Science.gov

Sample records for advancing translational sciences

  1. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groups Work with NCATS Research Team Advances Evatar Female Reproductive System Through its Tissue Chip for Drug Screening program, ... parasites and bacteria. More... Research Team Advances Evatar Female Reproductive System Through its Tissue Chip for Drug Screening program, ...

  2. 77 FR 37422 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Panel; Division of Comparative Medicine Peer Review Meeting; Office of Research Infrastructure Programs... Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Dem....

  3. 78 FR 76634 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... 20892. Contact Person: Danilo A Tagle, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, 1 Democracy Plaza, Room 992, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-8064, Danilo.Tagle@nih.gov.... Contact Person: Danilo A Tagle, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Center for Advancing...

  4. 78 FR 26377 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Danilo A. Tagle, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Center for....Tagle@nih.gov . This notice is being published less than 15 days prior to the meeting due to scheduling...: Danilo A. Tagle, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Center for Advancing Translational, Sciences,...

  5. 78 FR 21131 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Democracy Plaza, 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person... Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Democracy 1, Room 1084, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435-0829, mv10f@nih.gov . Name of Committee:...

  6. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerald Brandacher, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Johns Hopkins...Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...high dose immunosuppressive drugs have curtailed wider application. Thus the purpose of this project is to develop novel clinically relevant

  7. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  8. Communicating Science: Translation and Tangibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Until last summer, I thought communicating science was just a matter of translation. When my friends' eyes glazed over as I explained, for example, how a productivity crisis and planktrophism could have caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, I thought they simply needed these terms translated. While cutting through potentially difficult terminology is a key part of communicating science to the public, I now know that it is only the first of two parts. The second part is making one's subject matter tangible. Finding that out was my most important lesson last summer as an AGU-sponsored fellow in the Mass Media Fellowship program run by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Understanding this journalistic two-step has helped me become a better science communicator and comprehend more fully why the Earth sciences fascinate me in the first place.

  9. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  10. Preparedness of the CTSA's structural and scientific assets to support the mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS).

    PubMed

    Shamoon, Harry; Center, David; Davis, Pamela; Tuchman, Mendel; Ginsberg, Henry; Califf, Robert; Stephens, David; Mellman, Thomas; Verbalis, Joseph; Nadler, Lee; Shekhar, Anantha; Ford, Daniel; Rizza, Robert; Shaker, Reza; Brady, Kathleen; Murphy, Barbara; Cronstein, Bruce; Hochman, Judith; Greenland, Philip; Orwoll, Eric; Sinoway, Lawrence; Greenberg, Harry; Jackson, Rebecca; Coller, Barry; Topol, Eric; Guay-Woodford, Lisa; Runge, Marschall; Clark, Robert; McClain, Don; Selker, Harry; Lowery, Curtis; Dubinett, Steven; Berglund, Lars; Cooper, Dan; Firestein, Gary; Johnston, S Clay; Solway, Julian; Heubi, James; Sokol, Ronald; Nelson, David; Tobacman, Larry; Rosenthal, Gary; Aaronson, Lauren; Barohn, Richard; Kern, Philip; Sullivan, John; Shanley, Thomas; Blazar, Bruce; Larson, Richard; FitzGerald, Garret; Reis, Steven; Pearson, Thomas; Buchanan, Thomas; McPherson, David; Brasier, Allan; Toto, Robert; Disis, Mary; Drezner, Marc; Bernard, Gordon; Clore, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Sherwin, Robert; Pulley, Jill

    2012-04-01

    The formation of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) brings new promise for moving basic science discoveries to clinical practice, ultimately improving the health of the nation. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites, now housed with NCATS, are organized and prepared to support in this endeavor. The CTSAs provide a foundation for capitalizing on such promise through provision of a disease-agnostic infrastructure devoted to clinical and translational (C&T) science, maintenance of training programs designed for C&T investigators of the future, by incentivizing institutional reorganization and by cultivating institutional support.

  11. Regenerative dentistry: translating advancements in basic science research to the dental practice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Murray, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. This review provides an assessment of how tissue engineering, stem cell, genetic transfer, biomaterial and growth factor therapies can be integrated into clinical dental therapies to restore and regenerate oral tissues. In parallel to the creation of a new field in general medicine called "regenerative medicine," we call this field "regenerative dentistry." While the problems of introducing regenerative therapies are substantial, the potential benefits to patients and the profession are equally ground-breaking. In this review, we outline a few areas of interest for the future of oral and dental medicine in which advancements in basic science have already been adapted to fit the goals of 21st century dentistry.

  12. Advanced Translation Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    The process of translating demands an attempt to draw on contextual knowledge on all relevant areas of society: literature and the study of society together with the use of idiomatic language. Students can be shown this by direct translations which appear incomprehensible. English-to-Norwegian-to-English examples are given. (Author/PJM)

  13. Early science books and their women translators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badilescu, Simona

    1998-12-01

    By the late eighteenth century, women wrote books popularizing the major scientific advances of the times. From even an earlier stage, women translated popular science books, many written especially for the ``use of the Ladies.'' From Aphra Behn's translation of Fontenelle's famous Entretiens sur la Pluralité des Mondes in 1686 to Mary Somerville's 1831 lucid exposition in English of Laplace's well-known book, The Mechanism of the Heavens, translation moved gradually toward professional scientific exposition. Who were these women and what sparked their interest in science? How had they acquired the knowledge necessary to translate science books? The aim of this article is to shed some light on a little known area of women's activities-the translation of science books-and to show their contribution to the diffusion of the scientific knowledge.

  14. ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), global leader in advancing translational science to create science-based solutions for a sustainable, healthier world.

    PubMed

    Takei, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is a non-profit scientific research organization based in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. HESI was established in 1989 as a global branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) to provide an international forum to advance the understanding of scientific issues related to human health, toxicology, risk assessment and the environment. For the last 25 years, HESI has been the global leader to advance application of new science and technologies in the areas of human health, toxicology, risk assessment and environment. The core principle of "tripartite approach" and the multi-sector operational model have successfully supported HESI's scientific programs to create science-based solutions for a sustainable and healthier world. HESI's achievements include the dataset to guide the selection of appropriate supporting assays for carcinogenicity testing, a new testing framework for agricultural chemicals with enhanced efficacy, predictivity, and reduced animal usage, novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity which provide data on the location of timing of drug effects in the kidney allowing for enhanced drug development, etc.

  15. Preparedness of the CTSA's structural and scientific assets to support the mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Gordon R.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) brings new promise for moving basic and discoveries to clinical practice, ultimately improving the health of the nation. The CTSA sites, now housed with NCATS, are organized and prepared to support in this endeavor. The CTSAs provide a foundation for capitalizing on such promise through provision of a disease-agnostic infrastructure devoted to C&T science, maintenance of training programs designed for C&T investigators of the future, by incentivizing institutional reorganization and by cultivating institutional support. PMID:22507116

  16. Translational genetics: advancing fronts for craniofacial health.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, R N; Dunnwald, M; Dunnvald, M; Frazier-Bowers, S; Polverini, P J; Wright, J T; de Rouen, T; Vieira, A R

    2013-12-01

    Scientific opportunities have never been better than today! The completion of the Human Genome project has sparked hope and optimism that cures for debilitating conditions can be achieved and tailored to individuals and communities. The availability of reference genome sequences and genetic variations as well as more precise correlations between genotype and phenotype have facilitated the progress made in finding solutions to clinical problems. While certain craniofacial and oral diseases previously deemed too difficult to tackle have benefited from basic science and technological advances over the past decade, there remains a critical need to translate the fruits of several decades' worth of basic and clinical research into tangible therapies that can benefit patients. The fifth Annual Fall Focused Symposium, "Translational Genetics - Advancing Fronts for Craniofacial Health", was created by the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) to foster its mission to advance interdisciplinary research that is directed toward improving oral health. The symposium showcased progress made in identifying molecular targets that are potential therapeutics for common and rare dental diseases and craniofacial disorders. Speakers focused on translational and clinical applications of their research and, where applicable, on strategies for new technologies and therapeutics. The critical needs to transfer new knowledge to the classroom and for further investment in the field were also emphasized. The symposium underscored the importance of basic research, chairside clinical observations, and population-based studies in driving the new translational connections needed for the development of cures for the most common and devastating diseases involving the craniofacial complex.

  17. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  18. Disentangling the translational sciences: a social science perspective.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Louis D

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author first attempts to disentangle a number of issues in translational science from a social science perspective. As expected in a fledgling field of study being approached from various disciplines, there are marked differences in the research literature on terminology, definition of terms, and conceptualization of staging of clinical research from the pilot phase to widespread dissemination in the community. The author asserts that translational efforts in the social sciences are at a crossroads, and its greatest challenge involves the movement of interventions gleaned from clinical trials to community settings. Four strategies for reaching this goal are discussed: the use of methods derived from health services research, a yet-to-be-developed strategy where decisions to modify aspects of an intervention derived from a clinical trial are triggered by data-based criteria, community based participatory action research (CBPR), and a hybrid system wherein methods from CBPR and traditional experimental procedures are combined to achieve translation. The author ends on an optimistic note, emphasizing the impressive advances in the area over the existing barriers and calling for a unified interdisciplinary science of translation.

  19. Putting Translational Science onto a Global Stage

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Zuk, Dorit; Kocis, Petr; Johnson, Mike; Hay, Stewart; Bietrix, Florence; Aversa, Gregorio; Austin, Christopher P.; Ussi, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Global collaboration in translational science promises to accelerate the discovery, development and dissemination of new medical interventions. In this article, we introduce a new international collaboration of translational science organizations and highlight our initial strategy to reduce or remove bottlenecks in translation. A first step in this process is increasing the awareness and understanding of the field among key stakeholder groups. PMID:27032820

  20. Perspectives in regulatory science: translational and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Joseph A; Huang, Shiew Mei

    This paper focuses on the role of clinical and translational pharmacology in the drug development and the regulatory process. Contemporary regulatory issues faced by FDA's Office of Clinical Pharmacology (OCP) in fulfilling its mission to advance the science of drug response and translate patient diversity into optimal drug therapy are discussed. Specifically current focus of the following key aspects of the drug development and regulatory science processes are discussed: the OCP vision and mission, two key OCP initiatives (i.e. guidance modernization, labeling and health communications), and translational and clinical pharmacology related regulatory science issues in (i.e. uncertainty, breakthrough therapies, individualization).

  1. Evolution in translational science: Whither the CTSAs?

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Garret A

    2015-04-22

    Clinical and Translational Science Awards-funded institutions are naturally equipped to drive research on human phenotyping and, in turn, shape the practice of precision medicine in the clinic of the future.

  2. Translational science: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Curry, Stephen H

    2008-02-01

    The concept of translational science is at least 15 years old. However, in its most recent incarnation, it represents the identification of a funding category designed to encourage academic participation in a critical stage of the drug discovery and product development process. It is hoped that this will make the process both shorter and more efficient. In this review, the author first considers the historical development of the pharmaceutical R&D process. The place of translational science in the process, the scientific techniques involved, and aspects of the business environment necessary for its success are then considered. Translational science does not displace preclinical development. Both concepts are relevant to the paramount importance of successfully and expeditiously bridging the gap between preclinical science and clinical testing, "from bench to bedside." Translational science is particularly likely to stimulate biomarker research in the universities and related business community and will probably give a modest boost to early clinical testing and commercialization of discoveries within the academic setting. Whether there will be a consequent improvement in the quality and efficiency of the overall process remains to be seen.

  3. The Culture of Translational Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of “scientist” to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research. PMID:25685253

  4. Translating Family-Focused Prevention Science Into Effective Practice

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Family-focused preventive intervention research could serve as an exemplar for the translation of science into practice on a scale that achieves public health impact. This article outlines advances in the field and translational research that still is needed, presenting these within a heuristic framework. The framework is designed to guide a broad translational research agenda fostering a shift toward a paradigm of public health impact—called a translational impact paradigm. Current advances and needed research in the subfield are mapped onto a set of four translational impact factors: effectiveness of interventions; extensiveness of their population coverage; efficiency of interventions; and engagement of eligible populations or organizations, including widespread adoption and sustained, quality implementation (the “4 Es” of intervention impact). The article then highlights key tasks required to progress in this area: improving practitioner–scientist partnership networks embedded in systems for delivery of evidence-based interventions; application of research guidelines and standards that facilitate translational impact; and policy change that supports needed research. PMID:20523761

  5. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  6. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond.

    PubMed

    McKone, James R; Crans, Debbie C; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research-defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development-in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  7. Translational Science for Energy and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, James R.; Crans, Debbie C.; Martin, Cheryl; Turner, John; Duggal, Anil R.; Gray, Harry B.

    2016-09-19

    A clear challenge for the coming decades is decreasing the carbon intensity of the global energy supply while simultaneously accommodating a rapid worldwide increase in power demand. Meeting this challenge of providing abundant, clean energy undoubtedly requires synergistic efforts between basic and applied researchers in the chemical sciences to develop and deploy new technologies. Among the available options, solar energy is one of the promising targets because of the high abundance of solar photons over much of the globe. Similarly, decarbonization of the global energy supply will require clean sources of hydrogen to use as reducing equivalents for fuel and chemical feedstocks. In this report, we discuss the importance of translational research -- defined as work that explicitly targets basic discovery as well as technology development -- in the context of photovoltaics and solar fuels. We focus on three representative research programs encompassing translational research in government, industry, and academia. We then discuss more broadly the benefits and challenges of translational research models and offer recommendations for research programs that address societal challenges in the energy sector and beyond.

  8. Foundational biomedical informatics research in the clinical and translational science era: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Embi, Peter J; Niland, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Advances in clinical and translational science, along with related national-scale policy and funding mechanisms, have provided significant opportunities for the advancement of applied clinical research informatics (CRI) and translational bioinformatics (TBI). Such efforts are primarily oriented to application and infrastructure development and are critical to the conduct of clinical and translational research. However, they often come at the expense of the foundational CRI and TBI research needed to grow these important biomedical informatics subdisciplines and ensure future innovations. In light of this challenge, it is critical that a number of steps be taken, including the conduct of targeted advocacy campaigns, the development of community-accepted research agendas, and the continued creation of forums for collaboration and knowledge exchange. Such efforts are needed to ensure that the biomedical informatics community is able to advance CRI and TBI science in the context of the modern clinical and translational science era.

  9. Translational science in disinfection for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, Anibal R; Ruparel, Nikita B; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2014-04-01

    The endodontic management of permanent immature teeth is fraught with challenges. Although treatment modalities for vital pulp therapy in these teeth provide long-term favorable outcome, the outcomes from the treatment of pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis are significantly less predictable. Immature teeth diagnosed with pulp necrosis have been traditionally treated with apexification or apexogenesis approaches. Unfortunately, these treatments provide little to no benefit in promoting continued root development. Regenerative endodontic procedures have emerged as an important alternative in treating teeth with otherwise questionable long-term prognosis because of thin, fragile dentinal walls and a lack of immunocompetency. These procedures rely heavily on root canal chemical disinfection of the root canal system. Traditionally, irrigants and medicaments have been chosen for their maximum antimicrobial effect without consideration for their effects on stem cells and the dentinal microenvironment. Translational research has been crucial to provide evidence for treatment modifications that aim to increase favorable outcome while steering away from common pitfalls in the currently used protocols. In this review, recent advances learned from translational research related to disinfection in regenerative endodontics are presented and discussed.

  10. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  11. Finding translational science publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with translational science filters.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of "translational" filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E-Utilities, a user's query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively.

  12. Translational science: a catalyst for real world applications?

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Adrien K

    2014-01-01

    Science is the systemic search for new knowledge and innovative ideas. Scientific knowledge is empirically based and successful replication of the results is a crucial component of it. Translational science connects this knowledge with real world applications in order to address societal challenges and problems, under the condition that the science-policy interface is taken into account. The aim of this communication is to examine if translational science can be applied to research settings other than health care.

  13. Designing Biomedical Informatics Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paz Lillo, Ariel Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) rests largely on information flowing smoothly at multiple levels, in multiple directions, across multiple locations. Biomedical Informatics (BI) is seen as a backbone that helps to manage information flows for the translation of knowledge generated and stored in silos of basic science into bedside…

  14. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science—open data, open materials, and no patenting—across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro’s Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro’s institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro’s approach to exploring them. PMID:27932848

  15. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  16. Test results of the advanced translator processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alison K.; Sward, William; Brown, Peter

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Translator Processing System was developed to provide a low cost alternative to tracking translated GPS signals. It is backwards compatible with the Translator Processing System (TPS) currently used to track Ballistic Missile Translators (BMT) by the US Ranges. NAVSYS has also developed a BMT compatible Translator. A key element of the ATPS is the Preamplifier/Downconvertor (P/DC) module which was developed by NAVSYS to condition the received Translator signal so it can be tracked with a conventional C/A code receiver. This significantly reduces the cost of the hardware by allowing the ATPS to be constructed mostly from off-the-shelf components. The ATPS and Translator were tested against the RAJPO Ballistic Missile and Translator Processing System Specifications. This paper presents the results of tests demonstrating the performance of the ATPS and Translator under different operating conditions. NAVSYS has also developed a Post Test Processing System (PTPS), incorporating the same components, which records the Translator data during the tests. When this data is played back, high-accuracy Time and Space Position

  17. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published “open access” information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe. PMID:26664857

  18. A gaze through the lens of decision theory toward knowledge translation science.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    Research findings become evidence when an individual decides that the information is relevant and useful to a particular circumstance. Prior to that point, they are unrelated facts. For research translation to occur, research evidence needs filtering, interpretation, and application by individuals to the specific situation. For this reason, decision science is complementary to knowledge translation science. Both aim to support the individual in deciding the most appropriate action in a dynamic environment where there are masses of uncensored and nonprioritized information readily available. Decision science employs research theories to study the cognitive processes underpinning the filtering and integration of current scientific information into changing contexts. Two meta-theories, coherence and correspondence theories, have been used to provide alternative views and prompt significant debate to advance the science. The aim of this article is to stimulate debate about the relationship between decision theory and knowledge translation. Discussed is the critical role of cognition in clinical decision making, with a focus on knowledge translation. A critical commentary of the knowledge utilization modeling papers is presented from a decision science perspective. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications for knowledge translation when viewed through the lens of decision science.

  19. Translation gone awry: differences between commonsense and science.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael; Solantaus, Tytti

    2014-05-01

    A general assumption is that science is just organised commonsense. It is noted that translation involves a two-way pathway between basic laboratory science and patient care, and that some scientific findings have implications for prevention rather than treatment. A succinct critique follows on the key features that differentiate science and commonsense. The main part of the paper discusses six rather different examples of translation that went awry because people treated science and commonsense as equivalent. Examples based on empirical evidence of translation going awry include (i) the claim that only early intervention can bring lasting benefits; (ii) the claim that the main policy goal for children should be the elimination of all stresses; (iii) the claim that exposure in utero to maternal smoking causes ADHD and conduct disturbance; (iv) the claim that tax benefits should be used to encourage couples to marry; (v) the effects of profound institutional deprivation are similar to those of any adversity; and (vi) environmental effects are largely independent of genetic influences. Much of science is 'unnatural' in the sense that technical tools (such as imaging or DNA) are employed, or because animal models are used, or because unusual comparisons are made. Science cannot be based solely on an inductive process; rather, there must be some form of experiment and the testing of two or more alternative explanations. Translation needs to be based on top quality science and an appreciation that even the best science needs to take account of multiple strategies and multiple evaluations.

  20. The Cinderella Effect: Does Athletic Success Translate into Advancement Gains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores how athletic success translates into advancement gains. He shares the Cinderella story of the Butler University's Butler Bulldogs which became the prototypical college sports Cinderella during its star turn in the 2010 tournament. Many institutions say that their athletic accomplishments have brought them…

  1. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Kristopher R.; Maris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus, which has catalyzed not only a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, but has also revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being leveraged therapeutically. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent activating somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed towards aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma. PMID:26539795

  2. Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: Translational advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in translational research in and technology for confocal microscopy of skin cancers, toward clinical applications, are described. Advances in translational research are in diagnosis of melanoma in vivo, pre-operative mapping of lentigo maligna melanoma margins to guide surgery and intra-operative imaging of residual basal cell carcinomas to guide shave-biopsy. Advances in technology include mosaicing microscopy for detection of basal cell carcinomas in large areas of excised tissue, toward rapid pathology-at-the-bedside, and development of small, simple and low-cost line-scanning confocal microscopes for worldwide use in diverse primary healthcare settings. Current limitations and future opportunities and challenges for both clinicians and technologists are discussed. PMID:19964286

  3. Mapping the translational science policy 'valley of death'.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Eric M; Blasimme, Alessandro; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2013-07-27

    Translating the knowledge from biomedical science into clinical applications that help patients has been compared to crossing a valley of death because of the many issues that separate the bench from the bedside and threaten to stall progress. But translation is also inhibited by a science policy environment with its own impediments. Mapping these policy impediments give a more complete picture of the valley of death. Stem cell science is one example where success in moving from the bench to the bedside has confronted policy challenges generating difficulties as challenging as those facing scientists and clinicians. We highlight some of the characteristics and challenges of the science policy valley of death common to the U.S. and Europe, illustrate them with a recent example from stem cell science, and describe some promising strategies for traversing the valley.

  4. Mapping the translational science policy ‘valley of death’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Translating the knowledge from biomedical science into clinical applications that help patients has been compared to crossing a valley of death because of the many issues that separate the bench from the bedside and threaten to stall progress. But translation is also inhibited by a science policy environment with its own impediments. Mapping these policy impediments give a more complete picture of the valley of death. Stem cell science is one example where success in moving from the bench to the bedside has confronted policy challenges generating difficulties as challenging as those facing scientists and clinicians. We highlight some of the characteristics and challenges of the science policy valley of death common to the U.S. and Europe, illustrate them with a recent example from stem cell science, and describe some promising strategies for traversing the valley. PMID:23889844

  5. Antiviral RNAi: Translating Science Toward Therapeutic Success

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Viruses continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment that involves transmission between hosts and sometimes species, immune responses, and in some cases therapeutic interventions. Given the high mutation rate of viruses relative to the timescales of host evolution and drug development, novel drug classes that are readily screened and translated to the clinic are needed. RNA interference (RNAi) – a natural mechanism for specific degradation of target RNAs that is conserved from plants to invertebrates and vertebrates – can potentially be harnessed to yield therapies with extensive specificity, ease of design, and broad application. In this review, we discuss basic mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications of RNAi, including design considerations and areas for future development in the field. PMID:21826573

  6. Nanotechnologies for biomedical science and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Heath, James R.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 the United States launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative and, along with it, a well-defined set of goals for nanomedicine. This Perspective looks back at the progress made toward those goals, within the context of the changing landscape in biomedicine that has occurred over the past 15 years, and considers advances that are likely to occur during the next decade. In particular, nanotechnologies for health-related genomics and single-cell biology, inorganic and organic nanoparticles for biomedicine, and wearable nanotechnologies for wellness monitoring are briefly covered. PMID:26598663

  7. A thematic analysis of theoretical models for translational science in nursing: mapping the field.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sandra A; Fisher, Cheryl A; Hastings, Clare E; Silverman, Leanne B; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes, (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge, (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry, and (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes.

  8. A Thematic Analysis of Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fisher, Cheryl A.; Hastings, Clare E.; Silverman, Leanne B.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. Purpose This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Method Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes; (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge; (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry; (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. Discussion This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. Conclusions A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes. PMID:21074646

  9. e-Science, caGrid, and Translational Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Joel; Kurc, Tahsin; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Gurcan, Metin; Permar, Justin; Ferreira, Renato; Payne, Philip; Catalyurek, Umit; Caserta, Enrico; Leone, Gustavo; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Madhavan, Subhashree; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Siegel, Eliot

    2011-01-01

    Translational research projects target a wide variety of diseases, test many different kinds of biomedical hypotheses, and employ a large assortment of experimental methodologies. Diverse data, complex execution environments, and demanding security and reliability requirements make the implementation of these projects extremely challenging and require novel e-Science technologies. PMID:21311723

  10. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  11. Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M; Wise, P H; Norton, M E; Druzin, M L; Valantine, H A; McFarland, D A

    2013-04-01

    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or 'constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles.

  12. Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M; Wise, P H; Norton, M E; Druzin, M L; Valantine, H A; McFarland, D A

    2013-01-01

    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or ‘constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles. PMID:23079774

  13. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  14. Advanced Science for Employment and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadd, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Compares the extent to which two types of advanced level qualifications, General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-levels and General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) advanced science, meet the needs of employers and tutors of science courses in higher education. (Author/CCM)

  15. Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion: A Key Tool for Translational Science in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Tane, Shinya; Noda, Kentaro; Shigemura, Norihisa

    2017-02-23

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) promises to be a comprehensive platform for assessment, re-conditioning, and preservation for donor lungs and has been dramatically changing the face of clinical lung transplantation. Besides its increasing role in lung transplantation, EVLP has also been recognized as a useful tool for translational research involving the lungs. Based on recent remarkable evidence and experience using EVLP in lung transplantation, there is growing interest in and expectations for the use of EVLP beyond the field of lung transplantation. By combining EVLP with advances in regenerative medicine, stem cell biology, and oncology, the evolving technology of EVLP has a tremendous potential to advance pulmonary medicine and science. In this review, we revisit recent advances in EVLP technology and research and discuss the future translation of EVLP applications into life-changing medicine.

  16. Values in translation: how asking the right questions can move translational science toward greater health impact.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Maureen; Edwards, Kelly; Starks, Helene; Fullerton, Stephanie M; James, Rosalina; Goering, Sara; Holland, Suzanne; Disis, Mary L; Burke, Wylie

    2012-12-01

    The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value questions-ethical, social, economic, and cultural-that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these questions visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions. Who is involved with those discussions will determine which research projects, populations, and methods get prioritized. We argue that some upfront investment in community and interdisciplinary engagement, shaped by familiar questions in ethics, social justice, and cultural knowledge, can save time and resources in the long run because interventions and strategies will be aimed in the right direction, that is, toward health improvements for all.

  17. New Paradigms in Translational Science Research in Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening. PMID:22424436

  18. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    PubMed

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods.

  19. Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünsal, Zeynep; Jakobson, Britt; Molander, Bengt-Olov; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2016-10-01

    In this article we examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science. Studies concerning bilingual students language use in science class have mainly been conducted in settings where both the teacher and the students speak the same minority language. In this study data was collected in a class consisting of students aged 13-14. All students had Turkish as their minority language, whereas the teacher's minority language was Bosnian. The class was observed when they were working with acids and bases. In addition, the students were interviewed in groups. They were asked about how they use their languages during science lessons and then asked to describe and explain scientific phenomena and processes that had been a part of the observed lessons. For the analysis, practical epistemology analysis and the theory of translanguaging were used. The results show how the students' everyday language repertoire may limit their possibilities to make meaning of science. In particular, the teacher's practice of facilitating and supporting students' understanding of science content by relating it to concrete examples took another direction since the everyday words he used were not a part of the students' language repertoire. The study also shows how the students used their minority language as a resource to translate words from Swedish to Turkish in order to proceed with the science activities. However, translating scientific concepts was problematic and led to the students' descriptions of the concepts not being in line with how they are viewed in science. Finally, the study also demonstrates how monolingual exams may limit bilingual students' achievements in science. The study contributes by presenting and discussing circumstances that need to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting science lessons in classes where the teacher and the student do not share the same minority language.

  20. The role of cardiac PET in translating basic science into the clinical arena.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paco E; Bengel, Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Non-invasive imaging has become fundamental in translating findings from basic science research into clinical applications. In this aspect, positron-emission tomography (PET) offers important advantages over other common imaging modalities like single-photon emission computed tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since PET provides superior detection sensitivity in the evaluation of different cardiovascular targets and pathways at the cellular and subcellular level, and because it is a well-established technique for absolute image quantification. The development and the introduction of dedicated small animal PET systems have greatly facilitated and contributed to advancements in the translation of novel radio-labeled compounds from experimental to clinical practice. The scope of the present article is to review the most relevant and successful PET applications in cardiovascular translational research.

  1. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community.

  2. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  3. Advances in engineering science, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on engineering advances are presented, including materials science, fracture mechanics, and impact and vibration testing. The tensile strength and moisture transport of laminates are also discussed.

  4. Physics in advanced GNVQ Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, D.

    1995-07-01

    GNVQ Science is a vocational qualification for students in England, with a demand equivalent to traditional GCE A-levels. This article looks at the approach adopted by GNVQ to physics, and discusses the way in which appropriate teaching resources have been developed by the Nuffield Science in Practice project.

  5. Advances in welding science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments.

  6. Translating science into action: periodontal health through public health approaches.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sayaka

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other chronic diseases. Research on the causative role of tobacco use in periodontal disease is strong because of the fact that tobacco-induced disease ultimately may lead to the loss of teeth. Studies also indicate that wound healing may be negatively affected by the use of tobacco. Likewise, research has shown that extreme use of alcohol, poor diet and nutrition, and psychological stress all have negative effects on periodontal health. Research on sociobehavioral risk factors has great implication to prevent periodontal disease. The case for tobacco is illustrated in this report. The global exposure to tobacco use in adults and adolescents is outlined. Because of the global Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (2003), the solid research on the harmful effect of tobacco is now being widely used for public health. The importance of tobacco prevention within the context of health-promoting schools is emphasized. Research on other population-directed strategies and their implications on public health would be instrumental to integrated prevention of chronic disease and periodontal disease. Community interventions and delivery of preventive oral care by oral health services may have positive outcomes for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population

  7. Advances in welding science - a perspective

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T.

    1995-02-01

    The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes.

  8. The struggle of translating science into action: Foundational concepts of implementation science.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Churruca, Kate; Shih, Patti; Hogden, Anne; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2017-03-31

    RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: "Implementation science," the scientific study of methods translating research findings into practical, useful outcomes, is contested and complex, with unpredictable use of results from routine clinical practice and different levels of continuing assessment of implementable interventions. The authors aim to reveal how implementation science is presented and understood in health services research contexts and clarify the foundational concepts: diffusion, dissemination, implementation, adoption, and sustainability, to progress knowledge in the field.

  9. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Laura M.; Ledley, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures. PMID:28346525

  10. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Laura M; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures.

  11. Advancement in Productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems from 2008 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Al-Sha'r, Awatif M.; AbuSeileek, Ali F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, 2008 and 2013. It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…

  12. Challenges and opportunities in the translation of the science of vitamins.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2007-01-01

    Some 100 y after the description and naming of the first vitamin, this conference on the state-of-the-science has shown that remarkable and exciting advances have been made in our understanding of the biology, chemistry, and metabolism of vitamins, explaining their essentiality in the diet. A great deal more needs to be done in the translation of this knowledge into an understanding of the benefit of vitamin supplements to disease prevention and to health and well-being. Not only are advances in fundamental science and biology necessary, but more attention must be paid to genomics, epigenetics, behavioral science, and new techniques for evidence analysis of studies. Information relating individual vitamins or small combinations of vitamins to disease prevention is stronger than that for multivitamins, formulations that cry out for greater standardization. This large task of translating emerging science to better policy in the field of vitamin and multivitamin-mineral supplement use should occupy our attention intensively in the years to come. Issues needing more attention include the content and labeling of such products and the effects of the products on nutrient adequacy as well as in chronic degenerative disease prevention. In this quest, the development of more and better surrogate markers will be critical. Dose-response assessments of safety are badly needed for updating Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. At its best, all of these disparate types of research will require a robust interaction between the public and private sectors in a regulatory framework that supports and rewards investment in good science.

  13. A Journey in Science: Medical Scientist in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Göran K

    2014-01-01

    Real innovations in medicine and science are historic and singular; the stories behind each occurrence are precious. At Molecular Medicine we have established the Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine to document and preserve these histories. The monographs recount the seminal events as told in the voice of the original investigators who provided the crucial early insight. These essays capture the essence of discovery, chronicling the birth of ideas that created new fields of research; and launched trajectories that persisted and ultimately influenced how disease is prevented, diagnosed and treated. In this volume, the Cerami Award Monograph is by Göran K Hansson, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institute. A visionary in the field of cardiovascular research, this is the story of Dr. Hansson’s scientific journey. PMID:25356751

  14. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Pecoul, Bernard; Rijal, Suman; Boehme, Catharina; Aksoy, Serap; Malecela, Mwelecele; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Reeder, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world’s greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12]), additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts. PMID:26934395

  15. Nutritional translation blended with food science: 21st century applications.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Peterson, Devin G; Singh, R Paul; Schwartz, Steven J; Freedman, Marjorie R

    2012-11-01

    This paper, based on the symposium "Real-World Nutritional Translation Blended With Food Science," describes how an integrated "farm-to-cell" approach would create the framework necessary to address pressing public health issues. The paper describes current research that examines chemical reactions that may influence food flavor (and ultimately food consumption) and posits how these reactions can be used in health promotion; it explains how mechanical engineering and computer modeling can study digestive processes and provide better understanding of how physical properties of food influence nutrient bioavailability and posits how this research can also be used in the fight against obesity and diabetes; and it illustrates how an interdisciplinary scientific collaboration led to the development of a novel functional food that may be used clinically in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Advances in the Science of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Jang, Eunice E.; Chu, Man-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Designing, developing, and administering assessments has remained fairly unchanged across the past century. However, recent developments in instructional technology, learning science theory, and advances in the design of assessments necessitate a newfound perspective on assessment. The objective of the present article is to review the topic of…

  17. Teacher's Handbook for Advanced Physical Science 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Everett

    This handbook is an adjunct to the "Laboratory Manual for Advanced Physical Science 2," and is intended to assist teachers in organizing laboratory experiences. Information for each experiment includes (1) Introduction, (2) Scheduling, (3) Time required, (4) Materials needed , (5) Precautions, (6) Laboratory hints, (7) Sample data, and…

  18. Advancing Careers in Information Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Wilbur W.; Templeton, Dennie E.; Chase, Joe D.; Rose, Melinda; Eaton, Carlotta

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss the joining of 12 Virginia community colleges from the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia with Radford University to form the Regional Technology Education Consortium (RTEC), a three-year project funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education program and designed to develop articulation…

  19. Recent Advances in Lighting Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapatovich, Walter P.

    2004-10-01

    Lighting is a global industry supplying a wide array of devices and systems that emit light ranging from incandescent lamps to light emitting diodes to electric discharge lamps. Electric discharge lamps are the most familiar plasma devices to most people. This work focuses on plasma light sources, some advances in this area and recent trends. Plasma light sources fall into two broad categories, namely low pressure and high pressure. The low-pressure lamps operate in the range of 40 to 500 Pa while the high-pressure lamps operate in the range of 0.1 to 15 MPa. The corresponding electron temperatures are about 1eV and 0.5 eV for the low and high-pressure lamps respectively. High-pressure lamps are treated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium wherein the gas temperature is equilibrated with the electron temperature. They are often called high intensity discharge lamps because of their intrinsically high radiance. Within these two broad categories are many subgroups, perhaps the most important being mercury and non-mercury containing lamps. An example of a low pressure, mercury-containing lamp is the ubiquitous fluorescent lamp. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these lamps center around inductive excitation techniques and two-photon phosphor development. The plasma research on mercury-free low-pressure lamps is focused on finding substitutes for a mercury-rare gas discharge. Several ultraviolet emitting candidates have been explored which emit both UV and visible. Longer wavelength UV is of interest because of the parallel development of phosphors mated with LED excitation wavelengths around 380nm. Several examples will be discussed. There have been major advances in high intensity discharge lamps with and without mercury. Mercury containing metal halide lamps are now being fabricated from translucent ceramic envelopes instead of the conventional vitreous silica. The higher temperature tolerant envelope materials permit using discharges in

  20. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  1. Information Model Translation to Support a Wider Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Ritschel, Bernd; Hardman, Sean; Joyner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's long-term archive for solar system exploration data, has just released PDS4, a modernization of the PDS architecture, data standards, and technical infrastructure. This next generation system positions the PDS to meet the demands of the coming decade, including big data, international cooperation, distributed nodes, and multiple ways of analysing and interpreting data. It also addresses three fundamental project goals: providing more efficient data delivery by data providers to the PDS, enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive, and enabling services for the data consumer to find, access, and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. The PDS4 information architecture is used to describe all PDS data using a common model. Captured in an ontology modeling tool it supports a hierarchy of data dictionaries built to the ISO/IEC 11179 standard and is designed to increase flexibility, enable complex searches at the product level, and to promote interoperability that facilitates data sharing both nationally and internationally. A PDS4 information architecture design requirement stipulates that the content of the information model must be translatable to external data definition languages such as XML Schema, XMI/XML, and RDF/XML. To support the semantic Web standards we are now in the process of mapping the contents into RDF/XML to support SPARQL capable databases. We are also building a terminological ontology to support virtually unified data retrieval and access. This paper will provide an overview of the PDS4 information architecture focusing on its domain information model and how the translation and mapping are being accomplished.

  2. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  3. Advancing Water Science through Improved Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. J.; Miles, B.; Rai, A.; Ahalt, S.; Band, L. E.; Minsker, B.; Palmer, M.; Williams, M. R.; Idaszak, R.; Whitton, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major scientific advances are needed to help address impacts of climate change and increasing human-mediated environmental modification on the water cycle at global and local scales. However, such advances within the water sciences are limited in part by inadequate information infrastructures. For example, cyberinfrastructure (CI) includes the integrated computer hardware, software, networks, sensors, data, and human capital that enable scientific workflows to be carried out within and among individual research efforts and across varied disciplines. A coordinated transformation of existing CI and development of new CI could accelerate the productivity of water science by enabling greater discovery, access, and interoperability of data and models, and by freeing scientists to do science rather than create and manage technological tools. To elucidate specific ways in which improved CI could advance water science, three challenges confronting the water science community were evaluated: 1) How does ecohydrologic patch structure affect nitrogen transport and fate in watersheds?, 2) How can human-modified environments emulate natural water and nutrient cycling to enhance both human and ecosystem well-being?, 3) How do changes in climate affect water availability to support biodiversity and human needs? We assessed the approaches used by researchers to address components of these challenges, identified barriers imposed by limitations of current CI, and interviewed leaders in various water science subdisciplines to determine the most recent CI tools employed. Our preliminary findings revealed four areas where CI improvements are likely to stimulate scientific advances: 1) sensor networks, 2) data quality assurance/quality control, 3) data and modeling standards, 4) high performance computing. In addition, the full potential of a re-envisioned water science CI cannot be realized without a substantial training component. In light of these findings, we suggest that CI

  4. Multi-level models of internalizing disorders and translational developmental science: Seeking etiological insights that can inform early intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Nicholas B.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the articles in this special section with an emphasis on the specific utility of multivariate, multi-level models in developmental psychopathology for ultimately contributing to both etiologic insights and translational advances. These issues are considered not only in terms of the specific papers, but also within a larger set of questions regarding the opportunities (and challenges) currently facing the field. We describe why we believe this an exciting time for integrative team-science approaches to tackle these challenges—a time that holds great promise for rapid advances in integrative developmental science that includes a biological level of mechanistic understanding. In order to facilitate this, we outline a range of approaches within both translational neuroscience and translational developmental science that can be used as frameworks for understanding how such research can provide etiologic insights regarding real-world targets at the level of social, behavioral, and affective processes that can be modified during key developmental windows of opportunity. We conclude that a “construct validity” framework, where biological data form a critical, but not privileged, component of key etiological mechanisms, combined with a developmental perspective on key period of sensitivity to intervention effects, is most likely to provide significant translational outcomes. PMID:25947071

  5. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education.

  6. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017.

  7. Training the Translational Research Teams of the Future: UC Davis - HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science Program

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Anne A.; Rainwater, Julie A.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C.; Robbins, John A.; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This article outlines the HHMI-IMBS program’s logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of pre-doctoral students. PMID:24127920

  8. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne A; Rainwater, Julie A; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Bonham, Ann C; Robbins, John A; Henderson, Stuart; Meyers, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for successful models of how to recruit, train, and retain bench scientists at the earliest stages of their careers into translational research. One recent, promising model is the University of California Davis Howard Hughes Medical Institute Integrating Medicine into Basic Science (HHMI-IMBS) program, part of the HHMI Med into Grad initiative. This paper outlines the HHMI-IMBS program's logic, design, and curriculum that guide the goal of research that moves from bedside to bench. That is, a curriculum that provides graduate students with guided translational training, clinical exposure, team science competencies, and mentors from diverse disciplines that will advance the students careers in clinical translational research and re-focusing of research to answer clinical dilemmas. The authors have collected data on 55 HHMI-IMBS students to date. Many of these students are still completing their graduate work. In the current study the authors compare the initial two cohorts (15 students) with a group of 29 control students to examine the program success and outcomes. The data indicate that this training program provides an effective, adaptable model for training future translational researchers. HHMI-IMBS students showed improved confidence in conducting translational research, greater interest in a future translational career, and higher levels of research productivity and collaborations than a comparable group of predoctoral students.

  9. Important role of translational science in rare disease innovation, discovery, and drug development.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Anne R; Gahl, William A

    2014-08-01

    Rare diseases play a leading role in innovation and the advancement of medical and pharmaceutical science. Most rare diseases are genetic disorders or atypical manifestations of infectious, immunologic, or oncologic diseases; they all provide opportunities to study extremes of human pathology and provide insight into both normal and aberrant physiology. Recently, drug development has become increasingly focused on classifying diseases largely on genetic grounds; this has allowed the identification of molecularly defined targets and the development of targeted therapies. Clinical trials are now focusing on progressively smaller subgroups within both common and rare disease populations, often based on genetic tests or biomarkers. Drug developers, researchers, and regulatory agencies face a variety of challenges throughout the life cycle of drug research and development for rare diseases. These include the small numbers of patients available for study, lack of knowledge of the disease's natural history, incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms causing the disorder, and variability in disease severity, expression, and course. Traditional approaches to rare disease clinical research have not kept pace with advances in basic science, and increased attention to translational science is needed to address these challenges, especially diagnostic testing, registries, and novel trial designs.

  10. Transparency and translation of science in a modern world.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Ozonoff, David

    2013-08-27

    The co-Editors-in-Chief of Environmental Health respond to an unusual initiative taken by editors of 14 toxicology journals to influence pending decisions by the European Commission to establish a framework for regulating chemicals that pose a hazard to normal function of the endocrine system. This initiative is also the subject of this Commentary in this journal by authors who recently reviewed the subject and who point out inaccuracies in the toxicology editors' critique. The dispute is about potential public policy development, rather than on science translation and research opportunities and priorities. The toxicology journal editors recommend that chemicals be examined in depth one by one, ignoring modern achievements in biomedical research that would allow new understanding of the effects of classes of toxic substances in complex biological systems. Concerns about policy positions framed as scientific ones are especially important in a time with shrinking public support for biomedical research affects priorities. In such a setting, conflict of interest declarations are important, especially in research publications that address issues of public concern and where financial and other interests may play a role. Science relies on trust, and reasonable disclosure of financial or other potential conflicts is therefore essential. This need has been emphasized by recent discoveries of hidden financial conflicts in publications in toxicology journals, thus misleading readers and the public about the safety of particular industrial products. The transparency provided by Environmental Health includes open access and open peer review, with reader access to reviews, including the identity of reviewers and their statements on possible conflicts of interest. However, the editors of the 14 toxicology journals did not provide any information on potential conflicts of interest, an oversight that needs to be corrected.

  11. Translating complex science into life-course health promoting strategies.

    PubMed

    Buttriss, Judith L

    2011-02-01

    These days, we are bombarded with nutrition information from diverse sources and of varying quality. There has been a dramatic increase in communication channels, including more television channels with airtime to fill, and the emergence of the Internet and 'new media' such as social networking sites. Part of this culture is to deliver ever changing and novel angles. The background 'noise' that this creates can make delivery of evidence-based advice about healthy eating that generally carries less novelty value, a huge challenge. This paper illustrates ways in which complex scientific information can be translated into meaningful health promoting strategies that can be applied across the life course. The examples used are nutrition in the context of healthy ageing, communicating the concept of energy density in the context of satiety, healthy hydration, health effects of probiotics and resources for use by teachers in the classroom. This selection of examples demonstrates the processes adopted at the British Nutrition Foundation to identify the evidence base for a particular topic and then to communicate this information to various target audiences. The British Nutrition Foundation's approach typically starts with preparation of a detailed review of the evidence, often with the involvement of external expertise, followed by peer review. For much of this work conventional science communication routes are used, but use is also made of the Internet and various forms of new media.

  12. Complex biomedical systems: from basic science to translation.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) of the University of Southern California (BME@USC) has a longstanding tradition of advancing biomedicine through the development and application of novel engineering ideas. More than 80 primary and affiliated faculty members conduct cutting-edge research in a wide variety of areas, such as neuroengineering, biosystems and biosignal analysis, medical devices (including biomicroelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) and bionanotechnology), biomechanics, bioimaging, and imaging informatics. Currently, the department hosts six internationally recognized research centers: the Biomimetic MicroElectronic Systems Engineering Research Center (funded by the National Science Foundation), the Biomedical Simulations Resource [funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)], the Medical Ultrasonic Transducer Center (funded by NIH), the Center for Neural Engineering, the Center for Vision Science and Technology (funded by an NIH Bioengineering Research Partnership Grant), and the Center for Genomic and Phenomic Studies in Autism (funded by NIH). BME@USC ranks in the top tier of all U.S. BME departments in terms of research funding per faculty.

  13. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  14. Knowledge translation research: the science of moving research into policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Curran, Janet A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hayden, Jill A; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing different questions are needed to develop the evidence base for knowledge translation. In this paper we will present a description of the broad scope of knowledge translation research with a reflection on activities needed to further develop the science of knowledge translation. Consideration of some of the shared research challenges facing the fields of knowledge translation and continuing professional development will also be presented.

  15. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  16. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  17. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  18. How the UK Can Lead the Terrestrial Translation of Biomedical Advances Arising from Lunar Exploration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial translation of biomedical advances is insufficient justification for lunar exploration. However, terrestrial translation should be viewed as a critical part of the cycle of mission planning, execution and review, both in terms of the progress of space exploration, but also of sustained life on Earth. Thus, both the mission and its potential to benefit mankind are increased by the adoption of human-based exploration of the lunar surface. Whilst European biomedical sciences have grown in stature, there remains a gap between space biomedical science and terrestrial medical application. As such, an opportunity for the UK to take a sustainable leadership role exists by utilising its biomedical science community, socialised health care system (National Health Service) and defined mechanisms to determine the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness upon health and wellbeing (i.e. National Institute Clinical Excellence), aiding the difficult process of health care rationing. By focusing upon exploitation of the more scientifically rewarding, potentially long-term and more terrestrially analogous challenge of lunar habitation, the UK would circumnavigate the current impediments to International Space Station utilisation. Early engagement in lunar exploration would promote the UK, and its adoption of a leadership role incorporating a considered approach to the development of space biomedicine with an eye to its terrestrial value. For instance, prolonged lunar habitation could provide an `ideal controlled environment' for investigation of medical interventions, in particular multiple interactions (e.g. between exercise and nutrition), a model of accelerated aging and a number of chronic pathologies, including those related to disuse. Lunar advances could provide a springboard for individualized medicine, insights into occupational and de-centralised medicine (e.g. telemedicine) and act as a stimulus for biomedical innovation and understanding. Leadership in

  19. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    PubMed

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  20. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64864. This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  1. Lost in Translation—Basic Science in the Era of Translational Research ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of translational research, which aims to facilitate the application of basic scientific discoveries in clinical and community settings, is currently in vogue. While there are powerful forces driving this trend, support for translational research must be accompanied by a robust investment in basic science, which provides the essential raw material for translation and continues to represent humanity's best hope to meet a wide range of public health challenges. PMID:20038540

  2. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  3. [On English translation of jun, chen, zuo and shi in science of prescription].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Zhang, Qing-rong

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, English translation of JUN, CHEN, ZUO, and SHI in science of prescription of traditional Chinese medicine were discussed by hunting the headstream, analyzing and explaining their implication, discriminating and selecting the relative English terms.

  4. More Than One Way to Catch a Fish: Effective Translation of Ocean Science for the Public

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    translation is one way to make science and technical information more accessible to the public and thereby, improve scientific literacy of many Americans...We present three information translation models that promote scientific and technical literacy . I. INTRODUCTION As more Americans live... literacy ). The organizational structure of the Operations and Education groups (Figure 1) highlights how the two groups interact to provide

  5. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    PubMed

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.

  6. Advances and challenges in computational plasma science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.

    2005-02-01

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This

  7. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  8. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Reichert, Johannes Christian; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Gbureck, Uwe; Rackwitz, Lars; Nöth, Ulrich; Jakob, Franz; Rudert, Maximilian; Groll, Jürgen; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2013-04-01

    biomaterials lists a large number of excellent review articles which core is to present and discuss the basic sciences on the topic of smart biomaterials. On the other hand, the purpose of our review is to assess state of the art and future perspectives of the so called "smart biomaterials" from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view. Our aim is to filter out and discuss which biomedical advances and innovations help us to achieve the objective to translate smart biomaterials from bench to bedside. The authors predict that analyzing the field of smart biomaterials from a clinical point of view, looking back 50 years from now, it will show that this is our heritage in the 21st century.

  9. The Translational Science Training Program at NIH: Introducing Early Career Researchers to the Science and Operation of Translation of Basic Research to Medical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Wang, Philip Y.; Ryan, Philip E.

    2017-01-01

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with…

  10. Drug discovery in advanced prostate cancer: translating biology into therapy.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Smith, Alan D; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Workman, Paul; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-10-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with a poor prognosis and poses considerable therapeutic challenges. Recent genetic and technological advances have provided insights into prostate cancer biology and have enabled the identification of novel drug targets and potent molecularly targeted therapeutics for this disease. In this article, we review recent advances in prostate cancer target identification for drug discovery and discuss their promise and associated challenges. We review the evolving therapeutic landscape of CRPC and discuss issues associated with precision medicine as well as challenges encountered with immunotherapy for this disease. Finally, we envision the future management of CRPC, highlighting the use of circulating biomarkers and modern clinical trial designs.

  11. Translations of Scientific Practice to "Students' Images of Science"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Michiel; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the science education research literature, it often appears to be assumed that students "possess" more or less stable "images of science" that directly correspond to their experiences with scientific practice in science curricula. From cultural-historical and sociocultural perspectives, this assumption is problematic because scientific…

  12. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-11-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as authorship, textual transmission and cultural factors. Very few historians of science, however, have looked systematically at the issue of translation as worth studying in its own right. Yet the history of translation of philosophical and scientific texts calls, in particular, on the transfer of knowledge from ‘centres’ to ‘peripheries’ and could make serious inroads into reception studies.

  13. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Leach, Prescott T; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L; Solomon, Marjorie; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism.

  14. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism. PMID:27305922

  15. Promoting Translational Research Among Movement Science, Occupational Science, and Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sainburg, Robert L; Liew, Sook-Lei; Frey, Scott H; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors. Given both fields' mutual interest in the study of movement as it relates to health and disease, the authors posit that combining OS and OT theories and principles with the theories and methods in movement science may lead to new, impactful, and clinically relevant knowledge. The first step is to ensure that individuals with OS or OT backgrounds are academically prepared to pursue advanced study in movement science. In this article, the authors propose 2 strategies to address this need.

  16. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    PubMed Central

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability. PMID:26934409

  17. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  18. From genes to community: exploring translational science in adolescent health research: proceedings from a research symposium.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Addressing complex adolescent health problems such as youth violence and teen pregnancy requires innovative strategies to promote protective social environments, increase healthier behaviors, and reduce the impact of health risk behaviors into adulthood. Multilevel, interdisciplinary, and translational approaches are needed to address these challenges in adolescent health. In May 2012, a group of adolescent health researchers participated in a 1-day research symposium titled "From Genes to Community: Exploring Translational Science in Adolescent Health Research," sponsored by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) of the University of Pittsburgh and the Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The research symposium offered opportunities for adolescent health researchers to share examples of translational research as well as to identify potential collaborations to promote translational research. This and subsequent issues of Clinical and Translational Science will include papers from this symposium. The studies and reviews presented range from how basic biobehavioral sciences such as functional neuroimaging and decision science can be made relevant for intervention development as well as improving strategies for community-partnered knowledge transfer of cutting-edge research findings to promote adolescent health and well-being.

  19. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  20. Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Aeroacoustics Research Program is an integral part of the Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences at The George Washington University. It is affiliated with many civil, mechanical, and environmental engineering courses, particularly those that stress theory and numerical or other analytic methods in engineering. This report lists the courses presented, the names of graduate research assistants, and bibliographic information regarding publications and presentations. Three graduate degrees were awarded and the abstracts of each dissertation is included. The dissertations were as follows: "A Numerical Investigation of Thermoacoustic Oscillations", which discusses advances in the study of acoustic phenomena through the use of computational aeroacoustics. "Computation of Vortex Shedding and Radiated Sound for a Circular Cylinder: Subcritical to Transcritical Reynolds Numbers", which discusses predicting tonal noise generated by vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. And finally, "The Radiated Field Generated by a Monopole Source in a Short, Rigid, Rectangular Duct", which develops a method for modeling the acoustic field generated by a monopole source placed in a moving rectangular duct.

  1. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  2. A logic model for community engagement within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards consortium: can we measure what we model?

    PubMed

    Eder, Milton Mickey; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hurd, Thelma C; Rumala, Bernice B; Wallerstein, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) initiative calls on academic health centers to engage communities around a clinical research relationship measured ultimately in terms of public health. Among a few initiatives involving university accountability for advancing public interests, a small CTSA workgroup devised a community engagement (CE) logic model that organizes common activities within a university-community infrastructure to facilitate CE in research. Whereas the model focuses on the range of institutional CE inputs, it purposefully does not include an approach for assessing how CE influences research implementation and outcomes. Rather, with communities and individuals beginning to transition into new research roles, this article emphasizes studying CE through specific relationship types and assessing how expanded research teams contribute to the full spectrum of translational science.The authors propose a typology consisting of three relationship types-engagement, collaboration, and shared leadership-to provide a foundation for investigating community-academic contributions to the new CTSA research paradigm. The typology shifts attention from specific community-academic activities and, instead, encourages analyses focused on measuring the strength of relationships through variables like synergy and trust. The collaborative study of CE relationships will inform an understanding of CTSA infrastructure development in support of translational research and its goal, which is expressed in the logic model: better science, better answers, better population health.

  3. A commentary on the pluralistic goals, logics of action, and institutional contexts of translational team science.

    PubMed

    Winter, Susan J; Berente, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Teams have emerged as a pivotal form for organizing science efforts. Team goals and issues such as goal alignment are generally considered to be essential to team success. However, given the interdisciplinary and pluralistic goals associated with translational science, team goals become a challenging area for studies that cannot be reconciled without attention to the broader institutional contexts of translational teams. In this commentary, we draw attention to how different goals in team science can be rooted in the broader institutional context and associated logics of action. For the science of team science (SciTS) to impact practice, it is imperative that we be clear about the logic of team goals and their relation to preferred patterns of organizing. We conclude with a reflection on how contextual issues should be at the foreground of SciTS along with the other important issues of team science.

  4. Recent clinical and translational advances in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a child population increase in BP level and an increase in prevalence of hypertension, that is largely, but not entirely, driven by a concurrent increase in childhood obesity. Given current estimates, ≈10% of adolescents have hypertension or prehypertension. In addition to obesity, dietary salt intake and waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are found to be independently associated with the rise in BP among children and adolescents. Dietary salt intake in urban children is well above recommended levels largely because of consumption of processed and fast foods. Childhood exposures, such as stress,52 salt, and fructose, as well as lifestyles, including food sources, sleep patterns, and reductions in physical activity may have a role in obesity-high BP associations. In addition, clinical and translational evidence is mounting that intrauterine exposures alter can effect changes in fetal development that have an enduring effect on cardiovascular and metabolic function later in life. These effects can be detected even in children who are products of a term otherwise normal pregnancy. Hypertension in childhood has been defined statistically (BP ≥ 95th percentile) because of lack of outcome data that links a BP level with heightened risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, primary hypertension had been considered a risk factor for later hypertension in adulthood. Intermediate markers of TOD, including cardiac hypertrophy, vascular stiffness, and increases in cIMT, are detectable in adolescents with primary hypertension. Evidence that vascular injury is present in the early phase of hypertension and even in prehypertension warrants consideration on the current definition of pediatric hypertension. With further studies on TOD and other risk factors in addition to high BP, it may be possible to shift from a statistical definition to a definition of childhood hypertension that is evidence based. Preventing or

  5. Advanced Science for Kids: Multicultural Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettac, Teresa; Huckabee, Colleen; Musser, Louise; Patton, Paulette; Yates, Joyce

    1997-01-01

    Describes Advanced Science for Kids (ASK), a multicultural approach to assessment and programming for a middle school advanced science program. ASK is designed to provide alternative approaches to identification and assessment, facilitate authentic instruction and assessment, and provide minority students with academic and social support as they…

  6. Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…

  7. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.

  8. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  9. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  10. Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Levallois, Clement; Clithero, John A; Wouters, Paul; Smidts, Ale; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and the social networks in its intellectual community, we show that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary integration, such that research topics and scientific communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive recommendations for directing future research in neuroeconomics.

  11. An Australian Science Curriculum: Competition, Advances and Retreats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubusson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Science schooling enjoys high status. Scientific capability is perceived as critical in underpinning economic success in advanced societies. Science achievement, at all levels, has become a global competition in which nations want to be seen to triumph. Governments periodically pay close attention to science education with a view to ensuring it…

  12. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  13. Drug design and discovery: translational biomedical science varies among countries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian N; Weaver, Donald F

    2013-10-01

    Drug design and discovery is an innovation process that translates the outcomes of fundamental biomedical research into therapeutics that are ultimately made available to people with medical disorders in many countries throughout the world. To identify which nations succeed, exceed, or fail at the drug design/discovery endeavor--more specifically, which countries, within the context of their national size and wealth, are "pulling their weight" when it comes to developing medications targeting the myriad of diseases that afflict humankind--we compiled and analyzed a comprehensive survey of all new drugs (small molecular entities and biologics) approved annually throughout the world over the 20-year period from 1991 to 2010. Based upon this analysis, we have devised prediction algorithms to ascertain which countries are successful (or not) in contributing to the worldwide need for effective new therapeutics.

  14. Assessment of risk of bias in translational science.

    PubMed

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Pellionisz, Peter; Dousti, Mona; Lam, Vivian; Gleason, Lauren; Dousti, Mahsa; Moura, Josemar; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2013-08-08

    Risk of bias in translational medicine may take one of three forms: A. a systematic error of methodology as it pertains to measurement or sampling (e.g., selection bias), B. a systematic defect of design that leads to estimates of experimental and control groups, and of effect sizes that substantially deviate from true values (e.g., information bias), and C. a systematic distortion of the analytical process, which results in a misrepresentation of the data with consequential errors of inference (e.g., inferential bias). Risk of bias can seriously adulterate the internal and the external validity of a clinical study, and, unless it is identified and systematically evaluated, can seriously hamper the process of comparative effectiveness and efficacy research and analysis for practice. The Cochrane Group and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality have independently developed instruments for assessing the meta-construct of risk of bias. The present article begins to discuss this dialectic.

  15. Assessment of risk of bias in translational science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Risk of bias in translational medicine may take one of three forms: A. a systematic error of methodology as it pertains to measurement or sampling (e.g., selection bias), B. a systematic defect of design that leads to estimates of experimental and control groups, and of effect sizes that substantially deviate from true values (e.g., information bias), and C. a systematic distortion of the analytical process, which results in a misrepresentation of the data with consequential errors of inference (e.g., inferential bias). Risk of bias can seriously adulterate the internal and the external validity of a clinical study, and, unless it is identified and systematically evaluated, can seriously hamper the process of comparative effectiveness and efficacy research and analysis for practice. The Cochrane Group and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality have independently developed instruments for assessing the meta-construct of risk of bias. The present article begins to discuss this dialectic. PMID:23927081

  16. The quantitative evaluation of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Lei; Diao, Tianxi

    2013-12-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program is one of the most important initiatives in translational medical funding. The quantitative evaluation of the efficiency and performance of the CTSA program has a significant referential meaning for the decision making of global translational medical funding. Using science mapping and scientometric analytic tools, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles funded by the CTSA program. The results of the study showed that the quantitative productivities of the CTSA program had a stable increase since 2008. In addition, the emerging trends of the research funded by the CTSA program covered clinical and basic medical research fields. The academic benefits from the CTSA program were assisting its members to build a robust academic home for the Clinical and Translational Science and to attract other financial support. This study provided a quantitative evaluation of the CTSA program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis. Further research is required to compare and optimize other quantitative methods and to integrate various research results.

  17. American Association for the Advancement of Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cross-Border Research, Study Finds Full Story journals_science_20170414_hmpg.jpg Latest Issue Read more news ... png Time to Focus on the Power of Science Locally and Beyond, Experts Say News_0330_USMexicoBorder_ ...

  18. Knowledge translation in the emergency medical services: a research agenda for advancing prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about knowledge translation in the practice of out-of-hospital medicine. It is generally accepted that much work is needed regarding "getting the evidence straight" in emergency medical services, given the substantial number of interventions that are performed regularly in the field but lack meaningful scientific support. Additional attention also needs to be given to "getting the evidence used," because there is some evidence that evidence-based practices are being incompletely or incorrectly applied in the field. In an effort to help advance a research agenda for knowledge translation in emergency medical services, nine recommendations are put forth to help address the problems identified.

  19. Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions.

  20. Current preclinical models for the advancement of translational bladder cancer research.

    PubMed

    DeGraff, David J; Robinson, Victoria L; Shah, Jay B; Brandt, William D; Sonpavde, Guru; Kang, Yibin; Liebert, Monica; Wu, Xue-Ru; Taylor, John A

    2013-02-01

    Bladder cancer is a common disease representing the fifth most diagnosed solid tumor in the United States. Despite this, advances in our understanding of the molecular etiology and treatment of bladder cancer have been relatively lacking. This is especially apparent when recent advances in other cancers, such as breast and prostate, are taken into consideration. The field of bladder cancer research is ready and poised for a series of paradigm-shifting discoveries that will greatly impact the way this disease is clinically managed. Future preclinical discoveries with translational potential will require investigators to take full advantage of recent advances in molecular and animal modeling methodologies. We present an overview of current preclinical models and their potential roles in advancing our understanding of this deadly disease and for advancing care.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Case Study in Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Allyson K.; Harris, Antoneicka L.; Jacobson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Each year 610,000 cases of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) occur worldwide. HPV vaccination represents a promising opportunity to prevent cancer on a global scale. The vaccine’s story dates back to discoveries in chickens at the beginning of the 20th century with evidence that a cell-free filtrate could transmit the propensity to grow cancers. Later, studies with similarly derived filtrates from mammalian tumors showed that hosts could develop immunity to subsequent exposures. Epidemiologic studies linked cervical cancer to members of a family of viruses that cause papillomatosis and common warts. This led to work with DNA hybridization demonstrating a causal relationship. The formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) from viral capsid proteins led to the development of models for safe and effective vaccines. While much work remains with the acceptance of universal vaccination, the HPV vaccines Gardasil® and Cervarix® thus represent a century of successful translational research. PMID:24841923

  2. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  3. Conference Scene: Systems biology and personalized health science and translation.

    PubMed

    Siest, Gérard; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; El Shamieh, Said; Shahabi, Payman; Stathopoulou, Maria; Saleh, Abdel Salam; Godjo, Thibaut; Albertini, Laetitia; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    After a 1-day advanced course on systems biology, the main themes of this 3-day colloquium were developed: from systems biology to systems medicine with special applications to cancer; pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and clinical application; and epigenomics and genome-wide association studies in cardiovascular diseases. In two roundtable discussions on pharmacogenomics and genome-wide association studies, the progress and the difficulties in the implementation of omics technologies in clinical practice were discussed. Three workshops were also organized on technical tools linked to the meeting themes.

  4. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  5. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Dann, Sara M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle. PMID:25621288

  6. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons learned from the first 10 years of TT21 and the first two workshops in the FutureTox series (for summary of FutureTox II see (Knudsen et al., 2015); for summary of FutureTox I see (Rowlands et al., 2014)). FutureTox III was attended in person and via webcast by more than 300 scientists from government research and regulatory agencies, research institutes, academia, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Europe, Canada, and the United States. The meeting materials for FutureTox III, currently available to meeting registrants at http://www.toxicology.org/events/shm/cct/meetings.asp#upcoming-pnl-open, will be open to the public on November 29, 2016. At this workshop, participants reviewed and discussed the state of the science in toxicology and human risk and exposure assessment with a focus on moving TT21 science into the arena of regulatory decision-making. This manuscript describes the outcome of the FutureTox III 'contemporary concepts in toxicology' conference of the Society Toxicology, held November 2015 in Crystal City VA.

  7. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967. PMID:14964714

  8. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-11-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967.

  9. Code-Switching in English and Science Classrooms: More than Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Then, David Chen-On; Ting, Su-Hie

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the use of code-switching by English and science teachers in secondary schools in Malaysia. It focuses on the functions of code-switching in multilingual classrooms where English is the language of instruction, examining in particular the reiterative function of code-switching and its association with translation. Thirty six…

  10. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Colloids Experiment is being conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). Work to date will be discussed and future plans and opportunities will be highlighted. The LMM is a microscope facility designed to allow scientists to process, manipulate, and characterize colloidal samples in micro-gravity where the absence of gravitational settling and particle jamming enables scientists to study such things as:a.The role that disordered and ordered-packing of spheres play in the phase diagram and equation of state of hard sphere systems,b.crystal nucleation and growth, growth instabilities, and the glass transition, c.gelation and phase separation of colloid polymer mixtures,d.crystallization of colloidal binary alloys,e.competition between crystallization and phase separation,f.effects of anisotropy and specific interactions on packing, aggregation, frustration and crystallization,g.effects of specific reversible and irreversible interactions mediated in the first case by hybridization of complementary DNA strands attached to separate colloidal particles,h.Lock and key interactions between colloids with dimples and spheres which match the size and shape of the dimples,i.finding the phase diagrams of isotropic and interacting particles,j.new techniques for complex self-assembly including scenarios for self-replication, k.critical Casimir forces,l.biology (real and model systems) in microgravity,m.etc. By adding additional microscopy capabilities to the existing LMM, NASA will increase the tools available for scientists that fly experiments on the ISS enabling scientists to observe directly what is happening at the particle level. Presently, theories are needed to bridge the gap between what is being observed (at a macroscopic level when photographing samples) with what is happening at a particle (or microscopic) level. What is happening at a microscopic level will be directly

  11. The Promise of Neurotechnology in Clinical Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Richey, John A.; Gracanin, Denis; Bell, Martha Ann; LaConte, Stephen; Coffman, Marika; Trubanova, Andrea; Kim, Inyoung

    2014-01-01

    Neurotechnology is broadly defined as a set of devices used to understand neural processes and applications that can potentially facilitate the brain’s ability to repair itself. In the past decade, an increasingly explicit understanding of basic biological mechanisms of brain-related illnesses has produced applications that allow a direct yet noninvasive method to index and manipulate the functioning of the human nervous system. Clinical scientists are poised to apply this technology to assess, treat, and better understand complex socioemotional processes that underlie many forms of psychopathology. In this review, we describe the potential benefits and hurdles, both technical and methodological, of neurotechnology in the context of clinical dysfunction. We also offer a framework for developing and evaluating neurotechnologies that is intended to expedite progress at the nexus of clinical science and neural interface designs by providing a comprehensive vocabulary to describe the necessary features of neurotechnology in the clinic. PMID:26504676

  12. The Promise of Neurotechnology in Clinical Translational Science.

    PubMed

    White, Susan W; Richey, John A; Gracanin, Denis; Bell, Martha Ann; LaConte, Stephen; Coffman, Marika; Trubanova, Andrea; Kim, Inyoung

    2015-09-01

    Neurotechnology is broadly defined as a set of devices used to understand neural processes and applications that can potentially facilitate the brain's ability to repair itself. In the past decade, an increasingly explicit understanding of basic biological mechanisms of brain-related illnesses has produced applications that allow a direct yet noninvasive method to index and manipulate the functioning of the human nervous system. Clinical scientists are poised to apply this technology to assess, treat, and better understand complex socioemotional processes that underlie many forms of psychopathology. In this review, we describe the potential benefits and hurdles, both technical and methodological, of neurotechnology in the context of clinical dysfunction. We also offer a framework for developing and evaluating neurotechnologies that is intended to expedite progress at the nexus of clinical science and neural interface designs by providing a comprehensive vocabulary to describe the necessary features of neurotechnology in the clinic.

  13. Corneal gene therapy: basic science and translational perspective.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rajiv R; Rodier, Jason T; Sharma, Ajay

    2013-07-01

    Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in the last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases.

  14. Corneal Gene Therapy: Basic Science and Translational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rajiv R.; Rodier, Jason T.; Sharma, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. Gene therapy is an emerging technology for corneal blindness due to the accessibility and immune-privileged nature of the cornea, ease of vector administration and visual monitoring, and ability to perform frequent noninvasive corneal assessment. Vision restoration by gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic gene introduction into targeted cells/tissues. Numerous efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches have evolved in last decade for developing gene-based interventions for corneal diseases. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. This review describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various ocular surface disorders and diseases. PMID:23838017

  15. Translational biophysics: the physical sciences in molecular medicine.

    PubMed

    Ryadnov, Maxim G; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Martyna, Glenn J; Crain, Jason

    2010-11-01

    Traditional approaches of medicinal chemistry focus on finding novel structures possessing desired biological properties, or on relating chemical details to a particular biological function. Here the aim is to hit the therapeutic target of interest rather than to understand and exploit its origin. Consequently, molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are of much lesser concern, with intuitive designs continuing to be most successful. Physical sciences can offer alternative ways of tackling the problem by establishing structural continuums between different time and length scales spanning physical phenomena of life processes and their disorders. This can be achieved by the use of approximated physical models providing a rationale for interconversions between different but related scales, which can further be extended with chemical details obtained from complementary experimental data.

  16. Network biology methods integrating biological data for translational science.

    PubMed

    Bebek, Gurkan; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Price, Nathan D; Chance, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    The explosion of biomedical data, both on the genomic and proteomic side as well as clinical data, will require complex integration and analysis to provide new molecular variables to better understand the molecular basis of phenotype. Currently, much data exist in silos and is not analyzed in frameworks where all data are brought to bear in the development of biomarkers and novel functional targets. This is beginning to change. Network biology approaches, which emphasize the interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites provide a framework for data integration such that genome, proteome, metabolome and other -omics data can be jointly analyzed to understand and predict disease phenotypes. In this review, recent advances in network biology approaches and results are identified. A common theme is the potential for network analysis to provide multiplexed and functionally connected biomarkers for analyzing the molecular basis of disease, thus changing our approaches to analyzing and modeling genome- and proteome-wide data.

  17. Cardiovascular science: opportunities for translating research into improved care.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular research is progressing on many fronts, as highlighted in the collection of Reviews in this issue of the JCI. MicroRNAs that regulate cardiac function have been implicated in cardiac disorders, and efforts to develop therapeutic antagomirs are underway. The genetic bases of several cardiac disorders, including cardiomyopathies that cause heart failure and channelopathies that underlie cardiac arrhythmias, have been elucidated. Genetic testing can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk, potentially leading to effective preventative measures. Growing evidence supports the role of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. For heart failure, recent work suggests that cardiac regeneration using stem/progenitor cells, gene transfer, new drugs that restore normal Ca2+ cycling, and agents that reduce reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction are all viable new approaches to managing disease. Cumulatively, it seems likely that the clinical advances emerging from ongoing research will, in the foreseeable future, reduce the number of deaths in the industrialized world from cardiovascular disease.

  18. Math-Science Bills Advance in Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Improving K-12 instruction and student achievement in mathematics and science is at the heart of separate bills intended to bolster America's economic standing that won overwhelming approval in both houses of Congress last week. The House on April 24 approved the 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds Science and Math Scholarship Act by a vote of…

  19. Advanced Science Students' Understanding on Nature of Science in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar; Sormunen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Nature of science (NOS), as an aspect of informed decision making about science related issues in daily life, is frequently emphasised when reform and the curriculum are in question. When reflecting on studies done on the subject, it comes apparent that the majority of them comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with traditional…

  20. Advancing Geospatial Technologies in Science and Social Science: A Case Study in Collaborative Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. A.; Morris, J. N.; Simms, M. L.; Metoyer, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Advancing Geospatial Skills in Science and Social Sciences (AGSSS) program, funded by NSF, provides middle and high school teacher-partners with access to graduate student scientists for classroom collaboration and curriculum adaptation to incorporate and advance skills in spatial thinking. AGSSS Fellows aid in the delivery of geospatially-enhanced activities utilizing technology such as geographic information systems, remote sensing, and virtual globes. The partnership also provides advanced professional development for both participating teachers and fellows. The AGSSS program is mutually beneficial to all parties involved. This successful collaboration of scientists, teachers, and students results in greater understanding and enthusiasm for the use of spatial thinking strategies and geospatial technologies. In addition, the partnership produces measurable improvements in student efficacy and attitudes toward processes of spatial thinking. The teacher partner training and classroom resources provided by AGSSS will continue the integration of geospatial activities into the curriculum after the project concludes. Time and resources are the main costs in implementing this partnership. Graduate fellows invest considerable time and energy, outside of academic responsibilities, to develop materials for the classroom. Fellows are required to be available during K-12 school hours, which necessitates forethought in scheduling other graduate duties. However, the benefits far outweigh the costs. Graduate fellows gain experience in working in classrooms. In exchange, students gain exposure to working scientists and their research. This affords graduate fellows the opportunity to hone their communication skills, and specifically allows them to address the issue of translating technical information for a novice audience. Teacher-partners and students benefit by having scientific expertise readily available. In summation, these experiences result in changes in teacher

  1. Clinical and Translational Science Awards: can they increase the efficiency and speed of clinical and translational research?

    PubMed

    Heller, Caren; de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2009-04-01

    Most agree that the recent decades-long boom in biomedical research discoveries has not had a sufficient effect on the public's health. To overcome some of the barriers to speeding clinical and translational (C/T) research, the National Institutes of Health has established the Institutional Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). To explore whether the CTSA proposal addresses major C/T barriers and whether funded institutions offer adequate solutions, the authors reviewed the obstacles to C/T research described in the literature and examined the completeness of the solutions offered by the 12 initial CTSA awardees. Through an analysis of the literature, the authors categorized C/T barriers into three categories (research workforce, research operations, and organizational silos). They then analyzed each CTSA proposal regarding the types of programs offered to address these barriers. They found that, in general, institutions developed detailed programs to address research workforce and research operations barriers but had limited to no solutions for organizational silos. The authors suggest that differences in how barriers are addressed are consistent with the degree of control that CTSA centers have over these obstacles and solutions. They argue that although CTSA centers might have an important role in successfully addressing some of the barriers to C/T research, CTSA centers might ultimately have difficulties achieving their purported goal of facilitating and increasing the efficiency and speed of C/T research because of a lack of control over solutions to some important obstacles facing such research.

  2. Clinical and translational research capacity building needs in minority medical and health science Hispanic institutions.

    PubMed

    Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M

    2014-10-01

    A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities.

  3. Exploring a Century of Advancements in the Science of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, P. Karen; Knight, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    The past century has yielded a plethora of advancements in the science of learning, from expansions in the theoretical frames that undergird education research to cultural and contextual considerations in educational practice. The overarching purpose of this chapter is to explore and document the growth and development of the science of learning…

  4. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  5. Advances in Engineering Science, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas of flight science are discussed in detail; (1) inviscid flow, (2) viscous flow, (3) aircraft aerodynamics, (4) fluid mechanics, (5) propulsion and combustion, and (6) flight dynamics and control.

  6. Advances in engineering science, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with structural dynamics; structural synthesis; and the nonlinear analysis of structures, structural members, and composite structures and materials. Applications of mathematics and computer science are included.

  7. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  8. Building a translational science on children and youth affected by political violence and armed conflict: A commentary.

    PubMed

    Masten, Ann S

    2017-02-01

    Articles in this timely Special Section represent an important milestone in the developmental science on children and youth involved in political violence and armed conflict. With millions of children worldwide affected by past and present wars and conflicts, there is an urgent and growing need for research to inform efforts to understand, prevent, and mitigate the possible harm of such violence to individual children, families, communities, and societies, for present as well as future generations. The four programs of research highlighted in this Special Section illustrate key advances and challenges in contemporary development research on young people growing up in the midst or aftermath of political violence. These studies are longitudinal, methodologically sophisticated, and grounded in socioecological systems models that align well with current models of risk and resilience in developmental psychopathology. These studies collectively mark a critically important shift to process-focused research that holds great promise for translational applications. Nonetheless, given the scope of the international crisis of children and youth affected by political violence and its sequelae, there is an urgent global need for greater mobilization of resources to support translational science and effective evidence-based action.

  9. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building upon the Formative Years.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Martinez, Dominic F; Buchwald, Dedra S; Rubio, Doris M; Moss, Marc

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges.

  10. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  11. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    McIlvane, William J

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote desirable forms of behavior and to prevent or ameliorate undesirable forms in clinical, educational, and other settings. Less obviously, there has also emerged a small but identifiable bridging field that can potentially connect and inform both basic and applied behavior analysis. Although such translational behavior analysis uses laboratory methodologies, research targets are selected largely for their value in ultimate application to improve the human condition. I will discuss the distinction of translational behavior analysis from basic and applied behavior analysis and consider the potential contribution that translational research can make in the development of the science of behavior. PMID:22478526

  12. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

  13. Advances In Engineering Science, Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    MACRO-MOLECULES .............. ....................... .. 27 K. L. DeVries STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN BLOCK COPOLYMERS ... .......... 37 James ...ADVANCES IN SHELL THEORY .............. ..................... .. 617 James G. Simmonds FLUID-PLASTICITY OF THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS...1009 W. James Hadden, Jr., and Allan D. Pierce THE LEAKING MODE PROBLEM IN ATMOSPHERIC ACOUSTIC-GRAVITY WAVE PROPAGATION

  14. Advanced Science Students' Understandings on Nature of Science in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Kari; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Majority of NOS studies comprise of determination or assessment studies conducted with ordinary students. In order to gain further understanding on variation in NOS understandings among the students, there should be different research attempts focusing on unconventional students such as academically advanced students. The purpose of this study is…

  15. Knowledge translation in health research: a novel approach to health sciences education.

    PubMed

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2009-08-18

    The salient role of knowledge translation process, by which knowledge is put into practice, is increasingly recognized by various research stakeholders. However, medical schools are slow in providing medical students and health professionals engaged in research with the sufficient opportunities to examine more closely the facilitators and barriers to utilization of research evidence in policymaking and implementation, or the effectiveness of their research communication strategies. Memorial University of Newfoundland now offers a knowledge translation course that equips students of community health and applied health research with the knowledge and skills necessary for conducting research, that responds more closely to the needs of their communities, and for improving the utilization of their research by a variety of research consumers. This case study illustrates how the positive research outcomes resulted from implementing the knowledge translation strategies learned in the course. Knowledge translation can be useful also in attracting more funding and support from research agencies, industry, government agencies and the public. These reasons offer a compelling rationale for the standard inclusion of knowledge translation courses in health sciences education.

  16. Evaluation and the NIH clinical and translational science awards: a "top ten" list.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Abedin, Zainab; Blank, Arthur E; Mazmanian, Paul E

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, a total of 61 Clinical and Translational Science Institutes (CTSAs) have been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with the aim of reducing translation time from a bench discovery to when it impacts patients. This special issue of Evaluation & the Health Professions focuses on evaluation within and across the large, complex system of the CTSA Program of NIH. Through insights gained by reading the articles in this special edition and the experience of the authors, a "top ten" list of lessons learned and insights gained is presented. The list outlines issues that face those who evaluate the influence of the CTSA Program, as they work to anticipate what will be needed for continuing success. Themes include (1) considering the needs of stakeholders, (2) the perspective of the evaluators, (3) the importance of service improvement, (4) the importance of teams and people, (5) costs and return on investments, (6) methodology considerations to evaluate the CTSA enterprise, (7) innovation in evaluation, (8) defining the transformation of research, (9) evaluating the long-term impact of the CTSAs on public health, and (10) contributing to science policy formulation and implementation. The establishment of the CTSA Program, with its mandated evaluation component, has not only influenced the infrastructure and nature of translational research but will continue to impact policy and management in science.

  17. Review of basic science advances in HIV.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is held annually to provide a forum for scientists to hear the most recent advances in the field of HIV and AIDS research. Although the conference has a primary mission to showcase advances in the prevention and management of HIV-1 infection and opportunistic infections (in particular, tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), there continues to be a strong basic research component. Research on cellular factors that influence the interplay between the virus and the host cell, and especially, cellular factors that antagonize viral replication, had the greatest presence at the conference. In the area of retroviral pathogenesis, research on viral reservoirs and mechanisms of viral persistence in the face of antiretroviral therapy generated considerable interest. Research on mechanisms of viral persistence is beginning to reveal strategies, some of which were the focus of presentations at CROI, to eliminate long-lived viral reservoirs.

  18. Advances and Challenges in Computational Plasma Science

    SciTech Connect

    W.M. Tang; V.S. Chan

    2005-01-03

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically-confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper with illustrative examples chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and other topics. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology.

  19. Advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations: The contributions of nursing science.

    PubMed

    Grady, Patricia A

    Nursing science has a critical role to inform practice, promote health, and improve the lives of individuals across the lifespan who face the challenges of advanced cardiorespiratory disease. Since 1997, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) has focused attention on the importance of palliative and end-of-life care for advanced heart failure and advanced pulmonary disease through the publication of multiple funding opportunity announcements and by supporting a cadre of nurse scientists that will continue to address new priorities and future directions for advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations.

  20. Time for a paradigm shift in how we transfer knowledge? Making the case for translational science and public engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    By any measure, our efforts to protect and restore the environment have failed to keep pace with environmental change, despite extraordinary scientific advances. Clearly there is a problem in knowledge transfer, which is often blamed on limited public awareness, misunderstanding or even apathy. Whether it's moving research to practice, informing policy, or educating the public on the environmental challenges of our time, our track record is poor. A major part of our failure lies in how scientists and practitioners understand (or misunderstand) and practice knowledge transfer. What actually drives knowledge acquisition and the motivation to gain knowledge, and what does this say about the methods used for knowledge transfer? Is the problem a supply issue (deficit of knowledge) or a demand issue (personal relevance)? The false assumptions that spin out of how we conceptualize knowledge acquisition lead to investment in knowledge transfer balanced heavily in "science communication" and "awareness raising" activities that tend to be unidirectional, top-down, and rarely linked to personal interests. Successful adaptation to environmental change requires a theoretical and practical understanding of coupled natural-human systems as well as advances in bridging knowledge systems and the science-society gap. To be effective, this means a "translational science" approach that promotes the capture and integration of scientific and local knowledge, addresses the influences of scale (biophysically, socially, institutionally), encourages mutual learning among all parties, and builds capacity as part of the process. The facilitation and translation of information and meanings among stakeholders can lead to the co-production of knowledge, more informed decision making, and in a very pragmatic way, more effective use of assessments and other products of scientific discovery. The purpose of this presentation is to shed light on what underlies the majority of investment in knowledge

  1. Supporting the advancement of science: open access publishing and the role of mandates.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Lisa; Fox, Bernard A; Marincola, Francesco M

    2012-01-24

    In December 2011 the United States House of Representatives introduced a new bill, the Research Works Act (H.R.3699), which if passed could threaten the public's access to US government funded research. In a digital age when professional and lay parties alike look more and more to the online environment to keep up to date with developments in their fields, does this bill serve the best interests of the community? Those in support of the Research Works Act argue that government open access mandates undermine peer-review and take intellectual property from publishers without compensation, however journals like Journal of Translational Medicine show that this is not the case. Journal of Translational Medicine in affiliation with the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer demonstrates how private and public organisations can work together for the advancement of science.

  2. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  3. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, David; Schneider, N.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Afsharahmadi, F.

    2012-10-01

    We present two new features of an ongoing effort to bring recent newsworthy advances in planetary science to undergraduate lecture halls. The effort, called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', summarizes selected recently announced discoveries that are 'too new for textbooks' in the form of 3-slide PowerPoint presentations. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts at a level appropriate for students of 'Astronomy 101', and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/ for download by undergraduate instructors or any interested party. Several new slide sets have just been released, and we summarize the topics covered. The slide sets are also being translated into languages other than English (including Spanish and Farsi), and we will provide an overview of the translation strategy and process. Finally, we will present web statistics on how many people are using the slide sets, as well as individual feedback from educators.

  4. Advancing the science of mHealth.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Wendy; Kumar, Santosh; Shar, Albert; Varoquiers, Carrie; Wiley, Tisha; Riley, William T; Pavel, Misha; Atienza, Audie A

    2012-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to greatly impact health research, health care, and health outcomes, but the exponential growth of the technology has outpaced the science. This article outlines two initiatives designed to enhance the science of mHealth. The mHealth Evidence Workshop used an expert panel to identify optimal methodological approaches for mHealth research. The NIH mHealth Training Institutes address the silos among the many academic and technology areas in mHealth research and is an effort to build the interdisciplinary research capacity of the field. Both address the growing need for high quality mobile health research both in the United States and internationally. mHealth requires a solid, interdisciplinary scientific approach that pairs the rapid change associated with technological progress with a rigorous evaluation approach. The mHealth Evidence Workshop and the NIH mHealth Training Institutes were both designed to address and further develop this scientific approach to mHealth.

  5. Jansky Very Large Array: technology advancing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, the NRAO has completed on time, and on budget, a major reconstruction of the Very Large Array. Building on existing infrastructure to maximize efficiency, the entire VLA electronics system, including correlator, receivers, data transmission, and monitor and control, have been replaced with state of the art systems. This complete rebuild establishes the new Jansky VLA, operating between 75MHz and 50GHz, as the most powerful radio telescope in the world for the coming decade.I will review the technical improvements of the array, including:- Correlator: Increased bandwidth from 100MHz to 8GHz, with thousands of spectral channels.- Receivers: replaced the previous narrow bands with receivers covering the full frequency range from 1 GHz to 50GHz. New systems are also being tested to cover from 50MHz to 400MHz.- Data transmission: 8GHz over optical fiber out to 30km.I will then highlight some of the science enabled by these improvements, including:- Large cosmic volume searches for atomic and molecular gas, from the nearby Universe to the most distant galaxies, plus kpc-scale imaging of the cool gas in distant starburst galaxies.- High resolution studies of star and planet formation.- Innovative interferometric searches for transient phenomena.- The first radio continuum deep fields with sensitivities < 1uJy, with full polarization for Faraday tomography.- Imaging radio-mode feedback in galaxies and clusters, and delineating the complex plasma physical processes involved on scales from a few kpc to hundreds of kpc.I will conclude with a few words about the major challenges facing such a new instrument. These challenges are all on the critical path toward any successful development of future facilities, such as the next generation VLA and SKA:- Big data: data volumes and post-processing are currently major bottlenecks in the turn-over from observation to science publication. NRAO is developing calibration and imaging pipelines to provide science

  6. Advances in SPICE Support of Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is the de facto international standard for determining the geometric conditions-parameters such as altitude, lighting angles, and LAT/LON coverage of an instrument footprint-pertaining to scientific observations acquired by instruments on board robotic spacecraft. This system, comprised of data and allied software, is used for planning science observations and for analyzing the data returned from those observations. Use of SPICE is not a NASA requirement but is recommended by NASA's Planetary Data System and by the International Planetary Data Alliance. Owing in part to its reliability, stability, portability and user support, the use of SPICE has spread to many national space agencies, including those of the U.S., Europe (ESA), Japan, Russia and India. SPICE has been in use since the Magellan mission to Venus and so has many well-known capabilities. But the NAIF Team responsible for implementing SPICE continues to add new features; this presentation describes a number of these.

  7. Recent advances in fullerene science (Invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunk, P. W.; Marshall, A. G.; Mulet-Gas, M.; Rodriguez-Fortea, A.; Poblet, J. M.

    2014-12-09

    The development of very high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometers (Marshall et al, 1998) has made a wide range of new measurements possible and by combining this new technology with laser vaporization supersonic beam methods of producing carbon species (chains, rings and fullerenes), new advances in understanding of the fullerene creation mechanisms and their reactivity have been possible. In this overview, new understanding has been developed with regard to: a) closed-network growth of fullerenes (Dunk et al, 2012a); b) small endohedral species such as MαC{sub 28} (Dunk et al., 2012b); c) metallofullerene and fullerene formation under conditions in stellar outflows with relevance to stardust (Dunk et al., 2013a) and d) The formation of heterofullerenes by direct exposure of C{sub 60} toboron vapor (Dunk et al., 2013b)

  8. Defense Science Board Report on Advanced Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    complex computational  issues are  pursued , and that several vendors remain at  the  leading edge of  supercomputing  capability  in  the U.S.  In... pursuing   the  ASC  program  to  help  assure  that  HPC  advances  are  available  to  the  broad  national  security  community. As  in  the past, many...apply HPC  to  technical  problems  related  to  weapons  physics,  but  that  are  entirely  unclassified.  Examples include explosive  astrophysical

  9. Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The program objectives were defined in the original proposal entitled "Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in the JIAFS at NASA Langley Research Center" which was originated March 20, 1975, and in yearly renewals of the research program dated December 1, 1979 to December 1, 1998. The program included three major topics: 1) Improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for flight and wind tunnel data analysis based on system identification methodology. 2) Application of these methods to flight and wind tunnel data obtained from advanced aircraft. 3) Modeling and control of aircraft, space structures and spacecraft. The principal investigator of the program was Dr. Vladislav Klein, Professor at The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.. Thirty-seven Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, two of them doctoral students, also participated in the program. The results of the research conducted during nineteen years of the total co-operative period were published in 23 NASA technical reports, 2 D.Sc. Dissertations, 14 M.S. Theses and 33 papers. The list of these publications is included. The results were also reported in more than 30 seminar lectures presented at various research establishments world-wide. For contributions to the research supported by the co-operative agreement, three NASA Awards were received: 1) NASA LARC Group Achievement Award, May 30, 1990, to Dr. V. Klein as a member of the X-29 Drop Model Team. 2) NASA Medal for Exceptional Engineering Achievement, March 27, 1992, to Dr. V. Klein for innovative contributions in the development of advanced techniques and computer programs in the field of system identification. 3) NASA LaRC Team Excellence Award, May 7, 1994, to Dr. V. Klein as a member of the X-31 Drop Model Team.

  10. D1-3: Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS): An Online Reference for Clinical and Translational Science Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Finamore, Joe; Ray, William; Kadolph, Chris; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Ye, Zhan; Jacqueline, Bohne; Tachinardi, Umberto; Mendonça, Eneida; Finnegan, Brian; Bartkowiak, Barbara; Weichelt, Bryan; Lin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims New terms are rapidly appearing in the literature and practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To catalog real-world usage of medical terms, we report the first construction of an online dictionary of clinical and translational medicinal terms, which are computationally generated in near real-time using a big data approach. This project is NIH CTSA-funded and developed by the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation in conjunction with University of Wisconsin - Madison. Currently titled Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS), this application is a Google-like word search tool. By entering a term into the search bar, MD-CTS will display that term’s definition, usage examples, contextual terms, related images, and ontological information. A prototype is available for public viewing at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. Methods We programmatically derived the lexicon for MD-CTS from scholarly communications by parsing through 15,156,745 MEDLINE abstracts and extracting all of the unique words found therein. We then ran this list through several filters in order to remove words that were not relevant for searching, such as common English words and numeric expressions. We then loaded the resulting 1,795,769 terms into SQL tables. Each term is cross-referenced with every occurrence in all abstracts in which it was found. Additional information is aggregated from Wiktionary, Bioportal, and Wikipedia in real-time and displayed on-screen. From this lexicon we created a supplemental dictionary resource (updated quarterly) to be used in Microsoft Office® products. Results We evaluated the utility of MD-CTS by creating a list of 100 words derived from recent clinical and translational medicine publications in the week of July 22, 2013. We then performed comparative searches for each term with Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Medical

  11. Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M., Ed.; Jacobs, Fraincine, Ed.; Wertlieb, Donald, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This course textbook has been adapted from the four-volume "Handbook of Applied Developmental Science" (SAGE 2003), a work that offers a detailed roadmap for action and research in ensuring positive child, youth, and family development. In 20 chapters, "Applied Developmental Science: An Advanced Textbook" brings together theory and application…

  12. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  13. JCMT Science Archive: Advanced Heterodyne Data Products Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Cavanagh, B.; Economou, F.; Berry, D. S.

    2008-08-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Science Archive (JSA), hosted by CADC, will contain reduced and calibrated data products from the ACSIS/HARP and SCUBA-2 instruments on JCMT and will support the JCMT Legacy Surveys. This paper describes the Advanced Data Products pipeline being developed for the JCMT heterodyne instrumentation suite. One of the goals is to generate clump catalogues, line catalogues and other advanced data products from these submillimetre data with the eventual aim of integrating these data into the Virtual Observatory. This paper describes the data reduction pipeline that will take calibrated data cubes and generate the advanced data products.

  14. Endoscopic Pancreas Fluid Collection: Methods and Relevance for Clinical Care and Translational Science.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Topazian, Mark; Raimondo, Massimo; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Fisher, William E; Lesinski, Gregory B; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic secretions have an important role in the regulation of a normal nutritional state but can be altered owing to a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of exocrine pancreatic disease. The development of an endoscopic technique for collection of pancreatic fluid, termed endoscopic pancreatic function testing, has led to improved understanding of these alterations and is particularly helpful to characterize chronic pancreatitis. In addition, investigators have found endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid to be a valuable biofluid for the purposes of translational science. Techniques such as proteomic, cytokine, genetic mutation, DNA methylation, and microRNA analyses, among others, can be utilized to gain a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases. Endoscopic collection of pancreatic fluid is safe and relatively straightforward, permitting opportunities for longitudinal analysis of these translational markers throughout the course of disease. This manuscript summarizes our current knowledge of pancreatic fluid, with an emphasis on proper techniques for sample collection and handling, its clinical utility, and preliminary observations in translational science.

  15. Developing a multidisciplinary model of comparative effectiveness research within a clinical and translational science award.

    PubMed

    Marantz, Paul R; Strelnick, A Hal; Currie, Brian; Bhalla, Rohit; Blank, Arthur E; Meissner, Paul; Selwyn, Peter A; Walker, Elizabeth A; Hsu, Daphne T; Shamoon, Harry

    2011-06-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) were initiated to improve the conduct and impact of the National Institutes of Health's research portfolio, transforming training programs and research infrastructure at academic institutions and creating a nationwide consortium. They provide a model for translating research across disciplines and offer an efficient and powerful platform for comparative effectiveness research (CER), an effort that has long struggled but enjoys renewed hope under health care reform. CTSAs include study design and methods expertise, informatics, and regulatory support; programs in education, training, and career development in domains central to CER; and programs in community engagement.Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have entered a formal partnership that places their CTSA at a critical intersection for clinical and translational research. Their CTSA leaders were asked to develop a strategy for enhancing CER activities, and in 2010 they developed a model that encompasses four broadly defined "compartments" of research strength that must be coordinated for this enterprise to succeed: evaluation and health services research, biobehavioral research and prevention, efficacy studies and clinical trials, and social science and implementation research.This article provides historical context for CER, elucidates Einstein-Montefiore's CER model and strategic planning efforts, and illustrates how a CTSA can provide vision, leadership, coordination, and services to support an academic health center's collaborative efforts to develop a robust CER portfolio and thus contribute to the national effort to improve health and health care.

  16. Scientific retreats with 'speed dating': networking to stimulate new interdisciplinary translational research collaborations and team science.

    PubMed

    Ranwala, Damayanthi; Alberg, Anthony J; Brady, Kathleen T; Obeid, Jihad S; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V

    2017-02-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 min scientific 'speed dating' period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research.

  17. The Introduction of the Advanced Placement Examination in Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the format and results of the first Advanced Placement (AP) Government and Politics Examinations given by high schools in May 1987. Findings show the need for further training of AP teachers, improved instruction, and increased student interest in political science. Provides ordering information for two AP guides to assist political…

  18. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  19. Who Succeeds in Advanced Mathematics and Science Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Bosker, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Few students (particularly few girls) currently choose to take their Final School Examination (FSE) in advanced mathematics, chemistry and physics, a combination of subjects that is the best preparation for a science-oriented study in higher education. Are these subjects attainable by more students than is currently the case? This study examined…

  20. Improving effectiveness of clinical medicine: the need for better translation of science into practice.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian A; Glasziou, Paul P

    2012-10-01

    Published research evidence does not automatically diffuse into clinical practice but requires active processes of translation that start with clinicians' awareness of the science and end with patient adherence to the recommended care. Many barriers thwart the uptake of valid and clinically important research into practice, with cognitive, motivational and sociological factors on the part of health professionals being among the most important. Encouraging clinicians to question the level of scientific certainty underpinning clinical practice and to actively seek evidence that may better inform clinical decisions is a priority for improving health care effectiveness. Although there are effective strategies for improving translation of research into practice, implementing them requires agreement between and buy-in from professional and managerial stakeholders.

  1. Vision, Identity, and Career in the Clinical and Translational Sciences: Building Upon the Formative Years

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Spero M.; Martinez, Dominic F.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Rubio, Doris M.; Moss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline. It focuses on the role that CTSA programs can play in supporting science, technology, engineering, and math education in primary and secondary schools, as well as in facilitating these interests during transition to undergraduate training. Special emphasis should be placed on helping to form and sustain an identity as a scientist, and on instilling the persistence necessary to overcome numerous barriers to its actualization. CTSAs can contribute to cementing this sense of self by facilitating peer support, mentorship, and family involvement that will reinforce early educational decisions leading to clinical and translational science research careers. Meanwhile, the interests, skills, and motivation induced by participation in STEM programs must be sustained in transition to the next level in the educational pipeline, typically undergraduate study. Examples of CTSA collaborations with local schools, businesses, interest groups, and communities at large illustrate the emerging possibilities and promising directions with respect to each of these challenges. PMID:26271774

  2. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  3. Models of interinstitutional partnerships between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium.

    PubMed

    Ofili, Elizabeth O; Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S; Dubinett, Steven M; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium-level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities.

  4. Models of Interinstitutional Partnerships between Research Intensive Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) across the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Fair, Alecia; Norris, Keith; Verbalis, Joseph G.; Poland, Russell; Bernard, Gordon; Stephens, David S.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Dottin, Robert P.; Pulley, Jill; West, Andrew; Brown, Arleen; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are an immense challenge to American society. Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) housed within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) are designed to accelerate the translation of experimental findings into clinically meaningful practices and bring new therapies to the doorsteps of all patients. Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) program at the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) are designed to build capacity for biomedical research and training at minority serving institutions. The CTSA created a mechanism fostering formal collaborations between research intensive universities and minority serving institutions (MSI) supported by the RCMI program. These consortium-level collaborations activate unique translational research approaches to reduce health disparities with credence to each academic institutions history and unique characteristics. Five formal partnerships between research intensive universities and MSI have formed as a result of the CTSA and RCMI programs. These partnerships present a multifocal approach; shifting cultural change and consciousness toward addressing health disparities, and training the next generation of minority scientists. This collaborative model is based on the respective strengths and contributions of the partnering institutions, allowing bidirectional interchange and leveraging NIH and institutional investments providing measurable benchmarks toward the elimination of health disparities. PMID:24119157

  5. Why there can be no sustainable national healthcare IT program without a translational health information science.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Health information technology research has historically suffered from the persistence of paper-based systems as a barrier to research and refinement of information models. While the field of (non-medical) information science offers a potentially rich source of data, there exist relatively few theoretical links between medical and non-medical information models. This paper argues that the establishment of an integrated translational research pathway is not only useful, but is a critical and necessary step in the realization of a national health information infrastructure in the USA.

  6. Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

  7. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Esmond; Evans, Katherine J.; Caldwell, Peter; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Jackson, Charles; Kerstin, Van Dam; Leung, Ruby; Martin, Daniel F.; Ostrouchov, George; Tuminaro, Raymond; Ullrich, Paul; Wild, S.; Williams, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, ``Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for enabling

  8. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  9. Towards Advancing Knowledge Translation of AAC Outcomes Research for Children and Youth with Complex Communication Needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E; Shepherd, Tracy; Renzoni, Anne Marie; Anderson, Colleen; Barber, Mary; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Ward, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The production of new knowledge in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) requires effective processes to leverage the different perspectives of researchers and knowledge users and improve prospects for utilization in clinical settings. This article describes the motivation, planning, process, and outcomes for a novel knowledge translation workshop designed to influence future directions for AAC outcomes research for children with complex communication needs. Invited knowledge users from 20 pediatric AAC clinics and researchers engaged in the collaborative development of research questions using a framework designed for the AAC field. The event yielded recommendations for research and development priorities that extend from the early development of language, communication, and literacy skills in very young children, to novel but unproven strategies that may advance outcomes in transitioning to adulthood.

  10. Lost in the Translation: Writing about Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2002-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don't trust your sources (or your editors); waste people's time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don't expect anyone to understand you; don't expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid 'hardening of the categories'; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  11. Lost in the Translation: Writing About Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2009-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don’t trust your sources (or your editors); waste people’s time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don’t expect anyone to understand you; don’t expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid “hardening of the categories”; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  12. Science does not speak for itself: translating child development research for the public and its policymakers.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who are engaged in the iterative construction of a core story of development, using simplifying models (i.e., metaphors) such as "brain architecture,"toxic stress," and "serve and return" to explain complex scientific concepts to nonscientists. The aim of this article is to stimulate more systematic, empirical approaches to the task of knowledge transfer and to underscore the need to view the translation of science into policy and practice as an important academic endeavor in its own right.

  13. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  14. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  15. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter; A; Anastasio, Cort; Dodge, Cleveland; Fendorf, Scott; Francis, A.J.; Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Tomutsa, Liviu; Tufano, Kate; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Werner, Michelle; Williams, Ken

    2006-04-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a variety of capabilities that are applicable to very different types of environmental systems. Shown are the basic descriptions of four of the approximately 35 beam lines at the ALS. The complimentary capabilities of these four beam lines allow for investigations that range from a spatial scale of a few nanometers to several millimeters. The Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source seeks to promote and assist environmental research, particularly on the four beam lines described in this report. Several short examples of the types of research conducted on these beam lines are also described.

  16. Breaking down silos: mapping growth of cross-disciplinary collaboration in a translational science initiative.

    PubMed

    Luke, Douglas A; Carothers, Bobbi J; Dhand, Amar; Bell, Ryan A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Sarli, Cathy C; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2015-04-01

    The importance of transdisciplinary collaboration is growing, though not much is known about how to measure collaboration patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present multiple ways of mapping and evaluating the growth of cross-disciplinary partnerships over time. Social network analysis was used to examine the impact of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) on collaboration patterns. Grant submissions from 2007 through 2010 and publications from 2007 through 2011 of Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences (ICTS) members were examined. A Cohort Model examining the first-year ICTS members demonstrated an overall increase in collaborations on grants and publications, as well as an increase in cross-discipline collaboration as compared to within-discipline. A Growth Model that included additional members over time demonstrated the same pattern for grant submissions, but a decrease in cross-discipline collaboration as compared to within-discipline collaboration for publications. ICTS members generally became more cross-disciplinary in their collaborations during the CTSA. The exception of publications for the Growth Model may be due to the time lag between funding and publication, as well as pressure for younger scientists to publish in their own fields. Network analysis serves as a valuable tool for evaluating changes in scientific collaboration.

  17. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    PubMed

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.

  18. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    PubMed Central

    Tyus, Nadra C.; Freeman, Randall J.; Gibbons, M. Christopher

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages. PMID:17019920

  19. Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research: Expert Panel Proceedings and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Miaskowski, Christine; Barsevick, Andrea; Berger, Ann; Casagrande, Rocco; Grady, Patricia A; Jacobsen, Paul; Kutner, Jean; Patrick, Donald; Zimmerman, Lani; Xiao, Canhua; Matocha, Martha; Marden, Sue

    2017-04-01

    An overview of proceedings, findings, and recommendations from the workshop on "Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research" sponsored by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, is presented. This workshop engaged an expert panel in an evidenced-based discussion regarding the state of the science of symptom clusters in chronic conditions including cancer and other rare diseases. An interdisciplinary working group from the extramural research community representing nursing, medicine, oncology, psychology, and bioinformatics was convened at the National Institutes of Health. Based on expertise, members were divided into teams to address key areas: defining characteristics of symptom clusters, priority symptom clusters and underlying mechanisms, measurement issues, targeted interventions, and new analytic strategies. For each area, the evidence was synthesized, limitations and gaps identified, and recommendations for future research delineated. The majority of findings in each area were from studies of oncology patients. However, increasing evidence suggests that symptom clusters occur in patients with other chronic conditions (eg, pulmonary, cardiac, and end-stage renal disease). Nonetheless, symptom cluster research is extremely limited and scientists are just beginning to understand how to investigate symptom clusters by developing frameworks and new methods and approaches. With a focus on personalized care, an understanding of individual susceptibility to symptoms and whether a "driving" symptom exists that triggers other symptoms in the cluster is needed. Also, research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie symptom clusters is essential to developing targeted interventions.

  20. Advances in Parallel Electromagnetic Codes for Accelerator Science and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Kwok; Candel, Arno; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Rich; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Rawat, Vineet; Schussman, Greg; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    Over a decade of concerted effort in code development for accelerator applications has resulted in a new set of electromagnetic codes which are based on higher-order finite elements for superior geometry fidelity and better solution accuracy. SLAC's ACE3P code suite is designed to harness the power of massively parallel computers to tackle large complex problems with the increased memory and solve them at greater speed. The US DOE supports the computational science R&D under the SciDAC project to improve the scalability of ACE3P, and provides the high performance computing resources needed for the applications. This paper summarizes the advances in the ACE3P set of codes, explains the capabilities of the modules, and presents results from selected applications covering a range of problems in accelerator science and development important to the Office of Science.

  1. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  2. Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…

  3. Individuals and Institutions : How to Advance Women in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valian, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The inception of the NSF ADVANCE program marked a change in NSF's efforts to improve the advancement of women in the sciences. Previous efforts had focused on providing women with funding to pursue their research. ADVANCE focuses on changing the institutions in which women do their research. Evidence of ADVANCE's successes can be seen both in the careers of individual women and in hiring and retention figures at the institutions that received funding. In Part 1, I will review interventions that help women to succeed, with a focus on the Sponsorship Program and the Workshop Series for Junior Faculty that the Gender Equity Project at Hunter College developed. In Part 2, I will review successes in changing hiring practices, with a focus on ADVANCE programs from the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin. In Part 3, I will analyze the costs and benefits of the two types of intervention, including the long time course of institutional change, the helpful or hurtful role that leaders can play, the need for intervention at the departmental level, and the potential for individuals to change institutions.

  4. Return of Individual Research Results & Incidental Findings: Facing the Challenges of Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to research participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. Fundamentally, this is a problem of translational science, a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, as the technology itself is moving into clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and samples offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, including after death of the proband. Progress will require facing the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796

  5. Recent Advances in Infrasound Science for National Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Blom, P. S.; Marcillo, O. E.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Infrasound is sound below the frequency-threshold of human hearing, covering the frequency range from 0.01 - 20 Hz. Infrasound science studies the generation, propagation, measurement, and analysis of infrasound. Sources of infrasound include a wide variety of energetic natural and manmade phenomena that include chemical and nuclear explosions, rockets and missiles, and aircraft. The dominant factors influencing the propagation of infrasound are the spatial and temporal variations in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. In recent years, Infrasound Science has experienced a renaissance due to the installation of an international monitoring system of 60 infrasound arrays for monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and to the demonstrated value of regional infrasound networks for both scientific and applied purposes. Furthermore, in the past decade, significant advances have been made on using measurements of infrasound to invert for these properties of the atmosphere at altitudes where alternative measurement techniques are extremely costly. This presentation provides a review of recent advances in infrasound science as relevant to National Security applications.

  6. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  7. A review of Raman spectroscopy advances with an emphasis on clinical translation challenges in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Michael; Desroches, Joannie; Aubertin, Kelly; St-Arnaud, Karl; Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Trudel, Dominique; Wilson, Brian C.; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    There is an urgent need for improved techniques for disease detection. Optical spectroscopy and imaging technologies have potential for non- or minimally-invasive use in a wide range of clinical applications. The focus here, in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS), measures inelastic light scattering based on interaction with the vibrational and rotational modes of common molecular bonds in cells and tissue. The Raman ‘signature’ can be used to assess physiological status and can also be altered by disease. This information can supplement existing diagnostic (e.g. radiological imaging) techniques for disease screening and diagnosis, in interventional guidance for identifying disease margins, and in monitoring treatment responses. Using fiberoptic-based light delivery and collection, RS is most easily performed on accessible tissue surfaces, either on the skin, in hollow organs or intra-operatively. The strength of RS lies in the high biochemical information content of the spectra, that characteristically show an array of very narrow peaks associated with specific chemical bonds. This results in high sensitivity and specificity, for example to distinguish malignant or premalignant from normal tissues. A critical issue is that the Raman signal is often very weak, limiting clinical use to point-by-point measurements. However, non-linear techniques using pulsed-laser sources have been developed to enable in vivo Raman imaging. Changes in Raman spectra with disease are often subtle and spectrally distributed, requiring full spectral scanning, together with the use of tissue classification algorithms that must be trained on large numbers of independent measurements. Recent advances in instrumentation and spectral analysis have substantially improved the clinical feasibility of RS, so that it is now being investigated with increased success in a wide range of cancer types and locations, as well as for non-oncological conditions. This review covers recent advances and

  8. Advancement and applications of peptide phage display technology in biomedical science.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hsun; Liu, I-Ju; Lu, Ruei-Min; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-19

    Combinatorial phage library is a powerful research tool for high-throughput screening of protein interactions. Of all available molecular display techniques, phage display has proven to be the most popular approach. Screening phage-displayed random peptide libraries is an effective means of identifying peptides that can bind target molecules and regulate their function. Phage-displayed peptide libraries can be used for (i) B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping, (ii) selection of bioactive peptides bound to receptors or proteins, disease-specific antigen mimics, peptides bound to non-protein targets, cell-specific peptides, or organ-specific peptides, and (iii) development of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and other applications. Targeting peptides identified using phage display technology may be useful for basic research and translational medicine. In this review article, we summarize the latest technological advancements in the application of phage-displayed peptide libraries to applied biomedical sciences.

  9. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: 50 Years of Advancing Science and Improving Lung Health.

    PubMed

    Antony, Veena B; Redlich, Carrie A; Pinkerton, Kent E; Balmes, John; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-11-15

    The American Thoracic Society celebrates the 50th anniversary of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The NIEHS has had enormous impact through its focus on research, training, and translational science on lung health. It has been an advocate for clean air both in the United States and across the world. The cutting-edge science funded by the NIEHS has led to major discoveries that have broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment for lung disease. Importantly, the NIEHS has developed and fostered mechanisms that require cross-cutting science across the spectrum of areas of inquiry, bringing together environmental and social scientists with clinicians to bring their expertise on specific areas of investigation. The intramural program of the NIEHS nurtures cutting-edge science, and the extramural program encourages investigator-initiated research while at the same time providing broader direction through important initiatives. Under the umbrella of the NIEHS and guided by Dr. Linda Birnbaum, the director of the NIEHS, important collaborative programs, such as the Superfund Program and the National Toxicology Program, work to discover mechanisms to protect from environmental toxins. The American Thoracic Society has overlapping goals with the NIEHS, and the strategic plans of both august bodies converge to synergize on population lung health. These bonds must be tightened and highlighted as we work toward our common goals.

  10. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  11. Translational Science by Public Biotechnology Companies in the IPO“Class of 2000”: The Impact of Technological Maturity

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science. PMID:24358154

  12. Advanced data products for the JCMT Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah F.; Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.; Parsons, Harriet; Jenness, Timothy; Redman, Russell O.; Dempsey, Jessica T.; Johnstone, Doug; Economou, Frossie

    2014-07-01

    The JCMT Science Archive is a collaboration between the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre to provide access to raw and reduced data from SCUBA-2 and the telescope's heterodyne instruments. It was designed to include a range of advanced data products, created either by external groups, such as the JCMT Legacy Survey teams, or by the JCMT staff at the Joint Astronomy Centre. We are currently developing the archive to include a set of advanced data products which combine all of the publicly available data. We have developed a sky tiling scheme based on HEALPix tiles to allow us to construct co-added maps and data cubes on a well-defined grid. There will also be source catalogs both of regions of extended emission and the compact sources detected within these regions.

  13. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Harms, Elvin; Henderson, Stuart; Leibfritz, Jerry; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Valishev, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  14. Advanced Computer Science on Internal Ballistics of Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Toru; Kato, Kazushige; Sekino, Nobuhiro; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Seike, Yoshio; Fukunaga, Mihoko; Daimon, Yu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    In this paper, described is the development of a numerical simulation system, what we call “Advanced Computer Science on SRM Internal Ballistics (ACSSIB)”, for the purpose of improvement of performance and reliability of solid rocket motors (SRM). The ACSSIB system is consisting of a casting simulation code of solid propellant slurry, correlation database of local burning-rate of cured propellant in terms of local slurry flow characteristics, and a numerical code for the internal ballistics of SRM, as well as relevant hardware. This paper describes mainly the objectives, the contents of this R&D, and the output of the fiscal year of 2008.

  15. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  16. Nurse engagement and contributions to the clinical and translational science awards initiative.

    PubMed

    Sampselle, Carolyn M; Knafl, Kathleen A; Jacob, Jacqueline Dunbar; McCloskey, Donna Jo

    2013-06-01

    CTSAs are mandated to follow a multidisciplinary model. Requests for applications direct responsive applications to "integrate clinical and translational science across multiple departments, schools," listing disciplines in addition to medicine such as engineering, nursing, and public health. This inventory of nurse engagement in CTSAs describes the extent of nursing's CTSA engagement from the perspective of participating nurse scientists within individual CTSAs, including institutional/national contributions and best practices that foster a multidisciplinary model. Of the 50 CTSAs affiliated with a nursing school, 44 responded (88% response rate). Of the ten CTSAs not affiliated with a nursing school, four responded (40% response rate). Overall funding success rates of nurse applicants are: TL1 fellowships 81%, KL2 fellowships 54%, and nurse-led pilots 58%. At most CTSAs nursing is contributing to the accomplishment of the CTSA mandate. The strongest categories of contribution are community engagement, implementation science, and training. Best practices to enhance multidisciplinary collaboration are: (1) inclusion of multiple disciplines on key committees who meet regularly to guide individual core and overall CTSA strategic planning and implementation; (2) required multidisciplinary co-mentors (ideally from different schools within the CTSA) on training grants and as co-investigators on pilot projects; and (3) documentation of multidisciplinary activity in annual reports.

  17. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  18. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  19. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  20. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Advances and challenges in computational plasma science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.; Chan, V. S.

    2005-02-01

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This

  2. Scaling-up impact in perinatology through systems science: Bridging the collaboration and translational divides in cross-disciplinary research and public policy.

    PubMed

    Munar, Wolfgang; Hovmand, Peter S; Fleming, Carrie; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite progress over the past decade in reducing the global burden of newborn deaths, gaps in the knowledge base persist, and means of translating empirical findings into effective policies and programs that deliver life-saving interventions remain poorly understood. Articles in this issue highlight the relevance of transdisciplinary research in perinatology and calls for increased efforts to translate research into public policy and to integrate interventions into existing primary care delivery systems. Given the complexity and multi-causality of many of the remaining challenges in newborn health, and the effects that social and economic factors have over many newborn conditions, it has further been proposed that integrated, multi-sector public policies are also required. In this article, we discuss the application of systems science methods to advance transdisciplinary research and public policy-making in perinatology. Such approaches to research and public policy have been used to address various global challenges but have rarely been implemented in developing country settings. We propose that they hold great promise to improve not only our understanding of complex perinatology problems but can also help translate research-based insights into effective, multi-pronged solutions that deliver positive, intended effects. Examples of successful transdisciplinary science exist, but successes and failures are context specific, and there are no universal blueprints or formulae to reproduce what works in a specific context into different social system settings. Group model building is a tool, based in the field of System Dynamics, that we have used to facilitate transdisciplinary research and, to a lesser extent, policy formulation in a systematic and replicable way. In this article, we describe how group model building can be used and argue for scaling its use to further the translation of empirical evidence and insights into policy and action that increase maternal

  3. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice after a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the…

  4. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    PubMed

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  5. The role of quantitative mass spectrometry in the discovery of pancreatic cancer biomarkers for translational science

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, it has become evident that genetic changes alone are not sufficient to understand most disease processes including pancreatic cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed a complex set of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer such as point mutations, chromosomal losses, gene amplifications and telomere shortening that drive cancerous growth through specific signaling pathways. Proteome-based approaches are important complements to genomic data and provide crucial information of the target driver molecules and their post-translational modifications. By applying quantitative mass spectrometry, this is an alternative way to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized medicine. We review the current quantitative mass spectrometric technologies and analyses that have been developed and applied in the last decade in the context of pancreatic cancer. Examples of candidate biomarkers that have been identified from these pancreas studies include among others, asporin, CD9, CXC chemokine ligand 7, fibronectin 1, galectin-1, gelsolin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, stromal cell derived factor 4, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein. Many of these proteins are involved in various steps in pancreatic tumor progression including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune response and angiogenesis. These new protein candidates may provide essential information for the development of protein diagnostics and targeted therapies. We further argue that new strategies must be advanced and established for the integration of proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic data, in order to enhance biomarker translation. Large scale studies with meta data processing will pave the way for novel and unexpected correlations within pancreatic cancer, that will benefit the patient, with targeted treatment. PMID:24708694

  6. The role of quantitative mass spectrometry in the discovery of pancreatic cancer biomarkers for translational science.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Daniel; Aronsson, Linus; Sasor, Agata; Welinder, Charlotte; Rezeli, Melinda; Marko-Varga, György; Andersson, Roland

    2014-04-05

    In the post-genomic era, it has become evident that genetic changes alone are not sufficient to understand most disease processes including pancreatic cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed a complex set of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer such as point mutations, chromosomal losses, gene amplifications and telomere shortening that drive cancerous growth through specific signaling pathways. Proteome-based approaches are important complements to genomic data and provide crucial information of the target driver molecules and their post-translational modifications. By applying quantitative mass spectrometry, this is an alternative way to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized medicine. We review the current quantitative mass spectrometric technologies and analyses that have been developed and applied in the last decade in the context of pancreatic cancer. Examples of candidate biomarkers that have been identified from these pancreas studies include among others, asporin, CD9, CXC chemokine ligand 7, fibronectin 1, galectin-1, gelsolin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, stromal cell derived factor 4, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein. Many of these proteins are involved in various steps in pancreatic tumor progression including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune response and angiogenesis. These new protein candidates may provide essential information for the development of protein diagnostics and targeted therapies. We further argue that new strategies must be advanced and established for the integration of proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic data, in order to enhance biomarker translation. Large scale studies with meta data processing will pave the way for novel and unexpected correlations within pancreatic cancer, that will benefit the patient, with targeted treatment.

  7. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, Nora

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  8. Mentoring Faculty: Results from National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty mentoring programs are common components of National Science Foundation ADVANCE awards. The ADVANCE program aims to increase the number of women on the faculty in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) departments through grants to individuals and to entire institutions. These grants target a change in institutional culture so that faculty from non-majority groups will succeed and thrive. Mentoring programs are generally designed to fit the particular institution(s) or target population (e.g., meteorologists at the beginning of their careers). A successful mentoring program makes the implicit knowledge necessary for faculty success explicit: policies and practices are made transparent; routes for finding answers are clarified or generated with faculty input; faculty overcome a sense of isolation and develop a community. Mentoring programs may be formal, with assigned mentors and mentees, or informal, with opportunities for beginning, middle and advanced career STEM faculty to mingle, generally over food and sometimes with a formal speaker. The programs are formally evaluated; in general, attention to mentoring generates better outcomes for all faculty. Research indicates that most successful scientists have a network of mentors rather than relying on one person to help navigate department, institution, and profession. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's (UNL) award, ADVANCE-Nebraska, offered opportunities for faculty to informally network over luncheons with women speakers, advanced in their careers. We also offered after-hours networking receptions. In response to faculty feedback, we shifted to a series of panel discussions entitled "Conversations". Most panels were conducted by successful UNL faculty; about one-third had an outside expert on a given topic. Topics were chosen based on faculty feedback and targeted specifically to beginning faculty (How to Start Up a Lab; How to Balance Teaching and Writing), mid-career faculty (Putting

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Conceptual Knowledge Engineering on the Design and Usability of a Clinical and Translational Science Collaboration Portal

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Borlawsky, Tara B.; Rice, Robert; Embi, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    With the growing prevalence of large-scale, team science endeavors in the biomedical and life science domains, the impetus to implement platforms capable of supporting asynchronous interaction among multidisciplinary groups of collaborators has increased commensurately. However, there is a paucity of literature describing systematic approaches to identifying the information needs of targeted end-users for such platforms, and the translation of such requirements into practicable software component design criteria. In previous studies, we have reported upon the efficacy of employing conceptual knowledge engineering (CKE) techniques to systematically address both of the preceding challenges in the context of complex biomedical applications. In this manuscript we evaluate the impact of CKE approaches relative to the design of a clinical and translational science collaboration portal, and report upon the preliminary qualitative users satisfaction as reported for the resulting system. PMID:21347146

  10. Developing a prevention synthesis and translation system to promote science-based approaches to teen pregnancy, HIV and STI prevention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kelly M; Lesesne, Catherine A; Zahniser, S Christine; Wilson, Mary Martha; Desiderio, Gina; Wandersman, Abraham; Green, Diane C

    2012-12-01

    The Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) is a multi-system framework that can guide research-to-practice efforts by building and supporting the work of three interacting systems: the Prevention Delivery, Support, and Synthesis and Translation Systems. The Synthesis and Translation system is vital to bridging science and practice, yet how to develop it and train support system partners to use it is under-researched. This article bridges this gap by offering a case example of the planning, development, and use of a synthesis and translation product called Promoting Science-based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention using Getting To Outcomes. The case presented documents the process used for developing the synthesis and translation product, reports on efforts to engage the Prevention Support system to use the product, and how we approached building interaction between the Synthesis and Translation System and the Support System partners. Practice-oriented evaluation data are also presented. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed.

  11. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  12. Improving clinical and translational research training: a qualitative evaluation of the Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute KL2-mentored research scholars program.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Dawn L; Escoffery, Cam; Freedman, Ariela; Ziegler, Thomas R; Blumberg, Henry M

    2017-01-01

    A major impediment to improving the health of communities is the lack of qualified clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators. To address this workforce shortage, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed mechanisms to enhance the career development of CTR physician, PhD, and other doctoral junior faculty scientists including the CTR-focused K12 program and, subsequently, the KL2-mentored CTR career development program supported through the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs). Our evaluation explores the impact of the K12/KL2 program embedded within the Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute (ACTSI), a consortium linking Emory University, Morehouse School of Medicine and the Georgia Institute of Technology. We conducted qualitative interviews with program participants to evaluate the impact of the program on career development and collected data on traditional metrics (number of grants, publications). 46 combined K12/KL2 scholars were supported between 2002 and 2016. 30 (65%) of the 46 K12/KL2 scholars are women; 24 (52%) of the trainees are minorities, including 10 (22%) scholars who are members of an underrepresented minority group. Scholars reported increased research skills, strong mentorship experiences, and positive impact on their career trajectory. Among the 43 scholars who have completed the program, 39 (91%) remain engaged in CTR and received over $89 000 000 as principal investigators on federally funded awards. The K12/KL2 funding provided the training and protected time for successful career development of CTR scientists. These data highlight the need for continued support for CTR training programs for junior faculty.

  13. Refinement-cut: user-guided segmentation algorithm for translational science.

    PubMed

    Egger, Jan

    2014-06-04

    In this contribution, a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for (medical) image analysis is presented. More precise, the approach belongs to the category of interactive contouring algorithms, which provide real-time feedback of the segmentation result. However, even with interactive real-time contouring approaches there are always cases where the user cannot find a satisfying segmentation, e.g. due to homogeneous appearances between the object and the background, or noise inside the object. For these difficult cases the algorithm still needs additional user support. However, this additional user support should be intuitive and rapid integrated into the segmentation process, without breaking the interactive real-time segmentation feedback. I propose a solution where the user can support the algorithm by an easy and fast placement of one or more seed points to guide the algorithm to a satisfying segmentation result also in difficult cases. These additional seed(s) restrict(s) the calculation of the segmentation for the algorithm, but at the same time, still enable to continue with the interactive real-time feedback segmentation. For a practical and genuine application in translational science, the approach has been tested on medical data from the clinical routine in 2D and 3D.

  14. Improving the assessment of heart toxicity for all new drugs through translational regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, L; Vicente, J; Gray, R A; Galeotti, L; Loring, Z; Garnett, C E; Florian, J; Ugander, M; Stockbridge, N; Strauss, D G

    2014-05-01

    Fourteen drugs have been removed from the market worldwide because they cause torsade de pointes. Most drugs that cause torsade can be identified by assessing whether they block the human ether à gogo related gene (hERG) potassium channel and prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. In response, regulatory agencies require new drugs to undergo "thorough QT" studies. However, some drugs block hERG potassium channels and prolong QT with minimal torsade risk because they also block calcium and/or sodium channels. Through analysis of clinical and preclinical data from 34 studies submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration and by computer simulations, we demonstrate that by dividing the QT interval into its components of depolarization (QRS), early repolarization (J-Tpeak), and late repolarization (Tpeak-Tend), along with atrioventricular conduction delay (PR), it may be possible to determine which hERG potassium channel blockers also have calcium and/or sodium channel blocking activity. This translational regulatory science approach may enable innovative drugs that otherwise would have been labeled unsafe to come to market.

  15. Using Evernote as an electronic lab notebook in a translational science laboratory.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Emily; Cho, Ilseung

    2013-06-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) offer significant advantages over traditional paper laboratory notebooks (PLNs), yet most research labs today continue to use paper documentation. While biopharmaceutical companies represent the largest portion of ELN users, government and academic labs trail far behind in their usage. Our lab, a translational science laboratory at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSoM), wanted to determine if an ELN could effectively replace PLNs in an academic research setting. Over 6 months, we used the program Evernote to record all routine experimental information. We also surveyed students working in research laboratories at NYUSoM on the relative advantages and limitations of ELNs and PLNs and discovered that electronic and paper notebook users alike reported the inability to freehand into a notebook as a limitation when using electronic methods. Using Evernote, we found that the numerous advantages of ELNs greatly outweighed the inability to freehand directly into a notebook. We also used imported snapshots and drawing program add-ons to obviate the need for freehanding. Thus, we found that using Evernote as an ELN not only effectively replaces PLNs in an academic research setting but also provides users with a wealth of other advantages over traditional paper notebooks.

  16. Mentor training within academic health centers with Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Zainab; Rebello, Tahilia J; Richards, Boyd F; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-10-01

    Multiple studies highlight the benefits of effective mentoring in academic medicine. Thus, we sought to quantify and characterize the mentoring practices at academic health centers (AHCs) with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). Here we report findings pertaining specifically to mentor training at the level of the KL2 mentored award program, and at the broader institutional level. We found only four AHCs did not provide any form of training. One-time orientation was most prevalent at the KL2 level, whereas formal face-to-face training was most prevalent at the institutional level. Despite differences in format usage, there was general consensus at both the KL2 and institutional level about the topics of focus of face-to-face training sessions. Lower-resource training formats utilized at the KL2 level may reveal a preference for preselection of qualified mentors, while institutional selection of resource-heavy formats may be an attempt to raise the mentoring qualifications of the academic community as a whole. The present work fits into the expanding landscape of academic mentoring literature and sets the framework for future longitudinal, outcome studies focused on identifying the most efficient strategies to develop effective mentors.

  17. Refinement-Cut: User-Guided Segmentation Algorithm for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for (medical) image analysis is presented. More precise, the approach belongs to the category of interactive contouring algorithms, which provide real-time feedback of the segmentation result. However, even with interactive real-time contouring approaches there are always cases where the user cannot find a satisfying segmentation, e.g. due to homogeneous appearances between the object and the background, or noise inside the object. For these difficult cases the algorithm still needs additional user support. However, this additional user support should be intuitive and rapid integrated into the segmentation process, without breaking the interactive real-time segmentation feedback. I propose a solution where the user can support the algorithm by an easy and fast placement of one or more seed points to guide the algorithm to a satisfying segmentation result also in difficult cases. These additional seed(s) restrict(s) the calculation of the segmentation for the algorithm, but at the same time, still enable to continue with the interactive real-time feedback segmentation. For a practical and genuine application in translational science, the approach has been tested on medical data from the clinical routine in 2D and 3D. PMID:24893650

  18. Assessing statistical competencies in clinical and translational science education: one size does not fit all

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Robert A.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co-investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner’s research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  19. Refinement-Cut: User-Guided Segmentation Algorithm for Translational Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, Jan

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution, a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for (medical) image analysis is presented. More precise, the approach belongs to the category of interactive contouring algorithms, which provide real-time feedback of the segmentation result. However, even with interactive real-time contouring approaches there are always cases where the user cannot find a satisfying segmentation, e.g. due to homogeneous appearances between the object and the background, or noise inside the object. For these difficult cases the algorithm still needs additional user support. However, this additional user support should be intuitive and rapid integrated into the segmentation process, without breaking the interactive real-time segmentation feedback. I propose a solution where the user can support the algorithm by an easy and fast placement of one or more seed points to guide the algorithm to a satisfying segmentation result also in difficult cases. These additional seed(s) restrict(s) the calculation of the segmentation for the algorithm, but at the same time, still enable to continue with the interactive real-time feedback segmentation. For a practical and genuine application in translational science, the approach has been tested on medical data from the clinical routine in 2D and 3D.

  20. Developing Common Metrics for the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs): Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris M; Blank, Arthur E; Dozier, Ann; Hites, Lisle; Gilliam, Victoria A; Hunt, Joe; Rainwater, Julie; Trochim, William M

    2015-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, funded by the NIH Common Fund and offered through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, developed more than 60 unique models for achieving the NIH goal of accelerating discoveries toward better public health. The variety of these models enabled participating academic centers to experiment with different approaches to fit their research environment. A central challenge related to the diversity of approaches is the ability to determine the success and contribution of each model. This paper describes the effort by the Evaluation Key Function Committee to develop and test a methodology for identifying a set of common metrics to assess the efficiency of clinical research processes and for pilot testing these processes for collecting and analyzing metrics. The project involved more than one-fourth of all CTSAs and resulted in useful information regarding the challenges in developing common metrics, the complexity and costs of acquiring data for the metrics, and limitations on the utility of the metrics in assessing clinical research performance. The results of this process led to the identification of lessons learned and recommendations for development and use of common metrics to evaluate the CTSA effort.

  1. Brain death: the challenges of translating medical science into Islamic bioethical discourse.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Basser, Taha A

    2012-09-01

    Islamic ethico-legal assessments of brain death are varied and controversial. Some Islamic ethico-legal bodies have concluded that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death; others regard it as an intermediate state between life and death, and a few opine that it does not meet the standards for legal death according to Islamic law. Yet this translation of the concept of brain death into the Islamic ethico-legal domain has generated multiple ethical complexities that receive insufficient attention within the extant medical and fiqh literature. How do Islamic legists understand brain death as a clinical phenomenon? How does the Islamic ethico-legal system treat medical uncertainty? What Islamic ethico-legal principles should apply to bioethical questions about life and death? In this paper, we analyze the arguments for, and against, the acceptance of brain death within the context of the deliberation of a representative juridical council. In our discussion we focus on areas in which the legists' ethico-legal reasoning hinges upon clinical conceptions of the state of the individual when diagnosed as brain dead. As Islamic ethics continues to engage scientific and technological advancements in these areas, such exploration of internal workings is necessary if we wish to better understand how Islamic ethical principles can contribute to bioethical deliberation.

  2. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  3. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  4. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  5. U.S. Science Agencies and GEWEX: Working Together to Advance Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Sorooshian, S.

    2007-12-01

    There have been major developments in climate science during the past two decades, mainly as a result of expanding capabilities to observe and model the climate system. Through its research on the global energy and water cycle, the Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (GEWEX) - one of the core projects of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) - has been making significant contributions to these developments. Support from the United States through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) water cycle activities have contributed substantially to the effectiveness and success of GEWEX. In return, GEWEX has advanced the use of satellite data for climate applications, contributed to the development of meteorological and hydrologic services and has facilitated the emergence of a number of new insights that have advanced climate science. This presentation provides an overview of the above contributions and outlines GEWEX plans to continue such research until 2012 and possibly beyond. In particular, the contributions of NASA to hydrological science and climate studies will be described in the presentation, as well as the role of NOAA in supporting research related to monsoons, climate modeling and land surface studies. The support of DOE in GEWEX cloud process studies will also be introduced. The contributions of the U.S. through the Hydrology Applications Project (HAP) to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) will also be outlined, including efforts to develop strategies for the application of GEWEX science to water resources through UNESCO International Hydrology Programme (IHP) networks. As this presentation will demonstrate, GEWEX continues to play a central role in addressing many of the water cycle issues being studied by the U.S. CCSP.

  6. Opportunities for translational epidemiology: The important role of observational studies to advance precision oncology

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Michael; Schilsky, Richard L.; Liu, Geoff; Khoury, Muin J.; Freedman, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Within current oncology practice several genomic applications are being use to inform treatment decisions with molecularly targeted therapies in breast, lung, colorectal, melanoma and other cancers. This commentary introduces a conceptual framework connecting the full spectrum of biomedical research disciplines, including fundamental laboratory research, clinical trials, and observational studies in the translation of genomic applications into clinical practice. The conceptual framework illustrates the contribution that well-designed observational epidemiological studies provide to the successful translation of these applications, and characterizes the role observational epidemiology plays in driving the dynamic and iterative bench-to-bedside, and bedside-to-bench translation continuum. We also discuss how the principles of this conceptual model, emphasizing integration of multidisciplinary research, can be applied to the evolving paradigm in “precision oncology” focusing on multiplex tumor sequencing, and we identify opportunities for observational studies to contribute to the successful and efficient translation of this paradigm. PMID:25750251

  7. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  8. Advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Crosier, A E; Songsasen, N; Gunther, M Szykman; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. Intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. Carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. The present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive science is contributing to understand unique reproductive mechanisms that are both of fundamental and applied interest. In the case of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) free-living in South Africa, non-invasive faecal corticosteroid assessments have yielded new insights about the impact of animal relocation and reintroduction on adaptive responses, reproductive fitness and survival. For the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), advances have been made in characterizing and comparing reproductive traits in free-ranging vs captive individuals. For the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), recent studies have focused on the cryosensitivity of sperm and the ability to develop a field-friendly sperm cryo-method. The by-product has been a large-scale frozen repository of sperm from wild-caught cheetahs useful for infusing new genes into ex situ populations. Finally, rigorous, multi-disciplinary and cross-institutional reproductive studies of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), including the use of artificial insemination, have contributed to the remarkable recovery and restoration of this species, once on the brink of extinction. In summary, advances in reproductive science are not necessarily related to 'assisted breeding'. However, understanding the unique ways of carnivore reproduction greatly contributes to species management and conservation.

  9. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest. PMID:18977991

  10. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dave

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  11. Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Willie E.

    1989-01-01

    Lincoln University, under the Lincoln Advanced Science and Engineering Reinforcement (LASER) Program, has identified and successfully recruited over 100 students for majors in technical fields. To date, over 70 percent of these students have completed or will complete technical degrees in engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer science. Of those completing the undergraduate degree, over 40 percent have gone on to graduate and professional schools. This success is attributable to well planned approaches to student recruitment, training, personal motivation, retention, and program staff. Very closely coupled to the above factors is a focus designed to achieve excellence in program services and student performance. Future contributions by the LASER Program to the pool of technical minority graduates will have a significant impact. This is already evident from the success of the students that began the first year of the program. With program plans to refine many of the already successful techniques, follow-on activities are expected to make even greater contributions to the availability of technically trained minorities. For example, undergraduate research exposure, broadened summer, and co-op work experiences will be enhanced.

  12. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans‐Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp‐Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM‐CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM‐CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM‐CFs, German Bio‐Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM‐CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463–479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  14. Enhancing value of clinical pharmacodynamics in oncology drug development: An alliance between quantitative pharmacology and translational science.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, K; Ecsedy, J A

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacodynamic evaluation is a key component of the "pharmacologic audit trail" in oncology drug development. We posit that its value can and should be greatly enhanced via application of a robust quantitative pharmacology framework informed by biologically mechanistic considerations. Herein, we illustrate examples of intersectional blindspots across the disciplines of quantitative pharmacology and translational science and offer a roadmap aimed at enhancing the caliber of clinical pharmacodynamic research in the development of oncology therapeutics.

  15. Translational Biomarkers of Neurotoxicity: A Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Perspective on the Way Forward

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ruth A.; Aschner, Michael; Calligaro, David; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Hanig, Joseph P.; Herr, David W.; Hudzik, Thomas J.; Jeromin, Andreas; Kallman, Mary J.; Liachenko, Serguei; Lynch, James J.; Miller, Diane B.; Moser, Virginia C.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Slikker, William; Paule, Merle G.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxicity has been linked to a number of common drugs and chemicals, yet efficient and accurate methods to detect it are lacking. There is a need for more sensitive and specific biomarkers of neurotoxicity that can help diagnose and predict neurotoxicity that are relevant across animal models and translational from nonclinical to clinical data. Fluid-based biomarkers such as those found in serum, plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have great potential due to the relative ease of sampling compared with tissues. Increasing evidence supports the potential utility of fluid-based biomarkers of neurotoxicity such as microRNAs, F2-isoprostanes, translocator protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, myelin basic protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, and total tau. However, some of these biomarkers such as those in CSF require invasive sampling or are specific to one disease such as Alzheimer’s, while others require further validation. Additionally, neuroimaging methodologies, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography, may also serve as potential biomarkers and have several advantages including being minimally invasive. The development of biomarkers of neurotoxicity is a goal shared by scientists across academia, government, and industry and is an ideal topic to be addressed via the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) framework which provides a forum to collaborate on key challenging scientific topics. Here we utilize the HESI framework to propose a consensus on the relative potential of currently described biomarkers of neurotoxicity to assess utility of the selected biomarkers using a nonclinical model. PMID:26609132

  16. Engaging High School Students in Advanced Math and Science Courses for Success in College: Is Advanced Placement the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Proger, Amy; Roderick, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides an in-depth look at Advanced Placement (AP) math and science course-taking in one school district, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Using quasi-experimental methods, this study examines the college outcomes of students who take AP math and science courses. Specifically, this study asks whether students who take AP math…

  17. The Effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on Increasing Enrollment and Performance on Advanced Placement Science Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The…

  18. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as…

  19. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  20. Evaluation of a Knowledge Translation and Exchange Platform to Advance Non-Communicable Disease Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettman, Tahna Lee; Armstrong, Rebecca; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven; Love, Penelope; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Boylan, Sinead; Booth, Sue; Bolton, Kristy; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated systems are required to ensure evidence-informed practice and evaluation of community-based interventions (CBIs). Knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) strategies show promise, but these require evaluation. This paper describes implementation and evaluation of COOPS, a national KTE platform to support best practice in obesity…

  1. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed and…

  2. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  3. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  4. National Institutes of Health Update: Translating Basic Behavioral Science into New Pediatric Obesity Interventions.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research.

  5. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security.

  6. Integration of a Communicating Science Module into an Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jessica; Squier, Christopher; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    A communicating science module was introduced into an advanced undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. The module was integrated into the course such that students received formal instruction in communicating science interwoven with the chemistry laboratory curriculum. The content of the communicating science module included three…

  7. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  8. Applying knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery methods to advance clinical and translational research: the OAMiner project

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Best, Thomas M; Borlawsky, Tara B; Lai, Albert M; James, Stephen; Gurcan, Metin N

    2012-01-01

    The conduct of clinical and translational research regularly involves the use of a variety of heterogeneous and large-scale data resources. Scalable methods for the integrative analysis of such resources, particularly when attempting to leverage computable domain knowledge in order to generate actionable hypotheses in a high-throughput manner, remain an open area of research. In this report, we describe both a generalizable design pattern for such integrative knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery operations and our experience in applying that design pattern in the experimental context of a set of driving research questions related to the publicly available Osteoarthritis Initiative data repository. We believe that this ‘test bed’ project and the lessons learned during its execution are both generalizable and representative of common clinical and translational research paradigms. PMID:22647689

  9. Otoman encounters with European science: sixtienth and seventeenth-century translations into turkish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunegrun, Feza

    The article concerns the traslation of medical and geographical texts from Arabic, Persian and European languages during Middle Age. The following astonomical texts are mentioned: a)Si fasl der marifet-i takvim (The thirty Chapters of Calendar Making) b)Er- Risaletu'l-fethiyye fi'l- hey'e (Astronomical treatise glorifying the Triump) by Ali Qushji, translated bySeydi Ali Reis c)The European astronomical Tables by Nathalis Durret (1590-1650)translated by Tezkireci Kose Ibrahim (1635-1663) d)Secenel-al-aflak fi gayet al idrak (Mirror of the Heavens and the Summit of Perception)translated by Tezkireci Kose Ibrahim Effendi. It is noted, that Ottoman astrologers and timekeepers used the tables by Ulug Beg till the mid- eighteenth century. e) The astronomical tables by Alexis Clairot (1713-165) were translated by Helifezade Cinari Ismail Effendi.

  10. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  11. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers.

  12. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  13. A new model for catalyzing translational science: the early stage investigator mentored research scholar program in HIV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Blythe J S; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Sopher, Carrie J; Flood, Danna M; Johnson, R Paul; Haynes, Barton F; Kublin, James G

    2015-04-01

    Engagement of early stage investigators (ESIs) in the search for a safe and effective vaccine is critical to the success of this highly challenging endeavor. In the wake of disappointing results from a large-scale efficacy trial, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) developed a novel mentored research program focused on the translation of findings from nonhuman primate studies to human trials of experimental vaccines. From 2008 to 2011, 14 ESI Scholars were selected from 42 complete applications. Post program surveys and tracked outcomes suggest that the combination of flexible funding, transdisciplinary mentorship, and structured training and networking promoted the scientific contributions and career development of promising ESIs. Embedding a multicomponent research program within collaborative clinical trial networks and research consortia is a promising strategy to attract and retain early career investigators and catalyze important translational science.

  14. The 159th national meeting of the American Association for the advancement of science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This volume is the program/abstracts for the 1993 national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The meeting was held in Boston from 11-16 February 1993. Symposia dealt with works on the following topics; perspectives on human genetics; confronting AIDS; biology, cells bugs; medical research society; social psychology neuroscience; future chemistry, from carbon to silicon; measuring the matter energy of the universe; earth's ever-changing atmosphere; causing coping with environmental change; agricultural biotechnology, plant protection production; science corporate enterprise; examining reforming the economic system; science, ethics the law; communicating science to the public; information technology the changing face of science; mathematics, concepts computations; international cooperation human survival; science for everyone; science religion, examining both; anthropology, dynamics of human history; international science issues; improving formal science education; and science education reform in America. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this volume.

  15. Translating Vision into Reality (Part II) [and] Charting the Future of Information Science [and] Vogue Words in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The mission and planned activities of ASIS 2000, a project examining the role of information science in society, are described in the first of three articles. The second proposes a program for critical reexamination of the field, and the third emphasizes the need for standardization of information science terminology. (CLB)

  16. Post-translational Modifications in Regulation of Chloroplast Function: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Grabsztunowicz, Magda; Koskela, Minna M.; Mulo, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins enable fast modulation of protein function in response to metabolic and environmental changes. Phosphorylation is known to play a major role in regulating distribution of light energy between the Photosystems (PS) I and II (state transitions) and in PSII repair cycle. In addition, thioredoxin-mediated redox regulation of Calvin cycle enzymes has been shown to determine the efficiency of carbon assimilation. Besides these well characterized modifications, recent methodological progress has enabled identification of numerous other types of PTMs in various plant compartments, including chloroplasts. To date, at least N-terminal and Lys acetylation, Lys methylation, Tyr nitration and S-nitrosylation, glutathionylation, sumoylation and glycosylation of chloroplast proteins have been described. These modifications impact DNA replication, control transcriptional efficiency, regulate translational machinery and affect metabolic activities within the chloroplast. Moreover, light reactions of photosynthesis as well as carbon assimilation are regulated at multiple levels by a number of PTMs. It is likely that future studies will reveal new metabolic pathways to be regulated by PTMs as well as detailed molecular mechanisms of PTM-mediated regulation. PMID:28280500

  17. Advances to the development of a basic Mexican sign-to-speech and text language translator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Bautista, G.; Trujillo-Romero, F.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.

    2016-09-01

    Sign Language (SL) is the basic alternative communication method between deaf people. However, most of the hearing people have trouble understanding the SL, making communication with deaf people almost impossible and taking them apart from daily activities. In this work we present an automatic basic real-time sign language translator capable of recognize a basic list of Mexican Sign Language (MSL) signs of 10 meaningful words, letters (A-Z) and numbers (1-10) and translate them into speech and text. The signs were collected from a group of 35 MSL signers executed in front of a Microsoft Kinect™ Sensor. The hand gesture recognition system use the RGB-D camera to build and storage data point clouds, color and skeleton tracking information. In this work we propose a method to obtain the representative hand trajectory pattern information. We use Euclidean Segmentation method to obtain the hand shape and Hierarchical Centroid as feature extraction method for images of numbers and letters. A pattern recognition method based on a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to interpret the hand gestures. Finally, we use K-Fold Cross Validation method for training and testing stages. Our results achieve an accuracy of 95.71% on words, 98.57% on numbers and 79.71% on letters. In addition, an interactive user interface was designed to present the results in voice and text format.

  18. The art of translating nutritional science into dietary guidance: history and evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    PubMed

    Watts, Mary Lee; Hager, Mary H; Toner, Cheryl D; Weber, Jennifer A

    2011-07-01

    The United States government has published official Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) since 1980 and has recently released the 2010 version. Serving as a foundational cornerstone for federal nutrition policy, the DGA embrace current nutritional science and translate it into practical guidance to enhance the overall health of Americans. This article reviews the history and process for developing the DGA, including the incorporation of sophisticated and systematic techniques for reviewing emerging evidence. It also explores issues related to implementation of the guidelines through federal policy, the food supply, and consumer knowledge and behavior.

  19. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  20. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  1. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  2. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Advancing Ways to Clean Up Drinking Water Systems (Published November 2013)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To advance the science and engineering of decontaminating pipe systems and safely disposing of high-volumes of contaminated water, Agency homeland security researchers are developing a Water Security Test Bed (WSTB).

  3. Translating biobehavioral research advances into improvements in health care-a "network of networks" approach to multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Biobehavioral research has made great advances in past decades, allowing researchers to paint an ever-improving picture of interactions between the central nervous system and the systems in the periphery of the body. This knowledge allows us, from a researcher's perspective, to better understand diseases and disease symptoms that are not explainable with a narrow view on organ-specific biomedical processes. However, what is lacking is the translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. In their commentary, Sturmberg et al pointed out these shortcomings and proposed a model connecting the different networks in the human body, and the importance of their connectedness, and drew conclusions for necessary changes in patient care. While doing so, Sturmberg et al also created the basis of what could be considered a new and all-encompassing stress model. This work therefore not only calls for changes in clinical practice but also provides a basis for further steps in biobehavioral research.

  4. Proceedings of the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) Toronto Think Tank: advancing basic and translational research and cooperation in DIPG.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Ute; Hawkins, Cynthia; Vézina, Gilbert; Kun, Larry; Souweidane, Mark; Bouffet, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) nearly exclusively affects children. The prognosis of DIPGs has remained grim despite more than three decades of clinical research and numerous clinical trials. More than 90% of the children with DIPG will succumb within 2 years of diagnosis. The tumor's incidence is still undefined, but data suggest 100-150 affected children annually in the US. The single proven effective treatment modality in DIPG remains radiation therapy. For the majority of patients however this treatment is only of transient effectiveness. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the molecular biology of DIPG have raised new hope and opened new avenues for therapeutic options. The advancement of basic and translational research and cooperation was the objective of the Toronto Think Tank, as new approaches are urgently needed.

  5. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  6. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  7. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it.

  8. Report of the joint ESOT and TTS basic science meeting 2013: current concepts and discoveries in translational transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Susanne; Fabritius, Cornelia; Ritschl, Paul; Oberhuber, Rupert; Günther, Julia; Kotsch, Katja

    2014-10-01

    A joint meeting organized by the European (ESOT) and The Transplantation (TTS) Societies for basic science research was organized in Paris, France, on November 7-9, 2013. Focused on new ideas and concepts in translational transplantation, the meeting served as a venue for state-of-the-art developments in basic transplantation immunology, such as the potential for tolerance induction through regulation of T-cell signaling. This meeting report summarizes important insights which were presented in Paris. It not only offers an overview of established aspects, such as the role of Tregs in transplantation, presented by Nobel laureate Rolf Zinkernagel, but also highlights novel facets in the field of transplantation, that is cell-therapy-based immunosuppression or composite tissue transplantation as presented by the emotional story given by Vasyly Rohovyy, who received two hand transplants. The ESOT/TTS joint meeting was an overall productive and enjoyable platform for basic science research in translational transplantation and fulfilled all expectations by giving a promising outlook for the future of research in the field of immunological transplantation research.

  9. Secondary Use of Clinical Data to Enable Data-Driven Translational Science with Trustworthy Access Management.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Apathy, Nate C; Ko, Kelly J; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    University of Missouri (MU) Health Care produces a large amount of digitized clinical data that can be used in clinical and translational research for cohort identification, retrospective data analysis, feasibility study, and hypothesis generation. In this article, the implementation of an integrated clinical research data repository is discussed. We developed trustworthy access-management protocol for providing access to both clinically relevant data and protected health information. As of September 2014, the database contains approximately 400,000 patients and 82 million observations; and is growing daily. The system will facilitate the secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data at MU to promote data-driven clinical and translational research, in turn enabling better healthcare through research.

  10. LULL(ed) into complacency: a perspective on licenses and stem cell translational science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The US has had a very successful model for facilitating the translation of a basic discovery to a commercial application. The success of the model has hinged on providing clarity on ownership of a discovery, facilitating the licensing process, providing adequate incentive to the inventors, and developing a self-sustaining model for reinvestment. In recent years, technological, political, and regulatory changes have put strains on this model and in some cases have hindered progress rather than facilitated it. This is particularly true for the nascent field of regenerative medicine. To illustrate this, I will describe the contributing practices of several different entities, including universities, repositories, patent trolls, and service providers. It is my hope that the scientific community will be motivated to coordinate efforts against these obstacles to translation. PMID:23953837

  11. USGS Science Data Catalog - Open Data Advances or Declines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Latysh, N.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.; Shrestha, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) White House Open Data Policies (2013) have required Federal agencies to establish formal catalogues of their science data holdings and make these data easily available on Web sites, portals, and applications. As an organization, the USGS has historically excelled at making its data holdings freely available on its various Web sites (i.e., National, Scientific Programs, or local Science Center). In response to these requirements, the USGS Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries program, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE), and a number of other USGS organizations, established the Science Data Catalog (http://data.usgs.gov) cyberinfrastructure, content management processes/tools, and supporting policies. The USGS Science Data Catalog led the charge at USGS to improve the robustness of existing/future metadata collections; streamline and develop sustainable publishing to external aggregators (i.e., data.gov); and provide leadership to the U.S. Department of Interior in emerging Open Data policies, techniques, and systems. The session will discuss the current successes, challenges, and movement toward meeting these Open Data policies for USGS scientific data holdings. A retrospective look at the last year of implementation of these efforts within USGS will occur to determine whether these Open Data Policies are improving data access or limiting data availability. To learn more about the USGS Science Data Catalog, visit us at http://data.usgs.gov/info/about.html

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2009 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Nearly 80% of all chemical reactions in nature and in human technology take place at boundaries between phases, i.e., at surfaces or interfaces. A detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces and interfaces is therefore necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and life style of our society. One of the challenges of modern surface science is thus to expand its range of investigations to all types of surfaces and interfaces and to develop a thorough understanding of the relationships between molecular-scale surface properties and parameters relevant to potential applications and devices. Beyond these technological drivers, however, is a rich range of novel and fundamental physical and chemical properties at surfaces and interfaces down to the nanoscale whose study represents outstanding intellectual challenges. The current research focuses on atomic- and molecular-level studies of the structure (atomic and electronic), bonding, reactivity, dynamics, restructuring, and magnetism at the surfaces and interfaces of metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers, biological molecules, and liquids. Such investigations are becoming more and more important in view of the increasing emphasis on nanometer-scale structures in almost every technological application, from heterogeneous catalysis to microcircuit fabrication to magnetic data storage. As the scale of devices continues to be reduced, the distinction between bulk and surface properties becomes blurred, and all of the properties of materials tend to become interfacial This Focus Issue includes exciting new developments in the field of surface and interface science ranging, e.g., from the properties of metal-water interfaces to single-atom contacts. Special emphasis was taken to coupling theory with experiments aimed at elucidating fundamental atomic scale phenomena. It combines a broad expert and frontiers survey of research in this field today with an up

  13. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jenny B.; Phillips, Evan H.; Riggins, Ti’Air E.; Sangha, Gurneet S.; Chakraborty, Sreyashi; Lee, Janice Y.; Lycke, Roy J.; Hernandez, Clarissa L.; Soepriatna, Arvin H.; Thorne, Bradford R. H.; Yrineo, Alexa A.; Goergen, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic. PMID:25993289

  14. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  15. A Strategic Action Plan for Advancing Math and Science Education in New Mexico 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This Strategic Action Plan for Advancing Math and Science Education is an initial outline of strategies, actions, measures of progress, resources needed, timelines, and responsible parties. The Plan focuses on these three main goals: (1) increasing student interest, participation, and achievement in math and science; (2) raising public support and…

  16. A Vehicle for Science and Exploration: Bringing Offshore Industry Advances and Experience to the Oceanographic Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    institutions, this vehicle system design represents a collaborative effort between the science community and a subsea industry technological leader to...develop an exploration vehicle employing the latest advances in subsea technology. II. SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES DEDICATED TO SCIENCE...Engineering work class system designed for subsea intervention and inspection duties. Since that time there has been a hiatus on the further

  17. Academic Integration Supplement to the Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This supplement to an advanced food science and nutrition curriculum guide was developed for use in integrating academic principles with vocational home economics education in Texas. It contains learning and evaluation experiences specifically designed to integrate mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies principles within the…

  18. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although more women than men participate in higher education in the United States, the same is not true when it comes to pursuing careers in science and engineering. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering identifies and discusses better practices for recruitment, retention, and promotion for women scientists…

  19. Lost in translation: Discourses, boundaries and legitimacy in the public understanding of science in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Simon Jay

    2008-07-01

    This thesis documents the historical development of debates around the public understanding of science in the UK from 1985 until 2005. Testimonies from key actors involved in the evolution of the recent public understanding of science arena, and an examination of documentary evidence, have been used to map out how this issue was problematised by scientists in the mid-1980s, and how it has developed into a contested field of activity, political interest and academic research. I propose that this historical period can be broadly understood in four phases each characterised by a dominant discourse of the public understanding of science. I examine how, within each phase, the various groups involved have engaged in boundary work: rhetorically constructing, and mobilising, ideas of 'science', 'the public', and the perceived 'problem' in the relationship between the two, in the pursuit of defining and legitimating themselves and these definitions of the relationship between science and public. Phase I is characterised as a rhetorical re-framing of earlier 'problems' of the public understanding of science by scientists and scientific institutions in the context of the 1980s. Phase II is dominated by the boundary work between scientists and social scientists as they contended for legitimacy and authority over competing discourses of public understanding of science and the institutionalisation of PUS activity and research. Phase III is characterised by a variety of discursive formulations of the 'problem' of PUS following the House of Lords report (2000) and a subsequent change in the rhetoric of public understanding of science to one of public engagement. Phase IV is dominated by the language of 'upstream engagement' and identifies the political interest in managing science's relationship with the public and the social scientific responses to this.

  20. The Influence of Applied STEM Coursetaking on Advanced Mathematics and Science Coursetaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced mathematics and science course taking is critical in building the foundation for students to advance through the STEM pathway-from high school to college to career. To invigorate students' persistence in STEM fields, high schools have been introducing applied STEM courses into the curriculum as a way to reinforce concepts learned in…

  1. Advanced Technologies and Data Management Practices in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Mayernik, Matthew S.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Allen, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the…

  2. Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J., Ed.; Kozma, Robert B., Ed.

    This collection of essays consists of current work that addresses the challenge not just to put the newest technologies in schools, but to identify advanced ways to design and use these new technologies to advance learning. These essays are intended for science and mathematics educators, educational and cognitive researchers, instructional…

  3. Translating molecular advances in fragile X syndrome into therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, Randi J; Des-Portes, Vincent; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar

    2014-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an inherited disease with cognitive, behavioral, and neurologic manifestations, resulting from a single genetic mutation. A variety of treatments that target individual symptoms of fragile X syndrome are currently utilized with limited efficacy. Research in animal models has resulted in the development of potential novel pharmacologic treatments that target the underlying molecular defect in fragile X syndrome, rather than the resultant symptoms. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of fragile X syndrome and summarizes the ongoing clinical research programs.

  4. Advancing Science Literacy Through the Climate Change National Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Quirke, M.; Lefer, B. L.; Hester, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Change National Forum (http://climatechangenationalforum.org) was established almost a year ago to provide a publicly visible platform for discussion of scientific issues related to climate change and, at a later date, policy options motivated by climate change science. The site is also designed to promote public literacy in the culture and conduct of science by incorporating dozens of active scientists in a broad range of climate science and related fields and encouraging dialogue among those scientists. The forum provides a rare window into scientific debate, allowing non-scientists to see how scientists evaluate the work of others, construct meaning out of various bits of evidence, formulate ideas, challenge their colleagues, and (on occasion) develop a consensus. As such, the site is intended to have educational value well beyond its climate science focus.

  5. Advancing Pre-college Science and Mathematics Education

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Rick

    2015-05-06

    With support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, and General Atomics, an educational and outreach program primarily for grades G6-G13 was developed using the basic science of plasma and fusion as the content foundation. The program period was 1994 - 2015 and provided many students and teachers unique experiences such as a visit to the DIII-D National Fusion Facility to tour the nation’s premiere tokamak facility or to interact with interesting and informative demonstration equipment and have the opportunity to increase their understanding of a wide range of scientific content, including states of matter, the electromagnetic spectrum, radiation & radioactivity, and much more. Engaging activities were developed for classroom-size audiences, many made by teachers in Build-it Day workshops. Scientist and engineer team members visited classrooms, participated in science expositions, held workshops, produced informational handouts in paper, video, online, and gaming-CD format. Participants could interact with team members from different institutions and countries and gain a wider view of the world of science and engineering educational and career possibilities. In addition, multiple science stage shows were presented to audiences of up to 700 persons in a formal theatre setting over a several day period at Science & Technology Education Partnership (STEP) Conferences. Annually repeated participation by team members in various classroom and public venue events allowed for the development of excellent interactive skills when working with students, teachers, and educational administrative staff members. We believe this program has had a positive impact in science understanding and the role of the Department of Energy in fusion research on thousands of students, teachers, and members of the general public through various interactive venues.

  6. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    PubMed

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  7. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2009-06-03

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  8. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  9. Advancing Symptom Science Through Use of Common Data Elements

    PubMed Central

    Redeker, Nancy S.; Anderson, Ruth; Bakken, Suzanne; Corwin, Elizabeth; Docherty, Sharron; Dorsey, Susan G.; Heitkemper, Margaret; McCloskey, Donna Jo; Moore, Shirley; Pullen, Carol; Rapkin, Bruce; Schiffman, Rachel; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Grady, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of common data elements (CDEs), conceptually defined as variables that are operationalized and measured in identical ways across studies, enables comparison of data across studies in ways that would otherwise be impossible. Although healthcare researchers are increasingly using CDEs, there has been little systematic use of CDEs for symptom science. CDEs are especially important in symptom science because people experience common symptoms across a broad range of health and developmental states, and symptom management interventions may have common outcomes across populations. Purposes The purposes of this article are to (a) recommend best practices for the use of CDEs for symptom science within and across centers; (b) evaluate the benefits and challenges associated with the use of CDEs for symptom science; (c) propose CDEs to be used in symptom science to serve as the basis for this emerging science; and (d) suggest implications and recommendations for future research and dissemination of CDEs for symptom science. Design The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)-supported P20 and P30 Center directors applied published best practices, expert advice, and the literature to identify CDEs to be used across the centers to measure pain, sleep, fatigue, and affective and cognitive symptoms. Findings We generated a minimum set of CDEs to measure symptoms. Conclusions The CDEs identified through this process will be used across the NINR Centers and will facilitate comparison of symptoms across studies. We expect that additional symptom CDEs will be added and the list will be refined in future work. Clinical Relevance Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47:5, ©2015 Sigma Theta Tau International. PMID:26250061

  10. Zebrafish models in translational research: tipping the scales toward advancements in human health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer B; Westerfield, Monte

    2014-07-01

    Advances in genomics and next-generation sequencing have provided clinical researchers with unprecedented opportunities to understand the molecular basis of human genetic disorders. This abundance of information places new requirements on traditional disease models, which have the potential to be used to confirm newly identified pathogenic mutations and test the efficacy of emerging therapies. The unique attributes of zebrafish are being increasingly leveraged to create functional disease models, facilitate drug discovery, and provide critical scientific bases for the development of new clinical tools for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. In this short review and the accompanying poster, we highlight a few illustrative examples of the applications of the zebrafish model to the study of human health and disease.

  11. Secondary science teachers' view toward and classroom translation of sustained professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth Blake

    This study concerns the phenomenon of secondary science teacher learning and enacting instructional strategies learned at the Communication in Science Inquiry Project (CISIP) teacher professional development events, as well as teacher perception of, and relationship to, this year-long professional development program. The CISIP program teaches science teachers how to build scientific classroom discourse communities with their students. Some of the science teachers were previous participants in the professional development, and acted as mentor teachers. The research design employed an integrated conceptual framework of situated learning theory with an analytical lens of teachers' professional, institutional and affinity, identities. A multi-method approach was used to generate data. Throughout the 2007-2008 academic year, the teachers' fidelity to the professional development model was measured using a classroom observation instrument aligned with the professional development model. From these observation data a longitudinal model, using hierarchical linear modeling, was constructed. In addition, surveys and interview data were used to construct both whole group and case studies of two high school science teachers who taught biology at the same school. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between previous and new participants; specifically, the longer teachers had participated in the professional development, and adopted a mentorship role, the greater their fidelity of classroom instruction to the CISIP model. Additionally, the case study teacher who developed a CISIP model-aligned affinity identity implemented more of the instructional strategies than the teacher who maintained his school-based institutional identity.

  12. 78 FR 28601 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Request for Comment on Proposed Methods for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... NIH Guide; (9) sponsorship of regular workshops to identify priorities and solutions of topics related... to NCATS stakeholder listservs, and announcements on NCATS Facebook page and through the...

  13. 77 FR 59934 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...., Room 1082, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435- 0811, hildsa@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National...., Room 1082, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-435- 0811, hildsa@mail.nih.gov . Dated: September 25,...

  14. 78 FR 66021 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Danilo A Tagle, Ph.D., Executive... 20892, 301-594-8064, Danilo.Tagle@nih.gov . Any interested person may file written comments with...

  15. 77 FR 75180 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Room 6, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Danilo A Tagle, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Center..., Danilo.Tagle@nih.gov . Any interested person may file written comments with the committee by...

  16. 78 FR 50069 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: Cures Acceleration Network Review.... Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Conference Room 6, 31 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD.... Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Conference Room 6, 31 Center Drive, Bethesda,...

  17. 77 FR 74674 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    .... App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Cures Acceleration Network Review Board. The meeting... Acceleration Network Review Board. Date: January 23, 2013. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 2:45 p.m. Agenda: Report of the Institute Director. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Conference Room 6, 31 Center...

  18. 78 FR 8544 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): Cooperative Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... through its interaction with a G protein-coupled receptor (RXFP1) leading to the modulation of several... system which leads to vasodilation; (2) extracellular matrix remodeling through regulation of...

  19. 78 FR 8546 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and National Human Genome Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... hallmark of the disease. Many mutant forms of GCase are enzymatically active, but they never reach the... can promote and accelerate the folding process and increase the transport of mutant protein to the... well as different GCase mutants, it is also possible that they might find application in...

  20. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) science instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, Carl E.; Dailey, Carroll C.; Cumings, Nesbitt P.

    1991-01-01

    The overall AXAF program is summarized, with particular emphasis given to its science instruments. The science objectives established for AXAF are to determine the nature of celestial objects, from normal stars to quasars, to elucidate the nature of the physical processes which take place in and between astronomical objects, and to shed light on the history and evolution of the universe. Attention is given to the AXAF CCD imaging spectrometer, which is to provide spectrally and temporally resolved imaging, or, in conjunction with transmission grating, high-resolution dispersed spectral images of celestial sources. A high-resolution camera, an X-ray spectrometer, and the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer are also discussed.

  1. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  2. Translational Relevance and Recent Advances of Animal Models of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sénémaud, Jean; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Etienne, Harry; Delbosc, Sandrine; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Coscas, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology is not yet completely understood. In conductance arteries, the insoluble extracellular matrix, synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells, assumes the function of withstanding the intraluminal arterial blood pressure. Progressive loss of this function through extracellular matrix proteolysis is a main feature of AAAs. As most patients are now treated via endovascular approaches, surgical AAA specimens have become rare. Animal models provide valuable complementary insights into AAA pathophysiology. Current experimental AAA models involve induction of intraluminal dilation (nondissecting AAAs) or a contained intramural rupture (dissecting models). Although the ideal model should reproduce the histological characteristics and natural history of the human disease, none of the currently available animal models perfectly do so. Experimental models try to represent the main pathophysiological determinants of AAAs: genetic or acquired defects in extracellular matrix, loss of vascular smooth muscle cells, and innate or adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, most models are characterized by aneurysmal stabilization and healing after a few weeks because of cessation of the initial stimulus. Recent studies have focused on ways to optimize existing models to allow continuous aneurysmal growth. This review aims to discuss the relevance and recent advances of current animal AAA models.

  3. Imaging-Genetics in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Advances, Translational Impact, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ameis, Stephanie H.; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are unified by impairments in reciprocal social communication and a pattern of inflexible behaviors. Recent genetic advances have resolved some of the complexity of the genetic architecture underlying ASD by identifying several genetic variants that contribute to the disorder. Different etiological pathways associated with ASD may converge through effects on common molecular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, neuronal motility, and axonal guidance. Recently, with more sophisticated techniques, neuroimaging, and neuropathological studies have provided some consistency of evidence that altered structure, activity, and connectivity within complex neural networks is present in ASD, compared to typically developing children. The imaging-genetics approach promises to help bridge the gap between genetic variation, resultant biological effects on the brain, and production of complex neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we review recent findings from the developing field of imaging-genetics applied to ASD. Studies to date have indicated that relevant risk genes are associated with alterations in circuits that mediate socio-emotional, visuo-spatial, and language processing. Longitudinal studies ideally focused on early development, in conjunction with investigation for gene–gene, and gene–environment interactions may move the promise of imaging-genetics in ASD closer to the clinical domain. PMID:22615702

  4. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  5. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  6. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  7. Everyday Ethics in Research: Translating Authorship Guidelines into Practice in the Bench Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Holdsworth, Janet M.; Anderson, Melissa S.; Campbell, Eric G.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed papers are the major currency in the realm of science. Without an appropriate number of publications in high-quality journals, scientists do not get university positions, are not promoted, and fail to get grants to fund their research. Decisions made about authorship are not always straightforward, as accepted practice sometimes…

  8. Lost in Translation? Deconstructing Science in the News through an Inquiry-Based Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes an experiment to introduce freshmen science students to inquiry-based learning. The overarching theme was the communication of scientific information to the public by the mass media. Students, working in groups, deconstructed news items (many dealing with basic biomedical issues) and assessed the veracity of statements with…

  9. The Translation of Teachers' Understanding of Gifted Students into Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soonhye; Oliver, J. Steve

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how instructional challenges presented by gifted students shaped teachers' instructional strategies. This study is a qualitative research grounded in a social constructivist framework. The participants were three high school science teachers who were teaching identified gifted students in both heterogeneously- and…

  10. Translating Knowledge into Action at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Trine; Francis, Charles; Pederson, Kristin; Lieblein, Geir; Rahman, Md. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the impacts of action learning on graduates' abilities to use interdisciplinary knowledge to solve problems, practice teamwork on the job and become change agents through study in two MSc programmes at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). Design/methodology/approach: Electronic questionnaires were sent to…

  11. Science Does Not Speak for Itself: Translating Child Development Research for the Public and Its Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who…

  12. A distributed model: redefining a robust research subject advocacy program at the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sabune J; Cagliero, Enrico; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center ("Harvard Catalyst") Research Subject Advocacy (RSA) Program has reengineered subject advocacy, distributing the delivery of advocacy functions through a multi-institutional, central platform rather than vesting these roles and responsibilities in a single individual functioning as a subject advocate. The program is process-oriented and output-driven, drawing on the strengths of participating institutions to engage local stakeholders both in the protection of research subjects and in advocacy for subjects' rights. The program engages stakeholder communities in the collaborative development and distributed delivery of accessible and applicable educational programming and resources. The Harvard Catalyst RSA Program identifies, develops, and supports the sharing and distribution of expertise, education, and resources for the benefit of all institutions, with a particular focus on the frontline: research subjects, researchers, research coordinators, and research nurses.

  13. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients.

  14. Data sharing in stem cell translational science: policy statement by the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    PubMed

    Bredenoord, Annelien L; Mostert, Menno; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    Data and sample sharing constitute a scientific and ethical imperative but need to be conducted in a responsible manner in order to protect individual interests as well as maintain public trust. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) adopted a common Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data. The GA4GH Framework is applicable to data sharing in the stem cell field, however, interpretation is required so as to provide guidance for this specific context. In this paper, the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party discusses those principles that are specific to translational stem cell science, including engagement, data quality and safety, privacy, security and confidentiality, risk-benefit analysis and sustainability.

  15. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Pai, Akshatha K.; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J.; West, Andrew C.; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J.; Winslow, Raimond L.; Stephens, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 ‘s ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  16. Mitochondrial disease: clinical aspects, molecular mechanisms, translational science, and clinical frontiers.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Ben; Cohen, Bruce; Copeland, William; Maria, Bernard L

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial medicine provides a metabolic perspective on the pathology of conditions linked with inadequate oxidative phosphorylation. Dysfunction in the mitochondrial machinery can result in improper energy production, leading to cellular injury or even apoptosis. Clinical presentations are often subtle, so clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to make early diagnoses. Symptoms could include muscle weakness and pain, seizures, loss of motor control, decreased visual and auditory functions, metabolic acidosis, acute developmental regression, and immune system dysfunction. The 2013 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe accepted clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial disease produced from various mitochondrial mutations, (2) discuss contemporary understanding of molecular mechanisms that contribute to disease pathology, (3) highlight the systemic effects produced by dysfunction within the mitochondrial machinery, and (4) introduce current strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics.

  17. Batten Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dolisca, Sarah-Bianca; Mehta, Mitali; Pearce, David A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively the most common neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, are primarily caused by an autosomal recessive genetic mutation leading to a lysosomal storage disease. Clinically these diseases manifest at varying ages of onset, and associated symptoms include cognitive decline, movement disorders, seizures, and retinopathy. The underlying cell biology and biochemistry that cause the clinical phenotypes of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are still being elaborated. The 2012 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 41st Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) provide a survey of the currently accepted forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and their associated genetic mutations and clinical phenotypes; (2) highlight the specific pathology of Batten disease; (3) discuss the contemporary understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to pathology; and (4) introduce strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics. PMID:23838031

  18. Mitochondrial Disease: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Translational Science, and Clinical Frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ben; Cohen, Bruce; Copeland, William; Maria, Bernard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial medicine provides a metabolic perspective on the pathology of conditions linked with inadequate oxidative phosphorylation. Dysfunction in the mitochondrial machinery can result in improper energy production, leading to cellular injury or even apoptosis. Clinical presentations are often subtle, so clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to make early diagnoses. Symptoms could include muscle weakness and pain, seizures, loss of motor control, decreased visual and auditory functions, metabolic acidosis, acute developmental regression, and immune system dysfunction. The 2013 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe accepted clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial disease produced from various mitochondrial mutations, (2) discuss contemporary understanding of molecular mechanisms that contribute to disease pathology, (3) highlight the systemic effects produced by dysfunction within the mitochondrial machinery, and (4) introduce current strategies that are being translated from bench to bedside as potential therapeutics. PMID:24916430

  19. Advancing Climate Change and Impacts Science Through Climate Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, W.; Pouchard, L. C.; King, A. W.; Branstetter, M. L.; Kao, S.; Wang, D.

    2010-12-01

    This poster will outline the work to date on developing a climate informatics capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central proposition of this effort is that the application of informatics and information science to the domain of climate change science is an essential means to bridge the realm of high performance computing (HPC) and domain science. The goal is to facilitate knowledge capture and the creation of new scientific insights. For example, a climate informatics capability will help with the understanding and use of model results in domain sciences that were not originally in the scope. From there, HPC can also benefit from feedback as the new approaches may lead to better parameterization in the models. In this poster we will summarize the challenges associated with climate change science that can benefit from the systematic application of informatics and we will highlight our work to date in creating the climate informatics capability to address these types of challenges. We have identified three areas that are particularly challenging in the context of climate change science: 1) integrating model and observational data across different spatial and temporal scales, 2) model linkages, i.e. climate models linked to other models such as hydrologic models, and 3) model diagnostics. Each of these has a methodological component and an informatics component. Our project under way at ORNL seeks to develop new approaches and tools in the context of linking climate change and water issues. We are basing our work on the following four use cases: 1) Evaluation/test of CCSM4 biases in hydrology (precipitation, soil water, runoff, river discharge) over the Rio Grande Basin. User: climate modeler. 2) Investigation of projected changes in hydrology of Rio Grande Basin using the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity Macroscale) Hydrologic Model. User: watershed hydrologist/modeler. 3) Impact of climate change on agricultural productivity of the Rio Grande

  20. Science Investigations with Laser Ranging to the Moon and Mars/Phobos: Recent Advances, Technology Demonstrations, and New Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Folkner, William M.

    2010-05-01

    transponder on Mars/Phobos could lead to major advances in science investigations of Mars/Phobos. Technology is available to conduct such measurements with a picosecond timing precision which could translate into mm-level accuracies achieved in ranging between the Earth and Mars/Phobos. The resulting Mars Laser Ranging (MLR) would provide new opportunities for robust advances in the tests of relativistic gravity and the properties of Martian interior, including liquid core, could be determined from Martian rotation, orientation, tidal response. Alternatively, Phobos laser Ranging (PLR) would benefit the study of Phobos and the Martian system. Given the current technology readiness level, PLR could be started in 2011 for launch in 2016 for 3 years of science operations. We discuss the PLR's science objectives, instrument, and mission design. We also present the details of science simulations performed to support the mission's primary objectives. The work described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. How the Common Component Architecture Advances Compuational Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Bernholdt, D; Epperly, T; Kohl, J; McInnes, L C; Parker, S; Ray, J

    2006-06-19

    Computational chemists are using Common Component Architecture (CCA) technology to increase the parallel scalability of their application ten-fold. Combustion researchers are publishing science faster because the CCA manages software complexity for them. Both the solver and meshing communities in SciDAC are converging on community interface standards as a direct response to the novel level of interoperability that CCA presents. Yet, there is much more to do before component technology becomes mainstream computational science. This paper highlights the impact that the CCA has made on scientific applications, conveys some lessons learned from five years of the SciDAC program, and previews where applications could go with the additional capabilities that the CCA has planned for SciDAC 2.

  2. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Nico, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR)-based techniques have become an essential and fundamental research tool in Molecular Environmental Science (MES) research. MES is an emerging scientific field that has largely evolved from research interactions at the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) SR laboratories in response to the pressing need for understanding fundamental molecular-level chemical and biological processes that involve the speciation, properties, and behavior of contaminants, within natural systems. The role of SR-based investigations in MES and their impact on environmental problems of importance to society has been recently documented in Molecular Environmental Science: An Assessment of Research Accomplishment, Available Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, and Needs (EnviroSync, 2003).

  3. Advancing alternate tools: why science education needs CRP and CRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodo Seriki, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Ridgeway and Yerrick's paper, Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, unearthed the tensions that existed between a local community "expert" and a group of students and their facilitator in an afterschool program. Those of us who work with youth who are traditionally marginalized, understand the importance of teaching in culturally relevant ways, but far too often—as Ridgeway and Yerrick shared—community partners have beliefs, motives, and ideologies that are incompatible to the program's mission and goals. Nevertheless, we often enter partnerships assuming that the other party understands the needs of the students or community; understands how in U.S. society White is normative while all others are deficient; and understands how to engage with students in culturally relevant ways. This forum addresses the underlying assumption, described in the Ridgeway and Yerrick article, that educators—despite their background and experiences—are able to teach in culturally relevant ways. Additionally, I assert based on the finding in the article that just as Ladson-Billings and Tate (Teach Coll Rec 97(1):47-68, 1995) asserted, race in the U.S. society, as a scholarly pursuit, was under theorized. The same is true of science education; race in science education is under theorized and the use of culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory as a pedagogical model and analytical tool, respectively, in science education is minimal. The increased use of both would impact our understanding of who does science, and how to broaden participation among people of color.

  4. The Translation of Teachers' Understanding of Gifted Students Into Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soonhye; Steve Oliver, J.

    2009-08-01

    This study examined how instructional challenges presented by gifted students shaped teachers’ instructional strategies. This study is a qualitative research grounded in a social constructivist framework. The participants were three high school science teachers who were teaching identified gifted students in both heterogeneously- and homogeneously-grouped classrooms. Major data sources are classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis indicated that these science teachers developed content-specific teaching strategies based on their understanding of gifted students, including: (a) instructional differentiation, e.g., thematic units, (b) variety in instructional mode and/or students’ products, (c) student grouping strategies and peer tutoring, (d) individualized support, (e) strategies to manage challenging questions, (f) strategies to deal with the perfectionism, and (g) psychologically safe classroom environments.

  5. e-Science platform for translational biomedical imaging research: running, statistics, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mingqing; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In order to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment, we had designed an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in Shanghai and presented this work in SPIE Medical Imaging conference held in San Diego in 2012. In past the two-years, we implemented a biomedical image chain including communication, storage, cooperation and computing based on this e-Science platform. In this presentation, we presented the operating status of this system in supporting biomedical imaging research, analyzed and discussed results of this system in supporting multi-disciplines collaboration cross-multiple institutions.

  6. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Carpenter, John

    2016-07-12

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  7. The ADVANCE Program: Targeting the Increase in the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperanca, S.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to

  8. The Role of Science and Technology in the Advancement of Women Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, I.; Farhar, B.

    2000-10-12

    Participants at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, created a Platform for Action focusing on 12 critical areas of concern (poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, the media, environment, and the girl child) and the serious barriers to women's health and well-being in each area. Subsequently, the Department of Energy funded a study, described here, that shows, in a literature review and in interviews with 15 women experts, how science and technology can be integral to women's advancement in each of the 12 critical areas. Among the study's conclusions are that differing perspectives exist (pro-science, relativist, and skeptical) on the role of science and technology in women's lives and that these differing perspectives may explain why communication is difficult among policy makers and with scientists about the role science and technology may play in the advancem ent of women worldwide. Recommendations call for women's involvement in the ethics of science; removal of institutional barriers to advancing women; greater accountability in use of resources; changes in science education; and increased dialogue among those with differing perspectives on the role of science and technology in the advancement of women.

  9. Light-based Approaches to Cardiac Arrhythmia Research: From Basic Science to Translational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Karathanos, Thomas V.; Boyle, Patrick M.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Light has long been used to image the heart, but now it can be used to modulate its electrophysiological function. Imaging modalities and techniques have long constituted an indispensable part of arrhythmia research and treatment. Recently, advances in the fields of optogenetics and photodynamic therapy have provided scientists with more effective approaches for probing, studying and potentially devising new treatments for cardiac arrhythmias. This article is a review of research toward the application of these techniques. It contains (a) an overview of advancements in technology and research that have contributed to light-based cardiac applications and (b) a summary of current and potential future applications of light-based control of cardiac cells, including modulation of heart rhythm, manipulation of cardiac action potential morphology, quantitative analysis of arrhythmias, defibrillation and cardiac ablation. PMID:27840581

  10. The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve

    2016-03-01

    A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum.

  11. The effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on increasing enrollment and performance on Advanced Placement science exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The National Math and Science Initiative provided data for cohort I. A general linear model for repeated measures was used to evaluate the data. Data was evaluated three years prior to the intervention and three years during the intervention, which will actually continue for two more years (2012 and 2013) since cohort I schools were awarded five years of support. Students in APTIP schools enrolled in more AP science exams (AP Biology, AP Chemistry, AP Environmental Science, and AP Physics-B) over the course of the intervention. The quantity of students earning qualifying scores increased during the intervention years. APTIP is a multi-tiered program that includes seven days of teacher training, three six-hour student prep sessions, school equipment, reduced exam fees, and monetary incentives for students and teachers. This program positively impacted the quantity of enrollment and qualifying scores during the three years evaluated in this study. Increases in the number of female and African American students' test takers their and qualifying scores were seen in all three years of the APTIP intervention. This study supports the premise that the first step to increasing the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) pipeline is giving access to advanced courses to more students in high schools.

  12. Advanced Information Technology Investments at the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) regularly makes investments for nurturing advanced concepts in information technology to enable rapid, low-cost acquisition, processing and visualization of Earth science data in support of future NASA missions and climate change research. In 2012, the National Research Council published a mid-term assessment of the 2007 decadal survey for future spacemissions supporting Earth science and applications [1]. The report stated, "Earth sciences have advanced significantly because of existing observational capabilities and the fruit of past investments, along with advances in data and information systems, computer science, and enabling technologies." The report found that NASA had responded favorably and aggressively to the decadal survey and noted the role of the recent ESTO solicitation for information systems technologies that partnered with the NASA Applied Sciences Program to support the transition into operations. NASA's future missions are key stakeholders for the ESTO technology investments. Also driving these investments is the need for the Agency to properly address questions regarding the prediction, adaptation, and eventual mitigation of climate change. The Earth Science Division has championed interdisciplinary research, recognizing that the Earth must be studied as a complete system in order toaddress key science questions [2]. Information technology investments in the low-mid technology readiness level (TRL) range play a key role in meeting these challenges. ESTO's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program invests in higher risk / higher reward technologies that solve the most challenging problems of the information processing chain. This includes the space segment, where the information pipeline begins, to the end user, where knowledge is ultimatelyadvanced. The objectives of the program are to reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of Earth Science space-based and ground

  13. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  14. Translational research: precision medicine, personalized medicine, targeted therapies: marketing or science?

    PubMed

    Marquet, Pierre; Longeray, Pierre-Henry; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ameye, Véronique; Augé, Pascale; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Chatelut, Etienne; Diaz, Isabelle; Diviné, Marine; Froguel, Philippe; Goni, Sylvia; Gueyffier, François; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Mourah, Samia; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Perche, Olivier; Perin-Dureau, Florent; Pigeon, Martine; Tisseau, Anne; Verstuyft, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is based on: 1) improved clinical or non-clinical methods (including biomarkers) for a more discriminating and precise diagnosis of diseases; 2) targeted therapies of the choice or the best drug for each patient among those available; 3) dose adjustment methods to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of the drugs chosen; 4) biomarkers of efficacy, toxicity, treatment discontinuation, relapse, etc. Unfortunately, it is still too often a theoretical concept because of the lack of convenient diagnostic methods or treatments, particularly of drugs corresponding to each subtype of pathology, hence to each patient. Stratified medicine is a component of personalized medicine employing biomarkers and companion diagnostics to target the patients likely to present the best benefit-risk balance for a given active compound. The concept of targeted therapy, mostly used in cancer treatment, relies on the existence of a defined molecular target, involved or not in the pathological process, and/or on the existence of a biomarker able to identify the target population, which should logically be small as compared to the population presenting the disease considered. Targeted therapies and biomarkers represent important stakes for the pharmaceutical industry, in terms of market access, of return on investment and of image among the prescribers. At the same time, they probably represent only the first generation of products resulting from the combination of clinical, pathophysiological and molecular research, i.e. of translational research.

  15. Advanced technology needs for a global change science program: Perspective of the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Swissler, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the NASA program in remote sensing is primarily the Earth system science and the monitoring of the Earth global changes. One of NASA's roles is the identification and development of advanced sensing techniques, operational spacecraft, and the many supporting technologies necessary to meet the stringent science requirements. Langley Research Center has identified the elements of its current and proposed advanced technology development program that are relevant to global change science according to three categories: sensors, spacecraft, and information system technologies. These technology proposals are presented as one-page synopses covering scope, objective, approach, readiness timeline, deliverables, and estimated funding. In addition, the global change science requirements and their measurement histories are briefly discussed.

  16. Translating the science into practice: shaping rehabilitation practice to enhance recovery after brain damage.

    PubMed

    Winstein, Carolee J; Kay, Dorsa Beroukhim

    2015-01-01

    The revolution in neuroscience provided strong evidence for learning-dependent neuroplasticity and presaged the role of motor learning as essential for restorative therapies after stroke and other disabling neurological conditions. The scientific basis of motor learning has continued to evolve from a dominance of cognitive or information processing perspectives to a blend with neural science and contemporary social-cognitive-psychological science, which includes the neural and psychological underpinnings of motivation. This transformation and integration across traditionally separate domains is timely now that clinician scientists are developing novel, evidence-based therapies to maximize motor recovery in the place of suboptimal solutions. We will review recent evidence pertaining to therapeutic approaches that spring from an integrated framework of learning-dependent neuroplasticity along with the growing awareness of protocols that directly address the patient's fundamental psychological needs. Of importance, there is mounting evidence that when the individual's needs are considered in the context of instructions or expectations, the learning/rehabilitation process is accelerated.

  17. First 3 years of operation of RIACS (Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science) (1983-1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The focus of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) is to explore matches between advanced computing architectures and the processes of scientific research. An architecture evaluation of the MIT static dataflow machine, specification of a graphical language for expressing distributed computations, and specification of an expert system for aiding in grid generation for two-dimensional flow problems was initiated. Research projects for 1984 and 1985 are summarized.

  18. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) Geoscience Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, A. A.; Lopez, R. E.; Zavala, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) focuses on encouraging undergraduate and graduate minority students to pursue higher degrees. For over 29 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving science and math education, as well as expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia. SACNAS' Annual National Conference and Teacher Workshops, summer research opportunities, E-mentoring program, and online internship/job placement resources are tools that help a diverse community of students, professors, administrators, and K-12 educators achieve expertise within their disciplines. The SACNAS Annual National Conference is the centerpiece of our programs. The conferences feature career advancement workshops, scientific symposia, exhibits, student presentations and guest speakers designed to provide the resources Chicano/Latino, Native American, and other postdoctoral, graduate and undergraduate science and engineering students need to pursue a advanced degrees in the sciences. Guest speakers are chosen for their excellence in scientific research and their ability to convey the wonder and importance of science through the presentation of their research results. SACNAS has recently included a geological science emphasis to its existing programs to address the need to diversify the field. This talk will outline our approach, and outline how SACNAS has been able to grow over the past 30 years.

  19. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  20. Advances in color science: from retina to behavior.

    PubMed

    Conway, Bevil R; Chatterjee, Soumya; Field, Greg D; Horwitz, Gregory D; Johnson, Elizabeth N; Koida, Kowa; Mancuso, Katherine

    2010-11-10

    Color has become a premier model system for understanding how information is processed by neural circuits, and for investigating the relationships among genes, neural circuits, and perception. Both the physical stimulus for color and the perceptual output experienced as color are quite well characterized, but the neural mechanisms that underlie the transformation from stimulus to perception are incompletely understood. The past several years have seen important scientific and technical advances that are changing our understanding of these mechanisms. Here, and in the accompanying minisymposium, we review the latest findings and hypotheses regarding color computations in the retina, primary visual cortex, and higher-order visual areas, focusing on non-human primates, a model of human color vision.

  1. Nano risk analysis: advancing the science for nanomaterials risk management.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, Jo Anne; Abbott, Linda Carolyn; Bradley, Ann E; Canady, Richard Alan; Guidotti, Tee; Kulinowski, Kristen M; Löfstedt, Ragnar E; Louis, Garrick; MacDonell, Margaret; Macdonell, Margaret; Maynard, Andrew D; Paoli, Greg; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Walker, Nigel; White, Ronald; Williams, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Scientists, activists, industry, and governments have raised concerns about health and environmental risks of nanoscale materials. The Society for Risk Analysis convened experts in September 2008 in Washington, DC to deliberate on issues relating to the unique attributes of nanoscale materials that raise novel concerns about health risks. This article reports on the overall themes and findings of the workshop, uncovering the underlying issues for each of these topics that become recurring themes. The attributes of nanoscale particles and other nanomaterials that present novel issues for risk analysis are evaluated in a risk analysis framework, identifying challenges and opportunities for risk analysts and others seeking to assess and manage the risks from emerging nanoscale materials and nanotechnologies. Workshop deliberations and recommendations for advancing the risk analysis and management of nanotechnologies are presented.

  2. Public Health and Disasters: An Emerging Translational and Implementation Science, Not "Lessons Learned".

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L; Schultz, Carl H; Gould Runnerstrom, Miryha; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2017-03-23

    Disaster Medicine is a relatively new multidisciplinary field of science with clear public health implications as it focuses on improving outcomes for populations rather than for individual patients. As with any other scientific discipline, the goal of public health and disaster research is to create new knowledge and transfer evidence-based data to improve public health. The phrase "lessons learned" has crept into the disaster lexicon but must be permanently erased as it has no place in the scientific method. The second edition of Koenig and Schultz's Disaster Medicine: Comprehensive Principles & Practice adds to the growing knowledge base of this emerging specialty and explains why "lessons learned" should be discarded from the associated vocabulary. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 2).

  3. Science Advancements for Black Hole Binaries from Observations with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Miller, Jon M.; Homan, Jeroen; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Kara, Erin; Pasham, Dheeraj; Uttley, Phil; Nicer Science Team

    2017-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composiiton Explorer (NICER; 2017 launch) will advance investigations of black-hole physical properties and accretion physics in strong gravity, which are research themes that flourished during the RXTE era (1996-2012). One of the primary differences between NICER/XTI and RXTE/PCA Instruments is the energy response (0.2-12 keV vs 3-45 keV), with NICER affording a much more direct view of the inner accretion disk, where the maximum temperatures vary in the range 0.2-2 keV. In addition, NICER provides superior spectral resolution (140 eV at Fe K-alpha), superior time resolution (100 ns accuracy), lower background (by factor of 100), and full flexibility for data analyses (with complete information for each photon event). Finally the count rate from NICER's 56 cameras usually exceeds the count rates from RXTE (3 PCUs), except for sources obscured by very high levels of ISM column density (log Nh > 22).Simulations are shown to support the following expectations for advancement: (1) comprehensive measures of the effective radius and temperature of the inner disk during black hole hard states and transitions; (2) visibility of the disk spectrum to constrain (as seed photons) Comptonization models to infer the properties of the corona(3) derivation of black hole spin via simultaneous use of the disk continuum and Fe line profile; (4) investigations of both high- and low-freqency QPOs in an energy range that samples both disk and corona; (5) partnerships with NuSTAR and ASTROSAT to use reflection spectra/timing to study the disk/corona geometry and interplay in different X-ray states.

  4. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  5. Accrual and Recruitment Practices at Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Institutions: A Call for Expectations, Expertise, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Rhonda G.; Mervin-Blake, Sabrena; Hallarn, Rose; Rathmann, Charles; Kolb, H. Robert; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; D’Agostino, Toni; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Dozier, Ann M.; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To respond to increased public and programmatic demand to address underenrollment of clinical translational research studies, the authors examine participant recruitment practices at Clinical and Translational Science Award sites (CTSAs) and make recommendations for performance metrics and accountability. Method The CTSA Recruitment and Retention taskforce developed and, in 2010, invited representatives at 46 CTSAs to complete an online 48-question survey querying CTSA accrual and recruitment outcomes, practices, evaluation methods, policies, and perceived gaps in related knowledge/practice. Descriptive statistical and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Forty-six respondents representing 44 CTSAs completed the survey. Recruitment conducted by study teams was the most common practice reported (78–91%, by study type); 39% reported their institution offered recruitment services to investigators. Respondents valued study feasibility assessment as a successful practice (39%); their desired additional resources included feasibility assessments (49%) and participant registries (44%). None reported their institution systematically required justification of feasibility; some indicated relevant information was considered prior to IRB review (30%) or contract approval (22%). All respondents’ IRBs tracked study progress, but only 10% of respondents could report outcome data for timely accrual. Few reported written policies addressing poor accrual or provided data to support recruitment practice effectiveness. Conclusions Many CTSAs lack the necessary framework to support study accrual. Recommendations to enhance accrual include articulating institutional expectations and policy for routine recruitment planning; providing recruitment expertise to inform feasibility assessment and recruitment planning; and developing interdepartmental coordination and integrated informatics infrastructure to drive the conduct, evaluation, and improvement of recruitment

  6. Special Advanced Course for Core Sciences to Bring Up Project Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Kenji; Tabata, Nobuhisa; Gofuku, Akio; Harada, Isao; Takada, Jun

    Special Advanced Course for Core Sciences has been introduced recently to Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, to bring up a project leader. The following points are key education goals in this program : (1) knowledge of core sciences, (2) communication ability by using English, and (3) wide viewpoints for researches. In order to accomplish these goals, several lectures for core sciences, patent systems and engineering ethics as well as long term internships by the collaboration with some regional companies have been put in practice. In this paper, we describe the outline of the program, educational effects, and our experiences. Then, we discuss how effective the program is for bringing up an engineer or a scientist who can lead sciences and technologies of their domains. This paper also describes current activities of the program.

  7. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  8. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  9. Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  10. The next frontier: stem cells and the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Duane

    2013-12-01

    The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) manages the International Space Station U.S. National Laboratory, supporting space-based research that seeks to improve life on Earth. The National Laboratory is now open for use by the broad scientific community--and CASIS is the gateway to this powerful in-orbit research platform.

  11. Advancing K-8 Teachers' STEM Education for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science and Mathematics with Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret; Gillow-Wiles, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This primarily online Master's degree program focused on advancing K-8 teachers' interdisciplinary mathematical and science content knowledge while integrating appropriate digital technologies as learning and teaching tools. The mixed-method, interpretive study examined in-service teachers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK)…

  12. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…

  13. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  14. Advanced Technologies as Educational Tools in Science: Concepts, Applications, and Issues. Monograph Series Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David D.; And Others

    Systems incorporating two advanced technologies, hypermedia systems and intelligent tutors, are examined with respect to their potential impact on science education. The conceptual framework underlying these systems is discussed first. Applications of systems are then presented with examples of each in operation within the context of science…

  15. PARTNERING WITH DOE TO APPLY ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the ...

  16. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  17. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  18. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  19. Science and Mathematics Advanced Placement Exams: Growth and Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of Advanced Placement (AP) exams in the last 2 decades has been paralleled by national enthusiasm to promote availability and rigor of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Trends were examined in STEM AP to evaluate and compare growth and achievement. Analysis included individual STEM subjects and disaggregation…

  20. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  1. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators.

  2. "The first step is admitting you have a problem…": the process of advancing science communication in Landscape Conservation Cooperatives in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, T. M.; Trainor, S.; Warner, N.; Timm, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is impacting ecological systems, coastal processes, and environmental disturbance regimes in Alaska, leading to a pressing need to communicate reliable scientific information about climate change, its impacts, and future projections for land and resource management and decision-making. However, little research has been done to dissect and analyze the process of making the results of scientific inquiry directly relevant and usable in resource management. Based within the Science Application division of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are regional conservation science partnerships that provide scientific and technical expertise needed to support conservation planning at landscape scales and promote collaboration in defining shared conservation goals. The five LCCs with jurisdiction in Alaska recently held a training workshop with the goals of advancing staff understanding and skills related to science communication and translation. We report here preliminary results from analysis of workshop discussions and pre- and post- workshop interviews and surveys revealing expectations, assumptions, and mental models regarding science communication and the process of conducting use-inspired science. Generalizable conclusions can assist scientists and boundary organizations bridge knowledge gaps between science and resource management.

  3. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  4. Science and sociability: women as audience at the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1831-1901.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah; Withers, Charles W J

    2008-03-01

    This essay recovers the experiences of women at the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) from its founding in 1831 to the end of the Victorian era. It aims to add to research on women in science by reconsidering the traditional role of women as consumers rather than producers of knowledge and to that on science popularization by focusing on audience experience rather than on the aims and strategies of popularizers. The essay argues that, in various ways, the ubiquitous and visible female audience came to define the BAAS audience and "the public" for science more generally. The women who swelled the BAAS audiences were accepted as a social element within the meetings even as they were regarded critically as scientific participants. Portrayed as passive and nonscientific, women allowed the male scientific elites to distance themselves from their audiences. Arguing from diary and other evidence, we present examples that complicate existing notions of audiences for science as necessarily active.

  5. Advancing global health through regulatory science research: summary of the Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Slikker, William; Miller, Margaret Ann; Lou Valdez, Mary; Hamburg, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    As a first step in the implementation of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Pathway to Global Product Safety and Quality (Anonymous, 2011), FDA's Office of International Programs (OIP) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) sponsored a Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation. Through a series of presentations and panel discussions, the Global Summit participants explored how research could be used more effectively as a tool for advancing regulatory science, food safety, medical technologies, and public health. Speakers provided an overview of each of the components in the global regulatory-science research initiative, including scientific innovation and modernizing toxicology; and discussed how the integration of these components is needed to achieve the promise of regulatory science at the global level. All participants agreed with the formation of a Global Coalition of Regulatory Research Scientists who will work collaboratively to build knowledge, promote the development of regulatory science, discover novel ways to clearly define research needs, and improve public health.

  6. Faculty Participation in and Needs around Community Engagement within a Large Multiinstitutional Clinical and Translational Science Awardee.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Norris, Keith; Mangione, Carol; Del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta; Castro, Daniel; Wang, Christina; Bell, Douglas; Vangala, Sitaram; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Community engagement is recommended to ensure the public health impact of NIH-funded science. To understand the prevalence of community-engaged research and faculty interest in and needs around this, from 2012 to 2013, an online survey (n = 3,022) was sent to UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute faculty. Among respondents, 45% reported community-engaged project participation in the last year and 64% an interest in learning about community-engaged research. Over 50% indicated career development and pilot grants would increase participation in community-engaged research. A greater percentage of pretenure than tenured faculty (pretenure 54.9%, tenured 42.2%, p = 0008) noted faculty promotion criteria incentivizing community-engaged research would increase participation. In adjusted analyses, African American (OR 4.06, CI 1.68-9.82, p = 0.002) and Latino (OR 1.91, CI 1.10-3.33, p = 0.022) faculty had higher odds of prior participation in community-engaged projects than Whites. Female faculty had greater odds of interest (OR 1.40, CI 1.02-1.93, p = 0.038) in learning about community-engaged research than males. African American (OR 4.31, CI 1.42-13.08, p = 0.010) and Asian/Pacific Islander (OR 2.24, CI 1.52-3.28, p < 0.001) faculty had greater interest in learning about community-engaged research than Whites. To build community-engaged faculty research capacity, CTSAs' may need to focus resources on female and minority faculty development.

  7. Translations and Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  8. The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS): Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; /UCLA

    2011-11-21

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  9. Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O.; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S.; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Karaömerlioğlu, M. Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Şardaş, Semra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of “one health”—encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health—thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed

  10. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    PubMed

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  11. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  12. Women's Advancement in Political Science. A Report on the APSA Workshop on the Advancement of Women in Academic Political Science in the United States (Washington, DC, March 4-5, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Political Science Association (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    In March 2004, the National Science Foundation funded a two-day workshop by the American Political Science Association (APSA) on the advancement of women in academic political science in the United States. The workshop was prompted by an alarming stall in the number of women entering the discipline and persisting through early years of faculty…

  13. Advanced Density Functional Theory Methods for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Steven

    In this work we chiefly deal with two broad classes of problems in computational materials science, determining the doping mechanism in a semiconductor and developing an extreme condition equation of state. While solving certain aspects of these questions is well-trodden ground, both require extending the reach of existing methods to fully answer them. Here we choose to build upon the framework of density functional theory (DFT) which provides an efficient means to investigate a system from a quantum mechanics description. Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) could be the basis for cheap and highly efficient solar cells. Its use in this regard is limited by the difficulty in n-type doping the material. In an effort to understand the mechanism behind this, the energetics and electronic structure of intrinsic point defects in zinc phosphide are studied using generalized Kohn-Sham theory and utilizing the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional for exchange and correlation. Novel 'perturbation extrapolation' is utilized to extend the use of the computationally expensive HSE functional to this large-scale defect system. According to calculations, the formation energy of charged phosphorus interstitial defects are very low in n-type Zn3P2 and act as 'electron sinks', nullifying the desired doping and lowering the fermi-level back towards the p-type regime. Going forward, this insight provides clues to fabricating useful zinc phosphide based devices. In addition, the methodology developed for this work can be applied to further doping studies in other systems. Accurate determination of high pressure and temperature equations of state is fundamental in a variety of fields. However, it is often very difficult to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures in an laboratory setting. Here we develop methods to determine a multi-phase equation of state for Ta through computation. The typical means of investigating thermodynamic properties is via 'classical' molecular

  14. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  15. The ASP at 125: Advancing Science Literacy in an Age of Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim

    2014-01-01

    On February 7, 2014, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific will celebrate its 125th birthday and a century and a quarter of advancing astronomy and astronomy/science education during a period of revolutionary change in our understanding of the universe. In keeping with both the retrospective and forward-looking nature of such milestones, the presenter will: 1) share highlights of the Society’s work in supporting the communication of astronomy research through its professional publications, and creating innovative astronomy education and public outreach projects and networks to advance student, teacher and public understanding of astronomy and science; 2) report on current NASA- and NSF-funded efforts and on plans going forward; 3) and solicit input from the assembled community on how the ASP can best serve its various constituencies and the cause of science education, communication and literacy at a time when both the universe and life on Earth are accelerating at unprecedented rates. Birthdays are for celebrating; come celebrate with us as we rededicate ourselves to a mission of advancing science literacy through astronomy.

  16. Advanced Technologies for Space Life Science Payloads on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, high-performance work group organized to provide advanced engineering and technology support for NASA's Life Sciences spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. In support of these objectives, S2K! manages NASA's Advanced Technology Development Program for Biosensor and Biotelemetry Systems (ATD-B), with particular emphasis on technologies suitable for Gravitational Biology, Human Health and Performance, and Information Technology and Systems Management. A concurrent objective is to apply and transition ATD-B developed technologies to external, non-NASA humanitarian (medical, clinical, surgical, and emergency) situations and to stimulate partnering and leveraging with other government agencies, academia, and the commercial/industrial sectors. A phased long-term program has been implemented to support science disciplines and programs requiring specific biosensor (i.e., biopotential, biophysical, biochemical, and biological) measurements from humans, animals (mainly primates and rodents), and cells under controlled laboratory and simulated microgravity situations. In addition to the technology programs described above, NASA's Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Office has initiated a Technology Infusion process to identify and coordinate the utilization and integration of advanced technologies into its International Space Station Facilities. This project has recently identified a series of technologies, tasks, and products which, if implemented, would significantly increase the science return, decrease costs, and provide improved technological capability. This presentation will review the programs described above and discuss opportunities for collaboration, leveraging, and partnering with NASA.

  17. Strategies for Advancing Women in Physics and other Sciences in an Undergraduate Hispanic Institution (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia

    2009-04-01

    For the past 15 years, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) has implemented various efforts to increase participation and promote advancement of women in physics and other sciences. The strategies used include mentoring, collaborating, forming women's organizations, and offering training workshops. The physics program at UPRH is the largest in Puerto Rico with approximately 95 undergraduates. Since 1995, female students in the program have increased from 17% to 32%. Efforts to integrate women in undergraduate research as early as possible in their studies show promising results, with the percentage of women in research increasing from 13% to 60% in the last 13 years. The Faculty in Training (FIT) program, begun in 2003, has supported talented women students interested in academic careers. The first FIT physics student will obtain her PhD in 2009. At the faculty level, UPRH received a first-round US National Science Foundation ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Award in 2001. The ADVANCE legacy at UPRH is evident at levels ranging from changes in individual behaviors to the adoption of institutional policies. A strong network of women in science and their supporters continues to advance this legacy.

  18. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  19. Basic Energy Sciences Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences, November 3-5, 2015, Rockville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Aurora; Millis, Andy; Gagliardi, Laura; Panagiotopoulos, Thanos; Siepmann, Ilja; Wolverton, Chris; Vashishta, Priya; Stevens, Mark; Gordon, Mark; Kent, Paul; va DAm, Kerstin Kleese; Proffen, Thomas; Tull, Craig; Diachin, Lori; Sethian, Jamie; Benali, Anouar; Chen, Jackie; Antypas, Katie; Gerber, Richard; Riley, Katherine; Straatsma, Tjerk

    2015-12-31

    Computers have revolutionized every aspect of our lives. Yet in science, the most tantalizing applications of computing lie just beyond our reach. The current quest to build an exascale computer with one thousand times the capability of today’s fastest machines (and more than a million times that of a laptop) will take researchers over the next horizon. The field of materials, chemical reactions, and compounds is inherently complex. Imagine millions of new materials with new functionalities waiting to be discovered — while researchers also seek to extend those materials that are known to a dizzying number of new forms. We could translate massive amounts of data from high precision experiments into new understanding through data mining and analysis. We could have at our disposal the ability to predict the properties of these materials, to follow their transformations during reactions on an atom-by-atom basis, and to discover completely new chemical pathways or physical states of matter. Extending these predictions from the nanoscale to the mesoscale, from the ultrafast world of reactions to long-time simulations to predict the lifetime performance of materials, and to the discovery of new materials and processes will have a profound impact on energy technology. In addition, discovery of new materials is vital to move computing beyond Moore’s law. To realize this vision, more than hardware is needed. New algorithms to take advantage of the increase in computing power, new programming paradigms, and new ways of mining massive data sets are needed as well. This report summarizes the opportunities and the requisite computing ecosystem needed to realize the potential before us. In addition to pursuing new and more complete physical models and theoretical frameworks, this review found that the following broadly grouped areas relevant to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) would directly affect the Basic Energy

  20. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  1. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.

  2. AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF PREVENTION OF TOOTH DECAY IN YOUNG CHILDREN SINCE THE SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT ON ORAL HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T.; Tanzer, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda that incomplete at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and PVP-iodine may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diammine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the US. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the Surgeon General's Report. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

  3. Chemical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fifth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to chemical features of the soil. Upon completing the four day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) list macro- and micro-nutrients, (2) define pH and its effect on plants, (3) outline Cation Exchange of the soil,…

  4. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  5. Promoting the Skills of Knowledge Translation in an Online Master of Science Course in Primary Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2006-01-01

    We present 4 key arguments: (1) knowledge translation requires tacit and explicit knowledge that must be introduced into the organization as well as simply acquired by individuals; (2) educating for knowledge translation must go beyond conveying facts and developing capability; (3) a constructivist and collaborative approach to education can…

  6. 78 FR 26646 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Evaluation of the State of the Science for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Evaluation of... SUMMARY: The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) of the Division of the National...

  7. Translating between Representations in a Social Context: A Study of Undergraduate Science Students' Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Ranasinghe, Muditha; Hanan, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Interacting with and translating across multiple representations is an essential characteristic of expertise and representational fluency. In this study, we explored the effect of interacting with and translating between representations in a computer simulation or in a paper-based assignment on scientific accuracy of undergraduate science…

  8. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  9. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy: An Odyssey in Measurement Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Albert

    Perhaps the speeds of sound, or, equivalently, the elastic moduli are some of the most fundamental attributes of a solid, connecting to fundamental physics, metallurgy, non-destructive testing, and more. Unlike most of the quantities used to characterize condensed matter, the elastic moduli are fourth-rank tensors containing a wealth of detail, directional information, and consistency constraints that provide some of the most revealing probes of solids. We describe here the current state of the art in one method, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, where the mechanical resonances of a specimen of regular shape (easy to measure) are analyzed (difficult computational problem) to obtain the full elastic tensor. With modern advances in electronics and analysis, fractions of a part per million changes in elastic moduli are detectable providing new and important insight into grand challenges in condensed matter physics. This work was supported as part of the Materials Science of Actinides, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # DE-SC0001089.

  10. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  11. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  12. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  13. Advancing environmental flow science: Developing frameworks for altered landscapes and integrating efforts across disciplines.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  14. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    DOE PAGES

    Brewer, Shannon; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; ...

    2016-05-13

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a bettermore » understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.« less

  15. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, Shannon; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-05-13

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  16. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Shelley I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  17. Who Will Do Science? Trends, and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…

  18. Citizen Science: linking the recent rapid advances of plant flowering in Canada with climate variability.

    PubMed

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Wu, Chaoyang

    2013-01-01

    The timing of crucial events in plant life cycles is shifting in response to climate change. We use phenology records from PlantWatch Canada 'Citizen Science' networks to study recent rapid shifts of flowering phenology and its relationship with climate. The average first flower bloom day of 19 Canadian plant species has advanced by about 9 days during 2001-2012. 73% of the rapid and unprecedented first bloom day advances are explained by changes in mean annual national temperature, allowing the reconstruction of historic flower phenology records starting from 1948. The overall trends show that plant flowering in Canada is advancing by about 9 days per °C. This analysis reveals the strongest biological signal yet of climate warming in Canada. This finding has broad implications for niche differentiation among coexisting species, competitive interactions between species, and the asynchrony between plants and the organisms they interact with.

  19. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) Geoscience Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    The declining number of geoscience students, especially US citizens, threatens the country's future preparedness in natural hazards mitigation, resource development, national security, and education. Furthermore, the geosciences suffer from poor representation among underrepresented groups, even by comparison to other sciences and engineering. Several organizations have been successful in mentoring and recruiting minorities into science. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) focuses on encouraging undergraduate and graduate Hispanic and American Indian students to pursue higher degrees. For over 30 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving science and math education, as well as expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia. SACNAS has added a geological science emphasis to its existing programs to address the need to diversify the field, with funding from the National Science Foundation Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) program. The goals of this initiative are to: (1) recruit 50 Native American and Chicano/Latino undergraduate and graduate students that are performing research in geoscience disciplines each year for the next five years to attend the annual SACNAS Conference; (2) provide students with early mentoring opportunities designed to assist them with their plans for higher education and employment as researchers and educators in the geosciences; (3) sponsor scientific symposia sessions focusing on advances in the geosciences and opportunities available in related fields; (4) Serve as an information resource through the SACNAS web site and monthly e-nouncements for geoscience research opportunities, and disseminate results of initiative; (5) Offer a workshop for K-12 teachers focusing on geosciences and provide mentoring support throughout the year. We are evaluating the effectiveness of the mentoring initiative by tracking

  20. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  1. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Beyer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary science is a field that evolves rapidly, motivated by spacecraft mission results. Exciting new mission results are generally communicated rather quickly to the public in the form of press releases and news stories, but it can take several years for new advances to work their way into college textbooks. Yet it is important for students to have exposure to these new advances for a number of reasons. In some cases, new work renders older textbook knowledge incorrect or incomplete. In some cases, new discoveries make it possible to emphasize older textbook knowledge in a new way. In all cases, new advances provide exciting and accessible examples of the scientific process in action. To bridge the gap between textbooks and new advances in planetary sciences we have developed content on new discoveries for use by undergraduate instructors. Called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', each new discovery is summarized in a 3-slide PowerPoint presentation. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts, and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/. Sixteen slide sets have been released so far covering topics spanning all sub-disciplines of planetary science. Results from the following spacecraft missions have been highlighted: MESSENGER, the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Cassini, LCROSS, EPOXI, Chandrayan, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, and Venus Express. Additionally, new results from Earth-orbiting and ground-based observing platforms and programs such as Hubble, Keck, IRTF, the Catalina Sky Survey, HARPS, MEarth, Spitzer, and amateur astronomers have been highlighted. 4-5 new slide sets are

  2. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    PubMed

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  3. Exploring the Relationship between the Engineering and Physical Sciences and the Health and Life Sciences by Advanced Bibliometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the ‘EPS-HLS interface’ is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade. PMID:25360616

  4. Translating depression biomarkers for improved targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Bredt, David S; Furey, Maura L; Chen, Guang; Lovenberg, Tim; Drevets, Wayne C; Manji, Husseini K

    2015-12-01

    Mood disorders are among the most common medical conditions and cause amongst the greatest disease burden. Currently approved antidepressants target monoamine pathways; these medicines take many weeks to relieve symptoms, and most patients do not have sustained responses. This review will highlight recent advances in translational science identifying dysfunctional biochemical processes and neuronal circuits associated with mood disorders. We will also summarize strategies for targeting these pathways and for enhancing synaptic plasticity to develop most effective and rapidly acting antidepressant therapies.

  5. Frontiers in Critical Zone Science: Science Advances for the Next 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Network is uniquely poised to help society devise innovative solutions to mounting environmental problems. By linking geologic, ecologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric sciences, research in the critical zone has the potential to transform our understanding of natural and managed ecosystems and their responses to environmental change. Emerging research questions include augmenting carbon sequestration by using the connectivity of key processes in the carbon cycle from bedrock to the atmosphere, determining the uses and limits of water as the conduit for materials and energy in the critical zone, and managing minerals as drivers of carbon storage and greenhouse gas dynamics. Future and continued collaborations with other large research networks with complementary expertise will not only strengthen the Critical Zone Network, but also expand the breadth and depth of understanding of the role of the critical zone in global-scale phenomena. Two examples of key networks include the US National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the US and International Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER). Networks such as these provide value added by broadening the range of climate, rock and soil type, vegetation characteristics, and human land use affecting the critical zone that should help us determine patterns and processes of critical zone function.

  6. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft.

  7. Advancing Measurement Science to Assess Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Prognostics for Manufacturing Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Guixiu; Weiss, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Unexpected equipment downtime is a ‘pain point’ for manufacturers, especially in that this event usually translates to financial losses. To minimize this pain point, manufacturers are developing new health monitoring, diagnostic, prognostic, and maintenance (collectively known as prognostics and health management (PHM)) techniques to advance the state-of-the-art in their maintenance strategies. The manufacturing community has a wide-range of needs with respect to the advancement and integration of PHM technologies to enhance manufacturing robotic system capabilities. Numerous researchers, including personnel from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), have identified a broad landscape of barriers and challenges to advancing PHM technologies. One such challenge is the verification and validation of PHM technology through the development of performance metrics, test methods, reference datasets, and supporting tools. Besides documenting and presenting the research landscape, NIST personnel are actively researching PHM for robotics to promote the development of innovative sensing technology and prognostic decision algorithms and to produce a positional accuracy test method that emphasizes the identification of static and dynamic positional accuracy. The test method development will provide manufacturers with a methodology that will allow them to quickly assess the positional health of their robot systems along with supporting the verification and validation of PHM techniques for the robot system. PMID:28058172

  8. Advancing Measurement Science to Assess Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Prognostics for Manufacturing Robotics.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guixiu; Weiss, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Unexpected equipment downtime is a 'pain point' for manufacturers, especially in that this event usually translates to financial losses. To minimize this pain point, manufacturers are developing new health monitoring, diagnostic, prognostic, and maintenance (collectively known as prognostics and health management (PHM)) techniques to advance the state-of-the-art in their maintenance strategies. The manufacturing community has a wide-range of needs with respect to the advancement and integration of PHM technologies to enhance manufacturing robotic system capabilities. Numerous researchers, including personnel from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), have identified a broad landscape of barriers and challenges to advancing PHM technologies. One such challenge is the verification and validation of PHM technology through the development of performance metrics, test methods, reference datasets, and supporting tools. Besides documenting and presenting the research landscape, NIST personnel are actively researching PHM for robotics to promote the development of innovative sensing technology and prognostic decision algorithms and to produce a positional accuracy test method that emphasizes the identification of static and dynamic positional accuracy. The test method development will provide manufacturers with a methodology that will allow them to quickly assess the positional health of their robot systems along with supporting the verification and validation of PHM techniques for the robot system.

  9. Advancing precollege science and mathematics education in San Diego County. Progress report, March 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, D.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses advancing precollege science and mathematics education in San Diego Count. Described in this report are: curriculum and teacher development; pre-tour material; facility tour; student workbook; evaluation and assessment; and internet access.

  10. Teaching Translational Research To Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Masters of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S.; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von

    2016-01-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Masters of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This five-year program dedicates one year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This article details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first four years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. PMID:26365704

  11. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students.

  12. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  13. Linking scientific discovery and better health for the nation: the first three years of the NIH's Clinical and Translational Science Awards.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M; Berglund, Lars

    2010-03-01

    A comprehensive system for translating basic biomedical research into useful and effectively implemented clinical diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic practices is essential to the nation's health. The state of clinical and translational research (CTR) in the United States, however, has been characterized as fragmented, slow, expensive, and poorly coordinated. As part of its Roadmap Initiative, the National Institutes of Health instituted the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA), a sweeping and ambitious program designed to transform the conduct of biomedical research in the United States by speeding the translation of scientific discoveries into useful therapies and then developing methods to ensure that those therapies reach the patients who need them the most. The authors review the circumstances of the U.S. biomedical research enterprise that led to the creation of the CTSA and discuss the initial strategic plan of the CTSA, which was developed from the first three years of experience with the program and was designed to overcome organizational, methodological, and cultural barriers within and among research institutions. The authors also describe the challenges encountered during these efforts and discuss the promise of this vital national health care initiative, which is essential to creating a pipeline for the scientific workforce needed to conduct research that will, in turn, provide a rational evidence base for better health in the United States.

  14. Linking Scientific Discovery and Better Health for the Nation: The First Three Years of the NIH’s Clinical and Translational Science Awards

    PubMed Central

    Califf, Robert M.; Berglund, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive system for translating basic biomedical research into useful and effectively implemented clinical diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic practices is essential to the nation’s health. The state of clinical and translational research (CTR) in the United States, however, has been characterized as fragmented, slow, expensive, and poorly coordinated. As part of its Roadmap Initiative, the National Institutes of Health instituted the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA), a sweeping and ambitious program designed to transform the conduct of biomedical research in the United States by speeding the translation of scientific discoveries into useful therapies and then developing methods to ensure that those therapies reach the patients who need them the most. The authors review the circumstances of the U.S. biomedical research enterprise that led to the creation of the CTSA and discuss the initial strategic plan of the CTSA, which was developed from the first 3 years of experience with the program and was designed to overcome organizational, methodological, and cultural barriers within and among research institutions. The authors also describe the challenges encountered during these efforts and discuss the promise of this vital national health care initiative, which is essential to creating a pipeline for the scientific workforce needed to conduct research that will in turn provide a rational evidence base for better health in the United States. PMID:20182118

  15. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  16. DOE Response to the Fukushima Accident: Advancing the Science of Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The US Department of Energy maintains specialized technical teams to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies. They apply well-established laboratory nuclear measurement techniques in field environments, conduct rapid analysis, and deliver data products to government leaders in support of real-time public safety decisions. Meeting these requirements, often in the face of incomplete and imperfect information, takes a great deal of training and practice to effectively translate science into operations. Since large-scale emergencies are rare, the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 provided an opportunity to employ these teams. Their timely support to both US and Japanese decision makers provides an excellent case study in the application of instrumentation, analysis methods, data presentation, and training to emergency response.

  17. The TXESS Revolution: A Partnership to Advance Earth and Space Science in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Olson, H. C.; Willis, M.

    2007-12-01

    professional development program developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with National Science Foundation (NSF) funding; and an online learning forum designed to keep teachers and teacher mentors in contact with facilitators and fellow project-participants between and after training, as well as share best practices and new information. The new capstone course promises to be a rigorous and dynamic change to the way Earth and Space Science has been presented previously anywhere in the U.S. and will provide many opportunities for professional development and the dissemination of suitable Earth and Space Science curriculum. The TXESS Revolution project welcomes opportunities to collaborate with geoscience consortia, programs, organizations and geoscience educators to advance Earth and Space Science in Texas. NSF's Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program, the Shell Oil Company and the Jackson School of Geosciences are together funding the TXESS Revolution project.

  18. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B. A.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-06-01

    Observation and quantification of the Earth's surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of critical zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", which extends from the top of unweathered bedrock to the top of the vegetation canopy. Fundamental to CZ science is the development of transdisciplinary theories and tools that transcend disciplines and inform other's work, capture new levels of complexity, and create new intellectual outcomes and spaces. Researchers are just beginning to use lidar data sets to answer synergistic, transdisciplinary questions in CZ science, such as how CZ processes co-evolve over long timescales and interact over shorter timescales to create thresholds, shifts in states and fluxes of water, energy, and carbon. The objective of this review is to elucidate the transformative potential of lidar for CZ science to simultaneously allow for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological processes. A review of 147 peer-reviewed lidar studies highlights a lack of lidar applications for CZ studies as 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % had an interdisciplinary focus. A handful of exemplar transdisciplinary studies demonstrate lidar data sets that are well-integrated with other observations can lead to fundamental advances in CZ science, such as identification of feedbacks between hydrological and ecological processes over hillslope scales and the synergistic co-evolution of landscape-scale CZ structure due to interactions amongst carbon, energy, and water cycles

  19. Advanced Resources for Catalysis Science; Recommendations for a National Catalysis Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF.; Ray, Douglas

    2005-10-05

    Catalysis is one of the most valuable contributors to our economy and historically an area where the United States has enjoyed, but is now losing, international leadership. While other countries are stepping up their work in this area, support for advanced catalysis research and development in the U.S. has diminished. Yet, more than ever, innovative and improved catalyst technologies are imperative for new energy production processes to ease our dependence on imported resources, for new energy-efficient and environmentally benign chemical production processes, and for new emission reduction technologies to minimize the environmental impact of an active and growing economy. Addressing growing concerns about the future direction of U.S. catalysis science, experts from the catalysis community met at a workshop to determine and recommend advanced resources needed to address the grand challenges for catalysis research and development. The workshop's primary conclusion: To recapture our position as the leader in catalysis innovation and practice, and promote crucial breakthroughs, the U.S. must establish one or more well-funded and well-equipped National Catalysis Research Institutes competitively selected, centered in the national laboratories and, by charter, networked to other national laboratories, universities, and industry. The Institute(s) will be the center of a national collaboratory that gives catalysis researchers access to the most advanced techniques available in the scientific enterprise. The importance of catalysis to our energy, economic, and environmental security cannot be overemphasized. Catalysis is a vital part of our core industrial infrastructure, as it is integral to chemical processing and petroleum refining, and is critical to proposed advances needed to secure a sustainable energy future. Advances in catalysis could reduce our need for foreign oil by making better use of domestic carbon resources, for example, allowing cost-effective and zero

  20. The role of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità as the competent authority for Phase I trials in the translation of advanced therapies.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Cometa, Maria Francesca; Fabi, Fulvia; Meneguz, Annarita

    2011-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) can offer new, effective therapeutic options for the treatment of severe illnesses, including cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Translation of advanced therapies to the clinic has been slow despite significant academic research from academia and foundations. The implementation of 2001/20 Directive in Italy established that the development of an ATMP should follow the GXP rules - good manufacturing practice (GMP) for production, good laboratory practice (GLP) for non clinical safety studies and good clinical practice (GCP) for clinical trials. The high costs of GCP application and the needs for GMP facilities are perceived as the most important bottlenecks for the development of ATMP. Here it is pointed out that a strategic cooperation between different actors (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. In particular, it is highlighted that the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, as the competent authority for the authorization of Phase I clinical trials, has a specific responsibility in fostering the translation of safe and effective therapies for human diseases.

  1. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  2. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials.

  3. Life Sciences and Allied Fields: Indexes and Abstracts, Book Review Indexes, Serials Bibliographies, Translations. Bibliographic Series No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpitts, D. Corinne

    The information sources for the life sciences and allied fields listed were selected from the holdings of the Arkansas University library. Citations include indexes and abstracts dealing with national and international literature in medicine, the biological sciences, environmental science, veterinary medicine, agriculture, botany, and zoology, as…

  4. The NIEHS Environmental Health Sciences Data Resource Portal: Placing Advanced Technologies in Service to Vulnerable Communities

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Keith; Tukey, Robert; Sarabia, Hiram; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Suk, William A.; Lin, Abel; Ellisman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Two devastating hurricanes ripped across the Gulf Coast of the United States during 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina were especially severe: The human and environmental health impacts on New Orleans, Louisiana, and other Gulf Coast communities will be felt for decades to come. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that Katrina’s destruction disrupted the lives of roughly 650,000 Americans. Over 1,300 people died. The projected economic costs for recovery and reconstruction are likely to exceed $125 billion. Objectives The NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) Portal aims to provide decision makers with the data, information, and the tools they need to a) monitor human and environmental health impacts of disasters; b) assess and reduce human exposures to contaminants; and c) develop science-based remediation, rebuilding, and repopulation strategies. Methods The NIEHS Portal combines advances in geographic information systems (GIS), data mining/integration, and visualization technologies through new forms of grid-based (distributed, web-accessible) cyberinfrastructure. Results The scale and complexity of the problems presented by Hurricane Katrina made it evident that no stakeholder alone could tackle them and that there is a need for greater collaboration. The NIEHS Portal provides a collaboration-enabling, information-laden base necessary to respond to environmental health concerns in the Gulf Coast region while advancing integrative multidisciplinary research. Conclusions The NIEHS Portal is poised to serve as a national resource to track environmental hazards following natural and man-made disasters, focus medical and environmental response and recovery resources in areas of greatest need, and function as a test bed for technologies that will help advance environmental health sciences research into the modern scientific and computing era. PMID:17450225

  5. LSST system analysis and integration task for an advanced science and application space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    To support the development of an advanced science and application space platform (ASASP) requirements of a representative set of payloads requiring large separation distances selected from the Science and Applications Space Platform data base. These payloads were a 100 meter diameter atmospheric gravity wave antenna, a 100 meter by 100 meter particle beam injection experiment, a 2 meter diameter, 18 meter long astrometric telescope, and a 15 meter diameter, 35 meter long large ambient deployable IR telescope. A low earth orbit at 500 km altitude and 56 deg inclination was selected as being the best compromise for meeting payload requirements. Platform subsystems were defined which would support the payload requirements and a physical platform concept was developed. Structural system requirements which included utilities accommodation, interface requirements, and platform strength and stiffness requirements were developed. An attitude control system concept was also described. The resultant ASASP concept was analyzed and technological developments deemed necessary in the area of large space systems were recommended.

  6. Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, T.; Padmore, H.; Ade, H.; Hitchcock, A.P.; Rightor, E.G.; Tonner, B.P.

    1996-08-01

    Several third generation synchrotron radiation facilities are now operational and the high brightness of these photon sources offers new opportunities for x-ray microscopy. Well developed synchrotron radiation spectroscopy techniques are being applied in new instruments capable of imaging the surface of a material with a spatial resolution smaller than one micron. There are two aspects to this. One is to further the field of surface science by exploring the effects of spatial variations across a surface on a scale not previously accessible to x-ray measurements. The other is to open up new analytical techniques in materials science using x-rays, on a spatial scale comparable to that of the processes or devices to be studied. The development of the spectromicroscopy program at the Advanced Light Source will employ a variety of instruments, some are already operational. Their development and use will be discussed, and recent results will be presented to illustrate their capabilities.

  7. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  8. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  9. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  10. The Critical Path Institute's approach to precompetitive sharing and advancing regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Woosley, R L; Myers, R T; Goodsaid, F

    2010-05-01

    Many successful large industries, such as computer-chip manufacturers, the cable television industry, and high-definition television developers,(1) have established successful precompetitive collaborations focusing on standards, applied science, and technology that advance the field for all stakeholders and benefit the public.(2) The pharmaceutical industry, however, has a well-earned reputation for fierce competition and did not demonstrate willingness to share data or knowledge until the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched the Critical Path Initiative in 2004 (ref. 3).

  11. Advanced development of the spectrum sciences Model 5005-TF, single-event test fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.R.; Browning, J.S. ); Hughlock, B.W. ); Lum, G.K. ); Tsacoyeanes, W.C. Lab., Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Weeks, M.D. )

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the advanced development of the Spectrum Sciences Model 5005-TF, Single-Event Test Fixture. The Model 5005-TF uses a Californium-252 (Cf-252) fission-fragment source to test integrated circuits and other devices for the effects of single-event phenomena. Particle identification methods commonly used in high-energy physics research and nuclear engineering have been incorporated into the Model 5005-TF for estimating the particle charge, mass, and energy parameters. All single-event phenomena observed in a device under test (DUT) are correlated with an identified fission fragment, and its linear energy transfer (LET) and range in the semiconductor material of the DUT.

  12. Convergence of advances in genomics, team science, and repositories as drivers of progress in psychiatric genomics.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Thomas; Senthil, Geetha; Addington, Anjené M

    2015-01-01

    After many years of unfilled promise, psychiatric genetics has seen an unprecedented number of successes in recent years. We hypothesize that the field has reached an inflection point through a confluence of four key developments: advances in genomics; the orientation of the scientific community around large collaborative team science projects; the development of sample and data repositories; and a policy framework for sharing and accessing these resources. We discuss these domains and their effect on scientific progress and provide a perspective on why we think this is only the beginning of a new era in scientific discovery.

  13. Advanced Science/Event-based Data Service Framework at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided numerous Earth science data, information, and services to various research communities and general publics for decades. To maintain an overall fine service including improving serving our users with advanced data services has been our primary goal. We are developing an advanced science/event-based data service framework. The framework aims to effectively provide users with a sophisticatedly integrated data package via user-friendly discovering and selecting a system-preset science/event topic (e.g., hurricane, volcano, etc.) from an in-developing knowledge database of the framework. A data recipe page related to the Hurricane topic has been developed to demo the concept. More showcases of various subjects such as Volcano, Dust Storm, and Forest Fire are also under development. This framework is in developing on top of existing data services at GES DISC, such as Mirador (data search engine), Giovanni (visualization), OPeNDAP, and data recipes. It also involves other data tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, IDL, etc. The Hurricane Sandy (Oct 22-31 2012) event is used here for a sample description. As Hurricane Sandy being selected as a user case, a table containing nine system-preset data variables (i.e., precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, aerosols, soil moisture and surface runoff, and trace gases) linked to the respective data products with fine temporal and spatial resolutions from various in-house sources is provided. The "bundled" variable data can thus be readily downloaded through Mirador. The in-house Giovanni is accessible for users to acquire quick views of Level 3 (gridded) variables. For Level 2 (swath) or the Giovanni-unavailable Level 3 data, the system provides a link to data recipes that give a how-to guide to read and visualize the data using offline tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, or IDL.

  14. Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Marshall, J. A.; Lyon, S. W.; Barnhart, T. B.; Fisher, B.; Donovan, M.; Brubaker, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Glennie, C. L.; Kirchner, P. B.; Lam, N.; Mankoff, K. D.; McCreight, J. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pelletier, J.; Russo, T.; Sangireddy, H.; Sjöberg, Y.; Swetnam, T.; West, N.

    2015-01-01

    Laser vision: lidar as a transformative tool to advance critical zone science. Observation and quantification of the Earth surface is undergoing a revolutionary change due to the increased spatial resolution and extent afforded by light detection and ranging (lidar) technology. As a consequence, lidar-derived information has led to fundamental discoveries within the individual disciplines of geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology. These disciplines form the cornerstones of Critical Zone (CZ) science, where researchers study how interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, and ecosphere shape and maintain the "zone of life", extending from the groundwater to the vegetation canopy. Lidar holds promise as a transdisciplinary CZ research tool by simultaneously allowing for quantification of topographic, vegetative, and hydrological data. Researchers are just beginning to utilize lidar datasets to answer synergistic questions in CZ science, such as how landforms and soils develop in space and time as a function of the local climate, biota, hydrologic properties, and lithology. This review's objective is to demonstrate the transformative potential of lidar by critically assessing both challenges and opportunities for transdisciplinary lidar applications. A review of 147 peer-reviewed studies utilizing lidar showed that 38 % of the studies were focused in geomorphology, 18 % in hydrology, 32 % in ecology, and the remaining 12 % have an interdisciplinary focus. We find that using lidar to its full potential will require numerous advances across CZ applications, including new and more powerful open-source processing tools, exploiting new lidar acquisition technologies, and improved integration with physically-based models and complementary in situ and remote-sensing observations. We provide a five-year vision to utilize and advocate for the expanded use of lidar datasets to benefit CZ science applications.

  15. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education

  16. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…

  17. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: a structured multidisciplinary protocol development and educational program to advance translational research.

    PubMed

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G; Dowd, Kathleen A; Hurley, Arlene M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality.

  18. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: A Structured Multidisciplinary Protocol Development and Educational Program to Advance Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Dowd, Kathleen A.; Hurley, Arlene M.; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality. PMID:24405608

  19. Advanced placement math and science courses: Influential factors and predictors for success in college STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were

  20. PREFACE: APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (AMSN08)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2009-09-01

    Dear friends To contribute to the enhancement of the international scientific cooperation of the ASEAN countries and in reply to the proposal of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Sub Committee on Materials Science and Technology (SCMST) of the ASEAN Committee of Science and Technology (ASEAN COST) agreed to organize this APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology with the participation of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Rencontres du Vietnam, the Vietnam Physical Society, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City and the Vietnam National University in Hanoi. As well as the participants from 9 of the 10 ASEAN countries and many other countries/regions of APCTP (Australia, China, Chinese Taipei, Japan and Korea) we warmly welcome the guests from Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel. Without the financial support of the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics APCTP, Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics ICTP, the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development AOARD, the US Office of Naval Research Global-Asia ONRG, the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam MOST, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology VAST, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City VNU HCMC and other Sponsors, we would have been unable to hold this Workshop. On behalf of the International and Local Organizing Committees I would like to express our deep gratitude to the Sponsors. We highly appreciate the support and advice of the members of the International Advisory Committee, the scientific contribution of the invited speakers and all participants. We acknowledge the warm reception of the Khanh Hoa province Administration and citizens, and the hard work of the VAST staff for the success of the Workshop. We cordially wish all participants lively scientific

  1. Significant Advances in the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. The Goddard DISC has analyzed AIRS/AMSU observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, using the AIRS Science Team Version-S retrieval algorithm. These products have been used by many researchers to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval, which will become operation in mid-20l2, contains many significant theoretical and practical improvements compared to Version-5 which should further enhance the utility of AIRS products for both climate and weather applications. In particular, major changes have been made with regard to the algOrithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the retrieval procedure; 3) compute Outgoing Longwave Radiation; and 4) determine Quality Control. This paper will describe these advances found in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm and demonstrate the improvement of AIRS Version-6 products compared to those obtained using Version-5,

  2. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy.

  3. Technical Translation and Industrial Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longyka, Tomaz

    1973-01-01

    Paper presented at the symposium on The Importance and Problems of Translation in Sciences, Technology, and Economic Life.'' in Ohrid, Yugoslavia. Argues for the adoption of artificial languages as an international terminological means in science and technology. (RS)

  4. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  5. Data Management Practices and Advanced Technologies in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Mayernik, M. S.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Allen, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the students had not taken courses related to information science and the analysis of complex data. Seventy-four percent of the students reported no skill in programming languages or computational applications. Of the students who had completed research projects, 26% had created metadata for research data sets, and 29% had archived their data so that it was available online. One-third of these students used an environmental sensor. The results differed according to the students' research status, degree type, and university type. Changes may be necessary in the curricula of university programs that seek to prepare environmental scientists for this technologically advanced and data-intensive age. Figure 1. Weighted mean percent of graduate students who had none, basic, proficient, or expert knowledge in programming languages or computational applications. Weights were assigned to university means (n = 23). Error bars are 95% confidence interval. Table 1. Weighted mean percent of graduate students who responded 'YES' they plan to (n = 326) or have already completed (n = 131) research decisions 1-5. Weights were assigned to university means (n = 23). Uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals. Statistical differences are reported between responses of 1) students with thesis/dissertation research ';in progress' and 2) students who have ';completed' their research.

  6. It Loses Something in the Translation: Syntax and Survival of Key Words in Science and Nonscience Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Lynne Masel; Walters, T. N.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations practitioner and journalist in the transmission of the language of science to the public. The grammatical structure of original press releases was compared with the resulting newspaper stories for both science and nonscience releases to determine differences in syntax and editing. (Author/LRW)

  7. Progress toward a Semantic eScience Framework; building on advanced cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Rozell, E.; Zednik, S.; Chang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF) has begun development and implementation of several semantic application components. Extensions and improvements to several ontologies have been made based on distinct interdisciplinary use cases ranging from solar physics, to biologicl and chemical oceanography. Importantly, these semantic representations mediate access to a diverse set of existing and emerging cyberinfrastructure. Among the advances are the population of triple stores with web accessible query services. A triple store is akin to a relational data store where the basic stored unit is a subject-predicate-object tuple. Access via a query is provided by the W3 Recommendation language specification SPARQL. Upon this middle tier of semantic cyberinfrastructure, we have developed several forms of semantic faceted search, including provenance-awareness. We report on the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and how we are sustaining the software path for the required technical advances as well as the ontology improvements and increased functionality of the semantic applications including how they are integrated into web-based portals (e.g. Drupal) and web services. Lastly, we indicate future work direction and opportunities for collaboration.

  8. Design and endpoints of clinical and translational trials in advanced colorectal cancer. a proposal from GROUP Español Multidisciplinar en Cancer Digestivo (GEMCAD).

    PubMed

    Carrera, Gemma; Garcia-Albeniz, Xabier; Ayuso, Juan Ramón; Aparicio, Jorge; Castells, Antoni; Codony-Servat, Jordi; Feliu, Jaime; Fuster, David; Gallego, Rosa; Pagés, Mario; Torres, Ferran; Maurel, Joan

    2011-05-01

    Meta-analytic reviews of Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the benefit of medical interventions in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ACRC). Surrogate markers of survival benefit, such as response rate (RR) and progression free-survival (PFS) often show contradictory and highly variable correlations. These contradictions can be due to differences in 1) the studies analysed (sources), 2) the quality of clinical trials (intrinsic bias in the design, biased data analysis, heterogeneous PFS definitions) and 3) the second-line strategies between arms. PFS is a more vulnerable target than overall survival (OS), but the latter can also be affected by different biases and additional medical interventions such as secondary resection of metastases or second-line therapies. Therefore the correlation between PFS and survival must be clearly stated if PFS is to be considered as a primary endpoint. Of the differences between studies, only the quality of clinical trials can be improved by a deeper knowledge of both the area of study (i.e. colorectal cancer) and the methodology needed (i.e., clinical and translational trials). The aim of this manuscript is to offer the basic resources to develop experimental trials in ACRC. To this end, techniques for diagnosis and for response assessment are discussed, prognostic factors and treatment standards are critically exposed, and notes about how to design useful translational studies are provided.

  9. Facilitating career advancement for women in the Geosciences through the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a network of women geoscientists, many of who are in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations, all towards making women successful in their scientific careers. ESWN currently connects over 1000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral associates, faculty from a diversity of colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. ESWN facilitates communication between its members via an email listserv and in-person networking events, and also provides resources to the broader community through the public Earth Science Jobs Listserv that hosts over 1800 subscribers. With funding from a NSF ADVANCE PAID grant, our primary goals include growing our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, designing and administering career development workshops, promoting professional networking at major scientific conferences, and developing web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Recognizing that women in particular face a number of direct and indirect biases while navigating their careers, we aim to provide a range of opportunities for professional development that emphasize different skills at different stages of career. For example, ESWN-hosted mini-workshops at national scientific conferences have targeted skill building for early career researchers (e.g., postdocs, tenure-track faculty), with a recent focus on raising extramural research funding and best practices for publishing in the geosciences literature. More concentrated, multi-day professional development workshops are offered annually with varying themes such as Defining Your Research Identity and Building Leadership Skills for Success in Scientific Organizations

  10. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    , acceleration, and loss of electrons in the radiation belts promise high profile science returns. Integrated, global scale data products also have potential importance and application for real-time monitoring of the space weather threats to electrical power grids from geomagnetically induced currents. Such data exploitation increasingly relies on the collaborations between multiple national magnetometer arrays to generate single data products with common file format and data properties. We review advances in geospace science which can be delivered by networks of ground-based magnetometers - in terms of advances in sensors, data collection, and data integration - including through collaborations within the Ultra-Large Terrestrial International Magnetometer Array (ULTIMA) consortium.

  11. Translation of recent advances and discoveries in molecular biology and immunology in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Albo, Daniel; Farrow, Buckminster; Berger, David H

    2008-04-01

    Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer progression have allowed for targeted approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. New biologic markers are emerging that may improve the ability to detect these tumors earlier. Targeted biologic cancer therapies promise more effective and less toxic systemic treatment options. Although a clear "magic bullet" has yet to emerge, this type of targeted approach offers hope in the management of this dreadful disease. This article offers an update on these promising diagnostic and treatment modalities.

  12. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, P.; Cary, J.; McInnes, L.C.; Mori, W.; Ng, C.; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors. ComPASS is in the first year of executing its plan to develop the next-generation HPC accelerator modeling tools. ComPASS aims to develop an integrated simulation environment that will utilize existing and new accelerator physics modules with petascale capabilities, by employing modern computing and solver technologies. The ComPASS vision is to deliver to accelerator scientists a virtual accelerator and virtual prototyping modeling environment, with the necessary multiphysics, multiscale capabilities. The plan for this development includes delivering accelerator modeling applications appropriate for each stage of the ComPASS software evolution. Such applications are already being used to address challenging problems in accelerator design and optimization. The ComPASS organization

  13. Integrating knowledge across domains to advance the science of health behavior: overcoming challenges and facilitating success.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Grenen, Emily G; O'Connell, Mary; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hall, Kara L; Taber, Jennifer M; Vogel, Amanda L

    2017-03-01

    Health behaviors often co-occur and have common determinants at multiple levels (e.g., individual, relational, environmental). Nevertheless, research programs often examine single health behaviors without a systematic attempt to integrate knowledge across behaviors. This paper highlights the significant potential of cross-cutting behavioral research to advance our understanding of the mechanisms and causal factors that shape health behaviors. It also offers suggestions for how researchers could develop more effective interventions. We highlight barriers to such an integrative science along with potential steps that can be taken to address these barriers. With a more nuanced understanding of health behavior, redundancies in research can be minimized, and a stronger evidence base for the development of health behavior interventions can be realized.

  14. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  15. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  16. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-02

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  17. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Glavallsco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near Infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 micron wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 sq m, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 micron, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

  18. NUCLEAR DATA NEEDS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS. A NEA NUCLEAR SCIENCE COMMITTEE INITIATIVE.

    SciTech Connect

    SALVATORES,J.M.; ALIBERTI, G.; PALMIOTTI, G.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; HERMANN, M.; TALOU, P.; KAWANO, T.; LEAL, L.; KONING, A.; KODELI, I.

    2007-04-22

    The Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee has established an International Subgroup to perform an activity in order to develop a systematic approach to define data needs for Gen-IV and, in general, for advanced reactor systems. A methodology, based on sensitivity analysis has been agreed and representative core configurations for Sodium, Gas and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (SFR, GFR, LFR) have been defined as well as a high burn-up VHTR and a high burn-up PWR. In the case of SFRs, both a TRU burner (called in fact SFR) and a core configuration with homogeneous recycling of not separated TRU (called EFR) have been considered.

  19. The National Lung Matrix Trial: translating the biology of stratification in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, G.; Crack, L. R.; Popat, S.; Swanton, C.; Hollingsworth, S. J.; Buller, R.; Walker, I.; Carr, T. H.; Wherton, D.; Billingham, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of NSCLC has been transformed by stratified medicine. The National Lung Matrix Trial (NLMT) is a UK-wide study exploring the activity of rationally selected biomarker/targeted therapy combinations. Patients and methods The Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Stratified Medicine Programme 2 is undertaking the large volume national molecular pre-screening which integrates with the NLMT. At study initiation, there are eight drugs being used to target 18 molecular cohorts. The aim is to determine whether there is sufficient signal of activity in any drug–biomarker combination to warrant further investigation. A Bayesian adaptive design that gives a more realistic approach to decision making and flexibility to make conclusions without fixing the sample size was chosen. The screening platform is an adaptable 28-gene Nextera next-generation sequencing platform designed by Illumina, covering the range of molecular abnormalities being targeted. The adaptive design allows new biomarker–drug combination cohorts to be incorporated by substantial amendment. The pre-clinical justification for each biomarker–drug combination has been rigorously assessed creating molecular exclusion rules and a trumping strategy in patients harbouring concomitant actionable genetic abnormalities. Discrete routes of pathway activation or inactivation determined by cancer genome aberrations are treated as separate cohorts. Key translational analyses include the deep genomic analysis of pre- and post-treatment biopsies, the establishment of patient-derived xenograft models and longitudinal ctDNA collection, in order to define predictive biomarkers, mechanisms of resistance and early markers of response and relapse. Conclusion The SMP2 platform will provide large scale genetic screening to inform entry into the NLMT, a trial explicitly aimed at discovering novel actionable cohorts in NSCLC. Clinical Trial ISRCTN 38344105. PMID:26410619

  20. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create