, it may be possible to shift from a statistical definition to a definition of childhood hypertension that is evidence based. Preventing or

  8. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  9. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  10. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.

  11. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders. PMID:19334518

  12. 8(th) Symposium on Hemostasis: Translational and Basic Science Discoveries.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Paris; Key, Nigel S

    2016-05-01

    It has been 14 years since the first symposium on hemostasis at UNC Chapel Hill that focused primarily on the tissue factor (TF) and Factor VIIa (FVIIa) biology, biochemistry and translational work for the treatment of bleeding. Concepts, mechanistic data and therapeutic agents have since emerged that permeate not only aspects of the TF and FVIIa functions, but also broader processes in hemostasis and thrombosis. These processes involve circulating proteins, receptors, cells and cellular components that interact within the coagulation system as well as with additional systems that are dysregulated in disorders seemingly unrelated to bleeding/thrombosis. The reviews in this symposium provide the research background to understand such interactions and integrations.

  13. Genetic counselors: translating genomic science into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Robin L.; Hampel, Heather L.; Mandell, Jessica B.; Marks, Joan H.

    2003-01-01

    In a time of emerging genetic tests and technologies, genetic counselors are faced with the challenge of translating complex genomic data into information that will aid their client’s ability to learn about, understand, make, and cope with decisions relating to genetic diagnoses. The first of two companion articles in this issue examines the role of the genetic counselor, particularly in counseling individuals at risk for or diagnosed with breast cancer, in an era of high-tech health care and gene patents. PMID:14597750

  14. [An introduction of the Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC) of the Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology].

    PubMed

    Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology (NP) has established a Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC), which is introduced in this article. In this century, the Japanese Government has made great effort to establish highly organized supporting systems for translational research (TR); however, clinical developments for psychotropic drugs in Japan are facing stagnation. TMSC will provide advisory activities from an academic point of view in this field, which will be result in the improvement of people's health.

  15. Teaching Advanced Life Sciences in an Animal Context: Agricultural Science Teacher Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balschweid, Mark; Huerta, Alexandria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine agricultural science teacher comfort with a new high school Advanced Life Science: Animal course and determine their perceptions of student impact. The advanced science course is eligible for college credit. The teachers revealed they felt confident of their science background in preparation…

  16. Taking the long view: an emerging framework for translational psychiatric science

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Bortolotti, Lisa; Broome, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Understood in their historical context, current debates about psychiatric classification, prompted by the publication of the DSM-5, open up new opportunities for improved translational research in psychiatry. In this paper, we draw lessons for translational research from three time slices of 20th century psychiatry. From the first time slice, 1913 and the publication of Jaspers' General Psychopathology, the lesson is that translational research in psychiatry requires a pluralistic approach encompassing equally the sciences of mind (including the social sciences) and of brain. From the second time slice, 1959 and a conference in New York from which our present symptom-based classifications are derived, the lesson is that, while reliability remains the basis of psychiatry as an observational science, validity too is essential to effective translation. From the third time slice, 1997 and a conference on psychiatric classification in Dallas that brought together patients and carers with researchers and clinicians, the lesson is that we need to build further on collaborative models of research combining expertise-by-training with expertise-by-experience. This is important if we are to meet the specific challenges to translation presented by the complexity of the concept of mental disorder, particularly as reflected in the diversity of desired treatment outcomes. Taken together, these three lessons – a pluralistic approach, reliability and validity, and closer collaboration among relevant stakeholders – provide an emerging framework for more effective translation of research into practice in 21st century psychiatry. PMID:24890054

  17. Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Levallois, Clement; Clithero, John A; Wouters, Paul; Smidts, Ale; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and the social networks in its intellectual community, we show that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary integration, such that research topics and scientific communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive recommendations for directing future research in neuroeconomics. PMID:23034481

  18. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  19. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  20. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F

    2013-10-01

    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics.

  1. Assessment of risk of bias in translational science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Risk of bias in translational medicine may take one of three forms: A. a systematic error of methodology as it pertains to measurement or sampling (e.g., selection bias), B. a systematic defect of design that leads to estimates of experimental and control groups, and of effect sizes that substantially deviate from true values (e.g., information bias), and C. a systematic distortion of the analytical process, which results in a misrepresentation of the data with consequential errors of inference (e.g., inferential bias). Risk of bias can seriously adulterate the internal and the external validity of a clinical study, and, unless it is identified and systematically evaluated, can seriously hamper the process of comparative effectiveness and efficacy research and analysis for practice. The Cochrane Group and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality have independently developed instruments for assessing the meta-construct of risk of bias. The present article begins to discuss this dialectic. PMID:23927081

  2. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  3. The quantitative evaluation of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Lei; Diao, Tianxi

    2013-12-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program is one of the most important initiatives in translational medical funding. The quantitative evaluation of the efficiency and performance of the CTSA program has a significant referential meaning for the decision making of global translational medical funding. Using science mapping and scientometric analytic tools, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles funded by the CTSA program. The results of the study showed that the quantitative productivities of the CTSA program had a stable increase since 2008. In addition, the emerging trends of the research funded by the CTSA program covered clinical and basic medical research fields. The academic benefits from the CTSA program were assisting its members to build a robust academic home for the Clinical and Translational Science and to attract other financial support. This study provided a quantitative evaluation of the CTSA program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis. Further research is required to compare and optimize other quantitative methods and to integrate various research results.

  4. Integrating economic evaluation methods into clinical and translational science award consortium comparative effectiveness educational goals.

    PubMed

    Iribarne, Alexander; Easterwood, Rachel; Russo, Mark J; Wang, Y Claire

    2011-06-01

    With the ongoing debate over health care reform in the United States, public health and policy makers have paid growing attention to the need for comparative effectiveness research (CER). Recent allocation of federal funds for CER represents a significant move toward increased evidence-based practice and better-informed allocation of constrained health care resources; however, there is also heated debate on how, or whether, CER may contribute to controlling national health care expenditures. Economic evaluation, in the form of cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis, is often an aspect of CER studies, yet there are no recommendations or guidelines for providing clinical investigators with the necessary skills to collect, analyze, and interpret economic data from clinical trials or observational studies. With an emphasis on multidisciplinary research, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium and institutional CTSA sites serve as an important resource for training researchers to engage in CER. In this article, the authors discuss the potential role of CTSA sites in integrating economic evaluation methods into their comparative effectiveness education goals, using the Columbia University Medical Center CTSA as an example. By allowing current and future generations of clinical investigators to become fully engaged not only in CER but also in the economic evaluations that result from such analyses, CTSA sites can help develop the necessary foundation for advancing research to guide clinical decision making and efficient use of limited resources.

  5. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. PMID:24266656

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. PMID:24266656

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Case Study in Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Allyson K.; Harris, Antoneicka L.; Jacobson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Each year 610,000 cases of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) occur worldwide. HPV vaccination represents a promising opportunity to prevent cancer on a global scale. The vaccine’s story dates back to discoveries in chickens at the beginning of the 20th century with evidence that a cell-free filtrate could transmit the propensity to grow cancers. Later, studies with similarly derived filtrates from mammalian tumors showed that hosts could develop immunity to subsequent exposures. Epidemiologic studies linked cervical cancer to members of a family of viruses that cause papillomatosis and common warts. This led to work with DNA hybridization demonstrating a causal relationship. The formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) from viral capsid proteins led to the development of models for safe and effective vaccines. While much work remains with the acceptance of universal vaccination, the HPV vaccines Gardasil® and Cervarix® thus represent a century of successful translational research. PMID:24841923

  8. Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…

  9. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Dann, Sara M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle. PMID:25621288

  10. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    PubMed

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large.

  11. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967. PMID:14964714

  12. Making On-Line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET…

  13. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-11-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967.

  14. The Promise of Neurotechnology in Clinical Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Richey, John A.; Gracanin, Denis; Bell, Martha Ann; LaConte, Stephen; Coffman, Marika; Trubanova, Andrea; Kim, Inyoung

    2014-01-01

    Neurotechnology is broadly defined as a set of devices used to understand neural processes and applications that can potentially facilitate the brain’s ability to repair itself. In the past decade, an increasingly explicit understanding of basic biological mechanisms of brain-related illnesses has produced applications that allow a direct yet noninvasive method to index and manipulate the functioning of the human nervous system. Clinical scientists are poised to apply this technology to assess, treat, and better understand complex socioemotional processes that underlie many forms of psychopathology. In this review, we describe the potential benefits and hurdles, both technical and methodological, of neurotechnology in the context of clinical dysfunction. We also offer a framework for developing and evaluating neurotechnologies that is intended to expedite progress at the nexus of clinical science and neural interface designs by providing a comprehensive vocabulary to describe the necessary features of neurotechnology in the clinic. PMID:26504676

  15. Corneal Gene Therapy: Basic Science and Translational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rajiv R.; Rodier, Jason T.; Sharma, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases. PMID:23838017

  16. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  17. An Australian Science Curriculum: Competition, Advances and Retreats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubusson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Science schooling enjoys high status. Scientific capability is perceived as critical in underpinning economic success in advanced societies. Science achievement, at all levels, has become a global competition in which nations want to be seen to triumph. Governments periodically pay close attention to science education with a view to ensuring it…

  18. Evaluating various areas of process improvement in an effort to improve clinical research: discussions from the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Clinical Research Management workshop.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Jane E; Cola, Philip A; Rosenblum, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Emphasis has been placed on assessing the efficiency of clinical and translational research as part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) goal to "improve human health." Improvements identified and implemented by individual organizations cannot address the research infrastructure needs of all clinical and translational research conducted. NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has brought together 61 Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites creating a virtual national laboratory that reflects the diversity and breadth of academic medical centers to collectively improve clinical and translational science. The annual Clinical Research Management workshop is organized by the CTSA consortium with participation from CTSA awardees, NIH, and others with an interest in clinical research management. The primary objective of the workshop is to disseminate information that improves clinical research management although the specific objectives of each workshop evolve within the consortium. The fifth annual workshop entitled "Learning by doing; applying evidence-based tools to re-engineer clinical research management" took place in June 2012. The primary objective of the 2012 workshop was to utilize data to evaluate, modify, and improve clinical research management. This report provides a brief summary of the workshop proceedings and the major themes discussed among the participants. PMID:23919369

  19. Evaluating various areas of process improvement in an effort to improve clinical research: Discussions from the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Clinical Research Management Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed on assessing the efficiency of clinical and translational research as part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) goal to “improve human health”. Improvements identified and implemented by individual organizations cannot address the research infrastructure needs of all clinical and translational research conducted. NIH’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has brought together 61 Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites creating a virtual national laboratory that reflects the diversity and breadth of academic medical centers to collectively improve clinical and translational science. The annual Clinical Research Management workshop is organized by the CTSA consortium with participation from CTSA awardees, NIH, and others with an interest in clinical research management. The primary objective of the workshop is to disseminate information that improves clinical research management although the specific objectives of each workshop evolve within the consortium. The fifth annual workshop entitled “Learning by doing; applying evidence-based tools to re-engineer clinical research management” took place in June 2012. The primary objective of the 2012 workshop was to utilize data to evaluate, modify, and improve clinical research management. This report provides a brief summary of the workshop proceedings and the major themes discussed among the participants. PMID:23919369

  20. Advancing Water Science through Data Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Maidment, D. R.; Tarboton, D. G.; Zaslavksy, I.

    2009-05-01

    Collection of field data on water and water quality is expensive. Vast quantities of data are collected by research, monitoring, and operational projects in North America, yet only monitoring data are routinely available. The Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc (CUAHSI) has developed Water Data Services (WDS) using a services-oriented architecture to aid in the publication, discovery and access to time-series data collected at a fixed point. The underlying technological developments include WaterML, an XML-based language for transmission of time-series data, and WaterOneFlow, a set of web services that can provide access to data and metadata using standard web protocols. These technologies form the basis for an easy-to-use data publication system. WDS also includes a registration service for published web services and maintains a metadata catalogue of all services. An ontology of hydrologic concepts is included as part of this central service to enable variables to be mapped to a common set of concepts. A map-based discovery tool, Hydroseek (http://www.hydroseek.net/), has been developed using the ontology and metadata catalogue. CUAHSI has been working with US government agencies, such as the US Geological Survey, on providing access to their data holdings using web services and transmitting data using WaterML. Metadata from these agencies has been included in the central metadata catalogue, thereby enabling seamless access to both government and academic environmental data. This system could be expanded through the participation of other national governments, provinces, states and cities, as well as entities engaged in operational monitoring. All software is freely available.

  1. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span. PMID:22201148

  2. Advancing Intervention Science through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Adamson, Lena; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Eichas, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by…

  3. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building upon the Formative Years.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges.

  4. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building upon the Formative Years.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774

  5. Characterizing Data Discovery and End-User Computing Needs in Clinical Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Chilana, Parmit K.; Fishman, Elishema; Geraghty, Estella M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wolf, Fredric M.; Anderson, Nick R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a qualitative case-study seeking to characterize data discovery needs and barriers of principal investigators and research support staff in clinical translational science. Several implications for designing and implementing translational research systems have emerged through the authors’ analysis. The results also illustrate the benefits of forming early partnerships with scientists to better understand their workflow processes and end-user computing practices in accessing data for research. The authors use this user-centered, iterative development approach to guide the implementation and extension of i2b2, a system they have adapted to support cross-institutional aggregate anonymized clinical data querying. With ongoing evaluation, the goal is to maximize the utility and extension of this system and develop an interface that appropriately fits the swiftly evolving needs of clinical translational scientists. PMID:24729759

  6. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote desirable forms of behavior and to prevent or ameliorate undesirable forms in clinical, educational, and other settings. Less obviously, there has also emerged a small but identifiable bridging field that can potentially connect and inform both basic and applied behavior analysis. Although such translational behavior analysis uses laboratory methodologies, research targets are selected largely for their value in ultimate application to improve the human condition. I will discuss the distinction of translational behavior analysis from basic and applied behavior analysis and consider the potential contribution that translational research can make in the development of the science of behavior. PMID:22478526

  7. New paradigms in translational science research in cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Paul D; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2012-04-01

    Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can be addressed only by a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening.

  8. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  9. Advancing a Vision for Regulatory Science Training.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Joan E; Wilhelm, Erin E; Steele, Scott J

    2015-10-01

    Regulatory science, a complex field which draws on science, law, and policy, is a growing discipline in medical-related applications. Competencies help define both a discipline and the criteria to measure high-quality learning experiences. This paper identifies competencies for regulatory science, how they were developed, and broader recommendations to enhance education and training in this burgeoning field, including a multifaceted training approach.

  10. How accurately does the VIVO Harvester reflect actual Clinical and Translational Sciences Award–affiliated faculty member publications?*

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.; Kroth, Philip J.; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Hantak, Chad M.; Weagel, Edward F.; Hannigan, Gale G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The research tested the accuracy of the VIVO Harvester software in identifying publications authored by faculty members affiliated with a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Sciences Award (CTSA) site. Methods: Health sciences librarians created “gold standard” lists of references for the years 2001 to 2011 from PubMed for twenty-five randomly selected investigators from one CTSA site. These gold standard lists were compared to the same twenty-five investigators' reference lists produced by VIVO Harvester. The authors subjected the discrepancies between the lists to sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results: The VIVO Harvester correctly identified only about 65% of the total eligible PubMed references for the years 2001–2011 for the CTSA-affiliated investigators. The identified references produced by VIVO Harvester were precise yet incomplete. The sensitivity rate was 0.65, and the specificity rate was 1.00. Conclusion: While the references produced by VIVO Harvester could be confirmed in PubMed, the VIVO Harvester retrieved only two-thirds of the required references from PubMed. National Institutes of Health CTSA sites will need to supplement VIVO Harvester–produced references with the expert searching skills of health sciences librarians. Implications: Health sciences librarians with searching skills need to alert their CTSA sites about these deficiencies and offer their skills to advance their sites' missions. PMID:25552940

  11. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Colloids Experiment is being conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). Work to date will be discussed and future plans and opportunities will be highlighted. The LMM is a microscope facility designed to allow scientists to process, manipulate, and characterize colloidal samples in micro-gravity where the absence of gravitational settling and particle jamming enables scientists to study such things as:a.The role that disordered and ordered-packing of spheres play in the phase diagram and equation of state of hard sphere systems,b.crystal nucleation and growth, growth instabilities, and the glass transition, c.gelation and phase separation of colloid polymer mixtures,d.crystallization of colloidal binary alloys,e.competition between crystallization and phase separation,f.effects of anisotropy and specific interactions on packing, aggregation, frustration and crystallization,g.effects of specific reversible and irreversible interactions mediated in the first case by hybridization of complementary DNA strands attached to separate colloidal particles,h.Lock and key interactions between colloids with dimples and spheres which match the size and shape of the dimples,i.finding the phase diagrams of isotropic and interacting particles,j.new techniques for complex self-assembly including scenarios for self-replication, k.critical Casimir forces,l.biology (real and model systems) in microgravity,m.etc. By adding additional microscopy capabilities to the existing LMM, NASA will increase the tools available for scientists that fly experiments on the ISS enabling scientists to observe directly what is happening at the particle level. Presently, theories are needed to bridge the gap between what is being observed (at a macroscopic level when photographing samples) with what is happening at a particle (or microscopic) level. What is happening at a microscopic level will be directly

  12. Response: Epistemological Issues of Social Work Science as a Translational Action Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goppner, Hans-Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    A science-based practice should be caring, there is no dissent about this. But why a social work science? Until now "things are fine," and practice seems to be getting on very well without it!? It is claimed that there is no alternative in its own interest. Social work needs social work science because of the epistemological issues linked to the…

  13. Math-Science Bills Advance in Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Improving K-12 instruction and student achievement in mathematics and science is at the heart of separate bills intended to bolster America's economic standing that won overwhelming approval in both houses of Congress last week. The House on April 24 approved the 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds Science and Math Scholarship Act by a vote of…

  14. Advancing Geospatial Technologies in Science and Social Science: A Case Study in Collaborative Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. A.; Morris, J. N.; Simms, M. L.; Metoyer, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Advancing Geospatial Skills in Science and Social Sciences (AGSSS) program, funded by NSF, provides middle and high school teacher-partners with access to graduate student scientists for classroom collaboration and curriculum adaptation to incorporate and advance skills in spatial thinking. AGSSS Fellows aid in the delivery of geospatially-enhanced activities utilizing technology such as geographic information systems, remote sensing, and virtual globes. The partnership also provides advanced professional development for both participating teachers and fellows. The AGSSS program is mutually beneficial to all parties involved. This successful collaboration of scientists, teachers, and students results in greater understanding and enthusiasm for the use of spatial thinking strategies and geospatial technologies. In addition, the partnership produces measurable improvements in student efficacy and attitudes toward processes of spatial thinking. The teacher partner training and classroom resources provided by AGSSS will continue the integration of geospatial activities into the curriculum after the project concludes. Time and resources are the main costs in implementing this partnership. Graduate fellows invest considerable time and energy, outside of academic responsibilities, to develop materials for the classroom. Fellows are required to be available during K-12 school hours, which necessitates forethought in scheduling other graduate duties. However, the benefits far outweigh the costs. Graduate fellows gain experience in working in classrooms. In exchange, students gain exposure to working scientists and their research. This affords graduate fellows the opportunity to hone their communication skills, and specifically allows them to address the issue of translating technical information for a novice audience. Teacher-partners and students benefit by having scientific expertise readily available. In summation, these experiences result in changes in teacher

  15. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Evaluation and the NIH clinical and translational science awards: a "top ten" list.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Abedin, Zainab; Blank, Arthur E; Mazmanian, Paul E

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, a total of 61 Clinical and Translational Science Institutes (CTSAs) have been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with the aim of reducing translation time from a bench discovery to when it impacts patients. This special issue of Evaluation & the Health Professions focuses on evaluation within and across the large, complex system of the CTSA Program of NIH. Through insights gained by reading the articles in this special edition and the experience of the authors, a "top ten" list of lessons learned and insights gained is presented. The list outlines issues that face those who evaluate the influence of the CTSA Program, as they work to anticipate what will be needed for continuing success. Themes include (1) considering the needs of stakeholders, (2) the perspective of the evaluators, (3) the importance of service improvement, (4) the importance of teams and people, (5) costs and return on investments, (6) methodology considerations to evaluate the CTSA enterprise, (7) innovation in evaluation, (8) defining the transformation of research, (9) evaluating the long-term impact of the CTSAs on public health, and (10) contributing to science policy formulation and implementation. The establishment of the CTSA Program, with its mandated evaluation component, has not only influenced the infrastructure and nature of translational research but will continue to impact policy and management in science. PMID:24214661

  17. Revisiting the Translation of Nature of Science Understandings into Instructional Practice: Teachers' nature of science pedagogical content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahbeh, Nader; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2014-02-01

    This study (a) assessed the influence of an integrated nature of science (NOS) instructional intervention on inservice secondary science teachers' understandings, retention of those understandings, and their NOS instructional planning and practices; and (b) examined factors that mediated the translation of teachers' NOS understandings into practice. Nineteen teachers participated in an intensive, 6-week NOS course, which concluded with teachers developing plans to address NOS in their classrooms. Next, 6 participants were observed as they implemented their instructional plans. Data sources included pretest, posttest, and delayed-test NOS assessments, classroom observations, and several teacher-generated artifacts. The NOS course was effective in helping teachers develop informed NOS conceptions and retain those understandings 5 months after its conclusion. Teachers met with challenges and successes as they attempted to address NOS instructionally. The translation of NOS conceptions into practice was primarily mediated by the very nature of teachers' newly acquired NOS understandings, which were situated within the science contents, contexts, and experiences in which they were developed (i.e. the NOS course); thus, limiting participants' abilities to transfer their understandings into novel contexts and contents. The results helped build a model of the sources of science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge for teaching about NOS in content-rich contexts.

  18. Time for a paradigm shift in how we transfer knowledge? Making the case for translational science and public engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    By any measure, our efforts to protect and restore the environment have failed to keep pace with environmental change, despite extraordinary scientific advances. Clearly there is a problem in knowledge transfer, which is often blamed on limited public awareness, misunderstanding or even apathy. Whether it's moving research to practice, informing policy, or educating the public on the environmental challenges of our time, our track record is poor. A major part of our failure lies in how scientists and practitioners understand (or misunderstand) and practice knowledge transfer. What actually drives knowledge acquisition and the motivation to gain knowledge, and what does this say about the methods used for knowledge transfer? Is the problem a supply issue (deficit of knowledge) or a demand issue (personal relevance)? The false assumptions that spin out of how we conceptualize knowledge acquisition lead to investment in knowledge transfer balanced heavily in "science communication" and "awareness raising" activities that tend to be unidirectional, top-down, and rarely linked to personal interests. Successful adaptation to environmental change requires a theoretical and practical understanding of coupled natural-human systems as well as advances in bridging knowledge systems and the science-society gap. To be effective, this means a "translational science" approach that promotes the capture and integration of scientific and local knowledge, addresses the influences of scale (biophysically, socially, institutionally), encourages mutual learning among all parties, and builds capacity as part of the process. The facilitation and translation of information and meanings among stakeholders can lead to the co-production of knowledge, more informed decision making, and in a very pragmatic way, more effective use of assessments and other products of scientific discovery. The purpose of this presentation is to shed light on what underlies the majority of investment in knowledge

  19. Advances in engineering science, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with structural dynamics; structural synthesis; and the nonlinear analysis of structures, structural members, and composite structures and materials. Applications of mathematics and computer science are included.

  20. Advances in Engineering Science, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas of flight science are discussed in detail; (1) inviscid flow, (2) viscous flow, (3) aircraft aerodynamics, (4) fluid mechanics, (5) propulsion and combustion, and (6) flight dynamics and control.

  1. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  2. Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-02-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

  3. Endoscopic Pancreas Fluid Collection: Methods and Relevance for Clinical Care and Translational Science.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Topazian, Mark; Raimondo, Massimo; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fisher, William E; Lesinski, Gregory B; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic secretions have an important role in the regulation of a normal nutritional state but can be altered owing to a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of exocrine pancreatic disease. The development of an endoscopic technique for collection of pancreatic fluid, termed endoscopic pancreatic function testing, has led to improved understanding of these alterations and is particularly helpful to characterize chronic pancreatitis. In addition, investigators have found endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid to be a valuable biofluid for the purposes of translational science. Techniques such as proteomic, cytokine, genetic mutation, DNA methylation, and microRNA analyses, among others, can be utilized to gain a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases. Endoscopic collection of pancreatic fluid is safe and relatively straightforward, permitting opportunities for longitudinal analysis of these translational markers throughout the course of disease. This manuscript summarizes our current knowledge of pancreatic fluid, with an emphasis on proper techniques for sample collection and handling, its clinical utility, and preliminary observations in translational science. PMID:27481304

  4. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  5. How do we translate science into public health policy and law?

    PubMed

    Fielding, Jonathan E; Marks, James S; Myers, Bradford W; Nolan, Patricia A; Rawson, Raymond D; Toomey, Kathleen E

    2002-01-01

    Scientific knowledge concerning effective preventive measures to preserve and protect the health of the public continues to grow exponentially. Methods for assessing the impact of population-based interventions such as policies and laws have also greatly increased in the past decade, including systematic approaches that allow general findings to be drawn from various studies, especially those developed as part of the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). However, the translation of the collected scientific evidence gathered to date has been spotty and problematic. Success stories do exist, including community water fluoridation, a significant factor in improvements in reduction of tooth decay over the past 50 years. Even for interventions with a strong science base, such as community water fluoridation, significant barriers to implementation of effective strategies discovered through research remain. Barriers include public misunderstanding of health issues and proposed solutions such as fluoridation; lack of engagement on the part of the media in communicating known effective strategies; and reluctance on the part of policymakers to champion approaches that concern but may not be advocated by their constituencies. The increasing burden of chronic disease places public policymakers into non-traditional roles, such as advocating behavior change as a preventive measure. Science is a critical tool to help legislators and policymakers "connect the dots" between public policies. For example, the elimination or degrading of physical education programs in schools is an important factor in addressing the national epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity in addition to the increase in rates of Type II diabetes among children. This article provides an overview of the past, present, and future associated with translating science into public health policy and law, including a review of tools and strategies to address existing and expanding public health

  6. Developing a competency-based educational structure within clinical and translational science.

    PubMed

    Dilmore, Terri Collin; Moore, Debra W; Bjork, Zuleikha

    2013-04-01

    In the emerging field of clinical and translational science (CTS), where researchers use both basic and clinical science research methodologies to move discoveries to clinical practice, establishing standards of competence is essential for preparing physician-scientists for the profession and for defining the field. The diversity of skills needed to execute quality research within the field of CTS has heightened the importance of an educational process that requires learners to demonstrate competence. Particularly within the more applied clinical science disciplines where there is a multi- or interdisciplinary approach to conducting research, defining and articulating the unique role and associated competencies of a physician-scientist is necessary. This paper describes a systematic process for developing a competency-based educational framework within a CTS graduate program at one institution.

  7. American Association for the Advancement of Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Committee on Nominations Mark_Frankel_Carousel_3.jpg 7 Nov Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law: An Evening in Honor... Register hikingboots.png 21 Nov SCS Park Science Research Fellowship Application Deadline Apply Now View more events 4,675 jobs are available for you to choose ...

  8. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

  9. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program. PMID:25707195

  10. Advanced Science Students' Understandings on Nature of Science in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Kari; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Majority of NOS studies comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with ordinary students. In order to gain further understanding on variation in NOS understandings among the students, there should be different research attempts focusing on unconventional students such as academically advanced students. The purpose of this study is…

  11. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building Upon the Formative Years

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Spero M.; Martinez, Dominic F.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Rubio, Doris M.; Moss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that CTSA programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774

  12. Advances and Challenges in Computational Plasma Science

    SciTech Connect

    W.M. Tang; V.S. Chan

    2005-01-03

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology.

  13. Translating Evidence-Based Dementia Caregiving Interventions into Practice: State-of-the-Science and Next Steps

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Marx, Katherine; Stanley, Ian H.; Hodgson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 3 decades, more than 200 dementia caregiver interventions have been tested in randomized clinical trials and found to be efficacious. Few programs have been translated for delivery in various service contexts, and they remain inaccessible to the 15+ million dementia family caregivers in the United States. This article examines translational efforts and offers a vision for more rapid advancement in this area. We summarize the evidence for caregiver interventions, review published translational efforts, and recommend future directions to bridge the research-practice fissure in this area. We suggest that as caregiver interventions are tested external to service contexts, a translational phase is required. Yet, this is hampered by evidentiary gaps, lack of theory to understand implementation challenges, insufficient funding and unsupportive payment structures for sustaining programs. We propose ways to advance translational activities and future research with practical applications. PMID:26035597

  14. Translating Evidence-Based Dementia Caregiving Interventions into Practice: State-of-the-Science and Next Steps.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Laura N; Marx, Katherine; Stanley, Ian H; Hodgson, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 3 decades, more than 200 dementia caregiver interventions have been tested in randomized clinical trials and found to be efficacious. Few programs have been translated for delivery in various service contexts, and they remain inaccessible to the 15+ million dementia family caregivers in the United States. This article examines translational efforts and offers a vision for more rapid advancement in this area. We summarize the evidence for caregiver interventions, review published translational efforts, and recommend future directions to bridge the research-practice fissure in this area. We suggest that as caregiver interventions are tested external to service contexts, a translational phase is required. Yet, this is hampered by evidentiary gaps, lack of theory to understand implementation challenges, insufficient funding and unsupportive payment structures for sustaining programs. We propose ways to advance translational activities and future research with practical applications.

  15. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, David; Schneider, N.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Afsharahmadi, F.

    2012-10-01

    We present two new features of an ongoing effort to bring recent newsworthy advances in planetary science to undergraduate lecture halls. The effort, called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', summarizes selected recently announced discoveries that are 'too new for textbooks' in the form of 3-slide PowerPoint presentations. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts at a level appropriate for students of 'Astronomy 101', and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/ for download by undergraduate instructors or any interested party. Several new slide sets have just been released, and we summarize the topics covered. The slide sets are also being translated into languages other than English (including Spanish and Farsi), and we will provide an overview of the translation strategy and process. Finally, we will present web statistics on how many people are using the slide sets, as well as individual feedback from educators.

  16. Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

  17. Why there can be no sustainable national healthcare IT program without a translational health information science.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Health information technology research has historically suffered from the persistence of paper-based systems as a barrier to research and refinement of information models. While the field of (non-medical) information science offers a potentially rich source of data, there exist relatively few theoretical links between medical and non-medical information models. This paper argues that the establishment of an integrated translational research pathway is not only useful, but is a critical and necessary step in the realization of a national health information infrastructure in the USA.

  18. Models of interinstitutional partnerships between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium.

    PubMed

    Ofili, Elizabeth O; Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S; Dubinett, Steven M; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium-level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities.

  19. Models of Interinstitutional Partnerships between Research Intensive Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G.; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P.; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium-level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities. PMID:24119157

  20. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  1. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  2. Advancing universal coverage of healthcare in China: translating political will into policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shenglan; Brixi, Hana; Bekedam, Henk

    2014-01-01

    China launched its new health system reform plan in 2009 to advance its universal coverage of healthcare, after more than 4 years' consultations and discussions with various stakeholders including the public. This paper aims to introduce and discuss the context and process of China's current health system reform and analyse how political will in China has been translated into policy practice over the past decade. The paper also shares the insights of World Health Organization's contribution to China's health system reform, as the authors advised the Chinese government on the reform options and process. Furthermore, the paper describes and discusses key challenges in the implementation of the reform plan over the past 3 years and draws lessons for other countries.

  3. Lost in the Translation: Writing About Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2009-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don’t trust your sources (or your editors); waste people’s time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don’t expect anyone to understand you; don’t expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid “hardening of the categories”; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  4. Lost in the Translation: Writing about Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2002-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don't trust your sources (or your editors); waste people's time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don't expect anyone to understand you; don't expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid 'hardening of the categories'; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  5. Multiplex assays for biomarker research and clinical application: translational science coming of age.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qin; Schoenhoff, Florian S; Savage, William J; Zhang, Pingbo; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2010-03-01

    Over the last decade, translational science has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The quest for suitable biomarkers that will significantly change clinical practice has become one of the biggest challenges in translational medicine. Quantitative measurement of proteins is a critical step in biomarker discovery. Assessing a large number of potential protein biomarkers in a statistically significant number of samples and controls still constitutes a major technical hurdle. Multiplexed analysis offers significant advantages regarding time, reagent cost, sample requirements and the amount of data that can be generated. The two contemporary approaches in multiplexed and quantitative biomarker validation, antibody-based immunoassays and MS-based multiple (or selected) reaction monitoring, are based on different assay principles and instrument requirements. Both approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages and therefore have complementary roles in the multi-staged biomarker verification and validation process. In this review, we discuss quantitative immunoassay and multiple reaction monitoring/selected reaction monitoring assay principles and development. We also discuss choosing an appropriate platform, judging the performance of assays, obtaining reliable, quantitative results for translational research and clinical applications in the biomarker field. PMID:21137048

  6. The role of a public-private partnership: translating science to improve cancer care in the community.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Donna M; Kaluzny, Arnold D

    2014-01-01

    Health reform is bringing about changes in the healthcare environment, but an equally significant transformation is occurring in science with the sequencing of the human genome and the increasing role of personalized medicine in the delivery of new cancer therapies. These changes directly affect the ability of hospitals to provide value-based, state-of-the-art care and represent major strategic decisions that must be made by management. In the United States, an estimated 85% of cancer patients receive care in community settings, but patients' outcomes are often not equivalent to those achieved in academic health centers. Care of cancer patients in the community is often fragmented, as most oncologists are in private practice and have limited access to formal mechanisms for coordinating care across specialties or with primary care physicians. Furthermore, genetic analysis, advanced diagnostic tests, and clinical trials are not always available to patients in these settings. The evolution of cancer care requires a reconfiguration of processes and investment in new services. In response, the National Cancer Institute launched the Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 as a public-private partnership with 16 community hospitals. This article draws on the results of an external evaluation of the pilot program and assesses the role of such a partnership as a means of facilitating the translation of the developing science to the community setting, with reference to the role of management in the implementation of such partnerships. PMID:24611422

  7. The role of a public-private partnership: translating science to improve cancer care in the community.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Donna M; Kaluzny, Arnold D

    2014-01-01

    Health reform is bringing about changes in the healthcare environment, but an equally significant transformation is occurring in science with the sequencing of the human genome and the increasing role of personalized medicine in the delivery of new cancer therapies. These changes directly affect the ability of hospitals to provide value-based, state-of-the-art care and represent major strategic decisions that must be made by management. In the United States, an estimated 85% of cancer patients receive care in community settings, but patients' outcomes are often not equivalent to those achieved in academic health centers. Care of cancer patients in the community is often fragmented, as most oncologists are in private practice and have limited access to formal mechanisms for coordinating care across specialties or with primary care physicians. Furthermore, genetic analysis, advanced diagnostic tests, and clinical trials are not always available to patients in these settings. The evolution of cancer care requires a reconfiguration of processes and investment in new services. In response, the National Cancer Institute launched the Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 as a public-private partnership with 16 community hospitals. This article draws on the results of an external evaluation of the pilot program and assesses the role of such a partnership as a means of facilitating the translation of the developing science to the community setting, with reference to the role of management in the implementation of such partnerships.

  8. Advances in SPICE Support of Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is the de facto international standard for determining the geometric conditions-parameters such as altitude, lighting angles, and LAT/LON coverage of an instrument footprint-pertaining to scientific observations acquired by instruments on board robotic spacecraft. This system, comprised of data and allied software, is used for planning science observations and for analyzing the data returned from those observations. Use of SPICE is not a NASA requirement but is recommended by NASA's Planetary Data System and by the International Planetary Data Alliance. Owing in part to its reliability, stability, portability and user support, the use of SPICE has spread to many national space agencies, including those of the U.S., Europe (ESA), Japan, Russia and India. SPICE has been in use since the Magellan mission to Venus and so has many well-known capabilities. But the NAIF Team responsible for implementing SPICE continues to add new features; this presentation describes a number of these.

  9. Automated sensor networks to advance ocean science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, O.; Orcutt, J. A.; Arrott, M.; Vernon, F. L.; Peach, C. L.; Meisinger, M.; Krueger, I.; Kleinert, J.; Chao, Y.; Chien, S.; Thompson, D. R.; Chave, A. D.; Balasuriya, A.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation has funded the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), which over the next five years will deploy infrastructure to expand scientist’s ability to remotely study the ocean. The deployed infrastructure will be linked by a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will integrate marine observatories into a coherent system-of-systems. OOI is committed to engaging the ocean sciences community during the construction pahse. For the CI, this is being enabled by using a “spiral design strategy” allowing for input throughout the construction phase. In Fall 2009, the OOI CI development team used an existing ocean observing network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) to test OOI CI software. The objective of this CI test was to aggregate data from ships, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), shore-based radars, and satellites and make it available to five different data-assimilating ocean forecast models. Scientists used these multi-model forecasts to automate future glider missions in order to demonstrate the feasibility of two-way interactivity between the sensor web and predictive models. The CI software coordinated and prioritized the shared resources that allowed for the semi-automated reconfiguration of assett-tasking, and thus enabled an autonomous execution of observation plans for the fixed and mobile observation platforms. Efforts were coordinated through a web portal that provided an access point for the observational data and model forecasts. Researchers could use the CI software in tandem with the web data portal to assess the performance of individual numerical model results, or multi-model ensembles, through real-time comparisons with satellite, shore-based radar, and in situ robotic measurements. The resulting sensor net will enable a new means to explore and study the world’s oceans by providing scientists a responsive network in the world’s oceans that can be accessed via any wireless network.

  10. Recent advances in fullerene science (Invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunk, P. W.; Marshall, A. G.; Mulet-Gas, M.; Rodriguez-Fortea, A.; Poblet, J. M.

    2014-12-09

    The development of very high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometers (Marshall et al, 1998) has made a wide range of new measurements possible and by combining this new technology with laser vaporization supersonic beam methods of producing carbon species (chains, rings and fullerenes), new advances in understanding of the fullerene creation mechanisms and their reactivity have been possible. In this overview, new understanding has been developed with regard to: a) closed-network growth of fullerenes (Dunk et al, 2012a); b) small endohedral species such as MαC{sub 28} (Dunk et al., 2012b); c) metallofullerene and fullerene formation under conditions in stellar outflows with relevance to stardust (Dunk et al., 2013a) and d) The formation of heterofullerenes by direct exposure of C{sub 60} toboron vapor (Dunk et al., 2013b)

  11. Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The program objectives were defined in the original proposal entitled "Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in the JIAFS at NASA Langley Research Center" which was originated March 20, 1975, and in yearly renewals of the research program dated December 1, 1979 to December 1, 1998. The program included three major topics: 1) Improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for flight and wind tunnel data analysis based on system identification methodology. 2) Application of these methods to flight and wind tunnel data obtained from advanced aircraft. 3) Modeling and control of aircraft, space structures and spacecraft. The principal investigator of the program was Dr. Vladislav Klein, Professor at The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.. Thirty-seven Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, two of them doctoral students, also participated in the program. The results of the research conducted during nineteen years of the total co-operative period were published in 23 NASA technical reports, 2 D.Sc. Dissertations, 14 M.S. Theses and 33 papers. The list of these publications is included. The results were also reported in more than 30 seminar lectures presented at various research establishments world-wide. For contributions to the research supported by the co-operative agreement, three NASA Awards were received: 1) NASA LARC Group Achievement Award, May 30, 1990, to Dr. V. Klein as a member of the X-29 Drop Model Team. 2) NASA Medal for Exceptional Engineering Achievement, March 27, 1992, to Dr. V. Klein for innovative contributions in the development of advanced techniques and computer programs in the field of system identification. 3) NASA LaRC Team Excellence Award, May 7, 1994, to Dr. V. Klein as a member of the X-31 Drop Model Team.

  12. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  13. Heterogeneity at Work: Implications of the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award Evaluators Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Cathleen; Alexander, Angela; Hogle, Janice A.; Parsons, Helen M.; Phelps, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program is an ambitious multibillion dollar initiative sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized around the mission of facilitating the improved quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of translational health sciences research across the country. Although the NIH explicitly requires internal evaluation, funded CTSA institutions are given wide latitude to choose the structure and methods for evaluating their local CTSA program. The National Evaluators Survey was developed by a peer-led group of local CTSA evaluators as a voluntary effort to understand emerging differences and commonalities in evaluation teams and techniques across the 61 CTSA institutions funded nationwide. This article presents the results of the 2012 National Evaluators Survey, finding significant heterogeneity in evaluation staffing, organization, and methods across the 58 CTSAs institutions responding. The variety reflected in these findings represents both a liability and strength. A lack of standardization may impair the ability to make use of common metrics, but variation is also a successful evolutionary response to complexity. Additionally, the peer-led approach and simple design demonstrated by the questionnaire itself has value as an example of an evaluation technique with potential for replication in other areas across the CTSA institutions or any large-scale investment where multiple related teams across a wide geographic area are given the latitude to develop specialized approaches to fulfilling a common mission. PMID:24214662

  14. Breaking down silos: mapping growth of cross-disciplinary collaboration in a translational science initiative.

    PubMed

    Luke, Douglas A; Carothers, Bobbi J; Dhand, Amar; Bell, Ryan A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Sarli, Cathy C; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2015-04-01

    The importance of transdisciplinary collaboration is growing, though not much is known about how to measure collaboration patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present multiple ways of mapping and evaluating the growth of cross-disciplinary partnerships over time. Social network analysis was used to examine the impact of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) on collaboration patterns. Grant submissions from 2007 through 2010 and publications from 2007 through 2011 of Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences (ICTS) members were examined. A Cohort Model examining the first-year ICTS members demonstrated an overall increase in collaborations on grants and publications, as well as an increase in cross-discipline collaboration as compared to within-discipline. A Growth Model that included additional members over time demonstrated the same pattern for grant submissions, but a decrease in cross-discipline collaboration as compared to within-discipline collaboration for publications. ICTS members generally became more cross-disciplinary in their collaborations during the CTSA. The exception of publications for the Growth Model may be due to the time lag between funding and publication, as well as pressure for younger scientists to publish in their own fields. Network analysis serves as a valuable tool for evaluating changes in scientific collaboration.

  15. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    PubMed

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages. PMID:17019920

  16. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  17. Developing a Multidisciplinary Model of Comparative Effectiveness Research Within a Clinical and Translational Science Award

    PubMed Central

    Marantz, Paul R.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Currie, Brian; Bhalla, Rohit; Blank, Arthur E.; Meissner, Paul; Selwyn, Peter A.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Hsu, Daphne T.; Shamoon, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) were initiated to improve the conduct and impact of NIH's research portfolio, transforming training programs and research infrastructure at academic institutions and creating a nationwide consortium. They provide a model for translating research across disciplines and offer an efficient and powerful platform for comparative effectiveness research (CER), an effort that has long struggled but enjoys renewed hope under health care reform. CTSAs include study design and methods expertise, informatics, and regulatory support; programs in education, training, and career development in domains central to CER; and robust programs in community engagement, both of the general public and of clinical practice communities. Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have entered a formal partnership that places their CTSA at a critical intersection for clinical and translational research. Their CTSA leaders were asked to develop a strategy for enhancing CER activities, and in 2010 they developed a model that encompasses four broadly defined “compartments” of research strength that must be coordinated for this enterprise to succeed: evaluation and health services research, biobehavioral research and prevention, efficacy studies and clinical trials, and social science and implementation research. This article provides historical context for CER, elucidates Einstein-Montefiore’s CER model and strategic planning efforts, and illustrates how a CTSA can provide a vision, leadership, coordination, and services to support an academic health center’s collaborative efforts to develop a robust CER portfolio and thus contribute to the national effort to improve health and health care. PMID:21512360

  18. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide for advanced food science and nutrition is one of a number of guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. Introductory materials address use of the guide and list the essential elements upon which the content is based. The guide is divided into five units: the significance of nutrition, food…

  19. Who Succeeds in Advanced Mathematics and Science Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Bosker, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Few students (particularly few girls) currently choose to take their Final School Examination (FSE) in advanced mathematics, chemistry and physics, a combination of subjects that is the best preparation for a science-oriented study in higher education. Are these subjects attainable by more students than is currently the case? This study examined…

  20. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  1. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  2. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  3. Relationships Hold the Key to Trustworthy and Productive Translational Science: Recommendations for Expanding Community Engagement in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Yarborough, Mark; Edwards, Kelly; Espinoza, Paula; Geller, Gail; Sarwal, Alok; Sharp, Richard R.; Spicer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Good relationships between research institutions and communities are an essential, but often neglected, part of the infrastructure of translational science. In an effort to create greater interest among translational science researchers in cultivating relationships with community members, we report the results of a workshop we convened to learn how relationships vital to research are best created and sustained. We highlight common barriers and challenges that hinder relationships. We also provide recommendations that individual research institutions and teams can use to expand and strengthen their relationships with community members. The improved relationships between universities and communities that could result from their implementation should build greater public trust in biomedical research, lead to a stronger commitment to see it succeed, and engender shared values and commitments that will give rise to new rewards, recognition and admonishment to sustain those values and commitments over time, all of which would facilitate translational science. PMID:23919367

  4. Advancement of the Subchondral Bone Plate in Translational Models of Osteochondral Repair: Implications for Tissue Engineering Approaches.

    PubMed

    Orth, Patrick; Madry, Henning

    2015-12-01

    Subchondral bone plate advancement is of increasing relevance for translational models of osteochondral repair in tissue engineering (TE). Especially for therapeutic TE approaches, a basic scientific knowledge of its chronological sequence, possible etiopathogenesis, and clinical implications are indispensable. This review summarizes the knowledge on this topic gained from a total of 31 translational investigations, including 1009 small and large animals. Experimental data indicate that the advancement of the subchondral bone plate frequently occurs during the spontaneous repair of osteochondral defects and following established articular cartilage repair approaches for chondral lesions such as marrow stimulation and TE-based strategies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation. Importantly, this subchondral bone reaction proceeds in a defined chronological and spatial pattern, reflecting both endochondral ossification and intramembranous bone formation. Subchondral bone plate advancement arises earlier in small animals and defects, but is more pronounced at the long term in large animals. Possible etiopathologies comprise a disturbed subchondral bone/articular cartilage crosstalk and altered biomechanical conditions or neovascularization. Of note, no significant correlation was found so far between subchondral bone plate advancement and articular cartilage repair. This evidence from translational animal models adverts to an increasing awareness of this previously underestimated pathology. Future research will shed more light on the advancement of the subchondral bone plate in TE models of cartilage repair. PMID:26066580

  5. Advancement of the Subchondral Bone Plate in Translational Models of Osteochondral Repair: Implications for Tissue Engineering Approaches.

    PubMed

    Orth, Patrick; Madry, Henning

    2015-12-01

    Subchondral bone plate advancement is of increasing relevance for translational models of osteochondral repair in tissue engineering (TE). Especially for therapeutic TE approaches, a basic scientific knowledge of its chronological sequence, possible etiopathogenesis, and clinical implications are indispensable. This review summarizes the knowledge on this topic gained from a total of 31 translational investigations, including 1009 small and large animals. Experimental data indicate that the advancement of the subchondral bone plate frequently occurs during the spontaneous repair of osteochondral defects and following established articular cartilage repair approaches for chondral lesions such as marrow stimulation and TE-based strategies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation. Importantly, this subchondral bone reaction proceeds in a defined chronological and spatial pattern, reflecting both endochondral ossification and intramembranous bone formation. Subchondral bone plate advancement arises earlier in small animals and defects, but is more pronounced at the long term in large animals. Possible etiopathologies comprise a disturbed subchondral bone/articular cartilage crosstalk and altered biomechanical conditions or neovascularization. Of note, no significant correlation was found so far between subchondral bone plate advancement and articular cartilage repair. This evidence from translational animal models adverts to an increasing awareness of this previously underestimated pathology. Future research will shed more light on the advancement of the subchondral bone plate in TE models of cartilage repair.

  6. The ethics of translating high-throughput science into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar N

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly data intensive and computational, and "big data science" is migrating into the clinical arena. Unfortunately, ethicists, regulators, and policy-makers have barely begun to explore the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the variety of analytical and computational approaches in use and under development in biology and medicine. Most scholarship concerning big data bioscience has focused on privacy, a vitally important consideration but not the only one. Among the issues raised by new computational technologies are questions about safety and safety assessment, justice, and how to obtain proper informed consent. These technologies also raise a myriad of regulatory issues that could influence the probability of translating new assays or computational tools to the clinical or public health spheres. PMID:25231655

  7. The role of human agents in facilitating clinical and translational science.

    PubMed

    David Johnson, J

    2012-08-01

    The fundamental problem confronting policymakers who desire to facilitate the development of clinical and translational science (CTS) comes in bringing people with disparate interests, vocabularies, cultures, goals, and so forth together for a common purpose. A variety of roles have been suggested for individuals who may play key parts in this overall process: opinion leaders, change agents, boundary spanners, structural hole brokers, and, finally, collaborative knowledge brokers. This essay will systematically review these key roles; focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of each to illustrate their part in approaches to solving this problem. The implications of this perspective will be discussed in terms of the role that human agents can play in facilitating CTS. PMID:22883615

  8. The ethics of translating high-throughput science into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar N

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly data intensive and computational, and "big data science" is migrating into the clinical arena. Unfortunately, ethicists, regulators, and policy-makers have barely begun to explore the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the variety of analytical and computational approaches in use and under development in biology and medicine. Most scholarship concerning big data bioscience has focused on privacy, a vitally important consideration but not the only one. Among the issues raised by new computational technologies are questions about safety and safety assessment, justice, and how to obtain proper informed consent. These technologies also raise a myriad of regulatory issues that could influence the probability of translating new assays or computational tools to the clinical or public health spheres.

  9. Nutritional Translation Blended With Food Science: 21st Century Applications1234

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Peterson, Devin G.; Singh, R. Paul; Schwartz, Steven J.; Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on the symposium “Real-World Nutritional Translation Blended With Food Science,” describes how an integrated “farm-to-cell” approach would create the framework necessary to address pressing public health issues. The paper describes current research that examines chemical reactions that may influence food flavor (and ultimately food consumption) and posits how these reactions can be used in health promotion; it explains how mechanical engineering and computer modeling can study digestive processes and provide better understanding of how physical properties of food influence nutrient bioavailability and posits how this research can also be used in the fight against obesity and diabetes; and it illustrates how an interdisciplinary scientific collaboration led to the development of a novel functional food that may be used clinically in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:23153735

  10. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  11. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) science instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. C.; Cumings, N. P.; Winkler, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    AXAF is to be equipped with a high performance X-ray telescope for the conduction of detailed astrophysics research. The observatory is to be serviced by the Space Station or the Shuttle, depending on capabilities during the AXAF operational period. The AXAF is to utilize the wavelength band from 1.2 A to 120 A. Attention is given to the AXAF science team, the AXAF observatory characteristics, the AXAF science instrument definition program, the Advanced Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the High Resolution Camera (HRC), the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS), the X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), the transmission gratings, and the program schedule.

  12. A Community Translational Research Pilot Grants Program to Facilitate Community–Academic Partnerships: Lessons From Colorado’s Clinical Translational Science Awards

    PubMed Central

    Main, Deborah S.; Felzien, Maret C.; Magid, David J.; Calonge, B. Ned; O’Brien, Ruth A.; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Background National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. Methods One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community–academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). Results and Conclusion We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community–academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research. PMID:22982851

  13. Translational Science by Public Biotechnology Companies in the IPO“Class of 2000”: The Impact of Technological Maturity

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science. PMID:24358154

  14. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  15. Advances in Parallel Electromagnetic Codes for Accelerator Science and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Kwok; Candel, Arno; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Rich; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Rawat, Vineet; Schussman, Greg; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    Over a decade of concerted effort in code development for accelerator applications has resulted in a new set of electromagnetic codes which are based on higher-order finite elements for superior geometry fidelity and better solution accuracy. SLAC's ACE3P code suite is designed to harness the power of massively parallel computers to tackle large complex problems with the increased memory and solve them at greater speed. The US DOE supports the computational science R&D under the SciDAC project to improve the scalability of ACE3P, and provides the high performance computing resources needed for the applications. This paper summarizes the advances in the ACE3P set of codes, explains the capabilities of the modules, and presents results from selected applications covering a range of problems in accelerator science and development important to the Office of Science.

  16. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  17. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  18. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    PubMed

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  19. Scaling-up impact in perinatology through systems science: Bridging the collaboration and translational divides in cross-disciplinary research and public policy.

    PubMed

    Munar, Wolfgang; Hovmand, Peter S; Fleming, Carrie; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite progress over the past decade in reducing the global burden of newborn deaths, gaps in the knowledge base persist, and means of translating empirical findings into effective policies and programs that deliver life-saving interventions remain poorly understood. Articles in this issue highlight the relevance of transdisciplinary research in perinatology and calls for increased efforts to translate research into public policy and to integrate interventions into existing primary care delivery systems. Given the complexity and multi-causality of many of the remaining challenges in newborn health, and the effects that social and economic factors have over many newborn conditions, it has further been proposed that integrated, multi-sector public policies are also required. In this article, we discuss the application of systems science methods to advance transdisciplinary research and public policy-making in perinatology. Such approaches to research and public policy have been used to address various global challenges but have rarely been implemented in developing country settings. We propose that they hold great promise to improve not only our understanding of complex perinatology problems but can also help translate research-based insights into effective, multi-pronged solutions that deliver positive, intended effects. Examples of successful transdisciplinary science exist, but successes and failures are context specific, and there are no universal blueprints or formulae to reproduce what works in a specific context into different social system settings. Group model building is a tool, based in the field of System Dynamics, that we have used to facilitate transdisciplinary research and, to a lesser extent, policy formulation in a systematic and replicable way. In this article, we describe how group model building can be used and argue for scaling its use to further the translation of empirical evidence and insights into policy and action that increase maternal

  20. Individuals and Institutions : How to Advance Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valian, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The inception of the NSF ADVANCE program marked a change in NSF's efforts to improve the advancement of women in the sciences. Previous efforts had focused on providing women with funding to pursue their research. ADVANCE focuses on changing the institutions in which women do their research. Evidence of ADVANCE's successes can be seen both in the careers of individual women and in hiring and retention figures at the institutions that received funding. In Part 1, I will review interventions that help women to succeed, with a focus on the Sponsorship Program and the Workshop Series for Junior Faculty that the Gender Equity Project at Hunter College developed. In Part 2, I will review successes in changing hiring practices, with a focus on ADVANCE programs from the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin. In Part 3, I will analyze the costs and benefits of the two types of intervention, including the long time course of institutional change, the helpful or hurtful role that leaders can play, the need for intervention at the departmental level, and the potential for individuals to change institutions.

  1. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice after a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the…

  2. Advancement and applications of peptide phage display technology in biomedical science.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hsun; Liu, I-Ju; Lu, Ruei-Min; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Combinatorial phage library is a powerful research tool for high-throughput screening of protein interactions. Of all available molecular display techniques, phage display has proven to be the most popular approach. Screening phage-displayed random peptide libraries is an effective means of identifying peptides that can bind target molecules and regulate their function. Phage-displayed peptide libraries can be used for (i) B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping, (ii) selection of bioactive peptides bound to receptors or proteins, disease-specific antigen mimics, peptides bound to non-protein targets, cell-specific peptides, or organ-specific peptides, and (iii) development of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and other applications. Targeting peptides identified using phage display technology may be useful for basic research and translational medicine. In this review article, we summarize the latest technological advancements in the application of phage-displayed peptide libraries to applied biomedical sciences.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Conceptual Knowledge Engineering on the Design and Usability of a Clinical and Translational Science Collaboration Portal

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Borlawsky, Tara B.; Rice, Robert; Embi, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    With the growing prevalence of large-scale, team science endeavors in the biomedical and life science domains, the impetus to implement platforms capable of supporting asynchronous interaction among multidisciplinary groups of collaborators has increased commensurately. However, there is a paucity of literature describing systematic approaches to identifying the information needs of targeted end-users for such platforms, and the translation of such requirements into practicable software component design criteria. In previous studies, we have reported upon the efficacy of employing conceptual knowledge engineering (CKE) techniques to systematically address both of the preceding challenges in the context of complex biomedical applications. In this manuscript we evaluate the impact of CKE approaches relative to the design of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal, and report upon the preliminary qualitative users satisfaction as reported for the resulting system. PMID:21347146

  4. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  5. Translating Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  6. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  7. Opportunities for translational epidemiology: The important role of observational studies to advance precision oncology

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Michael; Schilsky, Richard L.; Liu, Geoff; Khoury, Muin J.; Freedman, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Within current oncology practice several genomic applications are being use to inform treatment decisions with molecularly targeted therapies in breast, lung, colorectal, melanoma and other cancers. This commentary introduces a conceptual framework connecting the full spectrum of biomedical research disciplines, including fundamental laboratory research, clinical trials, and observational studies in the translation of genomic applications into clinical practice. The conceptual framework illustrates the contribution that well-designed observational epidemiological studies provide to the successful translation of these applications, and characterizes the role observational epidemiology plays in driving the dynamic and iterative bench-to-bedside, and bedside-to-bench translation continuum. We also discuss how the principles of this conceptual model, emphasizing integration of multidisciplinary research, can be applied to the evolving paradigm in “precision oncology” focusing on multiplex tumor sequencing, and we identify opportunities for observational studies to contribute to the successful and efficient translation of this paradigm. PMID:25750251

  8. Assessing statistical competencies in clinical and translational science education: one size does not fit all

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Robert A.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co-investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner’s research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  9. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort. PMID:26073891

  10. Mentor training within academic health centers with Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Zainab; Rebello, Tahilia J; Richards, Boyd F; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-10-01

    Multiple studies highlight the benefits of effective mentoring in academic medicine. Thus, we sought to quantify and characterize the mentoring practices at academic health centers (AHCs) with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Here we report findings pertaining specifically to mentor training at the level of the KL2 mentored award program, and at the broader institutional level. We found only four AHCs did not provide any form of training. One-time orientation was most prevalent at the KL2 level, whereas formal face-to-face training was most prevalent at the institutional level. Despite differences in format usage, there was general consensus at both the KL2 and institutional level about the topics of focus of face-to-face training sessions. Lower-resource training formats utilized at the KL2 level may reveal a preference for preselection of qualified mentors, while institutional selection of resource-heavy formats may be an attempt to raise the mentoring qualifications of the academic community as a whole. The present work fits into the expanding landscape of academic mentoring literature and sets the framework for future longitudinal, outcome studies focused on identifying the most efficient strategies to develop effective mentors.

  11. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort.

  12. Improving the assessment of heart toxicity for all new drugs through translational regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, L; Vicente, J; Gray, R A; Galeotti, L; Loring, Z; Garnett, C E; Florian, J; Ugander, M; Stockbridge, N; Strauss, D G

    2014-05-01

    Fourteen drugs have been removed from the market worldwide because they cause torsade de pointes. Most drugs that cause torsade can be identified by assessing whether they block the human ether à gogo related gene (hERG) potassium channel and prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. In response, regulatory agencies require new drugs to undergo "thorough QT" studies. However, some drugs block hERG potassium channels and prolong QT with minimal torsade risk because they also block calcium and/or sodium channels. Through analysis of clinical and preclinical data from 34 studies submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration and by computer simulations, we demonstrate that by dividing the QT interval into its components of depolarization (QRS), early repolarization (J-Tpeak), and late repolarization (Tpeak-Tend), along with atrioventricular conduction delay (PR), it may be possible to determine which hERG potassium channel blockers also have calcium and/or sodium channel blocking activity. This translational regulatory science approach may enable innovative drugs that otherwise would have been labeled unsafe to come to market.

  13. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  14. Refinement-Cut: User-Guided Segmentation Algorithm for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for (medical) image analysis is presented. More precise, the approach belongs to the category of interactive contouring algorithms, which provide real-time feedback of the segmentation result. However, even with interactive real-time contouring approaches there are always cases where the user cannot find a satisfying segmentation, e.g. due to homogeneous appearances between the object and the background, or noise inside the object. For these difficult cases the algorithm still needs additional user support. However, this additional user support should be intuitive and rapid integrated into the segmentation process, without breaking the interactive real-time segmentation feedback. I propose a solution where the user can support the algorithm by an easy and fast placement of one or more seed points to guide the algorithm to a satisfying segmentation result also in difficult cases. These additional seed(s) restrict(s) the calculation of the segmentation for the algorithm, but at the same time, still enable to continue with the interactive real-time feedback segmentation. For a practical and genuine application in translational science, the approach has been tested on medical data from the clinical routine in 2D and 3D. PMID:24893650

  15. Developing a translational discourse to communicate uncertainty in flood risk between science and the practitioner.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Hazel; Parker, Dennis; Green, Colin; Beven, Keith

    2007-12-01

    The language and tools of risk and uncertainty estimation in flood risk management (FRM) are rarely optimized for the extant communication challenge. This paper develops the rationale for a pragmatic semiotics of risk communication between scientists developing flood models and forecasts and those professional groups who are the receptors for flood risk estimates and warnings in the UK. The current barriers to effective communication and the constraints involved in the formation of a communication language are explored, focusing on the role of the professional's agenda or "mission" in creating or reducing those constraints. The tools available for the development of this discourse, for both flood warnings in real time and generalized FRM communications, are outlined. It is argued that the contested ownership of the articulation of uncertainties embedded in flood risk communications could be reduced by the development of a formally structured translational discourse between science and professionals in FRM, through which process "codes of practice" for uncertainty estimation in different application areas can be developed. Ways in which this might take place in an institutional context are considered.

  16. Advanced data products for the JCMT Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah F.; Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.; Parsons, Harriet; Jenness, Timothy; Redman, Russell O.; Dempsey, Jessica T.; Johnstone, Doug; Economou, Frossie

    2014-07-01

    The JCMT Science Archive is a collaboration between the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre to provide access to raw and reduced data from SCUBA-2 and the telescope's heterodyne instruments. It was designed to include a range of advanced data products, created either by external groups, such as the JCMT Legacy Survey teams, or by the JCMT staff at the Joint Astronomy Centre. We are currently developing the archive to include a set of advanced data products which combine all of the publicly available data. We have developed a sky tiling scheme based on HEALPix tiles to allow us to construct co-added maps and data cubes on a well-defined grid. There will also be source catalogs both of regions of extended emission and the compact sources detected within these regions.

  17. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Harms, Elvin; Henderson, Stuart; Leibfritz, Jerry; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Valishev, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  18. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  19. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  20. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  1. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  2. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  3. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  4. The Adaptome: Advancing the Science of Intervention Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David A; Norton, Wynne E

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, prevention scientists have developed and tested a range of interventions with demonstrated benefits on child and adolescent cognitive, affective, and behavioral health. These evidence-based interventions offer promise of population-level benefit if accompanied by findings of implementation science to facilitate adoption, widespread implementation, and sustainment. Though there have been notable examples of successful efforts to scale up interventions, more work is needed to optimize benefit. Although the traditional pathway from intervention development and testing to implementation has served the research community well-allowing for a systematic advance of evidence-based interventions that appear ready for implementation-progress has been limited by maintaining the hypothesis that evidence generation must be complete prior to implementation. This sets up the challenging dichotomy between fidelity and adaptation and limits the science of adaptation to findings from randomized trials of adapted interventions. The field can do better. This paper argues for the development of strategies to advance the science of adaptation in the context of implementation that would more comprehensively describe the needed fit between interventions and their settings, and embrace opportunities for ongoing learning about optimal intervention delivery over time. Efforts to build the resulting adaptome (pronounced "adapt-ohm") will include the construction of a common data platform to house systematically captured information about variations in delivery of evidence-based interventions across multiple populations and contexts, and provide feedback to intervention developers, as well as the implementation research and practice communities. Finally, the article identifies next steps to jumpstart adaptome data platform development.

  5. Advancing Organizational Cultural Competency With Dissemination and Implementation Frameworks: Towards Translating Standards into Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Ogbolu, Yolanda; Fitzpatrick, Grace A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial public health efforts have been activated to reduce health disparities and ensure health equity for patients through the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate services; yet associated policies and standards are sluggishly translating into practice. Little attention and resources have been dedicated to translation of public health policies into practice settings. Dissemination and implementation is presented as an active, strategic approach to enhance uptake of public health standards; reviews dissemination and implementation concepts; poses a systematic model to adoption, implementation, and dissemination; and concludes with recommendations for hospital-based implementation teams and complementary interprofessional collaboration.

  6. Advancing Organizational Cultural Competency With Dissemination and Implementation Frameworks: Towards Translating Standards into Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Ogbolu, Yolanda; Fitzpatrick, Grace A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial public health efforts have been activated to reduce health disparities and ensure health equity for patients through the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate services; yet associated policies and standards are sluggishly translating into practice. Little attention and resources have been dedicated to translation of public health policies into practice settings. Dissemination and implementation is presented as an active, strategic approach to enhance uptake of public health standards; reviews dissemination and implementation concepts; poses a systematic model to adoption, implementation, and dissemination; and concludes with recommendations for hospital-based implementation teams and complementary interprofessional collaboration. PMID:26244477

  7. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, Nora

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  8. Mentoring Faculty: Results from National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty mentoring programs are common components of National Science Foundation ADVANCE awards. The ADVANCE program aims to increase the number of women on the faculty in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) departments through grants to individuals and to entire institutions. These grants target a change in institutional culture so that faculty from non-majority groups will succeed and thrive. Mentoring programs are generally designed to fit the particular institution(s) or target population (e.g., meteorologists at the beginning of their careers). A successful mentoring program makes the implicit knowledge necessary for faculty success explicit: policies and practices are made transparent; routes for finding answers are clarified or generated with faculty input; faculty overcome a sense of isolation and develop a community. Mentoring programs may be formal, with assigned mentors and mentees, or informal, with opportunities for beginning, middle and advanced career STEM faculty to mingle, generally over food and sometimes with a formal speaker. The programs are formally evaluated; in general, attention to mentoring generates better outcomes for all faculty. Research indicates that most successful scientists have a network of mentors rather than relying on one person to help navigate department, institution, and profession. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's (UNL) award, ADVANCE-Nebraska, offered opportunities for faculty to informally network over luncheons with women speakers, advanced in their careers. We also offered after-hours networking receptions. In response to faculty feedback, we shifted to a series of panel discussions entitled "Conversations". Most panels were conducted by successful UNL faculty; about one-third had an outside expert on a given topic. Topics were chosen based on faculty feedback and targeted specifically to beginning faculty (How to Start Up a Lab; How to Balance Teaching and Writing), mid-career faculty (Putting

  9. Translational Biomarkers of Neurotoxicity: A Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Perspective on the Way Forward

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ruth A.; Aschner, Michael; Calligaro, David; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Hanig, Joseph P.; Herr, David W.; Hudzik, Thomas J.; Jeromin, Andreas; Kallman, Mary J.; Liachenko, Serguei; Lynch, James J.; Miller, Diane B.; Moser, Virginia C.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Slikker, William; Paule, Merle G.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxicity has been linked to a number of common drugs and chemicals, yet efficient and accurate methods to detect it are lacking. There is a need for more sensitive and specific biomarkers of neurotoxicity that can help diagnose and predict neurotoxicity that are relevant across animal models and translational from nonclinical to clinical data. Fluid-based biomarkers such as those found in serum, plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have great potential due to the relative ease of sampling compared with tissues. Increasing evidence supports the potential utility of fluid-based biomarkers of neurotoxicity such as microRNAs, F2-isoprostanes, translocator protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, myelin basic protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, and total tau. However, some of these biomarkers such as those in CSF require invasive sampling or are specific to one disease such as Alzheimer’s, while others require further validation. Additionally, neuroimaging methodologies, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography, may also serve as potential biomarkers and have several advantages including being minimally invasive. The development of biomarkers of neurotoxicity is a goal shared by scientists across academia, government, and industry and is an ideal topic to be addressed via the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) framework which provides a forum to collaborate on key challenging scientific topics. Here we utilize the HESI framework to propose a consensus on the relative potential of currently described biomarkers of neurotoxicity to assess utility of the selected biomarkers using a nonclinical model. PMID:26609132

  10. Translational Biomarkers of Neurotoxicity: A Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Perspective on the Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ruth A; Aschner, Michael; Calligaro, David; Guilarte, Tomas R; Hanig, Joseph P; Herr, David W; Hudzik, Thomas J; Jeromin, Andreas; Kallman, Mary J; Liachenko, Serguei; Lynch, James J; Miller, Diane B; Moser, Virginia C; O'Callaghan, James P; Slikker, William; Paule, Merle G

    2015-12-01

    Neurotoxicity has been linked to a number of common drugs and chemicals, yet efficient and accurate methods to detect it are lacking. There is a need for more sensitive and specific biomarkers of neurotoxicity that can help diagnose and predict neurotoxicity that are relevant across animal models and translational from nonclinical to clinical data. Fluid-based biomarkers such as those found in serum, plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have great potential due to the relative ease of sampling compared with tissues. Increasing evidence supports the potential utility of fluid-based biomarkers of neurotoxicity such as microRNAs, F2-isoprostanes, translocator protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, myelin basic protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, and total tau. However, some of these biomarkers such as those in CSF require invasive sampling or are specific to one disease such as Alzheimer's, while others require further validation. Additionally, neuroimaging methodologies, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography, may also serve as potential biomarkers and have several advantages including being minimally invasive. The development of biomarkers of neurotoxicity is a goal shared by scientists across academia, government, and industry and is an ideal topic to be addressed via the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) framework which provides a forum to collaborate on key challenging scientific topics. Here we utilize the HESI framework to propose a consensus on the relative potential of currently described biomarkers of neurotoxicity to assess utility of the selected biomarkers using a nonclinical model. PMID:26609132

  11. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  12. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  13. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  14. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials. PMID:26939357

  15. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research.

  16. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  17. Applying knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery methods to advance clinical and translational research: the OAMiner project

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Best, Thomas M; Borlawsky, Tara B; Lai, Albert M; James, Stephen; Gurcan, Metin N

    2012-01-01

    The conduct of clinical and translational research regularly involves the use of a variety of heterogeneous and large-scale data resources. Scalable methods for the integrative analysis of such resources, particularly when attempting to leverage computable domain knowledge in order to generate actionable hypotheses in a high-throughput manner, remain an open area of research. In this report, we describe both a generalizable design pattern for such integrative knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery operations and our experience in applying that design pattern in the experimental context of a set of driving research questions related to the publicly available Osteoarthritis Initiative data repository. We believe that this ‘test bed’ project and the lessons learned during its execution are both generalizable and representative of common clinical and translational research paradigms. PMID:22647689

  18. Advancing the research mission in an academic department: the creation of a center for translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Arthur M; Force, Thomas L; Whellan, David J; Bray, Paul F; Cheung, Joseph Y; Koch, Walter J

    2010-08-01

    Multidisciplinary research centers have multiplied in academic medical centers over the past decade and several recent reports have described their structure, strengths and limitations, and the difficulties that they may face. However, little attention has been paid to the role of a multidisciplinary center in the context of a single academic department. In 2003, the Department of Medicine at Jefferson Medical College launched the Center for Translational Medicine in order to facilitate multidisciplinary research, optimally utilize space and resources, enhance the educational experience for trainees, link basic investigation with clinical research programs, and develop a program of research excellence. Herein, we describe the structure of the Center and provide evidence of its success. The development of the Center has resulted in increased total funding, an increased number of students and residents pursuing translational research, a more effective utilization of space, the development of multidisciplinary research projects, and a significant increase in the number of individual and programmatic federally funded grants. Though the creation of the Center was not without challenges, the overall benefits for the department and the university have been substantial. The concept of a translational medicine center may be useful for many departments of academic medical centers.

  19. Rethinking 'style' for historians and philosophers of science: converging lessons from sexuality, translation, and East Asian studies.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Howard H

    2009-06-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have furnished a wide array of theoretical-historiographical terms to emphasize the discontinuities among different systems of knowledge. Some of the most famous include Thomas Kuhn's "paradigm", Michel Foucault's "episteme", and the notion of "styles of reasoning" more recently developed by Ian Hacking and Arnold Davidson. This paper takes up this theoretical-historiographical thread by assessing the values and limitations of the notion of "style" for the historical and philosophical study of science. Specifically, reflecting on various methodological and theoretical concerns prompted by sexuality, translation, and East Asian studies, this paper argues that the heretofore ways in which historians and philosophers of science have used the notion of "style" are severely restricted in terms of its mere applicability to the intellectual history of Western science. The particular example of the translation of "homosexuality" into Chinese during the May Fourth era reveals that the notion of "style" has the potential of carrying a much more dynamic conceptual weight, as when used in "styles of argumentation". The paper also engages briefly with the historiography of scientific "national styles" and ends with some concluding remarks on the limitations of "social histories from below" and the under appreciated importance of "epistemological histories of possibilities". PMID:19442926

  20. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dave

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  1. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-May, Elisa; Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans-Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-06-01

    Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM-CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM-CFs, German Bio-Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM-CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463-479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  2. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-May, Elisa; Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans-Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-06-01

    Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM-CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM-CFs, German Bio-Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM-CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463-479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Willie E.

    Lincoln University, under the Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) Program, has identified and successfully recruited over 100 students for majors in technical fields. To date, over 70 percent of these students have completed or will complete technical degrees in engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer science. Of those completing the undergraduate degree, over 40 percent have gone on to graduate and professional schools. This success is attributable to well planned approaches to student recruitment, training, personal motivation, retention, and program staff. Very closely coupled to the above factors is a focus designed to achieve excellence in program services and student performance. Future contributions by the LASER Program to the pool of technical minority graduates will have a significant impact. This is already evident from the success of the students that began the first year of the program. With program plans to refine many of the already successful techniques, follow-on activities are expected to make even greater contributions to the availability of technically trained minorities. For example, undergraduate research exposure, broadened summer, and co-op work experiences will be enhanced.

  4. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans‐Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp‐Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM‐CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM‐CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM‐CFs, German Bio‐Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM‐CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463–479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  5. Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Willie E.

    1989-01-01

    Lincoln University, under the Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) Program, has identified and successfully recruited over 100 students for majors in technical fields. To date, over 70 percent of these students have completed or will complete technical degrees in engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer science. Of those completing the undergraduate degree, over 40 percent have gone on to graduate and professional schools. This success is attributable to well planned approaches to student recruitment, training, personal motivation, retention, and program staff. Very closely coupled to the above factors is a focus designed to achieve excellence in program services and student performance. Future contributions by the LASER Program to the pool of technical minority graduates will have a significant impact. This is already evident from the success of the students that began the first year of the program. With program plans to refine many of the already successful techniques, follow-on activities are expected to make even greater contributions to the availability of technically trained minorities. For example, undergraduate research exposure, broadened summer, and co-op work experiences will be enhanced.

  6. Dissemination and implementation of comparative effectiveness evidence: key informant interviews with Clinical and Translational Science Award institutions

    PubMed Central

    Morrato, Elaine H; Concannon, Thomas W; Meissner, Paul; Shah, Nilay D; Turner, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Aim To identify ongoing practices and opportunities for improving national comparative effectiveness research (CER) translation through dissemination and implementation (D&I) via NIH-funded Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions. Materials & methods Key informant interviews were conducted with 18 CTSA grantees sampled to represent a range of D&I efforts. Results & conclusions The institutional representatives endorsed fostering CER translation nationally via the CTSA Consortium. However, five themes emerged from the interviews as barriers to CER D&I: lack of institutional awareness, insufficient capacity, lack of established D&I methods, confusion among stakeholders about what CER actually is and limited funding opportunities. Interviewees offered two key recommendations to improve CER translation: development of a centralized clearing house to facilitate the diffusion of CER D&I resources and methods across CTSA institutions; and formalization of the national CTSA network to leverage existing community engagement relationships and resources for the purpose of adapting and disseminating robust CER evidence locally with providers, patients and healthcare systems. PMID:24236560

  7. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  8. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers.

  9. International student exchange and the medical curriculum: evaluation of a medical sciences translational physiology course in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mariana; Jones, T David; Rocha, Maria Jose Alves; Fazan, Rubens; Chapleau, Mark W; Salgado, Helio C; Johnson, Alan Kim; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Michelini, Lisete C; Goldstein, David L

    2006-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a short-term international course on translational physiology for medical students from Wright State University and the University of Iowa. The goals were to 1) provide students with an exposure to the academic, cultural, and medical environments in Brazil; 2) promote awareness of the global medical community; and 3) provide an academic course focused on translational physiology. An evaluation of the students was conducted to determine whether such a short-term course might be useful in the medical curriculum. The 2-wk course was held in the summer of 2005 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, for 23 American students. The program included presentations of basic and clinical topics, meetings with medical students, and clinical presentations. The program finished with student attendance at a scientific meeting sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Hypertension. Student surveys evaluated issues related to perceived treatment, Brazilian medical school environment, culture and personal attributes, and career aspirations. The international Medical Sciences Translational Physiology course for medical students provided a brief, but intense, experience. It gave students a picture of the medical environment in Brazil and an appreciation for the differences and similarities in cultures. Most students reported that it was a positive experience that would be beneficial to their careers. In conclusion, a short-term international course provides an efficient means for medical students to experience aspects of global medical science. PMID:16912146

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  11. A New Model for Catalyzing Translational Science: The Early Stage Investigator Mentored Research Scholar Program in HIV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Blythe Jane S.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Sopher, Carrie J.; Flood, Danna M.; Johnson, R. Paul; Haynes, Barton F.; Kublin, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement of early stage investigators (ESIs) in the search for a safe and effective vaccine is critical to the success of this highly challenging endeavor. In the wake of disappointing results from a large-scale efficacy trial, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) developed a novel mentored research program focused on the translation of findings from non-human primate studies to human trials of experimental vaccines. From 2008–2011, 14 ESI Scholars were selected from 42 complete applications. Post program surveys and tracked outcomes suggest that the combination of flexible funding, transdisciplinary mentorship, and structured training and networking promoted the scientific contributions and career development of promising ESIs. Embedding a multicomponent research program within collaborative clinical trial networks and research consortia is a promising strategy to attract and retain early career scientists and catalyze important translational science. PMID:25640612

  12. Engaging High School Students in Advanced Math and Science Courses for Success in College: Is Advanced Placement the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Proger, Amy; Roderick, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides an in-depth look at Advanced Placement (AP) math and science course-taking in one school district, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Using quasi-experimental methods, this study examines the college outcomes of students who take AP math and science courses. Specifically, this study asks whether students who take AP math…

  13. Preparing Science Teachers for Culturally Diverse Students: Developing Cultural Literacy Through Cultural Immersion, Cultural Translators and Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2006-09-01

    This three year study of P-12 professional development is grounded in sociocultural theories that hold that building knowledge and relationships among individuals from different cultural backgrounds entails joint activity toward common goals and cultural dialogues mediated by cultural translators. Sixty P-12 pre and in-service teachers in a year long interdisciplinary science curriculum course shared the goal of developing culturally relevant, standards-based science curricula for Native Hawai'ian students. Teachers and Native Hawai'ian instructors lived and worked together during a five day culture-science immersion in rural school and community sites and met several times at school, university, and community sites to build knowledge and share programs. Teachers were deeply moved by immersion experiences, learned to connect cultural understandings, e.g., a Hawai'ian sense of place and curriculum development, and highly valued collaborating with peers on curriculum development and implementation. The study finds that long term professional development providing situated learning through cultural immersion, cultural translators, and interdisciplinary instruction supports the establishment of communities of practice in which participants develop the cross-cultural knowledge and literacy needed for the development of locally relevant, place and standards-based curricula and pedagogy.

  14. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  15. Institutionalization and Sustainability of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. CCRC Brief. Number 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Matsuzuka, Yukari; Jacobs, James; Morest, Vanessa Smith; Hughes, Katherine L.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the 1992 Scientific and Advanced Technology Act (SATA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program to promote systemic reform of the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The Act gave community colleges the central role for the…

  16. Institutional Advancement and Public Engagement in the STEM and Health Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Victor A.; Kuhl, Michelle Wittcoff

    2007-01-01

    In today's resource-scarce environment, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and health science disciplines must partner with institutional advancement offices to support two key components of research universities--research and graduate education. Framing the partnership in terms of societal needs helps advancement officers to…

  17. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  18. Type 2 diabetes, genomics, and nursing: necessary next steps to advance the science into improved, personalized care.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an inherited, chronic disorder with long-term complications; including cardiovascular disease the leading cause of mortality in the United States. The prevalence of T2DM and its complications are on the rise in the United States, highlighting the need for improved individualized prevention and treatment strategies. Exciting advancements in the field of genomics has led to the recent discovery of numerous genetic markers for T2DM; completing a promising first step toward improved, individualized prevention and treatment strategies for T2DM. These genomic markers, identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene, and rare variant methodology, identify new physiologic pathways underlying the development of T2DM. Much more work is needed to successfully translate the identification of genetic markers for T2DM into improved, individualized prevention and treatment strategies. As front line providers and leaders of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic disease, nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists must contribute to this translational effort. Thus, it is important for nurses at all levels to (a) be aware of the current science of genetics and T2DM and (b) participate in the translation of this genetic information into improved, personalized patient care. The aim of this review is to (a) provide an overview of the current state of the science of genetic markers and T2DM and (b) highlight essential next steps to successfully translate the identification of genetic markers for T2DM into improved prevention and treatment strategies; focusing particularly on the role of nursing in this process.

  19. Concise Review: Advances in Generating Hepatocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Translational Medicine.

    PubMed

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Hay, David C

    2016-06-01

    The liver is one of the major organs in the human body. Severe or prolonged exposure of the liver to different factors may cause life-threatening disease, which necessitates donor organ transplantation. While orthotopic liver transplantation can be used to effectively treat liver failure, it is an invasive procedure, which is severely limited by organ donation. Therefore, alternative sources of liver support have been proposed and studied. This includes the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes as a renewable source of cells for therapy. In addition to cell-based therapies, in vitro engineered liver tissue provides powerful models for human drug discovery and disease modeling. This review focuses on the generation of hepatocyte-like cells from pluripotent stem cells and their application in translational medicine. Stem Cells 2016;34:1421-1426.

  20. Concise Review: Advances in Generating Hepatocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The liver is one of the major organs in the human body. Severe or prolonged exposure of the liver to different factors may cause life‐threatening disease, which necessitates donor organ transplantation. While orthotopic liver transplantation can be used to effectively treat liver failure, it is an invasive procedure, which is severely limited by organ donation. Therefore, alternative sources of liver support have been proposed and studied. This includes the use of pluripotent stem cell‐derived hepatocytes as a renewable source of cells for therapy. In addition to cell‐based therapies, in vitro engineered liver tissue provides powerful models for human drug discovery and disease modeling. This review focuses on the generation of hepatocyte‐like cells from pluripotent stem cells and their application in translational medicine. Stem Cells 2016;34:1421–1426 PMID:27015786

  1. Translating Vision into Reality (Part II) [and] Charting the Future of Information Science [and] Vogue Words in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The mission and planned activities of ASIS 2000, a project examining the role of information science in society, are described in the first of three articles. The second proposes a program for critical reexamination of the field, and the third emphasizes the need for standardization of information science terminology. (CLB)

  2. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed…

  3. Nutrigenomics: Definitions and Advances of This New Science

    PubMed Central

    Sales, N. M. R.; Pelegrini, P. B.; Goersch, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The search for knowledge regarding healthy/adequate food has increased in the last decades among the world population, researchers, nutritionists, and health professionals. Since ancient times, humans have known that environment and food can interfere with an individual's health condition, and have used food and plants as medicines. With the advance of science, especially after the conclusion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), scientists started questioning if the interaction between genes and food bioactive compounds could positively or negatively influence an individual's health. In order to assess this interaction between genes and nutrients, the term “Nutrigenomics” was created. Hence, Nutrigenomics corresponds to the use of biochemistry, physiology, nutrition, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics to seek and explain the existing reciprocal interactions between genes and nutrients at a molecular level. The discovery of these interactions (gene-nutrient) will aid the prescription of customized diets according to each individual's genotype. Thus, it will be possible to mitigate the symptoms of existing diseases or to prevent future illnesses, especially in the area of Nontransmissible Chronic Diseases (NTCDs), which are currently considered an important world public health problem. PMID:24795820

  4. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  5. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  6. Recent advances in material science for developing enzyme electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Anil Kumar; Vatsyayan, Preety; Goswami, Pranab; Minteer, Shelley D

    2009-04-15

    The enzyme-modified electrode is the fundamental component of amperometric biosensors and biofuel cells. The selection of appropriate combinations of materials, such as: enzyme, electron transport mediator, binding and encapsulation materials, conductive support matrix and solid support, for construction of enzyme-modified electrodes governs the efficiency of the electrodes in terms of electron transfer kinetics, mass transport, stability, and reproducibility. This review investigates the varieties of materials that can be used for these purposes. Recent innovation in conductive electro-active polymers, functionalized polymers, biocompatible composite materials, composites of transition metal-based complexes and organometallic compounds, sol-gel and hydro-gel materials, nanomaterials, other nano-metal composites, and nano-metal oxides are reviewed and discussed here. In addition, the critical issues related to the construction of enzyme electrodes and their application for biosensor and biofuel cell applications are also highlighted in this article. Effort has been made to cover the recent literature on the advancement of materials sciences to develop enzyme electrodes and their potential applications for the construction of biosensors and biofuel cells.

  7. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  8. Targeting cancer with hyaluronic acid-based nanocarriers: recent advances and translational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cadete, Ana; Alonso, María José

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a natural polysaccharide that has been widely explored for the development of anticancer therapies due to its ability to target cancer cells. Moreover, advances made in the last decade have revealed the versatility of this biomaterial in the design of multifunctional carriers, intended for the delivery of a variety of bioactive molecules, including polynucleotides, immunomodulatory drugs and imaging agents. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the major recent achievements in this field, highlighting the application of the newly developed nanostructures in combination therapies, immunomodulation and theranostics. Finally, we will discuss the main challenges and technological advances that will allow these carriers to be considered as candidates for clinical development.

  9. Targeting cancer with hyaluronic acid-based nanocarriers: recent advances and translational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cadete, Ana; Alonso, María José

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a natural polysaccharide that has been widely explored for the development of anticancer therapies due to its ability to target cancer cells. Moreover, advances made in the last decade have revealed the versatility of this biomaterial in the design of multifunctional carriers, intended for the delivery of a variety of bioactive molecules, including polynucleotides, immunomodulatory drugs and imaging agents. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the major recent achievements in this field, highlighting the application of the newly developed nanostructures in combination therapies, immunomodulation and theranostics. Finally, we will discuss the main challenges and technological advances that will allow these carriers to be considered as candidates for clinical development. PMID:27526874

  10. Can Computer Translation Replace Human Translation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schairer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates three commercial computer-based language translation programs' translation of a university social sciences telephone survey from English to Spanish. The three programs, "Spanish Scholar,""Spanish Assistant," and "Spanish Amigo," were rated as unacceptable in their quality of translations by native and near-native Spanish speakers. (nine…

  11. The influence of an advanced agriculture & life science course on students' views of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Megan N.

    One of the goals in today's society is to ensure that students exiting school have the ability to understand, develop, and comprehend scientific information. For students to be able to meet these goals, it is imperative that they become scientifically literate and understand the concept of the Nature of Science (NOS). The discipline of Agricultural Education has strong connections with science and today many students are earning science credit and developing science understanding through Agricultural Education courses. If students are continuing to gain science mastery through their Agricultural Education courses, they should also be gaining adequate conceptions of science and the NOS. Overall, many studies have indicated that students exiting the K-12 education system lack these vital skills and understanding. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptions of the NOS of advanced agriculture students in Indiana. This study explored the conceptions of agricultural science students before and after taking a semester of an advanced life science course (N=48). Conceptions were explored through a qualitative case study utilizing the VNOS-C questionnaire. Responses were coded into one of three categories: Naive, Emerging, or Informed. Demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Overall, results of this study indicate that students in advanced agricultural science courses lack NOS understanding. The study's conclusions are discussed along with implications for theory, research and practice in addition to future directions for research.

  12. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jenny B.; Phillips, Evan H.; Riggins, Ti’Air E.; Sangha, Gurneet S.; Chakraborty, Sreyashi; Lee, Janice Y.; Lycke, Roy J.; Hernandez, Clarissa L.; Soepriatna, Arvin H.; Thorne, Bradford R. H.; Yrineo, Alexa A.; Goergen, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic. PMID:25993289

  13. Dengue: recent advances in biology and current status of translational research.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2009-03-01

    Dengue is a very rapidly growing public health problem being currently faced by approximately 40% of the global population living in more than a hundred tropical and sub-tropical countries. It is a viral disease, caused by four types of dengue viruses, transmitted by mosquitoes, to an estimated 50 million people each year. Vector control methods to contain transmission have not been successful and there is currently no useful diagnostic test, drug or vaccine to combat dengue disease. However, as a result of the heightened awareness of its magnitude and its potential to spread beyond the tropical world, dengue has begun to emerge out of the list of neglected diseases in recent years. New interest in this disease has drawn scientists from multiple disciplines into the dengue arena. This has resulted in novel insights into several aspects of dengue virus biology and identified potential drug targets. Several tetravalent vaccines are being developed. Newer animal models that mirror some of the salient features of dengue disease are becoming available to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and to aid in drug and vaccine discovery efforts. The realization that therapeutic and prophylactic intervention can be cost-effective has resulted in vigorous industry-driven translational initiatives to develop drugs and vaccines. Dengue research is at a critical juncture and the implementation of existing knowledge supplemented by a better understanding of pathogenesis promises to make a tangible impact in the combat against dengue in the coming years. PMID:19275624

  14. Secondary Use of Clinical Data to Enable Data-Driven Translational Science with Trustworthy Access Management.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Apathy, Nate C; Ko, Kelly J; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    University of Missouri (MU) Health Care produces a large amount of digitized clinical data that can be used in clinical and translational research for cohort identification, retrospective data analysis, feasibility study, and hypothesis generation. In this article, the implementation of an integrated clinical research data repository is discussed. We developed trustworthy access-management protocol for providing access to both clinically relevant data and protected health information. As of September 2014, the database contains approximately 400,000 patients and 82 million observations; and is growing daily. The system will facilitate the secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data at MU to promote data-driven clinical and translational research, in turn enabling better healthcare through research.

  15. LULL(ed) into complacency: a perspective on licenses and stem cell translational science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The US has had a very successful model for facilitating the translation of a basic discovery to a commercial application. The success of the model has hinged on providing clarity on ownership of a discovery, facilitating the licensing process, providing adequate incentive to the inventors, and developing a self-sustaining model for reinvestment. In recent years, technological, political, and regulatory changes have put strains on this model and in some cases have hindered progress rather than facilitated it. This is particularly true for the nascent field of regenerative medicine. To illustrate this, I will describe the contributing practices of several different entities, including universities, repositories, patent trolls, and service providers. It is my hope that the scientific community will be motivated to coordinate efforts against these obstacles to translation. PMID:23953837

  16. Secondary Use of Clinical Data to Enable Data-Driven Translational Science with Trustworthy Access Management.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Apathy, Nate C; Ko, Kelly J; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    University of Missouri (MU) Health Care produces a large amount of digitized clinical data that can be used in clinical and translational research for cohort identification, retrospective data analysis, feasibility study, and hypothesis generation. In this article, the implementation of an integrated clinical research data repository is discussed. We developed trustworthy access-management protocol for providing access to both clinically relevant data and protected health information. As of September 2014, the database contains approximately 400,000 patients and 82 million observations; and is growing daily. The system will facilitate the secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data at MU to promote data-driven clinical and translational research, in turn enabling better healthcare through research. PMID:26821445

  17. It's Not Just About More Data: Translation of Science and Decision Support Evaluation for Climate Impact Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program is currently considering establishing a National Climate Indicators System, which would be a set of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that would communicate key aspects of climate changes, impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness to inform mitigation and adaptation decisions. Thus, over the past several years 150+ scientists and practitioners representing a range of expertise from the climate system to natural systems to human sectors have developed a set of indicator recommendations that could be used as a first step to establishing such an indicator system. These recommendations have been implemented into a pilot system, with the goal of working with stakeholder communities to evaluate the understandability of individual indicators and learn how users are combining indicators for their own understanding or decision needs through this multiple Federal agency decision support platform. This prototype system provides the perfect test bed for evaluating the translation of scientific data - observations, remote sensing, and citizen science data -- and data products, such as indicators, for decision-making audiences. Often translation of scientific information into decision support products is developed and improved given intuition and feedback. Though this can be useful in many cases, more rigorous testing using social science methodologies would provide greater assurance that the data products are useful for the intended audiences. I will present some initial research using surveys to assess the understandability of indicators and whether that understanding is influenced by one's attitude toward climate change. Such information is critical to assess whether products developed for scientists by scientists have been appropriately translated for non-scientists, thus assuring that the data will have some value for the intended audience. Such survey information will provide a data driven approach to further develop and

  18. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  19. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  20. Advances in translational bioinformatics facilitate revealing the landscape of complex disease mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Advances of high-throughput technologies have rapidly produced more and more data from DNAs and RNAs to proteins, especially large volumes of genome-scale data. However, connection of the genomic information to cellular functions and biological behaviours relies on the development of effective approaches at higher systems level. In particular, advances in RNA-Seq technology has helped the studies of transcriptome, RNA expressed from the genome, while systems biology on the other hand provides more comprehensive pictures, from which genes and proteins actively interact to lead to cellular behaviours and physiological phenotypes. As biological interactions mediate many biological processes that are essential for cellular function or disease development, it is important to systematically identify genomic information including genetic mutations from GWAS (genome-wide association study), differentially expressed genes, bidirectional promoters, intrinsic disordered proteins (IDP) and protein interactions to gain deep insights into the underlying mechanisms of gene regulations and networks. Furthermore, bidirectional promoters can co-regulate many biological pathways, where the roles of bidirectional promoters can be studied systematically for identifying co-regulating genes at interactive network level. Combining information from different but related studies can ultimately help revealing the landscape of molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases such as cancer. PMID:25559210

  1. Some Hail 'Computational Science' as Biggest Advance Since Newton, Galileo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1987-01-01

    Computational science is defined as science done on a computer. A computer can serve as a laboratory for researchers who cannot experiment with their subjects, and as a calculator for those who otherwise might need centuries to solve some problems mathematically. The National Science Foundation's support of supercomputers is discussed. (MLW)

  2. Lost in translation: Discourses, boundaries and legitimacy in the public understanding of science in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Simon Jay

    2008-07-01

    This thesis documents the historical development of debates around the public understanding of science in the UK from 1985 until 2005. Testimonies from key actors involved in the evolution of the recent public understanding of science arena, and an examination of documentary evidence, have been used to map out how this issue was problematised by scientists in the mid-1980s, and how it has developed into a contested field of activity, political interest and academic research. I propose that this historical period can be broadly understood in four phases each characterised by a dominant discourse of the public understanding of science. I examine how, within each phase, the various groups involved have engaged in boundary work: rhetorically constructing, and mobilising, ideas of 'science', 'the public', and the perceived 'problem' in the relationship between the two, in the pursuit of defining and legitimating themselves and these definitions of the relationship between science and public. Phase I is characterised as a rhetorical re-framing of earlier 'problems' of the public understanding of science by scientists and scientific institutions in the context of the 1980s. Phase II is dominated by the boundary work between scientists and social scientists as they contended for legitimacy and authority over competing discourses of public understanding of science and the institutionalisation of PUS activity and research. Phase III is characterised by a variety of discursive formulations of the 'problem' of PUS following the House of Lords report (2000) and a subsequent change in the rhetoric of public understanding of science to one of public engagement. Phase IV is dominated by the language of 'upstream engagement' and identifies the political interest in managing science's relationship with the public and the social scientific responses to this.

  3. The 159th national meeting of the American Association for the advancement of science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This volume is the program/abstracts for the 1993 national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The meeting was held in Boston from 11-16 February 1993. Symposia dealt with works on the following topics; perspectives on human genetics; confronting AIDS; biology, cells bugs; medical research society; social psychology neuroscience; future chemistry, from carbon to silicon; measuring the matter energy of the universe; earth's ever-changing atmosphere; causing coping with environmental change; agricultural biotechnology, plant protection production; science corporate enterprise; examining reforming the economic system; science, ethics the law; communicating science to the public; information technology the changing face of science; mathematics, concepts computations; international cooperation human survival; science for everyone; science religion, examining both; anthropology, dynamics of human history; international science issues; improving formal science education; and science education reform in America. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this volume.

  4. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice After a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the course of this study. The primary data sources were (a) assessment of the elementary teachers' NOS views before and after the graduate level NOS course using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire Version B (VNOS-B) (Lederman et al., 2002) coupled with interviews, and (b) a classroom observation and videotaped recording of the elementary teachers' best NOS lessons coupled with interview. We identified three distinct but related factors that mediated the translation of NOS views into classroom practice: the teachers' perspectives about the developmental appropriateness of the NOS aspect, the teachers' selection of target NOS aspects, and the relative importance placed by teachers on each NOS aspect.

  5. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    PubMed

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  6. Improving Exposure Science for Screening, Prioritizing and Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advance the characterization of exposure science required to translate advances and findings in computational toxicology to information that can be directly used to support exposure and risk assessment for decision making and improved public health.

  7. Secondary science teachers' view toward and classroom translation of sustained professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth Blake

    This study concerns the phenomenon of secondary science teacher learning and enacting instructional strategies learned at the Communication in Science Inquiry Project (CISIP) teacher professional development events, as well as teacher perception of, and relationship to, this year-long professional development program. The CISIP program teaches science teachers how to build scientific classroom discourse communities with their students. Some of the science teachers were previous participants in the professional development, and acted as mentor teachers. The research design employed an integrated conceptual framework of situated learning theory with an analytical lens of teachers' professional, institutional and affinity, identities. A multi-method approach was used to generate data. Throughout the 2007-2008 academic year, the teachers' fidelity to the professional development model was measured using a classroom observation instrument aligned with the professional development model. From these observation data a longitudinal model, using hierarchical linear modeling, was constructed. In addition, surveys and interview data were used to construct both whole group and case studies of two high school science teachers who taught biology at the same school. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between previous and new participants; specifically, the longer teachers had participated in the professional development, and adopted a mentorship role, the greater their fidelity of classroom instruction to the CISIP model. Additionally, the case study teacher who developed a CISIP model-aligned affinity identity implemented more of the instructional strategies than the teacher who maintained his school-based institutional identity.

  8. Targeted radionuclide and fluorescence dual-modality imaging of cancer: preclinical advances and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Lütje, S; Rijpkema, M; Helfrich, W; Oyen, W J G; Boerman, O C

    2014-12-01

    In oncology, sensitive and reliable detection tumor tissue is crucial to prevent recurrences and to improve surgical outcome. Currently, extensive research is focused on the use of radionuclides as well as fluorophores to provide real-time guidance during surgery to aid the surgeon in the identification of malignant tissue. Particularly, dual-modality approaches combining radionuclide and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging have shown promising results in preclinical studies. Radionuclide imaging allows sensitive intra-operative localization of tumor lesions using a gamma probe, whereas NIRF imaging allows more accurate real-time tumor delineation. Consequently, both radionuclide and NIRF imaging might complement each other, and dual-modality image-guided surgery may overcome limitations of the currently used single-modality imaging techniques. In this review, a comprehensive overview on recent preclinical advances in tumor-targeted radionuclide and fluorescence dual-modality imaging is provided. Subsequently, the clinical applicability of dual-modality image-guided surgery is discussed.

  9. Integrating current reform principles: How the implementation of inquiry into secondary school science lessons translates into pedagogical changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Shelley Hill

    Standards and goals for science education have been established at the national level, as well as at the state level. The big challenge in the educational system today lies in how to implement this new vision for science education into the traditional science classroom. Further, this new set of guidelines also raises concerns about development effective pedagogical practices, as well as the creation of professional development programs designed to meet these goals. Inadequate evidence exists, however, that details the methods by which the changes set forth in current science reform documents can be effectively put into practice in the traditional classroom. This inquiry attempted to explore and describe the implementation of a professional development program, designed to foster the incorporation of inquiry into the traditional classroom, through the development of a collaborative environment at the department level within a high school setting. Additional components of this study included an investigation into changes in student attitudes and perceptions towards science and their classroom environment, as well as the extent to which the teachers' perceptions of their teaching efficacy and their classroom environment changed as a result of the incorporation of inquiry methods into their classrooms. The impact of the use of the inquiry methods, especially through the use of the learning cycle by the participants, was also examined. Data from the following sources were collected and analyzed in this mixed methods study: (a) surveys; (b) classroom observations; (c) interviews; and (d) field notes. The evidence suggested that an effective professional development model included opportunities for teachers to learn in collaborative groups as a part of the normal school day. This type of learning situation further resulted in changes in teachers' beliefs, which translated into changes in their classroom environments which were more closely aligned with those set forth in

  10. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  11. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  12. 77 FR 59934 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...., Room 1082, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435- 0811, hildsa@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National...., Room 1082, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435- 0811, hildsa@mail.nih.gov . Dated: September 25,...

  13. 78 FR 21131 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...., Democracy 1, Room 1084, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435-0829, mv10f@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National...), National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Democracy 1, Room 1084, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301... Blvd., Democracy 1, Room 1084, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435-0829, mv10f@nih.gov . Dated: April...

  14. 78 FR 8546 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and National Human Genome Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI): Cooperative Research and Development Agreement... the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH),...

  15. 77 FR 74674 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    .... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Cures Acceleration Network Review Board. The meeting... Acceleration Network Review Board. Date: January 23, 2013. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 2:45 p.m. Agenda: Report of...

  16. 78 FR 8544 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): Cooperative Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... commercialization of a technology or small molecule compounds that are in an early phase of development. Respondents... inventions arising from the performance of the CRADA research plan. Recombinant relaxin hormone has been... successful commercialization; and, (5) collaborator's ability to provide adequate funding to support some...

  17. 78 FR 28601 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Request for Comment on Proposed Methods for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... proposals for which industry may be eligible; (2) open public meetings to gather input on NCATS plans... gathering input on NCATS plans, priorities, and programs of NCATS activities and concept clearances at the... input on NCATS plans, priorities, and programs with industry organizations including, but not limited...

  18. The Translation of Teachers' Understanding of Gifted Students into Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soonhye; Oliver, J. Steve

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how instructional challenges presented by gifted students shaped teachers' instructional strategies. This study is a qualitative research grounded in a social constructivist framework. The participants were three high school science teachers who were teaching identified gifted students in both heterogeneously- and…

  19. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  20. Lost in Translation? Deconstructing Science in the News through an Inquiry-Based Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes an experiment to introduce freshmen science students to inquiry-based learning. The overarching theme was the communication of scientific information to the public by the mass media. Students, working in groups, deconstructed news items (many dealing with basic biomedical issues) and assessed the veracity of statements with…

  1. Science Does Not Speak for Itself: Translating Child Development Research for the Public and Its Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who…

  2. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  3. Translating Knowledge into Action at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Trine; Francis, Charles; Pederson, Kristin; Lieblein, Geir; Rahman, Md. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the impacts of action learning on graduates' abilities to use interdisciplinary knowledge to solve problems, practice teamwork on the job and become change agents through study in two MSc programmes at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). Design/methodology/approach: Electronic questionnaires were…

  4. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  5. Cognitive Factors and Residual Speech Errors: Basic Science, Translational Research, and Some Clinical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Catherine Torrington

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the theoretical and empirical relationships between cognitive factors and residual speech errors (RSEs). Definitions of relevant cognitive domains are provided, as well as examples of formal and informal tasks that may be appropriate in assessment. Although studies to date have been limited in number and scope, basic research suggests that cognitive flexibility, short- and long-term memory, and self-monitoring may be areas of weakness in this population. Preliminary evidence has not supported a relationship between inhibitory control, attention, and RSEs; however, further studies that control variables such as language ability and temperament are warranted. Previous translational research has examined the effects of self-monitoring training on residual speech errors. Although results have been mixed, some findings suggest that children with RSEs may benefit from the inclusion of this training. The article closes with a discussion of clinical frameworks that target cognitive skills, including self-monitoring and attention, as a means of facilitating speech sound change.

  6. Mitochondrial Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Clinical Frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ben; Cohen, Bruce; Copeland, William; Maria, Bernard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial medicine provides a metabolic perspective on the pathology of conditions linked with inadequate oxidative phosphorylation. Dysfunction in the mitochondrial machinery can result in improper energy production, leading to cellular injury or even apoptosis. Clinical presentations are often subtle, so clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to make early diagnoses. Symptoms could include muscle weakness and pain, seizures, loss of motor control, decreased visual and auditory functions, metabolic acidosis, acute developmental regression, and immune system dysfunction. The 2013 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe accepted clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial disease produced from various mitochondrial mutations, (2) discuss contemporary understanding of molecular mechanisms that contribute to disease pathology, (3) highlight the systemic effects produced by dysfunction within the mitochondrial machinery, and (4) introduce current strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics. PMID:24916430

  7. Batten Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dolisca, Sarah-Bianca; Mehta, Mitali; Pearce, David A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively the most common neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, are primarily caused by an autosomal recessive genetic mutation leading to a lysosomal storage disease. Clinically these diseases manifest at varying ages of onset, and associated symptoms include cognitive decline, movement disorders, seizures, and retinopathy. The underlying cell biology and biochemistry that cause the clinical phenotypes of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are still being elaborated. The 2012 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 41st Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) provide a survey of the currently accepted forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and their associated genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes; (2) highlight the specific pathology of Batten disease; (3) discuss the contemporary understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to pathology; and (4) introduce strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics. PMID:23838031

  8. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  9. Data sharing in stem cell translational science: policy statement by the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    PubMed

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.

  10. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  11. A distributed model: redefining a robust research subject advocacy program at the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sabune J; Cagliero, Enrico; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center ("Harvard Catalyst") Research Subject Advocacy (RSA) Program has reengineered subject advocacy, distributing the delivery of advocacy functions through a multi-institutional, central platform rather than vesting these roles and responsibilities in a single individual functioning as a subject advocate. The program is process-oriented and output-driven, drawing on the strengths of participating institutions to engage local stakeholders both in the protection of research subjects and in advocacy for subjects' rights. The program engages stakeholder communities in the collaborative development and distributed delivery of accessible and applicable educational programming and resources. The Harvard Catalyst RSA Program identifies, develops, and supports the sharing and distribution of expertise, education, and resources for the benefit of all institutions, with a particular focus on the frontline: research subjects, researchers, research coordinators, and research nurses.

  12. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients.

  13. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Pai, Akshatha K.; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J.; West, Andrew C.; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J.; Winslow, Raimond L.; Stephens, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 ‘s ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  14. USGS Science Data Catalog - Open Data Advances or Declines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Latysh, N.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.; Shrestha, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) White House Open Data Policies (2013) have required Federal agencies to establish formal catalogues of their science data holdings and make these data easily available on Web sites, portals, and applications. As an organization, the USGS has historically excelled at making its data holdings freely available on its various Web sites (i.e., National, Scientific Programs, or local Science Center). In response to these requirements, the USGS Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries program, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE), and a number of other USGS organizations, established the Science Data Catalog (http://data.usgs.gov) cyberinfrastructure, content management processes/tools, and supporting policies. The USGS Science Data Catalog led the charge at USGS to improve the robustness of existing/future metadata collections; streamline and develop sustainable publishing to external aggregators (i.e., data.gov); and provide leadership to the U.S. Department of Interior in emerging Open Data policies, techniques, and systems. The session will discuss the current successes, challenges, and movement toward meeting these Open Data policies for USGS scientific data holdings. A retrospective look at the last year of implementation of these efforts within USGS will occur to determine whether these Open Data Policies are improving data access or limiting data availability. To learn more about the USGS Science Data Catalog, visit us at http://data.usgs.gov/info/about.html

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2009 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Nearly 80% of all chemical reactions in nature and in human technology take place at boundaries between phases, i.e., at surfaces or interfaces. A detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces and interfaces is therefore necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and life style of our society. One of the challenges of modern surface science is thus to expand its range of investigations to all types of surfaces and interfaces and to develop a thorough understanding of the relationships between molecular-scale surface properties and parameters relevant to potential applications and devices. Beyond these technological drivers, however, is a rich range of novel and fundamental physical and chemical properties at surfaces and interfaces down to the nanoscale whose study represents outstanding intellectual challenges. The current research focuses on atomic- and molecular-level studies of the structure (atomic and electronic), bonding, reactivity, dynamics, restructuring, and magnetism at the surfaces and interfaces of metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers, biological molecules, and liquids. Such investigations are becoming more and more important in view of the increasing emphasis on nanometer-scale structures in almost every technological application, from heterogeneous catalysis to microcircuit fabrication to magnetic data storage. As the scale of devices continues to be reduced, the distinction between bulk and surface properties becomes blurred, and all of the properties of materials tend to become interfacial This Focus Issue includes exciting new developments in the field of surface and interface science ranging, e.g., from the properties of metal-water interfaces to single-atom contacts. Special emphasis was taken to coupling theory with experiments aimed at elucidating fundamental atomic scale phenomena. It combines a broad expert and frontiers survey of research in this field today with an up

  16. The Navigation Guide Systematic Review Methodology: A Rigorous and Transparent Method for Translating Environmental Health Science into Better Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Synthesizing what is known about the environmental drivers of health is instrumental to taking prevention-oriented action. Methods of research synthesis commonly used in environmental health lag behind systematic review methods developed in the clinical sciences over the past 20 years. Objectives: We sought to develop a proof of concept of the “Navigation Guide,” a systematic and transparent method of research synthesis in environmental health. Discussion: The Navigation Guide methodology builds on best practices in research synthesis in evidence-based medicine and environmental health. Key points of departure from current methods of expert-based narrative review prevalent in environmental health include a prespecified protocol, standardized and transparent documentation including expert judgment, a comprehensive search strategy, assessment of “risk of bias,” and separation of the science from values and preferences. Key points of departure from evidence-based medicine include assigning a “moderate” quality rating to human observational studies and combining diverse evidence streams. Conclusions: The Navigation Guide methodology is a systematic and rigorous approach to research synthesis that has been developed to reduce bias and maximize transparency in the evaluation of environmental health information. Although novel aspects of the method will require further development and validation, our findings demonstrated that improved methods of research synthesis under development at the National Toxicology Program and under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are fully achievable. The institutionalization of robust methods of systematic and transparent review would provide a concrete mechanism for linking science to timely action to prevent harm. Citation: Woodruff TJ, Sutton P. 2014. The Navigation Guide systematic review methodology: a rigorous and transparent method for translating environmental health science into

  17. e-Science platform for translational biomedical imaging research: running, statistics, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mingqing; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In order to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment, we had designed an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in Shanghai and presented this work in SPIE Medical Imaging conference held in San Diego in 2012. In past the two-years, we implemented a biomedical image chain including communication, storage, cooperation and computing based on this e-Science platform. In this presentation, we presented the operating status of this system in supporting biomedical imaging research, analyzed and discussed results of this system in supporting multi-disciplines collaboration cross-multiple institutions.

  18. The Translation of Teachers' Understanding of Gifted Students Into Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soonhye; Steve Oliver, J.

    2009-08-01

    This study examined how instructional challenges presented by gifted students shaped teachers’ instructional strategies. This study is a qualitative research grounded in a social constructivist framework. The participants were three high school science teachers who were teaching identified gifted students in both heterogeneously- and homogeneously-grouped classrooms. Major data sources are classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis indicated that these science teachers developed content-specific teaching strategies based on their understanding of gifted students, including: (a) instructional differentiation, e.g., thematic units, (b) variety in instructional mode and/or students’ products, (c) student grouping strategies and peer tutoring, (d) individualized support, (e) strategies to manage challenging questions, (f) strategies to deal with the perfectionism, and (g) psychologically safe classroom environments.

  19. FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough ... that FDA studies will continue. “We enjoy the science,” says Merkel. “But what’s driving our research is ...

  20. A Strategic Action Plan for Advancing Math and Science Education in New Mexico 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This Strategic Action Plan for Advancing Math and Science Education is an initial outline of strategies, actions, measures of progress, resources needed, timelines, and responsible parties. The Plan focuses on these three main goals: (1) increasing student interest, participation, and achievement in math and science; (2) raising public support and…

  1. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although more women than men participate in higher education in the United States, the same is not true when it comes to pursuing careers in science and engineering. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering identifies and discusses better practices for recruitment, retention, and promotion for women scientists…

  2. The Influence of Applied STEM Coursetaking on Advanced Mathematics and Science Coursetaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced mathematics and science course taking is critical in building the foundation for students to advance through the STEM pathway-from high school to college to career. To invigorate students' persistence in STEM fields, high schools have been introducing applied STEM courses into the curriculum as a way to reinforce concepts learned in…

  3. Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J., Ed.; Kozma, Robert B., Ed.

    This collection of essays consists of current work that addresses the challenge not just to put the newest technologies in schools, but to identify advanced ways to design and use these new technologies to advance learning. These essays are intended for science and mathematics educators, educational and cognitive researchers, instructional…

  4. Advanced Technologies and Data Management Practices in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Mayernik, Matthew S.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Allen, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the…

  5. Advancing Science Literacy Through the Climate Change National Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Quirke, M.; Lefer, B. L.; Hester, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change National Forum (http://climatechangenationalforum.org) was established almost a year ago to provide a publicly visible platform for discussion of scientific issues related to climate change and, at a later date, policy options motivated by climate change science. The site is also designed to promote public literacy in the culture and conduct of science by incorporating dozens of active scientists in a broad range of climate science and related fields and encouraging dialogue among those scientists. The forum provides a rare window into scientific debate, allowing non-scientists to see how scientists evaluate the work of others, construct meaning out of various bits of evidence, formulate ideas, challenge their colleagues, and (on occasion) develop a consensus. As such, the site is intended to have educational value well beyond its climate science focus.

  6. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  7. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2009-06-03

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  8. Rho Kinases in Health and Disease: From Basic Science to Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Loirand, Gervaise

    2015-10-01

    Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are key regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics downstream of Rho GTPases that participate in the control of important physiologic functions, S including cell contraction, migration, proliferation, adhesion, and inflammation. Several excellent review articles dealing with ROCK function and regulation have been published over the past few years. Although a brief overview of general molecular, biochemical, and functional properties of ROCKs is included, an effort has been made to produce an original work by collecting and synthesizing recent studies aimed at translating basic discoveries from cell and experimental models into knowledge of human physiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and medical therapeutics. This review points out the specificity and distinct roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms highlighted in the last few years. Results obtained from genetically modified mice and genetic analysis in humans are discussed. This review also addresses the involvement of ROCKs in human diseases and the potential use of ROCK activity as a biomarker or a pharmacological target for specific inhibitors. PMID:26419448

  9. Translational research: precision medicine, personalized medicine, targeted therapies: marketing or science?

    PubMed

    Marquet, Pierre; Longeray, Pierre-Henry; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ameye, Véronique; Augé, Pascale; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Chatelut, Etienne; Diaz, Isabelle; Diviné, Marine; Froguel, Philippe; Goni, Sylvia; Gueyffier, François; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Mourah, Samia; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Perche, Olivier; Perin-Dureau, Florent; Pigeon, Martine; Tisseau, Anne; Verstuyft, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is based on: 1) improved clinical or non-clinical methods (including biomarkers) for a more discriminating and precise diagnosis of diseases; 2) targeted therapies of the choice or the best drug for each patient among those available; 3) dose adjustment methods to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of the drugs chosen; 4) biomarkers of efficacy, toxicity, treatment discontinuation, relapse, etc. Unfortunately, it is still too often a theoretical concept because of the lack of convenient diagnostic methods or treatments, particularly of drugs corresponding to each subtype of pathology, hence to each patient. Stratified medicine is a component of personalized medicine employing biomarkers and companion diagnostics to target the patients likely to present the best benefit-risk balance for a given active compound. The concept of targeted therapy, mostly used in cancer treatment, relies on the existence of a defined molecular target, involved or not in the pathological process, and/or on the existence of a biomarker able to identify the target population, which should logically be small as compared to the population presenting the disease considered. Targeted therapies and biomarkers represent important stakes for the pharmaceutical industry, in terms of market access, of return on investment and of image among the prescribers. At the same time, they probably represent only the first generation of products resulting from the combination of clinical, pathophysiological and molecular research, i.e. of translational research.

  10. The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve

    2016-03-01

    A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum.

  11. The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve

    2016-03-01

    A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum. PMID:27012249

  12. Advancing Symptom Science Through Use of Common Data Elements

    PubMed Central

    Redeker, Nancy S.; Anderson, Ruth; Bakken, Suzanne; Corwin, Elizabeth; Docherty, Sharron; Dorsey, Susan G.; Heitkemper, Margaret; McCloskey, Donna Jo; Moore, Shirley; Pullen, Carol; Rapkin, Bruce; Schiffman, Rachel; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Grady, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of common data elements (CDEs), conceptually defined as variables that are operationalized and measured in identical ways across studies, enables comparison of data across studies in ways that would otherwise be impossible. Although healthcare researchers are increasingly using CDEs, there has been little systematic use of CDEs for symptom science. CDEs are especially important in symptom science because people experience common symptoms across a broad range of health and developmental states, and symptom management interventions may have common outcomes across populations. Purposes The purposes of this article are to (a) recommend best practices for the use of CDEs for symptom science within and across centers; (b) evaluate the benefits and challenges associated with the use of CDEs for symptom science; (c) propose CDEs to be used in symptom science to serve as the basis for this emerging science; and (d) suggest implications and recommendations for future research and dissemination of CDEs for symptom science. Design The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)-supported P20 and P30 Center directors applied published best practices, expert advice, and the literature to identify CDEs to be used across the centers to measure pain, sleep, fatigue, and affective and cognitive symptoms. Findings We generated a minimum set of CDEs to measure symptoms. Conclusions The CDEs identified through this process will be used across the NINR Centers and will facilitate comparison of symptoms across studies. We expect that additional symptom CDEs will be added and the list will be refined in future work. Clinical Relevance Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47:5, ©2015 Sigma Theta Tau International. PMID:26250061

  13. Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is accompanied by altered motor activity and abnormal thermoregulation; therefore, the presence of these symptoms can enhance the face validity of a schizophrenia animal model. The goal was to characterize these parameters in freely moving condition of a new substrain of rats showing several schizophrenia-related alterations. Methods Male Wistar rats were used: the new substrain housed individually (for four weeks) and treated subchronically with ketamine, and naive animals without any manipulations. Adult animals were implanted with E-Mitter transponders intraabdominally to record body temperature and locomotor activity continuously. The circadian rhythm of these parameters and the acute effects of changes in light conditions were analyzed under undisturbed circumstances, and the effects of different interventions (handling, bed changing or intraperitoneal vehicle injection) were also determined. Results Decreased motor activity with fragmented pattern was observed in the new substrain. However, these animals had higher body temperature during the active phase, and they showed wider range of its alterations, too. The changes in light conditions and different interventions produced blunted hyperactivity and altered body temperature responses in the new substrain. Poincaré plot analysis of body temperature revealed enhanced short- and long-term variabilities during the active phase compared to the inactive phase in both groups. Furthermore, the new substrain showed increased short- and long-term variabilities with lower degree of asymmetry suggesting autonomic dysregulation. Conclusions In summary, the new substrain with schizophrenia-related phenomena showed disturbed motor activity and thermoregulation suggesting that these objectively determined parameters can be biomarkers in translational research. PMID:26629908

  14. Translating Science to Policy under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Lessons from the National Evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Zigler, Edward F.

    2006-01-01

    Passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 ushered in a new era of accountability for educational institutions and social programs in the United States. Federal funding became tied to demonstrated results on the basis of scientifically based research. In this paper we recount the science-to-policy translation process for one of the…

  15. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  16. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  17. The many meanings of evidence: implications for the translational science agenda in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gill

    2013-09-01

    Health systems across the world are concerned with the quality and safety of patient care. This includes investing in research and development to progress advances in the treatment and management of individuals and healthcare organisations. The concept of evidence- based healthcare has gained increasing currency over the last two decades; yet questions persist about the time it takes for new research evidence to find its way into day to day healthcare decision-making. This paper explores the reasons for this apparent gap between research and healthcare practice, management and policy-making. In particular, the paper argues that different meanings attached to the word 'evidence' fundamentally influence the way in which the research-practice gap is conceptualised and subsequent strategies that are implemented to increase the uptake of research.

  18. In-Service Training of Elementary School Science Teachers. Advancing Education Through Science-Oriented Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thier, Herbert D.

    In-service training of elementary school science teachers, the topic of the United States-Japan Joint Science Seminar held in Kyoto and Tokyo, Japan in 1975, is presented. Program innovations and their relationship to in-service education in the United States and Japan are discussed. The role of Japanese science centers and schools is included in…

  19. Advancing the art and science of dietary assessment through technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research editorial presents the background against which dietitians may consider the benefits of new technology being incorporated into the art and science of dietary assessment. The background provides past changes that have increased the need for computer applications being developed for indi...

  20. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  1. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  2. Advanced Placement Computer Science with Pascal. Volume 2. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide presents 100 lessons for an advanced placement course on programming in Pascal. Some of the topics covered include arrays, sorting, strings, sets, records, computers in society, files, stacks, queues, linked lists, binary trees, searching, hashing, and chaining. Performance objectives, vocabulary, motivation, aim,…

  3. Science Investigations with Laser Ranging to the Moon and Mars/Phobos: Recent Advances, Technology Demonstrations, and New Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Folkner, William M.

    2010-05-01

    transponder on Mars/Phobos could lead to major advances in science investigations of Mars/Phobos. Technology is available to conduct such measurements with a picosecond timing precision which could translate into mm-level accuracies achieved in ranging between the Earth and Mars/Phobos. The resulting Mars Laser Ranging (MLR) would provide new opportunities for robust advances in the tests of relativistic gravity and the properties of Martian interior, including liquid core, could be determined from Martian rotation, orientation, tidal response. Alternatively, Phobos laser Ranging (PLR) would benefit the study of Phobos and the Martian system. Given the current technology readiness level, PLR could be started in 2011 for launch in 2016 for 3 years of science operations. We discuss the PLR's science objectives, instrument, and mission design. We also present the details of science simulations performed to support the mission's primary objectives. The work described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. [Necessary changes for advancing nursing as caring science].

    PubMed

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2013-09-01

    The article aimed to reflect upon the challenges involved in strengthening Nursing as a caring science. It is founded on the sociological theory, connecting three approaches: the historical-dialectic materialism perspective about the working process in health care and nursing; the sociology of professions from a critical perspective; and the philosophy of science. The discussion is organized considering the aspects of Nursing as a discipline, work and health care profession. It sustains that knowledge production should be driven both by the purpose of Nursing work which is providing care to human beings with health needs and to advocate for the indispensable work conditions to a safe and responsible practice. It concludes that to strengthening Nursing it is necessary to produce knowledge to support nursing care and the political actions defending safe work conditions, the universal right to health as well safe and high quality care. PMID:24092308

  5. How the Common Component Architecture Advances Compuational Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Bernholdt, D; Epperly, T; Kohl, J; McInnes, L C; Parker, S; Ray, J

    2006-06-19

    Computational chemists are using Common Component Architecture (CCA) technology to increase the parallel scalability of their application ten-fold. Combustion researchers are publishing science faster because the CCA manages software complexity for them. Both the solver and meshing communities in SciDAC are converging on community interface standards as a direct response to the novel level of interoperability that CCA presents. Yet, there is much more to do before component technology becomes mainstream computational science. This paper highlights the impact that the CCA has made on scientific applications, conveys some lessons learned from five years of the SciDAC program, and previews where applications could go with the additional capabilities that the CCA has planned for SciDAC 2.

  6. Advancing alternate tools: why science education needs CRP and CRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodo Seriki, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Ridgeway and Yerrick's paper, Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, unearthed the tensions that existed between a local community "expert" and a group of students and their facilitator in an afterschool program. Those of us who work with youth who are traditionally marginalized, understand the importance of teaching in culturally relevant ways, but far too often—as Ridgeway and Yerrick shared—community partners have beliefs, motives, and ideologies that are incompatible to the program's mission and goals. Nevertheless, we often enter partnerships assuming that the other party understands the needs of the students or community; understands how in U.S. society White is normative while all others are deficient; and understands how to engage with students in culturally relevant ways. This forum addresses the underlying assumption, described in the Ridgeway and Yerrick article, that educators—despite their background and experiences—are able to teach in culturally relevant ways. Additionally, I assert based on the finding in the article that just as Ladson-Billings and Tate (Teach Coll Rec 97(1):47-68, 1995) asserted, race in the U.S. society, as a scholarly pursuit, was under theorized. The same is true of science education; race in science education is under theorized and the use of culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory as a pedagogical model and analytical tool, respectively, in science education is minimal. The increased use of both would impact our understanding of who does science, and how to broaden participation among people of color.

  7. Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential in advanced science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascoe, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this study was to examine gifted Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential in science. Major concerns were to determine how these self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential influenced gifted Black males' capacity to compete in advanced science classes and to determine how science teachers may have influenced participants' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential. This study required an approach that would allow an interpretive aspect for the experiences of gifted Black males in advanced science classes. An intrinsic qualitative case study design with a critical theory framework was used. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Each participant was interviewed twice and each interview averaged 45 minutes. The purposeful sample consisted of nine gifted high school Black males between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. The categories of gifted Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential included gifted high achievers, gifted 'could do better' high achievers, gifted 'could do better' situational nonachievers, and gifted 'could do better' underachievers. Gifted Black male participants' perceptions regarding their science teachers' influence on their self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential included validation, reinforcement, and enhancement. These participants' perceptions regarding how science teachers' influenced their academic performance in science included science teachers' content knowledge, science teachers' skills to make science challenging and engaging, and a safe learning environment. The conclusions of this study described competing power dynamics of science teachers and gifted Black males' interactions in the science learning environment. The discussion also included a summary of relationships among the emergent themes

  8. The ADVANCE Program: Targeting the Increase in the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperanca, S.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to

  9. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John

    2014-04-24

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  10. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Carpenter, John

    2016-07-12

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  11. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  12. The Role of Science and Technology in the Advancement of Women Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, I.; Farhar, B.

    2000-10-12

    Participants at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, created a Platform for Action focusing on 12 critical areas of concern (poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, the media, environment, and the girl child) and the serious barriers to women's health and well-being in each area. Subsequently, the Department of Energy funded a study, described here, that shows, in a literature review and in interviews with 15 women experts, how science and technology can be integral to women's advancement in each of the 12 critical areas. Among the study's conclusions are that differing perspectives exist (pro-science, relativist, and skeptical) on the role of science and technology in women's lives and that these differing perspectives may explain why communication is difficult among policy makers and with scientists about the role science and technology may play in the advancem ent of women worldwide. Recommendations call for women's involvement in the ethics of science; removal of institutional barriers to advancing women; greater accountability in use of resources; changes in science education; and increased dialogue among those with differing perspectives on the role of science and technology in the advancement of women.

  13. Faculty Participation in and Needs around Community Engagement within a Large Multiinstitutional Clinical and Translational Science Awardee.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Norris, Keith; Mangione, Carol; Del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta; Castro, Daniel; Wang, Christina; Bell, Douglas; Vangala, Sitaram; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Community engagement is recommended to ensure the public health impact of NIH-funded science. To understand the prevalence of community-engaged research and faculty interest in and needs around this, from 2012 to 2013, an online survey (n = 3,022) was sent to UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute faculty. Among respondents, 45% reported community-engaged project participation in the last year and 64% an interest in learning about community-engaged research. Over 50% indicated career development and pilot grants would increase participation in community-engaged research. A greater percentage of pretenure than tenured faculty (pretenure 54.9%, tenured 42.2%, p = 0008) noted faculty promotion criteria incentivizing community-engaged research would increase participation. In adjusted analyses, African American (OR 4.06, CI 1.68-9.82, p = 0.002) and Latino (OR 1.91, CI 1.10-3.33, p = 0.022) faculty had higher odds of prior participation in community-engaged projects than Whites. Female faculty had greater odds of interest (OR 1.40, CI 1.02-1.93, p = 0.038) in learning about community-engaged research than males. African American (OR 4.31, CI 1.42-13.08, p = 0.010) and Asian/Pacific Islander (OR 2.24, CI 1.52-3.28, p < 0.001) faculty had greater interest in learning about community-engaged research than Whites. To build community-engaged faculty research capacity, CTSAs' may need to focus resources on female and minority faculty development. PMID:26332679

  14. The effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on increasing enrollment and performance on Advanced Placement science exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The National Math and Science Initiative provided data for cohort I. A general linear model for repeated measures was used to evaluate the data. Data was evaluated three years prior to the intervention and three years during the intervention, which will actually continue for two more years (2012 and 2013) since cohort I schools were awarded five years of support. Students in APTIP schools enrolled in more AP science exams (AP Biology, AP Chemistry, AP Environmental Science, and AP Physics-B) over the course of the intervention. The quantity of students earning qualifying scores increased during the intervention years. APTIP is a multi-tiered program that includes seven days of teacher training, three six-hour student prep sessions, school equipment, reduced exam fees, and monetary incentives for students and teachers. This program positively impacted the quantity of enrollment and qualifying scores during the three years evaluated in this study. Increases in the number of female and African American students' test takers their and qualifying scores were seen in all three years of the APTIP intervention. This study supports the premise that the first step to increasing the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) pipeline is giving access to advanced courses to more students in high schools.

  15. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  16. Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Energy Technologies II

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Dr Josef; Ohji, Tatsuki; Liu, Xingbo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Devanathan, Ram; Fox, Kevin; Singh, Mrityunjay; Wong-ng, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science and Technology 2012 Conference and Exhibition (MS&T'12) was held October 7-11, 2012, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of the major themes of the conference was Environmental and Energy Issues. Papers from five of the symposia held under that theme are invluded in this volume. These symposia included Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management for the 21st Century; Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing IV; Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications; Energy Conversion-Photovoltaic, Concentraing Solar Power and Thermoelectric; and Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments.

  17. Advanced Information Technology Investments at the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) regularly makes investments for nurturing advanced concepts in information technology to enable rapid, low-cost acquisition, processing and visualization of Earth science data in support of future NASA missions and climate change research. In 2012, the National Research Council published a mid-term assessment of the 2007 decadal survey for future spacemissions supporting Earth science and applications [1]. The report stated, "Earth sciences have advanced significantly because of existing observational capabilities and the fruit of past investments, along with advances in data and information systems, computer science, and enabling technologies." The report found that NASA had responded favorably and aggressively to the decadal survey and noted the role of the recent ESTO solicitation for information systems technologies that partnered with the NASA Applied Sciences Program to support the transition into operations. NASA's future missions are key stakeholders for the ESTO technology investments. Also driving these investments is the need for the Agency to properly address questions regarding the prediction, adaptation, and eventual mitigation of climate change. The Earth Science Division has championed interdisciplinary research, recognizing that the Earth must be studied as a complete system in order toaddress key science questions [2]. Information technology investments in the low-mid technology readiness level (TRL) range play a key role in meeting these challenges. ESTO's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program invests in higher risk / higher reward technologies that solve the most challenging problems of the information processing chain. This includes the space segment, where the information pipeline begins, to the end user, where knowledge is ultimatelyadvanced. The objectives of the program are to reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of Earth Science space-based and ground

  18. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines and Translating Vaccinomics Science to the Global Health Clinic: Emerging Applications Toward Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As vaccines evolve to be a more common treatment for some cancers, further research is needed to improve the process of developing vaccines and assessing response to treatment. Vaccinomics involves a wide-ranging integration of multiple high throughput technologies including transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational population-based assessments of the human genome, transcriptome, proteome, and immunome. Vaccinomics combines the fields of immunogenetics, immunogenomics, immunoproteomics, and basic immunology to create vaccines that are tailor made to an individual or groups of individuals. This broad range of omics applications to tumor immunology includes antigen discovery, diagnostic biomarkers, cancer vaccine development, predictors of immune response, and clinical response biomarkers. These technologies have aided in the advancement of cancer vaccine development, as illustrated in examples including NY-ESO-1 originally defined by SEREX, and HER2/neu peptides analyzed via high-throughput epitope prediction methods. As technology improves, it presents an opportunity to improve cancer immunotherapy on a global scale, and attention must also be given to utilize these high-throughput methods for the understanding of cancer and immune signatures across populations. PMID:21732821

  19. Advanced technology needs for a global change science program: Perspective of the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Swissler, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the NASA program in remote sensing is primarily the Earth system science and the monitoring of the Earth global changes. One of NASA's roles is the identification and development of advanced sensing techniques, operational spacecraft, and the many supporting technologies necessary to meet the stringent science requirements. Langley Research Center has identified the elements of its current and proposed advanced technology development program that are relevant to global change science according to three categories: sensors, spacecraft, and information system technologies. These technology proposals are presented as one-page synopses covering scope, objective, approach, readiness timeline, deliverables, and estimated funding. In addition, the global change science requirements and their measurement histories are briefly discussed.

  20. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  1. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    PubMed

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  2. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    PubMed

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  3. Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O.; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S.; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Karaömerlioğlu, M. Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Şardaş, Semra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of “one health”—encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health—thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed

  4. Advanced Science Students' Understanding on Nature of Science in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar; Sormunen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Nature of science (NOS), as an aspect of informed decision making about science related issues in daily life, is frequently emphasised when reform and the curriculum are in question. When reflecting on studies done on the subject, it comes apparent that the majority of them comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with traditional…

  5. First 3 years of operation of RIACS (Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science) (1983-1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The focus of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) is to explore matches between advanced computing architectures and the processes of scientific research. An architecture evaluation of the MIT static dataflow machine, specification of a graphical language for expressing distributed computations, and specification of an expert system for aiding in grid generation for two-dimensional flow problems was initiated. Research projects for 1984 and 1985 are summarized.

  6. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  7. Viewpoint: A challenge to academic health centers and the National Institutes of Health to prevent unintended gender bias in the selection of clinical and translational science award leaders.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Bland, Carole

    2007-02-01

    In controlled studies, both men and women preferentially select men over women for leadership positions, even when credentials are identical and despite field studies demonstrating women's equivalent or slightly better leadership effectiveness. The assumption that men will make better leaders than women is attributed to the pervasive existence of unconscious stereotypes that characterize both men and leaders as agentic or action oriented and women as dependent. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap is a novel, prestigious award that will place considerable power in the hands of one principal investigator-conditions that predict activation of bias in favor of selecting male leaders. The authors review research supporting this assertion. To mitigate the impact of this bias and broaden the pool of potential leaders for this transformative initiative, the authors offer the following suggestions. To academic health centers they suggest (1) internal search committees comprised of at least 35% women that establish a priori the desired qualities for the CTSA leader and broadly solicit applicants, (2) explicit specification of the full range of desirable skills of a CTSA leader, and (3) systematic efforts to increase awareness of the negative impact of unconscious gender bias on women's advancement. To the NIH they suggest (1) the new multiple principal investigator rule for the CTSA program, (2) a statement in the request for applications (RFA) encouraging diversity among principal investigators, (3) repetition in the RFA of the public NIH statement of the importance of work life balance for young investigators, and (4) constitution of study sections with at least 35% women. PMID:17264704

  8. Viewpoint: A challenge to academic health centers and the National Institutes of Health to prevent unintended gender bias in the selection of clinical and translational science award leaders.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Bland, Carole

    2007-02-01

    In controlled studies, both men and women preferentially select men over women for leadership positions, even when credentials are identical and despite field studies demonstrating women's equivalent or slightly better leadership effectiveness. The assumption that men will make better leaders than women is attributed to the pervasive existence of unconscious stereotypes that characterize both men and leaders as agentic or action oriented and women as dependent. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap is a novel, prestigious award that will place considerable power in the hands of one principal investigator-conditions that predict activation of bias in favor of selecting male leaders. The authors review research supporting this assertion. To mitigate the impact of this bias and broaden the pool of potential leaders for this transformative initiative, the authors offer the following suggestions. To academic health centers they suggest (1) internal search committees comprised of at least 35% women that establish a priori the desired qualities for the CTSA leader and broadly solicit applicants, (2) explicit specification of the full range of desirable skills of a CTSA leader, and (3) systematic efforts to increase awareness of the negative impact of unconscious gender bias on women's advancement. To the NIH they suggest (1) the new multiple principal investigator rule for the CTSA program, (2) a statement in the request for applications (RFA) encouraging diversity among principal investigators, (3) repetition in the RFA of the public NIH statement of the importance of work life balance for young investigators, and (4) constitution of study sections with at least 35% women.

  9. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  10. Science Highlights from the First Year of Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, M.; Ford, H. C.; Illingworth, G. D.; Hartig, G.; Ardila, D. R.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Bouwens, R. J.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a deep imaging camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the fourth HST servicing mission. ACS recently entered its second year of science operations and continues to perform beyond pre-launch expectations. We present science highlights from the ACS Science Team's GTO program. These highlights include the evolution of Z approx. 6 galaxies from deep imaging observations; deep imaging of strongly lensed clusters which have been used to determine cluster mass, and independently constraint the geometry of the Universe; and coronagraphic observations of debris disks.

  11. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  12. Special Advanced Course for Core Sciences to Bring Up Project Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Kenji; Tabata, Nobuhisa; Gofuku, Akio; Harada, Isao; Takada, Jun

    Special Advanced Course for Core Sciences has been introduced recently to Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, to bring up a project leader. The following points are key education goals in this program : (1) knowledge of core sciences, (2) communication ability by using English, and (3) wide viewpoints for researches. In order to accomplish these goals, several lectures for core sciences, patent systems and engineering ethics as well as long term internships by the collaboration with some regional companies have been put in practice. In this paper, we describe the outline of the program, educational effects, and our experiences. Then, we discuss how effective the program is for bringing up an engineer or a scientist who can lead sciences and technologies of their domains. This paper also describes current activities of the program.

  13. "The first step is admitting you have a problem…": the process of advancing science communication in Landscape Conservation Cooperatives in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, T. M.; Trainor, S.; Warner, N.; Timm, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is impacting ecological systems, coastal processes, and environmental disturbance regimes in Alaska, leading to a pressing need to communicate reliable scientific information about climate change, its impacts, and future projections for land and resource management and decision-making. However, little research has been done to dissect and analyze the process of making the results of scientific inquiry directly relevant and usable in resource management. Based within the Science Application division of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are regional conservation science partnerships that provide scientific and technical expertise needed to support conservation planning at landscape scales and promote collaboration in defining shared conservation goals. The five LCCs with jurisdiction in Alaska recently held a training workshop with the goals of advancing staff understanding and skills related to science communication and translation. We report here preliminary results from analysis of workshop discussions and pre- and post- workshop interviews and surveys revealing expectations, assumptions, and mental models regarding science communication and the process of conducting use-inspired science. Generalizable conclusions can assist scientists and boundary organizations bridge knowledge gaps between science and resource management.

  14. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  15. Advancing Science Through Collaborative Data Sharing and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Howe, George; Sperling, Anne; Beardslee, William; Sandler, Irwin; Shern, David; Pantin, Hilda; Kaupert, Sheila; Cano, Nicole; Cruden, Gracelyn; Bandiera, Frank; Brown, C Hendricks

    2013-07-01

    The demand for researchers to share their data has increased dramatically in recent years. There is a need to replicate and confirm scientific findings to bolster confidence in many research areas. Data sharing also serves the critical function of allowing synthesis of findings across trials. As innovative statistical methods have helped resolve barriers to synthesis analyses, data sharing and synthesis can help answer research questions that cannot be answered by individual trials alone. However, the sharing of data among researchers remains challenging and infrequent. This article aims to (a) increase support for data sharing and synthesis collaborations among researchers to advance scientific knowledge and (b) provide a model for establishing these collaborations using the example of the ongoing National Institute of Mental Health's Collaborative Data Synthesis on Adolescent Depression Trials. This study brings together datasets from existing prevention and treatment trials in adolescent depression, as well as researchers and stakeholders, to answer questions about "for whom interventions work" and "by what pathways interventions have their effects." This is critical to improving interventions, including increasing knowledge about intervention efficacy among minority populations, or what we call "scientific equity." The collaborative model described is relevant to fields with research questions that can only be addressed by synthesizing individual-level data.

  16. Forging Strategic Partnerships to Advance Mental Health Science and Practice for Vulnerable Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; McWayne, Christy; Bulotsky, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework for advancing mental health science and practice for vulnerable children that is in accord with the Surgeon General's priorities for change. Three elements distinguish the framework presented. It is: (a) population-focused, (b) child-centered, and (c) partnership-based. Empirical…

  17. The Equity Education. Fostering the Advancement of Women in the Sciences, Mathematics, and Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cinda-Sue; And Others

    This volume includes 10 reports that present findings and recommendations for advancing women in science, mathematics and engineering. Critical issues facing women in these disciplines are addressed, including demographic myths and realities at various educational levels; the educational pipeline for girls and women; involvement in education and…

  18. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  19. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  20. Journal club: an opportunity to advance the art and science of home health practice.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Susan B; Druist, Kim A; Dillon-Zwerdling, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    A journal club is more than a club. It is an opportunity for staff to gather, learn, share, brainstorm, challenge thinking and ways of doing business, and set future direction. These activities have the potential to advance the art and science of nursing and other disciplines. Developing and implementing a successful journal club requires planning, communication, facilitation, and evaluation.

  1. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  2. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  3. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  4. Advanced Technologies as Educational Tools in Science: Concepts, Applications, and Issues. Monograph Series Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David D.; And Others

    Systems incorporating two advanced technologies, hypermedia systems and intelligent tutors, are examined with respect to their potential impact on science education. The conceptual framework underlying these systems is discussed first. Applications of systems are then presented with examples of each in operation within the context of science…

  5. Advancing K-8 Teachers' STEM Education for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science and Mathematics with Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret; Gillow-Wiles, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This primarily online Master's degree program focused on advancing K-8 teachers' interdisciplinary mathematical and science content knowledge while integrating appropriate digital technologies as learning and teaching tools. The mixed-method, interpretive study examined in-service teachers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK)…

  6. Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  7. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  8. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  9. PARTNERING WITH DOE TO APPLY ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the ...

  10. Translating between Representations in a Social Context: A Study of Undergraduate Science Students' Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Ranasinghe, Muditha; Hanan, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Interacting with and translating across multiple representations is an essential characteristic of expertise and representational fluency. In this study, we explored the effect of interacting with and translating between representations in a computer simulation or in a paper-based assignment on scientific accuracy of undergraduate science…

  11. Science and sociability: women as audience at the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1831-1901.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah; Withers, Charles W J

    2008-03-01

    This essay recovers the experiences of women at the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) from its founding in 1831 to the end of the Victorian era. It aims to add to research on women in science by reconsidering the traditional role of women as consumers rather than producers of knowledge and to that on science popularization by focusing on audience experience rather than on the aims and strategies of popularizers. The essay argues that, in various ways, the ubiquitous and visible female audience came to define the BAAS audience and "the public" for science more generally. The women who swelled the BAAS audiences were accepted as a social element within the meetings even as they were regarded critically as scientific participants. Portrayed as passive and nonscientific, women allowed the male scientific elites to distance themselves from their audiences. Arguing from diary and other evidence, we present examples that complicate existing notions of audiences for science as necessarily active.

  12. The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS): Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; /UCLA

    2011-11-21

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  13. Advanced Density Functional Theory Methods for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Steven

    In this work we chiefly deal with two broad classes of problems in computational materials science, determining the doping mechanism in a semiconductor and developing an extreme condition equation of state. While solving certain aspects of these questions is well-trodden ground, both require extending the reach of existing methods to fully answer them. Here we choose to build upon the framework of density functional theory (DFT) which provides an efficient means to investigate a system from a quantum mechanics description. Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) could be the basis for cheap and highly efficient solar cells. Its use in this regard is limited by the difficulty in n-type doping the material. In an effort to understand the mechanism behind this, the energetics and electronic structure of intrinsic point defects in zinc phosphide are studied using generalized Kohn-Sham theory and utilizing the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional for exchange and correlation. Novel 'perturbation extrapolation' is utilized to extend the use of the computationally expensive HSE functional to this large-scale defect system. According to calculations, the formation energy of charged phosphorus interstitial defects are very low in n-type Zn3P2 and act as 'electron sinks', nullifying the desired doping and lowering the fermi-level back towards the p-type regime. Going forward, this insight provides clues to fabricating useful zinc phosphide based devices. In addition, the methodology developed for this work can be applied to further doping studies in other systems. Accurate determination of high pressure and temperature equations of state is fundamental in a variety of fields. However, it is often very difficult to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures in an laboratory setting. Here we develop methods to determine a multi-phase equation of state for Ta through computation. The typical means of investigating thermodynamic properties is via 'classical' molecular

  14. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  15. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.

  16. Women's Advancement in Political Science. A Report on the APSA Workshop on the Advancement of Women in Academic Political Science in the United States (Washington, DC, March 4-5, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Political Science Association (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    In March 2004, the National Science Foundation funded a two-day workshop by the American Political Science Association (APSA) on the advancement of women in academic political science in the United States. The workshop was prompted by an alarming stall in the number of women entering the discipline and persisting through early years of faculty…

  17. Carl Ludwig's (1847) and Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt's (1860) physiological research and its implications for modern cardiovascular science: translator's notes relating to the English translation of two seminal papers.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jochen; Lohff, Brigitte; Dittmer, Janke Jörn

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory interactions with the heart have remained a challenging physiological phenomenon since their discovery more than two hundred and fifty years ago. In the course of translating the seminal publications of Carl Ludwig and his disciple Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt into English, we became aware of some under-appreciated aspects of their work that contain useful insights into the history of the phenomenon now called respiratory arrhythmia. Ludwig observed arrhythmic effects of respiratory movements in experiments on dogs and horses and published his findings in 1847. He subsequently undertook further work on this problem, together with Einbrodt. Already in 1847 Ludwig had mentioned an exciting observation on the possible role of mechanical factors of the respiratory movements on the action of the heart in a dog in whom he had artificially induced bouts of coughing. Einbrodt decided to systematically develop methods to increase or decrease the pressure of the air the animal had to breathe. He observed that this procedure led to a greater or lesser degree of compression or decompression of all the organs in the thoracic cavity without apparently causing harmful consequences during the time of its application. How the mechanical influence of breathing affects cardiac activity during respiratory arrhythmia has been the subject of scientific discussions and controversies over a period of more than 150 years and is still unresolved. Recent publications suggest that cardiac mechano-electrical coupling plays an important role in the emergence of cardio-respiratory interdependence.

  18. Advanced Technologies for Space Life Science Payloads on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, high-performance work group organized to provide advanced engineering and technology support for NASA's Life Sciences spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. In support of these objectives, S2K! manages NASA's Advanced Technology Development Program for Biosensor and Biotelemetry Systems (ATD-B), with particular emphasis on technologies suitable for Gravitational Biology, Human Health and Performance, and Information Technology and Systems Management. A concurrent objective is to apply and transition ATD-B developed technologies to external, non-NASA humanitarian (medical, clinical, surgical, and emergency) situations and to stimulate partnering and leveraging with other government agencies, academia, and the commercial/industrial sectors. A phased long-term program has been implemented to support science disciplines and programs requiring specific biosensor (i.e., biopotential, biophysical, biochemical, and biological) measurements from humans, animals (mainly primates and rodents), and cells under controlled laboratory and simulated microgravity situations. In addition to the technology programs described above, NASA's Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Office has initiated a Technology Infusion process to identify and coordinate the utilization and integration of advanced technologies into its International Space Station Facilities. This project has recently identified a series of technologies, tasks, and products which, if implemented, would significantly increase the science return, decrease costs, and provide improved technological capability. This presentation will review the programs described above and discuss opportunities for collaboration, leveraging, and partnering with NASA.

  19. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  20. AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF PREVENTION OF TOOTH DECAY IN YOUNG CHILDREN SINCE THE SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT ON ORAL HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T.; Tanzer, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda that incomplete at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and PVP-iodine may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diammine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the US. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the Surgeon General's Report. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

  1. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.

  2. Numerical evaluation of longitudinal motions of Wigley hulls advancing in waves by using Bessho form translating-pulsating source Green'S function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Dong, Wencai

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of 3D potential flow theory, Bessho form translating-pulsating source Green's function in frequency domain is chosen as the integral kernel in this study and hybrid source-and-dipole distribution model of the boundary element method is applied to directly solve the velocity potential for advancing ship in regular waves. Numerical characteristics of the Green function show that the contribution of local-flow components to velocity potential is concentrated at the nearby source point area and the wave component dominates the magnitude of velocity potential in the far field. Two kinds of mathematical models, with or without local-flow components taken into account, are adopted to numerically calculate the longitudinal motions of Wigley hulls, which demonstrates the applicability of translating-pulsating source Green's function method for various ship forms. In addition, the mesh analysis of discrete surface is carried out from the perspective of ship-form characteristics. The study shows that the longitudinal motion results by the simplified model are somewhat greater than the experimental data in the resonant zone, and the model can be used as an effective tool to predict ship seakeeping properties. However, translating-pulsating source Green function method is only appropriate for the qualitative analysis of motion response in waves if the ship geometrical shape fails to satisfy the slender-body assumption.

  3. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  4. Linking scientific discovery and better health for the nation: the first three years of the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M; Berglund, Lars

    2010-03-01

    A comprehensive system for translating basic biomedical research into useful and effectively implemented clinical diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic practices is essential to the nation's health. The state of clinical and translational research (CTR) in the United States, however, has been characterized as fragmented, slow, expensive, and poorly coordinated. As part of its Roadmap Initiative, the National Institutes of Health instituted the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA), a sweeping and ambitious program designed to transform the conduct of biomedical research in the United States by speeding the translation of scientific discoveries into useful therapies and then developing methods to ensure that those therapies reach the patients who need them the most. The authors review the circumstances of the U.S. biomedical research enterprise that led to the creation of the CTSA and discuss the initial strategic plan of the CTSA, which was developed from the first three years of experience with the program and was designed to overcome organizational, methodological, and cultural barriers within and among research institutions. The authors also describe the challenges encountered during these efforts and discuss the promise of this vital national health care initiative, which is essential to creating a pipeline for the scientific workforce needed to conduct research that will, in turn, provide a rational evidence base for better health in the United States.

  5. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students.

  6. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. PMID:26365704

  7. Development and promotion in translational medicine: perspectives from 2012 sino-american symposium on clinical and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical translational medicine (CTM) is an emerging area comprising multidisciplinary research from basic science to medical applications and entails a close collaboration among hospital, academia and industry. Findings This Session focused discussing on new models for project development and promotion in translational medicine. The conference stimulated the scientific and commercial communication of project development between academies and companies, shared the advanced knowledge and expertise of clinical applications, and created the environment for collaborations. Conclusions Although strategic collaborations between corporate and academic institutions have resulted in a state of resurgence in the market, new cooperation models still need time to tell whether they will improve the translational medicine process. PMID:23369198

  8. The critical need for academic health centers to assess the training, support, and career development requirements of clinical research coordinators: recommendations from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Coordinator Taskforce.

    PubMed

    Speicher, Lisa A; Fromell, Gregg; Avery, Sue; Brassil, Donna; Carlson, Lori; Stevens, Erika; Toms, Michele

    2012-12-01

    Clinical Research Coordinators (CRCs) are a vital component of the clinical research enterprise providing a pivotal role in human subject protection through the numerous activities and responsibilities assigned to them. In 2006, the National Institutes of Health's National Center for Research resources (NCRR) implemented the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program (CTSA) to advance biomedical research. As a part of this endeavor, many workgroups were formed among the Consortium to support translational research. The Research Coordinator Taskforce was created as part of the Regulatory Knowledge group of the Clinical Research Innovation Key Function Committee, and focuses on enhancing CTSA capabilities to provide support and training for CRCs. In the spring of 2008, this taskforce conducted two surveys of the then 24 CTSA Consortium members to better understand the current expectations and responsibilities of research coordinators in addition to the mechanism for providing education, training, and support in order for CRCs to successfully meet the study responsibilities placed upon them. The results of these surveys are summarized in this article and provide context to the recommendations of the Research Coordinator Taskforce for institutional considerations, approaches, and best practices for providing education, training, and support the expanding role of CRCs in fulfilling their responsibilities delegated to them by investigators. PMID:23253669

  9. Development of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA's Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's current efforts on development of advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) for future science missions. The current efforts include development of flight qualified Multimission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) systems with nominal 100 watts power level and capability to operate in both deep space and planetary environments. In addition, advanced technology development efforts are being conducted to increase the specific power of both RTG and SRG systems to enable future science missions. The efforts also include new technologies that have the potential to provide significant increases in specific power of RPS system. A notional RPS technology development roadmap will be presented and various potential mission opportunities identified.

  10. Roles for learning sciences and learning technologies in biomedical engineering education: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Harris, Thomas R; Bransford, John D; Brophy, Sean P

    2002-01-01

    Education in biomedical engineering offers a number of challenges to all constituents of the educational process-faculty, students, and employers of graduates. Although biomedical engineering educational systems have been under development for 40 years, interest in and the pace of development of these programs has accelerated in recent years. New advances in the learning sciences have provided a framework for the reexamination of instructional paradigms in biomedical engineering. This work shows that learning environments should be learner centered, knowledge centered, assessment centered, and community centered. In addition, learning technologies offer the potential to achieve this environment with efficiency. Biomedical engineering educators are in a position to design and implement new learning systems that can take advantage of advances in learning science, learning technology, and reform in engineering education.

  11. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  12. Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

  13. Training the translational scientist.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Gabriel, Sherine; Pariser, Anne; Feig, Peter

    2010-12-22

    A Clinical and Translational Science Awards Industry Forum titled "Promoting Efficient and Effective Collaborations Among Academia, Government, and Industry" was held in February 2010. A session at this forum was organized to address the training and skills needed to develop a biomedical scientific workforce that interfaces academia, government agencies, and industry to support the process of translating science into applicable means to improve health. By examining the requisite competencies and training resources for scientists in each of these sectors, opportunities for collaboration and adoption of new educational strategies were identified that could help to address barriers to translational research education and career development.

  14. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  15. Advanced information science and object-oriented technology for information management applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1996-10-01

    The role of the military has been undergoing rapid change since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The kinds of missions the US military has been asked to participate in have often fallen into the category of {open_quotes}Military Operations Other Than War{close_quotes} and those involving military responses have been more of a surgical nature directed against different kinds of threats, like rogue states or in response to terrorist actions. As a result, the requirements on the military planner and analyst have also had to change dramatically. For example, preparing response options now requires rapid turnaround and a highly flexible simulation capability. This in turn requires that the planner or analyst have access to sophisticated information science and simulation technologies. In this paper, we shall discuss how advanced information science and object-oriented technologies can be used in advanced information management applications. We shall also discuss how these technologies and tools can be applied to DoD applications by presenting examples with a system developed at Argonne, the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS). DIAS has been developed to exploit advanced information science and simulation technologies to provide tools for future planners and analysts.

  16. The increasing importance of translational vision research in refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Farhad; Kristoffersen-Hafezi, Nikki

    2012-02-01

    Addressing these business and financial components of research, we believe that including a section on translational vision research especially for refractive surgery will be a welcome addition to the readership of the Journal. Although the section "Translational Science" is new, the Journal has published a number of articles in past years that would have been ideal candidates for such a section. The inaugural Translational Science article in this month's issue is fron Santhiago and colleagues on short-term cell death and inflammation after intracorneal inlay implantation in rabbits. Although not all scientists are in agreement with the promotion of this term, the Journal aims to provide different outlooks and modern usage of translational research in this way to advance the field of refractive surgery.

  17. Life Sciences and Allied Fields: Indexes and Abstracts, Book Review Indexes, Serials Bibliographies, Translations. Bibliographic Series No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpitts, D. Corinne

    The information sources for the life sciences and allied fields listed were selected from the holdings of the Arkansas University library. Citations include indexes and abstracts dealing with national and international literature in medicine, the biological sciences, environmental science, veterinary medicine, agriculture, botany, and zoology, as…

  18. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  19. Advancing environmental flow science: Developing frameworks for altered landscapes and integrating efforts across disciplines.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  20. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  1. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  2. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    DOE PAGES

    Brewer, Shannon; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-05-13

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a bettermore » understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.« less

  3. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards. PMID:27177541

  4. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy: An Odyssey in Measurement Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Albert

    Perhaps the speeds of sound, or, equivalently, the elastic moduli are some of the most fundamental attributes of a solid, connecting to fundamental physics, metallurgy, non-destructive testing, and more. Unlike most of the quantities used to characterize condensed matter, the elastic moduli are fourth-rank tensors containing a wealth of detail, directional information, and consistency constraints that provide some of the most revealing probes of solids. We describe here the current state of the art in one method, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, where the mechanical resonances of a specimen of regular shape (easy to measure) are analyzed (difficult computational problem) to obtain the full elastic tensor. With modern advances in electronics and analysis, fractions of a part per million changes in elastic moduli are detectable providing new and important insight into grand challenges in condensed matter physics. This work was supported as part of the Materials Science of Actinides, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # DE-SC0001089.

  5. [Commentary note on the Italian translation of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences 2002 Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Torlone, Gaetano; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The new CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines on Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects were published in August 2002. The aim of the present paper was to prepare a reasoned Italian translation of the guidelines. A preliminary version was submitted to a group of bioethicists and scientific research experts. Besides verifying the correctness and the adherence of the Italian version to the original text, a number of problematic terms were analysed. Some uncertainties emerged about the translation of expressions such as "ethical review committee" and "sponsor" and the difficulty to distinguish between "should" and "must". In the present globalisation era the need was apparent for a new approach to produce faithful translations based on a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account specific contexts and local peculiarities, but remains respectful to the original text.

  6. Who Will Do Science? Trends, and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…

  7. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Shelley I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  8. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) Geoscience Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    The declining number of geoscience students, especially US citizens, threatens the country's future preparedness in natural hazards mitigation, resource development, national security, and education. Furthermore, the geosciences suffer from poor representation among underrepresented groups, even by comparison to other sciences and engineering. Several organizations have been successful in mentoring and recruiting minorities into science. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) focuses on encouraging undergraduate and graduate Hispanic and American Indian students to pursue higher degrees. For over 30 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving science and math education, as well as expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia. SACNAS has added a geological science emphasis to its existing programs to address the need to diversify the field, with funding from the National Science Foundation Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) program. The goals of this initiative are to: (1) recruit 50 Native American and Chicano/Latino undergraduate and graduate students that are performing research in geoscience disciplines each year for the next five years to attend the annual SACNAS Conference; (2) provide students with early mentoring opportunities designed to assist them with their plans for higher education and employment as researchers and educators in the geosciences; (3) sponsor scientific symposia sessions focusing on advances in the geosciences and opportunities available in related fields; (4) Serve as an information resource through the SACNAS web site and monthly e-nouncements for geoscience research opportunities, and disseminate results of initiative; (5) Offer a workshop for K-12 teachers focusing on geosciences and provide mentoring support throughout the year. We are evaluating the effectiveness of the mentoring initiative by tracking

  9. Advances in quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometry for peptide MRM based translational research analysis.

    PubMed

    Mbasu, Richard J; Heaney, Liam M; Molloy, Billy J; Hughes, Chris J; Ng, Leong L; Vissers, Johannes P C; Langridge, James I; Jones, Donald J L

    2016-08-01

    The application of unit resolution tandem quadrupole and high-resolution orthogonal acceleration ToF mass spectrometers for the quantitation and translational analysis of proteolytic peptides is described. The MS platforms were contrasted in terms of sensitivity and linear response. Moreover, the selectivity of the platforms was investigated and the effect on quantitative precision studied. Chromatographic LC conditions, including gradient length and configuration, were investigated with respect to speed/throughput, while minimizing isobaric interferences, thereby providing information with regard to practical sample cohort size limitations of LC-MS for large cohort experiments. In addition to these fundamental analytical performance metrics, precision and linear dynamic ranges were also studied. An LC-MS configuration that encompasses the best combination of throughput and analytical accuracy for translational studies was chosen, despite the MS platforms giving similar quantitative performance, and instances were identified where alternative combinations were found to be beneficial. This configuration was utilized to demonstrate that proteolytically digested nondepleted samples from heart failure patients could be classified with good discriminative power using a subset of proteins previously suggested as candidate biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27214876

  10. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: a structured multidisciplinary protocol development and educational program to advance translational research.

    PubMed

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G; Dowd, Kathleen A; Hurley, Arlene M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality.

  11. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  12. William Heberden and reverse translation.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Elazer R; LaMarco, Kelly

    2015-05-13

    Beginning with the 18th-century physician-scientist William Heberden, the elder, Science Translational Medicine introduces a new article series about historical figures whose transformational contributions to science, medicine, and society remain relevant today. PMID:25972000

  13. The cancerous translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Craig R; Ruggero, Davide

    2011-08-01

    Deregulations in translational control are critical features of cancer initiation and progression. Activation of key oncogenic pathways promotes rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming, not simply by increasing overall protein synthesis, but also by modulating specific mRNA networks that promote cellular transformation. Additionally, ribosomopathies caused by mutations in ribosome components alter translational regulation leading to specific pathological features, including cancer susceptibility. Exciting advances in our understanding of translational control in cancer have illuminated a striking specificity innate to the translational apparatus. Characterizing this specificity will provide novel insights into how cells normally utilize translational control to modulate gene expression, how it is deregulated in cancer, and how these processes can be targeted to develop new cancer therapies. PMID:21543223

  14. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    PubMed

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  15. Exploring the Relationship between the Engineering and Physical Sciences and the Health and Life Sciences by Advanced Bibliometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the ‘EPS-HLS interface’ is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade. PMID:25360616

  16. Frontiers in Critical Zone Science: Science Advances for the Next 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Network is uniquely poised to help society devise innovative solutions to mounting environmental problems. By linking geologic, ecologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric sciences, research in the critical zone has the potential to transform our understanding of natural and managed ecosystems and their responses to environmental change. Emerging research questions include augmenting carbon sequestration by using the connectivity of key processes in the carbon cycle from bedrock to the atmosphere, determining the uses and limits of water as the conduit for materials and energy in the critical zone, and managing minerals as drivers of carbon storage and greenhouse gas dynamics. Future and continued collaborations with other large research networks with complementary expertise will not only strengthen the Critical Zone Network, but also expand the breadth and depth of understanding of the role of the critical zone in global-scale phenomena. Two examples of key networks include the US National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the US and International Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER). Networks such as these provide value added by broadening the range of climate, rock and soil type, vegetation characteristics, and human land use affecting the critical zone that should help us determine patterns and processes of critical zone function.

  17. DOE Response to the Fukushima Accident: Advancing the Science of Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The US Department of Energy maintains specialized technical teams to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies. They apply well-established laboratory nuclear measurement techniques in field environments, conduct rapid analysis, and deliver data products to government leaders in support of real-time public safety decisions. Meeting these requirements, often in the face of incomplete and imperfect information, takes a great deal of training and practice to effectively translate science into operations. Since large-scale emergencies are rare, the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 provided an opportunity to employ these teams. Their timely support to both US and Japanese decision makers provides an excellent case study in the application of instrumentation, analysis methods, data presentation, and training to emergency response.

  18. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft. PMID:25608440

  19. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft.

  20. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  1. Advancing precollege science and mathematics education in San Diego County. Progress report, March 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, D.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses advancing precollege science and mathematics education in San Diego Count. Described in this report are: curriculum and teacher development; pre-tour material; facility tour; student workbook; evaluation and assessment; and internet access.

  2. A conversation about practice development and knowledge translation as mechanisms to align the academic and clinical contexts for the advancement of nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Kitson, Alison; Cross, Wendy; Thoms, Debra; Thornton, Anna; Moss, Cheryle; Campbell, Steve; Graham, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Practice development (PD) and knowledge translation (KT) have emerged recently as methodologies which assist advancement in gathering and using evidence in practice. For nursing to benefit from these methodologies there is a need to advance the dialogue between academia and the service sector concerning the use and further development of these methodologies as well as how we create the most effective partnerships between academia and practice. To advance this dialogue and to gain insights into the similarities and differences between KT and PD and between the academic and the service sectors, four conversations from different leaders in these sectors have been gathered and are presented here. These four discrete narratives are presented to showcase the diversity of sector contexts in relation to PD and KT methodologies. Narrative One focuses on some of the theoretical and policy issues related to creating partnerships between traditional "knowledge creation systems" (universities) and "knowledge utilization systems" Narrative Two discusses how a large school of nursing responded to the challenge of creating partnerships for practice development in an attempt to bridge the academic/service divide and produce benefits to both organisations. Narratives Three and Four describe the view of practice development from the service side. The final section of the paper presents an agenda for discussion and action based on the emerging set of principles.

  3. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  4. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  5. Translational semantics and infrastructure: another search for the emperor's new clothes?

    PubMed

    Mullane, Kevin; Williams, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The successful transition of drug-like new chemical entities from discovery to clinical trials coupled with real-time feedback from the latter represents a key element for success in drug discovery. Now designated as T1 translational medicine, this process has, similar to other recent solutions to improve productivity, been hyped as a novel discipline, despite the fact that many of its component activities have existed in the pharmacological sciences for many decades. Instead of proselytizing translational medicine, the priority is to improve the quality of the science and decision-making processes involved in advancing compounds to ensure that what is translated has value.

  6. The TXESS Revolution: A Partnership to Advance Earth and Space Science in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Olson, H. C.; Willis, M.

    2007-12-01

    professional development program developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with National Science Foundation (NSF) funding; and an online learning forum designed to keep teachers and teacher mentors in contact with facilitators and fellow project-participants between and after training, as well as share best practices and new information. The new capstone course promises to be a rigorous and dynamic change to the way Earth and Space Science has been presented previously anywhere in the U.S. and will provide many opportunities for professional development and the dissemination of suitable Earth and Space Science curriculum. The TXESS Revolution project welcomes opportunities to collaborate with geoscience consortia, programs, organizations and geoscience educators to advance Earth and Space Science in Texas. NSF's Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program, the Shell Oil Company and the Jackson School of Geosciences are together funding the TXESS Revolution project.

  7. Advancing the science of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Anna M; Chadiha, Letha A

    2011-06-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations and the inadequacy of funding to advance systematically this field. We describe strategies used by the Resource Centers on Minority Aging Research and other National Institute of Aging-funded programs to advance the science of recruitment of ethnically diverse older adults. Finally, we propose a set of broad recommendations designed to generate a body of evidence on successful methods of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations in health research. To eliminate health disparities and better understand aging processes in ethnically diverse populations, much more research is needed on effective strategies for increasing minority enrollment in health research. Comparative effectiveness research on more intensive recruitment and retention methods, which are often needed for including diverse populations, will require dedicated funding and concerted efforts by investigators.

  8. Partnerships in translation: advancing research and clinical care. The 14th Annual HMO Research Network Conference, April 13-16, 2008, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Robert T; Coleman, Laura A; Nelson, Andrew F; Selby, Joseph V

    2008-12-01

    The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network held its annual meeting in Minneapolis in April of 2008, with more than 300 investigators, research staff, clinical leaders, and academic partners gathering in conjunction with the conference theme 'Partnerships in Translation: Advancing Research and Clinical Care.' This article provides some background on the network, its research activities, and the annual conference. Also featured is an article by Coleman and colleagues summarizing the conference's first plenary session, where operational leaders of health care organizations discussed the optimization of health care through research. This issue of Clinical Medicine & Research also includes a selection of scientific abstracts presented at the meeting on a wide range of clinical and population health topics.

  9. Advanced Resources for Catalysis Science; Recommendations for a National Catalysis Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF.; Ray, Douglas

    2005-10-05

    Catalysis is one of the most valuable contributors to our economy and historically an area where the United States has enjoyed, but is now losing, international leadership. While other countries are stepping up their work in this area, support for advanced catalysis research and development in the U.S. has diminished. Yet, more than ever, innovative and improved catalyst technologies are imperative for new energy production processes to ease our dependence on imported resources, for new energy-efficient and environmentally benign chemical production processes, and for new emission reduction technologies to minimize the environmental impact of an active and growing economy. Addressing growing concerns about the future direction of U.S. catalysis science, experts from the catalysis community met at a workshop to determine and recommend advanced resources needed to address the grand challenges for catalysis research and development. The workshop's primary conclusion: To recapture our position as the leader in catalysis innovation and practice, and promote crucial breakthroughs, the U.S. must establish one or more well-funded and well-equipped National Catalysis Research Institutes competitively selected, centered in the national laboratories and, by charter, networked to other national laboratories, universities, and industry. The Institute(s) will be the center of a national collaboratory that gives catalysis researchers access to the most advanced techniques available in the scientific enterprise. The importance of catalysis to our energy, economic, and environmental security cannot be overemphasized. Catalysis is a vital part of our core industrial infrastructure, as it is integral to chemical processing and petroleum refining, and is critical to proposed advances needed to secure a sustainable energy future. Advances in catalysis could reduce our need for foreign oil by making better use of domestic carbon resources, for example, allowing cost-effective and zero

  10. It Loses Something in the Translation: Syntax and Survival of Key Words in Science and Nonscience Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Lynne Masel; Walters, T. N.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations practitioner and journalist in the transmission of the language of science to the public. The grammatical structure of original press releases was compared with the resulting newspaper stories for both science and nonscience releases to determine differences in syntax and editing. (Author/LRW)

  11. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials.

  12. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  13. The NIEHS Environmental Health Sciences Data Resource Portal: Placing Advanced Technologies in Service to Vulnerable Communities

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Keith; Tukey, Robert; Sarabia, Hiram; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Suk, William A.; Lin, Abel; Ellisman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Two devastating hurricanes ripped across the Gulf Coast of the United States during 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina were especially severe: The human and environmental health impacts on New Orleans, Louisiana, and other Gulf Coast communities will be felt for decades to come. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that Katrina’s destruction disrupted the lives of roughly 650,000 Americans. Over 1,300 people died. The projected economic costs for recovery and reconstruction are likely to exceed $125 billion. Objectives The NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) Portal aims to provide decision makers with the data, information, and the tools they need to a) monitor human and environmental health impacts of disasters; b) assess and reduce human exposures to contaminants; and c) develop science-based remediation, rebuilding, and repopulation strategies. Methods The NIEHS Portal combines advances in geographic information systems (GIS), data mining/integration, and visualization technologies through new forms of grid-based (distributed, web-accessible) cyberinfrastructure. Results The scale and complexity of the problems presented by Hurricane Katrina made it evident that no stakeholder alone could tackle them and that there is a need for greater collaboration. The NIEHS Portal provides a collaboration-enabling, information-laden base necessary to respond to environmental health concerns in the Gulf Coast region while advancing integrative multidisciplinary research. Conclusions The NIEHS Portal is poised to serve as a national resource to track environmental hazards following natural and man-made disasters, focus medical and environmental response and recovery resources in areas of greatest need, and function as a test bed for technologies that will help advance environmental health sciences research into the modern scientific and computing era. PMID:17450225

  14. LSST system analysis and integration task for an advanced science and application space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    To support the development of an advanced science and application space platform (ASASP) requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. These payloads were a 100 meter diameter atmospheric gravity wave antenna, a 100 meter by 100 meter particle beam injection experiment, a 2 meter diameter, 18 meter long astrometric telescope, and a 15 meter diameter, 35 meter long large ambient deployable IR telescope. A low earth orbit at 500 km altitude and 56 deg inclination was selected as being the best compromise for meeting payload requirements. Platform subsystems were defined which would support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept was developed. Structural system requirements which included utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements were developed. An attitude control system concept was also described. The resultant ASASP concept was analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems were recommended.

  15. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  16. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  17. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  18. Advanced development of the spectrum sciences Model 5005-TF, single-event test fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.R.; Browning, J.S. ); Hughlock, B.W. ); Lum, G.K. ); Tsacoyeanes, W.C. Lab., Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Weeks, M.D. )

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the advanced development of the Spectrum Sciences Model 5005-TF, Single-Event Test Fixture. The Model 5005-TF uses a Californium-252 (Cf-252) fission-fragment source to test integrated circuits and other devices for the effects of single-event phenomena. Particle identification methods commonly used in high-energy physics research and nuclear engineering have been incorporated into the Model 5005-TF for estimating the particle charge, mass, and energy parameters. All single-event phenomena observed in a device under test (DUT) are correlated with an identified fission fragment, and its linear energy transfer (LET) and range in the semiconductor material of the DUT.

  19. Advanced Science/Event-based Data Service Framework at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided numerous Earth science data, information, and services to various research communities and general publics for decades. To maintain an overall fine service including improving serving our users with advanced data services has been our primary goal. We are developing an advanced science/event-based data service framework. The framework aims to effectively provide users with a sophisticatedly integrated data package via user-friendly discovering and selecting a system-preset science/event topic (e.g., hurricane, volcano, etc.) from an in-developing knowledge database of the framework. A data recipe page related to the Hurricane topic has been developed to demo the concept. More showcases of various subjects such as Volcano, Dust Storm, and Forest Fire are also under development. This framework is in developing on top of existing data services at GES DISC, such as Mirador (data search engine), Giovanni (visualization), OPeNDAP, and data recipes. It also involves other data tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, IDL, etc. The Hurricane Sandy (Oct 22-31 2012) event is used here for a sample description. As Hurricane Sandy being selected as a user case, a table containing nine system-preset data variables (i.e., precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, aerosols, soil moisture and surface runoff, and trace gases) linked to the respective data products with fine temporal and spatial resolutions from various in-house sources is provided. The "bundled" variable data can thus be readily downloaded through Mirador. The in-house Giovanni is accessible for users to acquire quick views of Level 3 (gridded) variables. For Level 2 (swath) or the Giovanni-unavailable Level 3 data, the system provides a link to data recipes that give a how-to guide to read and visualize the data using offline tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, or IDL.

  20. Translation of recent advances and discoveries in molecular biology and immunology in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Albo, Daniel; Farrow, Buckminster; Berger, David H

    2008-04-01

    Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer progression have allowed for targeted approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. New biologic markers are emerging that may improve the ability to detect these tumors earlier. Targeted biologic cancer therapies promise more effective and less toxic systemic treatment options. Although a clear "magic bullet" has yet to emerge, this type of targeted approach offers hope in the management of this dreadful disease. This article offers an update on these promising diagnostic and treatment modalities.

  1. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education

  2. Soliciting Strategies for Developing Cell-Based Reference Materials to Advance Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Research and Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand; Deans, Robert; Hematti, Peiman; Prockop, Darwin; Stroncek, David F.; Stacey, Glyn; Weiss, Dan J.; Mason, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) field continues to rapidly progress with a number of clinical trials initiated and completed, with some reported successes in multiple clinical indications, and a growing number of companies established. The field, nevertheless, faces several challenges. Persistent issues include the definition of a MSC and comparability between MSC preparations. This is because of inherent cell heterogeneity, the absence of markers that are unique to MSCs, and the difficulty in precisely defining them by developmental origin. Differences in the properties of MSCs also depend on the site of tissue harvest, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the donor and the isolation, and storage and expansion methods used. These differences may be sufficient to ensure that attributes of the final MSC product could differ in potentially significant ways. Since there are currently no gold standards, we propose using a reference material to establish methods of comparability among MSC preparations. We suggest four possible “ruler scenarios” and a method for global distribution. We further suggest that critical to establishing a reference material is the need to define protocols for comparing cells. The main purpose of this article is to solicit input in establishing a consensus-based comparison. A comparative approach will be critical to all stages of translation to better clarify mechanisms of MSC actions, define an optimal cell manufacturing process, ensure best practice clinical investigations, extend the use of an MSC product for new indications, protect an MSC product from imitators, and develop uniform reimbursement policies. Importantly, a reference material may enable a consensus on a practical definition of MSCs. PMID:24422625

  3. The National Lung Matrix Trial: translating the biology of stratification in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, G.; Crack, L. R.; Popat, S.; Swanton, C.; Hollingsworth, S. J.; Buller, R.; Walker, I.; Carr, T. H.; Wherton, D.; Billingham, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of NSCLC has been transformed by stratified medicine. The National Lung Matrix Trial (NLMT) is a UK-wide study exploring the activity of rationally selected biomarker/targeted therapy combinations. Patients and methods The Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Stratified Medicine Programme 2 is undertaking the large volume national molecular pre-screening which integrates with the NLMT. At study initiation, there are eight drugs being used to target 18 molecular cohorts. The aim is to determine whether there is sufficient signal of activity in any drug–biomarker combination to warrant further investigation. A Bayesian adaptive design that gives a more realistic approach to decision making and flexibility to make conclusions without fixing the sample size was chosen. The screening platform is an adaptable 28-gene Nextera next-generation sequencing platform designed by Illumina, covering the range of molecular abnormalities being targeted. The adaptive design allows new biomarker–drug combination cohorts to be incorporated by substantial amendment. The pre-clinical justification for each biomarker–drug combination has been rigorously assessed creating molecular exclusion rules and a trumping strategy in patients harbouring concomitant actionable genetic abnormalities. Discrete routes of pathway activation or inactivation determined by cancer genome aberrations are treated as separate cohorts. Key translational analyses include the deep genomic analysis of pre- and post-treatment biopsies, the establishment of patient-derived xenograft models and longitudinal ctDNA collection, in order to define predictive biomarkers, mechanisms of resistance and early markers of response and relapse. Conclusion The SMP2 platform will provide large scale genetic screening to inform entry into the NLMT, a trial explicitly aimed at discovering novel actionable cohorts in NSCLC. Clinical Trial ISRCTN 38344105. PMID:26410619

  4. Soliciting strategies for developing cell-based reference materials to advance mesenchymal stromal cell research and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand; Deans, Robert; Hematti, Peiman; Prockop, Darwin; Stroncek, David F; Stacey, Glyn; Weiss, Dan J; Mason, Christopher; Rao, Mahendra S

    2014-06-01

    The mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) field continues to rapidly progress with a number of clinical trials initiated and completed, with some reported successes in multiple clinical indications, and a growing number of companies established. The field, nevertheless, faces several challenges. Persistent issues include the definition of a MSC and comparability between MSC preparations. This is because of inherent cell heterogeneity, the absence of markers that are unique to MSCs, and the difficulty in precisely defining them by developmental origin. Differences in the properties of MSCs also depend on the site of tissue harvest, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the donor and the isolation, and storage and expansion methods used. These differences may be sufficient to ensure that attributes of the final MSC product could differ in potentially significant ways. Since there are currently no gold standards, we propose using a reference material to establish methods of comparability among MSC preparations. We suggest four possible "ruler scenarios" and a method for global distribution. We further suggest that critical to establishing a reference material is the need to define protocols for comparing cells. The main purpose of this article is to solicit input in establishing a consensus-based comparison. A comparative approach will be critical to all stages of translation to better clarify mechanisms of MSC actions, define an optimal cell manufacturing process, ensure best practice clinical investigations, extend the use of an MSC product for new indications, protect an MSC product from imitators, and develop uniform reimbursement policies. Importantly, a reference material may enable a consensus on a practical definition of MSCs.

  5. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…

  6. Advanced placement math and science courses: Influential factors and predictors for success in college STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were

  7. PREFACE: APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (AMSN08)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2009-09-01

    Dear friends To contribute to the enhancement of the international scientific cooperation of the ASEAN countries and in reply to the proposal of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Sub Committee on Materials Science and Technology (SCMST) of the ASEAN Committee of Science and Technology (ASEAN COST) agreed to organize this APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology with the participation of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Rencontres du Vietnam, the Vietnam Physical Society, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City and the Vietnam National University in Hanoi. As well as the participants from 9 of the 10 ASEAN countries and many other countries/regions of APCTP (Australia, China, Chinese Taipei, Japan and Korea) we warmly welcome the guests from Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel. Without the financial support of the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics APCTP, Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics ICTP, the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development AOARD, the US Office of Naval Research Global-Asia ONRG, the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam MOST, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology VAST, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City VNU HCMC and other Sponsors, we would have been unable to hold this Workshop. On behalf of the International and Local Organizing Committees I would like to express our deep gratitude to the Sponsors. We highly appreciate the support and advice of the members of the International Advisory Committee, the scientific contribution of the invited speakers and all participants. We acknowledge the warm reception of the Khanh Hoa province Administration and citizens, and the hard work of the VAST staff for the success of the Workshop. We cordially wish all participants lively scientific

  8. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy.

  9. Significant Advances in the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. The Goddard DISC has analyzed AIRS/AMSU observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, using the AIRS Science Team Version-S retrieval algorithm. These products have been used by many researchers to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval, which will become operation in mid-20l2, contains many significant theoretical and practical improvements compared to Version-5 which should further enhance the utility of AIRS products for both climate and weather applications. In particular, major changes have been made with regard to the algOrithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the retrieval procedure; 3) compute Outgoing Longwave Radiation; and 4) determine Quality Control. This paper will describe these advances found in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm and demonstrate the improvement of AIRS Version-6 products compared to those obtained using Version-5,

  10. Data Management Practices and Advanced Technologies in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Mayernik, M. S.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Allen, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the students had not taken courses related to information science and the analysis of complex data. Seventy-four percent of the students reported no skill in programming languages or computational applications. Of the students who had completed research projects, 26% had created metadata for research data sets, and 29% had archived their data so that it was available online. One-third of these students used an environmental sensor. The results differed according to the students' research status, degree type, and university type. Changes may be necessary in the curricula of university programs that seek to prepare environmental scientists for this technologically advanced and data-intensive age. Figure 1. Weighted mean percent of graduate students who had none, basic, proficient, or expert knowledge in programming languages or computational applications. Weights were assigned to university means (n = 23). Error bars are 95% confidence interval. Table 1. Weighted mean percent of graduate students who responded 'YES' they plan to (n = 326) or have already completed (n = 131) research decisions 1-5. Weights were assigned to university means (n = 23). Uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals. Statistical differences are reported between responses of 1) students with thesis/dissertation research ';in progress' and 2) students who have ';completed' their research.

  11. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma: From improving risk stratification and revealing novel biology to identifying actionable genomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus and not only has catalyzed a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis but also has revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent, activating, somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed toward aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma.

  12. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. PMID:23315723

  13. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  14. SINE (selective inhibitor of nuclear export)--translational science in a new class of anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gerecitano, John

    2014-10-04

    Regulation of protein trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm represents a novel control point for antineoplastic intervention. Several proteins involved with cellular growth and survival depend on precise and timely positioning within the cell to fulfill their functions, and the nuclear membrane defines one of the most important compartmental barriers. Chromosome Region Maintenance 1, or exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1), is involved with the export of more than 200 nuclear proteins, and has intriguingly been shown to have an increased expression in several tumor cell types. Selinexor (KPT-330) is a first-in-class selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) to be developed for clinical use. Preclinical data has demonstrated antineoplastic activity of SINE compounds in many human solid and hematologic malignancies. The clinical development of Selinexor provides an excellent model for translational research.

  15. Translating Genomic Advances to Physical Therapist Practice: A Closer Look at the Nature and Nurture of Common Diseases.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Catherine L; Goldberg, Allon; Kleim, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    The Human Genome Project and the International HapMap Project have yielded new understanding of the influence of the human genome on health and disease, advancing health care in significant ways. In personalized medicine, genetic factors are used to identify disease risk and tailor preventive and therapeutic regimens. Insight into the genetic bases of cellular processes is revealing the causes of disease and effects of exercise. Many diseases known to have a major lifestyle contribution are highly influenced by common genetic variants. Genetic variants are associated with increased risk for common diseases such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Exercise response also is influenced by genetic factors. Knowledge of genetic factors can help clinicians better understand interindividual differences in disease presentation, pain experience, and exercise response. Family health history is an important genetic tool and encourages clinicians to consider the wider client-family unit. Clinicians in this new era need to be prepared to guide patients and their families on a variety of genomics-related concerns, including genetic testing and other ethical, legal, or social issues. Thus, it is essential that clinicians reconsider the role of genetics in the preservation of wellness and risk for disease to identify ways to best optimize fitness, health, or recovery. Clinicians with knowledge of the influence of genetic variants on health and disease will be uniquely positioned to institute individualized lifestyle interventions, thereby fulfilling roles in prevention and wellness. This article describes how discoveries in genomics are rapidly evolving the understanding of health and disease by highlighting 2 conditions: cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Genetic factors related to exercise effects also are considered. PMID:26637647

  16. Translating Genomic Advances to Physical Therapist Practice: A Closer Look at the Nature and Nurture of Common Diseases.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Catherine L; Goldberg, Allon; Kleim, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    The Human Genome Project and the International HapMap Project have yielded new understanding of the influence of the human genome on health and disease, advancing health care in significant ways. In personalized medicine, genetic factors are used to identify disease risk and tailor preventive and therapeutic regimens. Insight into the genetic bases of cellular processes is revealing the causes of disease and effects of exercise. Many diseases known to have a major lifestyle contribution are highly influenced by common genetic variants. Genetic variants are associated with increased risk for common diseases such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Exercise response also is influenced by genetic factors. Knowledge of genetic factors can help clinicians better understand interindividual differences in disease presentation, pain experience, and exercise response. Family health history is an important genetic tool and encourages clinicians to consider the wider client-family unit. Clinicians in this new era need to be prepared to guide patients and their families on a variety of genomics-related concerns, including genetic testing and other ethical, legal, or social issues. Thus, it is essential that clinicians reconsider the role of genetics in the preservation of wellness and risk for disease to identify ways to best optimize fitness, health, or recovery. Clinicians with knowledge of the influence of genetic variants on health and disease will be uniquely positioned to institute individualized lifestyle interventions, thereby fulfilling roles in prevention and wellness. This article describes how discoveries in genomics are rapidly evolving the understanding of health and disease by highlighting 2 conditions: cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Genetic factors related to exercise effects also are considered.

  17. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings.

  18. Translational ethics: a perspective for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kagarise, M J; Sheldon, G F

    2000-01-01

    Modern medical care is increasingly dependent on the application of science to clinical practice, which occurs through clinical or translational research. We propose the concept of translational ethics, which incorporates the contributions of research codes of ethics that involve the protection of human subjects into the ethics of clinical practice. The modern research environment, which has contributed the scientific tools of modern medicine, has also framed the ethical environment in which medicine is practiced. The single most important contribution of research codes for protection of human research subjects to clinical practice is the doctrine of informed consent. Translational ethics, based on autonomy and informed consent, progresses beyond the narrow interpretation of those 2 concepts. It requires consensual understanding of a spectrum of clinical interventions that are increasingly complicated. Translational ethics helps navigate the ethical ramifications of technological and scientific advances that will increasingly challenge the corporate-oriented health system in the new millennium.

  19. Facilitating career advancement for women in the Geosciences through the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a network of women geoscientists, many of who are in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations, all towards making women successful in their scientific careers. ESWN currently connects over 1000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral associates, faculty from a diversity of colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. ESWN facilitates communication between its members via an email listserv and in-person networking events, and also provides resources to the broader community through the public Earth Science Jobs Listserv that hosts over 1800 subscribers. With funding from a NSF ADVANCE PAID grant, our primary goals include growing our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, designing and administering career development workshops, promoting professional networking at major scientific conferences, and developing web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Recognizing that women in particular face a number of direct and indirect biases while navigating their careers, we aim to provide a range of opportunities for professional development that emphasize different skills at different stages of career. For example, ESWN-hosted mini-workshops at national scientific conferences have targeted skill building for early career researchers (e.g., postdocs, tenure-track faculty), with a recent focus on raising extramural research funding and best practices for publishing in the geosciences literature. More concentrated, multi-day professional development workshops are offered annually with varying themes such as Defining Your Research Identity and Building Leadership Skills for Success in Scientific Organizations

  20. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    , acceleration, and loss of electrons in the radiation belts promise high profile science returns. Integrated, global scale data products also have potential importance and application for real-time monitoring of the space weather threats to electrical power grids from geomagnetically induced currents. Such data exploitation increasingly relies on the collaborations between multiple national magnetometer arrays to generate single data products with common file format and data properties. We review advances in geospace science which can be delivered by networks of ground-based magnetometers - in terms of advances in sensors, data collection, and data integration - including through collaborations within the Ultra-Large Terrestrial International Magnetometer Array (ULTIMA) consortium.