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Sample records for advantages include high

  1. Underreporting High-Risk Prescribing Among Medicare Advantage Plans

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alicia L.; Kazis, Lewis E.; Dore, David D.; Mor, Vincent; Trivedi, Amal N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Medicare Advantage plans are required to report clinical performance using Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality indicators, the accuracy of plan-reported performance rates is unknown. Objective To compare calculated and reported rates of high-risk prescribing among Medicare Advantage plans. Design Cross-sectional comparison. Setting 172 Medicare Advantage plans. Patients A random sample of beneficiaries in 172 Medicare Advantage plans in 2006 (n = 177 227) and 2007 (n = 173 655). Measurements Plan-reported HEDIS rates of high-risk prescribing among elderly persons were compared with rates calculated from Medicare Advantage plans’ Part D claims by using the same measure specifications and source population. Results The mean rate of high-risk prescribing derived from Part D claims was 26.9% (95% CI, 25.9% to 28.0%), whereas the mean plan-reported rate was 21.1% (CI, 20.0% to 22.3%). Approximately 95% of plans underreported rates of high-risk prescribing relative to calculated rates derived from Part D claims. The differences in the calculated and reported rates negatively affected quality rankings for the plans that most accurately reported rates. For example, the 9 plans that reported rates of high-risk prescribing within 1 percentage point of calculated rates were ranked 43.4 positions lower when reported rates were used instead of calculated rates. Among 103 680 individuals present in both the sample of Part D claims and HEDIS data in 2006, Medicare Advantage plans incorrectly excluded 10.3% as ineligible for the HEDIS high-risk prescribing measure. Among those correctly included in the high-risk prescribing denominator, the reported rate of high-risk prescribing was 21.9% and the calculated rate was 26.2%. Limitation A single quality measure was assessed. Conclusion Medicare Advantage plans underreport rates of high-risk prescribing, suggesting a role for routine audits to ensure the validity of publicly reported

  2. Releasable High-Mechanical-Advantage Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Gordon H.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed linear actuator includes ball-screw mechanism made to engage or disengage piston as needed. Requires low power to maintain release and no power to maintain engagement. Pins sliding radially in solenoids in yoke engage or disengage slot in piston. With help of optoelectronic feedback, yoke made to follow free piston during disengagement so always in position to "grab" piston.

  3. Advantages of High vs. Low Earth Orbit for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    While the subject of this workshop, which we will refer to as ET (for Enlightenment Telescope), is a dazzling successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, its location is unlikely to be the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) used by HST. Locations suggested for ET include High Earth Orbit (HEO) and the moon. The first space telescope to occupy HEO will be the liquid helium cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The selection of HEO for SIRTF was the outcome of a recent study led by the Ames Research Center which showed significant advantages for SIRTF in HEO vs. LEO. This article summarizes the main results of that study. We begin with a review of SIRTF's rationale and requirements, in part because the IR capabilities and low temperature proposed for ET make it something of a successor to SIRTF as well as to HST. We conclude with some comments about another possible location for both SIRTF and ET, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point.

  4. Are amino groups advantageous to insensitive high explosives (IHEs)?

    PubMed

    Cao, Xia; Wen, Yushi; Xiang, Bin; Long, Xinping; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2012-10-01

    There is usually a contradiction between increasing energy densities and reducing sensitivities of explosives. The explosives with both high energy densities and low sensitivities, or the so-called insensitive high explosives (IHEs), are desirable in most cases. It seems from applied explosives that amino groups are advantageous to IHE but the amount of amino groups contained IHEs is very limited. To make this clear, we present systemic examinations of the effects on the two properties stressed in IHEs after introducing amino groups to different molecular skeletons. As a result, the amino groups on resonant sites to nitro groups in conjugated systems can improve distinctly sensitivities and change energy densities in terms of oxygen balance; while the amino groups in unconjugated systems can hardly increase energy densities and usually cause increased sensitivities. It agrees well with a fact that almost all the molecules of applied amino group contained explosives possess conjugated skeletons. We therefore confirm that if amino groups are introduced resonantly to a nitro group in a conjugated system and the introduction improves OB, they are advantageous to IHEs. PMID:22660963

  5. Advantages of High Tolerance Measurements in Fusion Environments Applying Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dodson, R. Ellis, C. Priniski, S. Raftopoulos, D. Stevens, M. Viola

    2009-02-04

    Photogrammetry, a state-of-the-art technique of metrology employing digital photographs as the vehicle for measurement, has been investigated in the fusion environment. Benefits of this high tolerance methodology include relatively easy deployment for multiple point measurements and deformation/distortion studies. Depending on the equipment used, photogrammetric systems can reach tolerances of 25 microns (0.001 in) to 100 microns (0.004 in) on a 3-meter object. During the fabrication and assembly of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) the primary measurement systems deployed were CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and supporting algorithms such as both interferometer-aided (IFM) and absolute distance measurementbased (ADM) laser trackers, as well as portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms. Photogrammetry was employed at NCSX as a quick and easy tool to monitor coil distortions incurred during welding operations of the machine assembly process and as a way to reduce assembly downtime for metrology processes.

  6. Size matters: problems and advantages associated with highly miniaturized sensors.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structural unit often can be used as transducer. This review discusses the advantages and problems with such small sensors, with focus on biosensing applications and label-free real-time analysis of liquid samples. Many aspects of sensor design are considered, such as thermodynamic and diffusion aspects on binding kinetics as well as multiplexing and noise issues. Still, all issues discussed are generic in the sense that the conclusions apply to practically all types of surface sensitive techniques. As a counterweight to the current research trend, it is argued that in many real world applications, better performance is achieved if the active sensor is larger than that in typical nanosensors. Although there are certain specific sensing applications where nanoscale transducers are necessary, it is argued herein that this represents a relatively rare situation. Instead, it is suggested that sensing on the microscale often offers a good compromise between utilizing some possible advantages of miniaturization while avoiding the complications. This means that ensemble measurements on multiple nanoscale sensors are preferable instead of utilizing a single transducer entity. PMID:22736990

  7. High-Cost Patients Had Substantial Rates Of Leaving Medicare Advantage And Joining Traditional Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Momotazur; Keohane, Laura; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Medicare Advantage payment regulations include risk-adjusted capitated reimbursement, which was implemented to discourage favorable risk selection and encourage the retention of members who incur high costs. However, the extent to which risk-adjusted capitation has succeeded is not clear, especially for members using high-cost services not previously considered in assessments of risk selection. We examined the rates at which participants who used three high-cost services switched between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare. We found that the switching rate from 2010 to 2011 away from Medicare Advantage and to traditional Medicare exceeded the switching rate in the opposite direction for participants who used long-term nursing home care (17 percent versus 3 percent), short-term nursing home care (9 percent versus 4 percent), and home health care (8 percent versus 3 percent). These results were magnified among people who were enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid. Our findings raise questions about the role of Medicare Advantage plans in serving high-cost patients with complex care needs, who account for a disproportionately high amount of total health care spending. PMID:26438743

  8. Is Extremely High Life Satisfaction during Adolescence Advantageous?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether extremely high life satisfaction was associated with adaptive functioning or maladaptive functioning. Six hundred ninety-eight secondary level students completed the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale [Huebner, 1991a, School Psychology International, 12, pp. 231-240], Youth Self-Report of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  9. Manufacturing Advantage: Why High-Performance Work Systems Pay Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Bailey, Thomas; Berg, Peter; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    A study examined the relationship between high-performance workplace practices and the performance of plants in the following manufacturing industries: steel, apparel, and medical electronic instruments and imaging. The multilevel research methodology combined the following data collection activities: (1) site visits; (2) collection of plant…

  10. Snapshot advantage: a review of the light collection improvement for parallel high-dimensional measurement systems

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2012-01-01

    The snapshot advantage is a large increase in light collection efficiency available to high-dimensional measurement systems that avoid filtering and scanning. After discussing this advantage in the context of imaging spectrometry, where the greatest effort towards developing snapshot systems has been made, we describe the types of measurements where it is applicable. We then generalize it to the larger context of high-dimensional measurements, where the advantage increases geometrically with measurement dimensionality. PMID:22791926

  11. The Blind Advantage: How Going Blind Made Me a Stronger Principal and How Including Children with Disabilities Made Our School Better for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    'The Blind Advantage" provides insight into the challenges, possibilities, and practicalities of including students with disabilities--and into the mind and heart of an inspired and determined leader. "You should get out of education." That was the advice first-year teacher Bill Henderson received when he discovered he was gradually losing his…

  12. Invaders do not require high resource levels to maintain physiological advantages in a temperate deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Non-native, invasive plants are commonly typified by trait strategies associated with high resource demands and plant invasions are often thought to be dependent upon site resource availability or disturbance. However, the invasion of shade-tolerant woody species into deciduous forests of the Eastern United States seems to contradict such generalization, as growth in this ecosystem is strongly constrained by light and, secondarily, nutrient stress. In a factorial manipulation of light and soil nitrogen availability, we established an experimental resource gradient in a secondary deciduous forest to test whether three common, woody, invasive species displayed increased metabolic performance and biomass production compared to six co-occurring woody native species, and whether these predicted differences depend upon resource supply. Using hierarchical Bayesian models of photosynthesis that included leaf trait effects, we found that invasive species exhibited functional strategies associated with higher rates of carbon gain. Further, invader metabolic and growth-related attributes were more responsive to increasing light availability than those of natives, but did not fall below average native responses even in low light. Surprisingly, neither group showed direct trait or growth responses to soil N additions. However, invasive species showed increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiencies with decreasing N availability, while that of natives remained constant. Although invader advantage over natives was amplified in higher resource conditions in this forest, our results indicate that some invasive species can maintain physiological advantages over co-occurring natives regardless of resource conditions. PMID:27220204

  13. Advantages of exclusive γγ production to probe high mass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2016-08-01

    We recall that the exclusive production of high mass objects via γγ fusion at the LHC is not strongly suppressed in comparison with inclusive γγ fusion. Therefore it may be promising to study new objects, X, produced by the γγ subprocess in experiments with exclusive kinematics. We list the main advantages of exclusive experiments. We discuss the special advantage of observing γ γ \\to X\\to γ Z exclusive events.

  14. Advantages and Challenges of 10-Gbps Transmission on High-Density Interconnect Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chang Fei; Jambek, Asral Bahari; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to high-density interconnect (HDI) technology and its implementation on printed circuit boards (PCBs). The advantages and challenges of implementing 10-Gbps signal transmission on high-density interconnect boards are discussed in detail. The advantages (e.g., smaller via dimension and via stub removal) and challenges (e.g., crosstalk due to smaller interpair separation) of HDI are studied by analyzing the S-parameter, time-domain reflectometry (TDR), and transmission-line eye diagrams obtained by three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (3DEM) and two-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (2DEM) using Mentor Graphics HyperLynx and Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) electronic computer-aided design (ECAD) software. HDI outperforms conventional PCB technology in terms of signal integrity, but proper routing topology should be applied to overcome the challenge posed by crosstalk due to the tight spacing between traces.

  15. Advantages and Challenges of 10-Gbps Transmission on High-Density Interconnect Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chang Fei; Jambek, Asral Bahari; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to high-density interconnect (HDI) technology and its implementation on printed circuit boards (PCBs). The advantages and challenges of implementing 10-Gbps signal transmission on high-density interconnect boards are discussed in detail. The advantages (e.g., smaller via dimension and via stub removal) and challenges (e.g., crosstalk due to smaller interpair separation) of HDI are studied by analyzing the S-parameter, time-domain reflectometry (TDR), and transmission-line eye diagrams obtained by three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (3DEM) and two-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (2DEM) using Mentor Graphics HyperLynx and Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) electronic computer-aided design (ECAD) software. HDI outperforms conventional PCB technology in terms of signal integrity, but proper routing topology should be applied to overcome the challenge posed by crosstalk due to the tight spacing between traces.

  16. Dosimetric advantages of IMRT simultaneous integrated boost for high-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen . E-mail: ali@radonc.mcw.edu; Wang, Jian Z.; Jursinic, Paul A.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Wang Dian

    2005-03-15

    prostate, and (4) IMRT SIB. EUDs and VED-based dose-volume histograms for prostate, pelvic nodes, small bowel, rectum, bladder, and other tissue for all 4 scenarios were compared. Results: A series of equivalent hypofractionation regimens suitable for the IMRT SIB were obtained for high-risk prostate cancer. For example, the conventional treatment regimen of 42 x 1.8 Gy (EUD = 75.4 Gy) would be equivalent to a SIB regimen of 25 x 2.54 Gy. From the comparison of 3D VED dose distributions and dose-volume histograms between the SIB and the conventional two-phase irradiation, we found that the SIB offers better or equivalent dose conformity to prostate and pelvic nodes and better sparing to the critical structures. For example, for the 4 treatment scenarios with a prostate EUD of 75.4 Gy, the corresponding rectal EUDs are 67.1 (3D + 3D), 65.6 Gy (3D + IMRT), 63.7 Gy (IMRT + IMRT), and 62.0 Gy (SIB). Conclusions: A new IMRT simultaneous integrated boost strategy that irradiates prostate via hypofractionation while irradiating pelvic nodes with the conventional fractionation is proposed for high-risk prostate cancer. Compared to the conventional two-phase treatment, the proposed SIB technique offers potential advantages, including better sparing of critical structures, more efficient delivery, shorter treatment duration, and better biologic effectiveness.

  17. Advantage of anti-Stokes Raman scattering for high-temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, Hirotaka; Kakihana, Masato; Ioku, Koji; Goto, Seishi; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2001-08-13

    We present the results of experiments that assess the viability of anti-Stokes scattering to investigate in situ materials at high temperatures. Both anti-Stokes and Stokes Raman measurements have been performed at various high temperatures using hafnia as a test material. As compared with Stokes Raman spectra, anti-Stokes spectra were observed with lower thermal emission backgrounds in accordance with Planck's equation. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes to Stokes scattering approaches 1 as the temperature increases at high temperatures satisfying the Boltzmann distribution law. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and feasibility of anti-Stokes Raman scattering for the elimination of the thermal emission in comparison with Stokes scattering. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in routine practice: economic and organizational advantages.

    PubMed

    Galli, Claudio; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Very seldom, if ever, a single laboratory test has provided such a paradigm shift in the managed care as cardiac troponin (cTn) testing. More than twenty years of improvements in test design and analytical features have contributed to revolutionize the clinical recommendations and guidelines, and the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is now highly dependent upon the kinetics of cTn within a suggestive clinical setting. Despite the advent of high-sensitivity cTn (HS-cTn) immunoassays has allowed a more accurate and timely diagnosis as well as a higher prognostic accuracy, the focus is now shifting on the most suitable algorithms and on a comprehensive approach to the clinical management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article we aim to discuss the implications of HS-cTn testing for ruling out and ruling in ACS. In the latter instance, main improvements are related to ACS diagnosis in women, in whom this pathology is still often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. A quick and accurate rule out will also regarded as a great advantage from both an organizational and economic standpoint. The advantages that will stem from this new approach have been recently assessed, and shortening of repeated testing 1 or 2 h from conventional algorithms entailing blood sampling at 3 and 6 h seems attainable. The larger benefits will definitely occur in clinical settings where the actual diagnosis rate of MI among patients with suspect ACS is lower and, consequently, the negative predictive value (NPV) of HS-cTn is the highest. PMID:27500158

  19. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in routine practice: economic and organizational advantages

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Very seldom, if ever, a single laboratory test has provided such a paradigm shift in the managed care as cardiac troponin (cTn) testing. More than twenty years of improvements in test design and analytical features have contributed to revolutionize the clinical recommendations and guidelines, and the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) is now highly dependent upon the kinetics of cTn within a suggestive clinical setting. Despite the advent of high-sensitivity cTn (HS-cTn) immunoassays has allowed a more accurate and timely diagnosis as well as a higher prognostic accuracy, the focus is now shifting on the most suitable algorithms and on a comprehensive approach to the clinical management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article we aim to discuss the implications of HS-cTn testing for ruling out and ruling in ACS. In the latter instance, main improvements are related to ACS diagnosis in women, in whom this pathology is still often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. A quick and accurate rule out will also regarded as a great advantage from both an organizational and economic standpoint. The advantages that will stem from this new approach have been recently assessed, and shortening of repeated testing 1 or 2 h from conventional algorithms entailing blood sampling at 3 and 6 h seems attainable. The larger benefits will definitely occur in clinical settings where the actual diagnosis rate of MI among patients with suspect ACS is lower and, consequently, the negative predictive value (NPV) of HS-cTn is the highest. PMID:27500158

  20. Characteristics of Six Propellers Including the High-Speed Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Stickle, George W; Brevoort, M J

    1937-01-01

    This investigation is part of an extensive experimental study that has been carried out at full scale in the NACA 20-foot tunnel, the purpose of which has been to furnish information in regard to the functioning of the propeller-cowling-nacelle unit under all conditions of take-off, climbing, and normal flight. This report presents the results of tests of six propellers in the normal and high-speed flight range and also includes a study of the take-off characteristics.

  1. Performance advantages of dynamically tuned gyroscopes in high accuracy spacecraft pointing and stabilization applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, R.; Van Alstine, R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper compares and describes the advantages of dry tuned gyros over floated gyros for space applications. Attention is given to describing the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the second-generation NASA Standard Dry Rotor Inertial Reference Unit (DRIRU II). Certain tests which were conducted to evaluate the SDG-5 and DRIRU II for specific mission requirements are outlined, and their results are compared with published test results on other gyro types. Performance advantages are highlighted.

  2. A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.

  3. Transition in Hypersonic Flows Including High-temperature Gas Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stemmer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Hypersonic transition poses a special challenge for direct numerical simulations. Comparable data from Wind-tunnel tests or free-flight testing are not available or not accurate enough for comparison. The wind-tunnel testing does not allow for the exact match to the free-flight conditions at such high Mach-numbers. Flat-plate boundary-layer transition at high Mach-numbers is investigated in this work. A simulation case was chosen where chemical non-equilibrium plays an important role but ionization can be neglected. The chosen case at an altitude of H=50Km lies close to one point on the descent path of the Space Shuttle. The failure of the Space Shuttle has shown that an improved vehicle for space transportation is imperative in the close future. Transition research for an improved space-transportation vehicle is crucial in order to estimate the heat load during re-entry.

  4. Including high-frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Y.; Frieder, C. A.; Martz, T. R.; Ballard, J. R.; Feely, R. A.; Kram, S.; Nam, S.; Navarro, M. O.; Price, N. N.; Smith, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal-resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e.g., tidal) to months (e.g., seasonal), bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age; therefore a density-age relationship was derived for the study region and then combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from autonomous pH sensors deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100 m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO2 increase in the future, with the greatest increase in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

  5. The advantages and disadvantages of using high technology in hand rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levanon, Yafi

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of the history of occupational therapy shows that the relationship between health and activity was of great concern to the founders of the Occupational Therapy (OT) field, and continues to be of concern to today's occupational therapists. Today, computers and Virtual Reality (VR) take the place of clay and the weaving loom. The goal of this article is to describe both known and innovative computerized equipment being used in interventions for hand rehabilitation and evaluations, as well as answer the question: 'what are the advantages and disadvantages of using technology in hand rehabilitation?' Our conclusion, based on clinical experience and supported by the literature, appears to emphasize that advanced technology can enrich treatment and help patients who are unable to visit the clinic regularly, to get appropriate treatment. However, advanced technology has not been found to be superior to traditional treatment and cannot replace the occupational therapist. PMID:23598084

  6. Advantages of Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers in High-Energy Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Louis

    2004-11-01

    Typically, particles are injected into the ring at low energy levels and then "ramped up" to higher levels. During ramping, it is important that the horizontal and vertical tune frequencies do not shift, lest they hit upon a resonant combination that causes beam instability or sudden total loss of ring beam current (beam blow up). Beam instabilities can be caused by a number of factors. Non-linearities and/or different response times of independent controls such as beam position monitor (BPM) cables and circuits, magnets for guidance and focusing of the beam, Klystrons or Tetrodes (which provide power to RF cavities that transmit energy to the beam), and vacuum pumps and monitors can all cause beam instabilities. Vibrations and lack of proper shielding are other factors. The challenge for operators and researchers is to correctly identify the factors causing beam instabilities and blow up so that costly accelerator time is not interrupted and experimental results are not compromised. The instrument often used to identify problems in particle accelerator applications is the spectrum analyzer. This paper will discuss the advantages of real time spectrum analyzers (RSA) versus swept frequency spectrum analyzers in HEP applications. The main focus will be on monitoring beam position and stability, especially during ramp-up. Also covered will be use of RSA for chromaticity measurements, Phase Locked Loop (PLL) diagnostics, and vibration analysis.

  7. Physiological advantages of dwarfing in surviving extinctions in high-CO2 oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garilli, Vittorio; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Scuderi, Danilo; Brusca, Lorenzo; Parrinello, Daniela; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Foggo, Andy; Twitchett, Richard J.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Milazzo, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Excessive CO2 in the present-day ocean-atmosphere system is causing ocean acidification, and is likely to cause a severe biodiversity decline in the future, mirroring effects in many past mass extinctions. Fossil records demonstrate that organisms surviving such events were often smaller than those before, a phenomenon called the Lilliput effect. Here, we show that two gastropod species adapted to acidified seawater at shallow-water CO2 seeps were smaller than those found in normal pH conditions and had higher mass-specific energy consumption but significantly lower whole-animal metabolic energy demand. These physiological changes allowed the animals to maintain calcification and to partially repair shell dissolution. These observations of the long-term chronic effects of increased CO2 levels forewarn of changes we can expect in marine ecosystems as CO2 emissions continue to rise unchecked, and support the hypothesis that ocean acidification contributed to past extinction events. The ability to adapt through dwarfing can confer physiological advantages as the rate of CO2 emissions continues to increase.

  8. Advantages of Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers in High-Energy Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Louis

    2004-11-10

    Typically, particles are injected into the ring at low energy levels and then 'ramped up' to higher levels. During ramping, it is important that the horizontal and vertical tune frequencies do not shift, lest they hit upon a resonant combination that causes beam instability or sudden total loss of ring beam current (beam blow up). Beam instabilities can be caused by a number of factors. Non-linearities and/or different response times of independent controls such as beam position monitor (BPM) cables and circuits, magnets for guidance and focusing of the beam, Klystrons or Tetrodes (which provide power to RF cavities that transmit energy to the beam), and vacuum pumps and monitors can all cause beam instabilities. Vibrations and lack of proper shielding are other factors. The challenge for operators and researchers is to correctly identify the factors causing beam instabilities and blow up so that costly accelerator time is not interrupted and experimental results are not compromised. The instrument often used to identify problems in particle accelerator applications is the spectrum analyzer. This paper will discuss the advantages of real time spectrum analyzers (RSA) versus swept frequency spectrum analyzers in HEP applications. The main focus will be on monitoring beam position and stability, especially during ramp-up. Also covered will be use of RSA for chromaticity measurements, Phase Locked Loop (PLL) diagnostics, and vibration analysis.

  9. A World of Competitors: Assessing the US High-Tech Advantage and the Process of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Research universities throughout the world are part of a larger effort by countries to bolster science and technological innovation and compete economically. The United States remains highly competitive as a source of high-tech innovation because of a number of market positions, many the results of long-term investments in institutions (such as…

  10. How Resource Inequalities among High Schools Reproduce Class Advantages in College Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies argued that high school resources play a modest role in students' postsecondary destinations, but they ignored schools' programmatic resources, which provide opportunities for marks of distinction, such as Advanced Placement courses, and they focused on older cohorts of high school students who entered colleges before competition…

  11. Advantages of Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing in High-GC Content Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung Chul; Ahn, Do Hwan; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Hyoungseok; Oh, Tae-Jin; Lee, Jong Eun; Park, Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has become the most widely used sequencing technology in genomics research, but it has inherent drawbacks when dealing with high-GC content genomes. Recently, single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was introduced as a third-generation sequencing strategy to compensate for this drawback. Here, we report that the unbiased and longer read length of SMRT sequencing markedly improved genome assembly with high GC content via gap filling and repeat resolution. PMID:23894349

  12. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  13. Advantageous GOES IR results for ash mapping at high latitudes: Cleveland eruptions 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Y.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Schneider, D.J.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Watson, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10-12 ??m) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65??N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6-65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in a "side-looking" aspect and longer path lengths through the volcanic cloud. The shape of the cloud with respect to the GOES look angle also influences the results. The MODIS and AVHRR data give consistent retrievals of the ash cloud evolution over time and are good corrections for the GOES data. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Highly Invasive Listeria monocytogenes Strains Have Growth and Invasion Advantages in Strain Competition

    PubMed Central

    Manthou, Evanthia; Ciolacu, Luminita; Wagner, Martin; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Listeria monocytogenes strains can be present in the same food sample; moreover, infection with more than one L. monocytogenes strain can also occur. In this study we investigated the impact of strain competition on the growth and in vitro virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. We identified two strong competitor strains, whose growth was not (or only slightly) influenced by the presence of other strains and two weak competitor strains, which were outcompeted by other strains. Cell contact was essential for growth inhibition. In vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells showed a correlation between the invasion efficiency and growth inhibition: the strong growth competitor strains showed high invasiveness. Moreover, invasion efficiency of the highly invasive strain was further increased in certain combinations by the presence of a low invasive strain. In all tested combinations, the less invasive strain was outcompeted by the higher invasive strain. Studying the effect of cell contact on in vitro virulence competition revealed a complex pattern in which the observed effects depended only partially on cell-contact suggesting that competition occurs at two different levels: i) during co-cultivation prior to infection, which might influence the expression of virulence factors, and ii) during infection, when bacterial cells compete for the host cell. In conclusion, we show that growth of L. monocytogenes can be inhibited by strains of the same species leading potentially to biased recovery during enrichment procedures. Furthermore, the presence of more than one L. monocytogenes strain in food can lead to increased infection rates due to synergistic effects on the virulence potential. PMID:26529510

  15. Substitution of ceramics for high temperature alloys. [advantages of using silicon carbides and silicon nitrides in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature capability of ceramics such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide can result in turbine engines of improved efficiency. Other advantages when compared to the nickel and cobalt alloys in current use are raw material availability, lower weight, erosion/corrosion resistance, and potentially lower cost. The use of ceramics in three different sizes of gas turbine is considered; these are the large utility turbines, advanced aircraft turbines, and small automotive turbines. Special consideration, unique to each of these applications, arise when one considers substituting ceramics for high temperature alloys. The effects of material substitutions are reviewed in terms of engine performance, operating economy, and secondary effects.

  16. The Advantage of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Bolotov, Dmitriy; Levi, Mark; Powell, Kevin; Schwartz, Peter

    2008-08-17

    The paper presents results from pilot studies of new 'workstation-specific' luminaires that are designed to provide highly, efficient, customized lighting for open-office cubicles. Workstation specific luminaires have the following characteristics: (1) they provide separate, dimming control of the cubicle's 'ambient' and 'task' lighting components, (2) occupancy sensors and control photosensors are integrated into the fixture's design and operation, (3) luminaires can be networked using physical cabling, microcontrollers and a PC running control software. The energy savings, demand response capabilities and quality of light from the two WS luminaires were evaluated and compared to the performance of a static, low-ambient lighting system that is uncontrolled. Initial results from weeks of operation provide strong indication that WS luminaires can largely eliminate the unnecessary lighting of unoccupied cubicles while providing IESNA-required light levels when the cubicles are occupied. Because each cubicle's lighting is under occupant sensor control, the WS luminaires can capitalize on the fact cubicles are often unoccupied during normal working hours and reduce their energy use accordingly.

  17. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    What special advantage does JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385863

  18. Educational advantage.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    WHAT SPECIAL ADVANTAGE DOES JERHRE offer to research ethics education? Empirical research employs concepts and methods for understanding and addressing problems; the methods employed can be generalized to related problems in new contexts. Research published in JERHRE uses concepts and methods designed to understand and solve ethical problems in human research. These tools can be reused by JERHRE's readership as part of their learning and problem solving. Instead of telling scientists, students, ethics committee members and others what they ought to do, educators can use curriculum based on the empirical articles contained in JERHRE to enable learners to solve the particular research-related problems they confront. Each issue of JERHRE publishes curriculum based on articles published therein. The lesson plans are deliberately general so that they can be adapted to the particular learners. PMID:19385873

  19. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    PubMed

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models. PMID:22934109

  20. Producing High-Accuracy Lattice Models from Protein Atomic Coordinates Including Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models. PMID:22934109

  1. Multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver and its advantages in high-precision positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Minghua; Yu, Chao; Zheng, Zhengqi; Wang, Yuanfei

    2016-02-01

    The multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver is a high precision, low cost, and widely used emerging receiver. Using this type of receiver, the satellite and receiver clock errors can be eliminated simultaneously by forming between antenna single-differences, which is equivalent to the conventional double-difference model. However, current multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver products have not fully realized their potential to achieve better accuracy, efficiency, and broader applications. This paper introduces the conceptual design and derivable products of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers involving the aspects of attitude determination, multipath effect mitigation, phase center variation correction, and ground-based carrier phase windup calibration. Through case studies, the advantages of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers in high-precision positioning applications are demonstrated.

  2. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  3. Advantages of the in-situ LTP distortion profile test on high-heat-load mirrors and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.; Jark, W.; Sostero, G.; Gambitta, A.; Mazzolini, F.; Savoia, A.

    1996-12-31

    The first in-situ distortion profile measurement of a high heat load mirror by use of the penta-prism LTP is presented. A maximum height distortion of 0.47 micron in tangential direction over a length of 180 mm was measured for an internally water-cooled mirror of a undulator beam line at ELETTRA while exposed to a total emitted power of 600 W (undulator gap 30 mm and current 180 mA). The experiment has an accuracy and repeatability of 0.04 micron. The test schematic and the test equipment are presented. Two measuring methods to scan a penta-prism being installed either outside or inside the vacuum chamber are introduced. Advantages and some possible applications of adopting the penta-prism LTP to make the in-situ profile test are explained.

  4. Private advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Marier, D.; Stoiaken, L.

    1988-03-01

    At least a half dozen independent power producers put out initial public offerings in 1985-86 and the experts were projecting more to come. Most executives of private development companies admitted that they had at least taken a hard look at going public. Several quarters worth of disappointing earnings and the October market crash have brought attention back to the activities of private companies. Fortunately for the industry, at about the same time public-equity markets were closing down, new sources of debt and equity were entering the field in a big way-including insurance companies, pension funds, and utilities. While the development should be good news for all companies in the field (private equity is not necessarily earmarked for private companies), the impact of the crash has made it more difficult for public companies to make their case to the new equity players. The newest players, the unregulated utility subsidiaries, the fastest growing segment in the industry, are probably in a position to put a major dent in the business.

  5. Intrinsic advantages of packed capillaries over narrow-bore columns in very high-pressure gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2016-06-17

    250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC. PMID:27185055

  6. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. I - Evolution, theory, and advantages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the time which has passed since the construction of the first wind tunnel in 1870, wind tunnels have been developed to a high degree of sophistication. However, their development has consistently failed to keep pace with the demands placed on them. One of the more serious problems to be found with existing transonic wind tunnels is their inability to test subscale aircraft models at Reynolds numbers sufficiently near full-scale values to ensure the validity of using the wind tunnel data to predict flight characteristics. The Reynolds number capability of a wind tunnel may be increased by a number of different approaches. However, the best solution in terms of model, balance, and model support loads, as well as in terms of capital and operating cost appears to be related to the reduction of the temperature of the test gas to cryogenic temperatures. The present paper has the objective to review the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept and to describe its more important advantages.

  7. Importance of Diversity in the Oral Microbiota including Candida Species Revealed by High-Throughput Technologies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tamaki; Nagao, Jun-Ichi; Imayoshi, Rieko; Tanaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota. A disturbance in the balance between commensal bacteria and the host immune system results in a switch from a healthy state to a diseased state even in the limited oral niche. PMID:24864144

  8. Importance of Diversity in the Oral Microbiota including Candida Species Revealed by High-Throughput Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tamaki; Nagao, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota. A disturbance in the balance between commensal bacteria and the host immune system results in a switch from a healthy state to a diseased state even in the limited oral niche. PMID:24864144

  9. High density mapping of the MHC identifies a shared role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in inflammatory bowel diseases and heterozygous advantage in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyette, Philippe; Boucher, Gabrielle; Mallon, Dermot; Ellinghaus, Eva; Jostins, Luke; Huang, Hailiang; Ripke, Stephan; Gusareva, Elena S; Annese, Vito; Hauser, Stephen L; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Thomsen, Ingo; Leslie, Stephen; Daly, Mark J; Van Steen, Kristel; Duerr, Richard H; Barrett, Jeffrey C; McGovern, Dermot PB; Schumm, L Philip; Traherne, James A; Carrington, Mary N; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Karlsen, Tom H; Franke, Andre; Rioux, John D

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of the related chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) known as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have shown strong evidence of association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This region encodes a large number of immunological candidates, including the antigen-presenting classical HLA molecules1. Studies in IBD have indicated that multiple independent associations exist at HLA and non-HLA genes, but lacked the statistical power to define the architecture of association and causal alleles2,3. To address this, we performed high-density SNP typing of the MHC in >32,000 patients with IBD, implicating multiple HLA alleles, with a primary role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Significant differences were observed between these diseases, including a predominant role of class II HLA variants and heterozygous advantage observed in ulcerative colitis, suggesting an important role of the adaptive immune response to the colonic environment in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:25559196

  10. Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athans, Sandra K.; Devine, Denise Ashe

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6" provides an effective model for improving reading levels and increasing motivation. Under the guidance of Athans and Devine, classroom leaders develop their own Motivation Improvement Action Plans, where small-group instruction, end-of-unit assessments, and…

  11. Universities, the US High Tech Advantage, and the Process of Globalization. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Research universities throughout the world are part of a larger effort by nation-states to bolster science and technological innovation and compete economically. The US remains highly competitive as a source of High Tech (HT) innovation because of a number of market positions, many the result of long term investments in institutions such as…

  12. Intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI in high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Glaubiger, D.; Diesseroth, A.; Makuch, R.; Waller, B.; Pizzo, P.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-four high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients were treated on an intensive combined modality protocol including low-dose fractionated total body irradiaiton (TBI) and autologous bone marrow infusion (ABMI). Twenty patients (83%) achieved a complete clinical response to the primary and/or metastatic sites following induction therapy. The median disease-free interval was 18 months, and nine patients remain disease-free with a follow-up of 22 to 72 months. Local failure as a manifestation of initial relapse occurred in only three patients (15%), each having synchronous distant failure. Eight patients failed initially with only distant metastases, usually within 1-2 years following a complete clinical response. Two patterns of granulocyte recovery following consolidative therapy (including TBI and ABMI) were recognized. The time to platelet recovery was different for the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. Patients with late recovery did not tolerate maintenance chemotherapy. However, there was no difference in disease-free and overall survival, when comparing the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. It is concluded that these high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients remain a poor-prognosis group in spite of intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI. The control of microscopic systemic disease remains the major challenge to improving the cure rate. A new combined modality protocol with high-dose 'therapeutic' TBI (800 rad/2 fractions) is being used and the protocol design is outlined.

  13. What's the Point of a Raster ? Advantages of 3D Point Cloud Processing over Raster Based Methods for Accurate Geomorphic Analysis of High Resolution Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Topographic (HRT) datasets are predominantly stored and analyzed as 2D raster grids of elevations (i.e., Digital Elevation Models). Raster grid processing is common in GIS software and benefits from a large library of fast algorithms dedicated to geometrical analysis, drainage network computation and topographic change measurement. Yet, all instruments or methods currently generating HRT datasets (e.g., ALS, TLS, SFM, stereo satellite imagery) output natively 3D unstructured point clouds that are (i) non-regularly sampled, (ii) incomplete (e.g., submerged parts of river channels are rarely measured), and (iii) include 3D elements (e.g., vegetation, vertical features such as river banks or cliffs) that cannot be accurately described in a DEM. Interpolating the raw point cloud onto a 2D grid generally results in a loss of position accuracy, spatial resolution and in more or less controlled interpolation. Here I demonstrate how studying earth surface topography and processes directly on native 3D point cloud datasets offers several advantages over raster based methods: point cloud methods preserve the accuracy of the original data, can better handle the evaluation of uncertainty associated to topographic change measurements and are more suitable to study vegetation characteristics and steep features of the landscape. In this presentation, I will illustrate and compare Point Cloud based and Raster based workflows with various examples involving ALS, TLS and SFM for the analysis of bank erosion processes in bedrock and alluvial rivers, rockfall statistics (including rockfall volume estimate directly from point clouds) and the interaction of vegetation/hydraulics and sedimentation in salt marshes. These workflows use 2 recently published algorithms for point cloud classification (CANUPO) and point cloud comparison (M3C2) now implemented in the open source software CloudCompare.

  14. Advantages of a soft protective layer for good signal-to-noise ratio proton radiographs in high debris environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cobble, J.; Nelson, S. L.; Merwin, A.; Paudel, Y.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Kantsyrev, V. L.

    2011-12-01

    Proton radiography is a very powerful diagnostic but in some high debris environments it may be challenging to get a good signal-to-noise ratio radiograph to gain insights into the electric and magnetic field topology, and thus the basic physics. Such environments are produced for example on z-pinches and also on lasers such as the National Ignition Facility. We demonstrate here the feasibility of clean, very high signal-to-noise ratio proton radiographs in extremely hostile environments.

  15. Distractibility Among Advantaged and Disadvantaged Preschool Children: Effects of Cubicles vs. High Levels of Stimulation on Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somervill, John W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compared the task performance of children under high levels of variable auditory and visual distraction, reduced stimulation as achieved by cubicles, and normal environmental conditions where no effort was made to raise or lower the level of external stimulation. (Author/AM)

  16. A review of advantages of high-efficiency X-ray spectrum imaging for analysis of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Chad M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) exhibit complex microstructures consisting of 100-500 nm ferrite grains, grain boundary solute enrichment, and multiple populations of precipitates and nanoclusters (NCs). Understanding these materials' excellent creep and radiation-tolerance properties requires a combination of multiple atomic-scale experimental techniques. Recent advances in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) hardware and data analysis methods have the potential to revolutionize nanometer-to micrometer-scale materials analysis. Modern high-brightness, high-X-ray collection STEM instruments are capable of enabling advanced experiments, such as simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum imaging at nm to sub-nm resolution, that are now well-established for the study of nuclear materials. In this paper, we review past results and present new results illustrating the effectiveness of latest-generation STEM instrumentation and data analysis.

  17. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation in high-density carbon dioxide including supercritical fluid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Stauss, Sven; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    To gain a better understanding of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) processes in high-density fluids, including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the PLA dynamics in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) using a time-resolved shadowgraph (SG) observation method. The SG images revealed that the PLA dynamics can be categorized into two domains that are separated by the gas-liquid coexistence curve and the Widom line, which forms a border between the gaslike and liquidlike domains of an SCF. Furthermore, a cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point exhibited a particular characteristic: the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure. The results indicate that the thermophysical properties of the reaction field generated by PLA can be dynamically tuned by controlling the solvent temperature and pressure, particularly near the critical point.

  18. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  19. Advantage of annular focus generation by sector-vortex array in cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, Hayato; Takagi, Ryo; Taguchi, Kei; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive method for cancer treatment. One of the disadvantages of this method is that it has a long total treatment time because of the smallness of the treatment volume by a single exposure. To solve this problem, we have proposed a method of cavitation-enhanced heating, which utilized the heat generated by oscillating the cavitation bubbles, in combination with the method of lateral enlargement of a HIFU focal zone to minimize the surface volume ratio. In a previous study, focal spot scanning at multiple points was employed for the enlargement. This method involves nonlinear propagation and absorption due to the high spatial-peak temporal-peak (SPTP) intensity in addition to the cavitation-enhanced heating. However, it is difficult to predict the size and position of the coagulation volume because they are significantly affected by the nonlinear parameters of the tissue. In this study, a sector vortex method was employed to directly synthesize an annular focal pattern. Since this method can keep the SPTP intensity at a manageably low level, nonlinear propagation and absorption can be minimized. Experimental results demonstrate that the coagulation was generated only in the region where both the cavitation cloud and the heating ultrasound were matched. The proposed method will make the cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment more accurate and predictable.

  20. Comparison of vidar dosimetry advantage pro and epson perfection V700 scanner in densitometry of radiochomic EBT2 film in measurement of high dose gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bura, W.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Damrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays the radiochromic film is widely used to obtain dose distribution in two dimensions with high spatial resolution, less energy dependence and near tissue equivalent. It can be a commissioning tool to verify high dose gradient of dose distribution for IMRT and VMAT techniques. However, the film scanner could affect the accuracy of dose distribution if lack of precaution. In this study, the comparison between Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage (RED) is evaluated in terms of the capability to verify the 2D dose distribution for conventional and VMAT techniques. The Gafchromic® EBT2 films were read from two types of scanners (Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage) for volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) dosimetry. The software for analyzing the results of Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage are SNC Patient software and Omnipro’ IMRT software, respectively. Comparisons between measured and calculated dose distributions are reported as %passing rate and the gamma index for tolerance parameters of 3% and 3mm. The study found that the %passing rate obtained from Vidar scanner and Epson V700 scanner compared with Eclipse treatment planning system is more than 98% with the criteria of (3%/3mm).

  1. Accurate Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Determination: Advantages of a High-Throughput Phenotypic Approach Over ATP Luminescence Assays.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Anne F; Wylie, Paul G

    2016-09-01

    Cell viability and proliferation assays are a fundamental tool in the drug discovery process and are used to evaluate both the antiproliferative potency and toxicity of compounds. Some lead discovery groups generate cell viability data for up to two million compounds per screen, so any method used to assess these parameters needs to deliver not only on data quality but also on throughput and assay cost per well. Most methods used to determine cell viability cannot deliver on all three of these requirements, so compromises have to be made. Here we show the development and implementation of a cost-effective, no-wash phenotypic assay to simultaneously report the number of cells, percentage of live cells, and cell cycle phase distribution as markers of proliferation and viability. We demonstrate that this assay can be applied to high-density plate formats and be imaged and analyzed in 8 min per plate on a laser scanning imaging cytometer. By comparing the drug-responses of several well-characterized anticancer drugs on HeLa cells, we highlight the key differences between the phenotypic assay and a commercial ATP luminescence detection system. PMID:27504922

  2. Navigated open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: advantages and disadvantages compared to the conventional technique in a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Hankemeier, S; Hufner, T; Wang, G; Kendoff, D; Zeichen, J; Zheng, G; Krettek, C

    2006-10-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an established therapy for the treatment of symptomatic varus malaligned knees. A main reason for disappointing clinical results after HTO is the under- and overcorrection of the mechanical axis due to insufficient intraoperative visualisation. Twenty legs of fresh human cadaver were randomly assigned to navigated open-wedge HTO (n=10) or conventional HTO using the cable method (n=10). Regardless of the pre-existing alignment, the aim of all operations was to align the mechanical axis to pass through 80% of the tibial plateau (beginning with 0% at the medial edge of the tibial plateau and ending with 100% at the lateral edge). This overcorrection was chosen to ensure a sufficient amount of correction. Thus, the medial proximal tibia angle (MPTA) increased by 9.1+/-2.9 degrees (range 5.2 degrees -12.3 degrees ) on the average after navigated HTO and by 8.9+/-2.9 degrees (range 4.7 degrees -12.6 degrees ) after conventional HTO. After stabilization with a fixed angle implant, the alignment was measured by CT. After navigated HTO, the mechanical axis passed the tibial plateau through 79.7% (range 75.5-85.8%). In contrast, after conventional HTO, the average intersection of the mechanical axis was at 72.1% (range 60.4-82.4%) (P=0.020). Additionally, the variability of the mean corrections was significantly lower in the navigated group (3.3% vs. 7.2%, P=0.012). Total fluoroscopic radiation time was significantly lower in the navigated group (P=0.038) whereas the mean dose area product was not significantly different (P=0.231). The time of the operative procedure was 23 min shorter after conventional HTO (P<0.001). Navigation systems provide intraoperative 3-dimensional real time control of the frontal, sagittal, and transverse axis and may increase the accuracy of open-wedge HTO. Future studies have to analyse the clinical effects of navigation on corrective osteotomies. PMID:16501952

  3. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  4. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  5. Highly Siderophile Elements in Pallasites and Diogenites, Including the New Pallasite, CMS 04071

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Humayun, M.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    Pallasites are long thought to represent a metallic core-silicate mantle boundary, where the IIIAB irons are linked to the crystallization history of the metallic fraction, and the HED meteorites may be linked to the silicate fraction. However, measurement of trace elements in individual metallic and silicate phases is necessary in order to fully under-stand the petrogenetic history of pallasites, as well as any magmatic processes which may link pallasites to both IIIAB irons and HED meteorites. In order to achieve this objective, abundances of a suite of elements were measured, including the highly siderophile elements (HSEs), in kamacite, taenite, troilite, schreibersite, chromite and olivine for the pallasites Admire, Imilac, Springwater, CMS 04071. In the diogenites GRO 95555, LAP 91900, and MET 00436, metal, sulfide, spinel, pyroxene, and silica were individually measured.

  6. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  7. Binocular advantages in reading.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-01

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. PMID:24530062

  8. A high-content cellular senescence screen identifies candidate tumor suppressors, including EPHA3.

    PubMed

    Lahtela, Jenni; Corson, Laura B; Hemmes, Annabrita; Brauer, Matthew J; Koopal, Sonja; Lee, James; Hunsaker, Thomas L; Jackson, Peter K; Verschuren, Emmy W

    2013-02-15

    Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16 (INK4a) expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated. PMID:23324396

  9. A high-content cellular senescence screen identifies candidate tumor suppressors, including EPHA3

    PubMed Central

    Lahtela, Jenni; Corson, Laura B.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Brauer, Matthew J.; Koopal, Sonja; Lee, James; Hunsaker, Thomas L.; Jackson, Peter K.; Verschuren, Emmy W.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16INK4a expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated. PMID:23324396

  10. Cyclic siloxanes in air, including identification of high levels in Chicago and distinct diurnal variation

    PubMed Central

    Yucuis, Rachel A.; Stanier, Charles O.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2014-01-01

    The organosilicon compounds octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) are high production volume chemicals that are widely used in household goods and personal care products. Due to their prevalence and chemical characteristics, cyclic siloxanes are being assessed as possible persistent organic pollutants. D4, D5, and D6 were measured in indoor and outdoor air to quantify and compare siloxane concentrations and compound ratios depending on location type. Indoor air samples had a median concentration of 2200 ng m−3 for the sum of D4, D5, and D6. Outdoor sampling locations included downtown Chicago, Cedar Rapids, IA, and West Branch, IA, and had median sum siloxane levels of 280, 73, and 29 ng m−3 respectively. A diurnal trend is apparent in the samples taken in downtown Chicago. Nighttime samples had a median 2.7 times higher on average than daytime samples, which is due, in part, to the fluctuations of the planetary boundary layer. D5 was the dominant siloxane in both indoor and outdoor air. Ratios of D5 to D4 averaged 91 and 3.2 for indoor and outdoor air respectively. PMID:23541357

  11. A global wind resource atlas including high-resolution terrain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Badger, Jake; Olsen, Bjarke; Davis, Neil; Larsen, Xiaoli; Badger, Merete

    2015-04-01

    Currently no accurate global wind resource dataset is available to fill the needs of policy makers and strategic energy planners. Evaluating wind resources directly from coarse resolution reanalysis datasets underestimate the true wind energy resource, as the small-scale spatial variability of winds is missing. This missing variability can account for a large part of the local wind resource. Crucially, it is the windiest sites that suffer the largest wind resource errors: in simple terrain the windiest sites may be underestimated by 25%, in complex terrain the underestimate can be as large as 100%. The small-scale spatial variability of winds can be modelled using novel statistical methods and by application of established microscale models within WAsP developed at DTU Wind Energy. We present the framework for a single global methodology, which is relative fast and economical to complete. The method employs reanalysis datasets, which are downscaled to high-resolution wind resource datasets via a so-called generalization step, and microscale modelling using WAsP. This method will create the first global wind atlas (GWA) that covers all land areas (except Antarctica) and 30 km coastal zone over water. Verification of the GWA estimates will be done at carefully selected test regions, against verified estimates from mesoscale modelling and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This verification exercise will also help in the estimation of the uncertainty of the new wind climate dataset. Uncertainty will be assessed as a function of spatial aggregation. It is expected that the uncertainty at verification sites will be larger than that of dedicated assessments, but the uncertainty will be reduced at levels of aggregation appropriate for energy planning, and importantly much improved relative to what is used today. In this presentation we discuss the methodology used, which includes the generalization of wind climatologies, and the differences in local and spatially

  12. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles from the western South Atlantic Ocean include high frequency signals.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; Amorim, Thiago O S; Sucunza, Federico; de Castro, Franciele R; Maia, Ygor Geyer; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Bortolotto, Guilherme A; Dalla Rosa, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic parameters of killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles were described for the western South Atlantic Ocean and highlight the occurrence of high frequency whistles. Killer whale signals were recorded on December of 2012, when a pod of four individuals was observed harassing a group of sperm whales. The high frequency whistles were highly stereotyped and were modulated mostly at ultrasonic frequencies. Compared to other contour types, the high frequency whistles are characterized by higher bandwidths, shorter durations, fewer harmonics, and higher sweep rates. The results add to the knowledge of vocal behavior of this species. PMID:26428807

  13. High-energy scattering in the saturation regime including running coupling and rare fluctuation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wenchang

    2009-01-01

    The analytic form of the asymptotic behavior of the S matrix in the saturation regime including the running coupling is obtained. To get this result, we solve the Balitsky and Kovchegov-Weigert evolution equations in the saturation regime, which include running coupling corrections. We study also the effect of rare fluctuations on top of the running coupling. We find that the rare fluctuations are less important in the running coupling case as compared to the fixed coupling case.

  14. Solar-wind-magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Lee, D.-Y.; Kim, H.-J.; Hwang, J. A.; Thorne, R. M.; Horne, R. B.; Smith, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    High geomagnetic activity occurs continuously during high-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance significantly. High-speed streams are preceded by solar wind compression regions, during which time there are large losses of relativistic electrons from geosynchronous orbit. Weak to moderate geomagnetic storms often occur during the passage of these compression regions; however, we find that the phenomena that occur during the ensuing high-speed streams do not depend on whether or not a preceding storm develops. Large-amplitude Alfvén waves occur within the high-speed solar wind streams, which are expected to lead to intermittent intervals of significantly enhanced magnetospheric convection and to thus also lead to repetitive substorms due to repetitively occurring reductions in the strength of convection. We find that such repetitive substorms are clearly discernible in the LANL geosynchronous energetic particle data during high-speed stream intervals. Global auroral images are found to show unambiguously that these events are indeed classical substorms, leading us to conclude that substorms are an important contributor to the enhanced geomagnetic activity during high-speed streams. We used the onsets of these substorms as indicators of preceding periods of enhanced convection and of reductions in convection, and we have used ground-based chorus observations from the VELOX instrument at Halley station as an indicator of magnetospheric chorus intensities. These data show evidence that it is the periods of enhanced convection that precede substorm expansions, and not the expansions themselves, that lead to the enhanced dawn-side chorus wave intensity that has been postulated to cause the energization of relativistic electrons. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar wind streams lead to relativistic electron flux enhancements

  15. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-15

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  16. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-Samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4 and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker , Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  17. Universal cell frame for high-pressure water electrolyzer and electrolyzer including the same

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edwin W.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-08

    Universal cell frame generic for use as an anode frame and as a cathode frame in a water electrolyzer. According to one embodiment, the universal cell frame includes a unitary annular member having a central opening. Four trios of transverse openings are provided in the annular member, each trio being spaced apart by about 90 degrees. A plurality of internal radial passageways fluidly interconnect the central opening and each of the transverse openings of two diametrically-opposed trios of openings, the other two trios of openings lacking corresponding radial passageways. Sealing ribs are provided on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular member. The present invention is also directed at a water electrolyzer that includes two such cell frames, one being used as the anode frame and the other being used as the cathode frame, the cathode frame being rotated 90 degrees relative to the anode frame.

  18. Global assessments of high pathogenicity avian influenza control, including vaccination programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been 32 epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2013. The largest has been the H5N1 HPAI which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has affected over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. For most countries, stamping-out progra...

  19. Students Are Stakeholders, Too! Including Every Voice in Authentic High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Edie L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on real events that have yielded positive results for both school culture and student achievement, this inspiring story introduces the students and staff of Knownwell High School and involves you in their journey of school improvement. "Students Are Stakeholders Too!" captures students' uncanny insights in their own words and illustrates how…

  20. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  1. An integrated optimum design approach for high speed prop-rotors including acoustic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Wells, Valana; Mccarthy, Thomas; Han, Arris

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop optimization procedures to provide design trends in high speed prop-rotors. The necessary disciplinary couplings are all considered within a closed loop multilevel decomposition optimization process. The procedures involve the consideration of blade-aeroelastic aerodynamic performance, structural-dynamic design requirements, and acoustics. Further, since the design involves consideration of several different objective functions, multiobjective function formulation techniques are developed.

  2. Superplastic Constitutive Equation Including Percentage of High-Angle Grain Boundaries as a Microstructural Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Liu, F. C.; Xue, P.; Wang, D.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen Al-Mg-Sc samples with subgrain/grain sizes in the range of 1.8 to 4.9 μm were prepared through the processing methods of friction stir processing (FSP), equal-channel-angular pressing (ECAP), rolling, annealing, and combinations of the above. The percentages of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) of these fine-grained alloys were distributed from 39 to 97 pct. The samples processed through FSP had a higher percentage of HAGBs compared to other samples. Superplasticity was achieved in all fifteen samples, but the FSP samples exhibited better superplasticity than other samples because their fine equiaxed grains, which were mostly surrounded by HAGBs, were conducive to the occurrence of grain boundary sliding (GBS) during superplastic deformation. The dominant deformation mechanism was the same for all fifteen samples, i.e., GBS controlled by grain boundary diffusion. However, the subgrains were the GBS units for the rolled or ECAP samples, which contained high percentages of unrecrystallized grains, whereas the fine grains were the GBS units for the FSP samples. Superplastic data analysis revealed that the dimensionless A in the classical constitutive equation for superplasticity of fine-grained Al alloys was not a constant, but increased with an increase in the percentage of HAGBs, demonstrating that the enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics can be ascribed to the high percentage of HAGBs. A modified superplastic constitutive equation with the percentage of HAGBs as a new microstructural parameter was established.

  3. Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconductor multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reufer, M.; Feldmann, J.; Rudati, P.; Ruhl, A.; Müller, D.; Meerholz, K.; Karnutsch, C.; Gerken, M.; Lemmer, U.

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate that the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold in multilayer waveguide structures suitable for the use in future organic injection lasers can be drastically reduced by inserting a crosslinked hole transport layer (HTL) between a highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the polymer emission layer. While no ASE is observed when the active layer material is directly spincoated onto the ITO electrode, it can be completely restored upon insertion of a 300-nm-thick HTL. This observation is attributed to reduced attenuation of the waveguided mode enabling the ASE process and is theoretically confirmed by calculations of the mode intensity fraction propagating in the absorptive ITO electrode.

  4. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; Rios, Arnau; Dussan, Helber; Dickhoff, Willem; Witte, Sam; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    To address open questions in neutron star phenomenology, pairing gaps of 1S0 and 3P2 -3F2 channels in a wide range of densities has been calculated using three different interactions (AV18 CDbonn N3LO). Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here, we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations (SRC) are treated including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and they suppress the gaps substantially. Long-range correlations(LRC) dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes, and provide a relatively small correction. Results are relevant and parametrized in a user friendly way for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  5. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Rios, A.; Dussan, H.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Witte, S. J.; Carbone, A.; Polls, A.

    2016-08-01

    Pairing gaps in neutron matter need to be computed in a wide range of densities to address open questions in neutron-star phenomenology. Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations are treated, including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and substantially suppress the gaps. Long-range correlations dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes and provide a relatively small correction. We use different interactions, some with three-body forces, as a starting point to control for any systematic effects. Results are relevant for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  6. Relay telescope including baffle, and high power laser amplifier utilizing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  7. New standard measures for clinical voice analysis include high speed films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Mette; Munch, Kasper

    2012-02-01

    In the clinical work with patients in a medical voice clinic it is important to have a normal updated reference for the data used. Several new parameters have to be correlated to older traditional measures. The older ones are stroboscopy, eventually coordinated with electroglottography (EGG), the Multi- Dimensional-Voice Program and airflow rates. Long Time Averaged Spectrograms (LTAS) and phonetograms (voice profiles) are calculating the range and dynamics of tones of the patients. High-speed films, updated airflow measures as well as area calculations of phonotograms add information to the understanding of the glottis closure in single movements of the vocal cords. A multivariate analysis was made to study the connection between the measures. This information can be used in many connections, also in the otolaryngological clinic.

  8. Biosynthesis and Biotechnology of High-Value p-Menthane Monoterpenes, Including Menthol, Carvone, and Limonene.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpenes of the p-menthane group are volatile secondary (or specialized) metabolites found across the plant kingdom. They are dominant constituents of commercially important essential oils obtained from members of the genera Mentha (Lamiaceae), Carum (Apiaceae), Citrus (Rutaceae), and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). p-Menthane monoterpenes have also attracted interest as chiral specialty chemicals, and the harvest from natural sources is therefore supplemented by chemical synthesis. More recently, microbial and plant-based platforms for the high-level accumulation of specific target monoterpenes have been developed. In this review chapter, I discuss the properties of the genes and enzymes involved in p-menthane biosynthesis and provide a critical assessment of biotechnological production approaches. PMID:25618831

  9. Verification of scattering parameter measurements in waveguides up to 325 GHz including highly-reflective devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, T.; Kuhlmann, K.; Dickhoff, R.; Dittmer, J.; Hiebel, M.

    2011-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) scattering parameters (S-parameters) play an important role to characterise RF signal transmission and reflection of active and passive devices such as transmission lines, components, and small-signal amplifiers. Vector network analysers (VNAs) are employed as instrumentation for such measurements. During the last years, the upper frequency limit of this instrumentation has been extended up to several hundreds of GHz for waveguide measurements. Calibration and verification procedures are obligatory prior to the VNA measurement to achieve accurate results and/or to obtain traceability to the International System of Units (SI). Usually, verification is performed by measuring well-matched devices with known S-parameters such as attenuators or short precision waveguide sections (shims). In waveguides, especially above 110 GHz, such devices may not exist and/or are not traceably calibrated. In some cases, e.g. filter networks, the devices under test (DUT) are partly highly reflective. This paper describes the dependency of the S-parameters a) on the calibration procedure, b) on the applied torque to the flange screws during the mating process of the single waveguide elements. It describes further c) how highly-reflective devices (HRD) can be used to verify a calibrated VNA, and d) how a measured attenuation at several hundreds of GHz can be substituted by a well-known coaxial attenuation at 279 MHz, the intermediate frequency (IF) of the VNA, to verify the linearity. This work is a contribution towards traceability and to obtain knowledge about the measurement uncertainty of VNA instrumentation in the millimetre-wave range.

  10. Advantages of the AlGaN spacer in InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors grown using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Kotani, Junji; Tomabechi, Shuichi; Nakamura, Norikazu; Watanabe, Keiji

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the advantages of an AlGaN spacer layer in an InAlN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). We investigated the effects of the growth parameters of the spacer layer on electron mobility in InAlN HEMTs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, focusing on the surface roughness of the spacer layer and sharpness of the interface with the GaN channel layer. The electron mobility degraded, as evidenced by the formation of a graded AlGaN layer at the top of the GaN channel layer and the surface roughness of the AlN spacer layer. We believe that the short migration length of aluminum atoms is responsible for the observed degradation. An AlGaN spacer layer was employed to suppress the formation of the graded AlGaN layer and improve surface morphology. A high electron mobility of 1550 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and a low sheet resistance of 211 Ω/sq were achieved for an InAlN HEMT with an AlGaN spacer layer.

  11. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  12. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  13. Clustered DNA damages induced by high and low LET radiation, including heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, B. M.; Bennett, P. V.; Schenk, H.; Sidorkina, O.; Laval, J.; Trunk, J.; Monteleone, D.; Sutherland, J.; Lowenstein, D. I. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Clustered DNA damages--here defined as two or more lesions (strand breaks, oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines or abasic sites) within a few helical turns--have been postulated as difficult to repair accurately, and thus highly significant biological lesions. Further, attempted repair of clusters may produce double strand breaks (DSBs). However, until recently, there was no way to measure ionizing radiation-induced clustered damages, except DSB. We recently described an approach for measuring classes of clustered damages (oxidized purine clusters, oxidized pyrimidine clusters, abasic clusters, along with DSB). We showed that ionizing radiation (gamma rays and Fe ions, 1 GeV/amu) does induce such clusters in genomic DNA in solution and in human cells. These studies also showed that each damage cluster results from one radiation hit (and its track), thus indicating that they can be induced by very low doses of radiation, i.e. two independent hits are not required for cluster induction. Further, among all complex damages, double strand breaks comprise--at most-- 20%, with the other clustered damages being at least 80%.

  14. Review of Skin Friction Measurements Including Recent High-Reynolds Number Results from NASA Langley NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Ralph D.; Hall, Robert M.; Anders, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews flat plate skin friction data from early correlations of drag on plates in water to measurements in the cryogenic environment of The NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) in late 1996. The flat plate (zero pressure gradient with negligible surface curvature) incompressible skin friction at high Reynolds numbers is emphasized in this paper, due to its importance in assessing the accuracy of measurements, and as being important to the aerodynamics of large scale vehicles. A correlation of zero pressure gradient skin friction data minimizing extraneous effects between tests is often used as the first step in the calculation of skin friction in complex flows. Early data compiled by Schoenherr for a range of momentum thickness Reynolds numbers, R(sub Theta) from 860 to 370,000 contained large scatter, but has proved surprisingly accurate in its correlated form. Subsequent measurements in wind tunnels under more carefully controlled conditions have provided inputs to this database, usually to a maximum R(sub Theta) of about 40,000. Data on a large axisymmetric model in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility extends the upper limit in incompressible R(sub Theta) to 619,800 using the van Driest transformation. Previous data, test techniques, and error sources ar discussed, and the NTF data will be discussed in detail. The NTF Preston tube and Clauser inferred data accuracy is estimated to be within -2 percent of a power-law curve fit, and falls above the Spalding theory by 1 percent at R(sub Theta) of about 600,000.

  15. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  16. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  17. The Certification Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John C.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    2006-01-01

    Certificates have become an important career credential and can give students an advantage when they enter the workplace. However, many types of certificates exist, and the number of people seeking them and organizations offering them are both growing rapidly. In a time of such growth, the authors review some of the basics about certification--the…

  18. Advantages of MgAlOx over gamma-Al2O3 as a support material for potassium-based high temperature lean NOx traps

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Karim, Ayman M.; Xu, Pinghong; Browning, Nigel D.; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-08-07

    MgAlOx mixed oxides were employed as supports for potassium-based lean NOx traps (LNTs) targeted for high temperature applications. Effects of support compositions, K/Pt loadings, thermal aging and catalyst regeneration on NOx storage capacity were systematically investigated. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, NOx-TPD, TEM, STEM-HAADF and in-situ XAFS. The results indicate that MgAlOx mixed oxides have significant advantages over conventional gamma-Al2O3-supports for LNT catalysts, in terms of high temperature NOx trapping capacity and thermal stability. First, as a basic support, MgAlOx stabilizes stored nitrates (in the form of KNO3) to much higher temperatures than mildly acidic gamma-Al2O3. Second, MgAlOx minimizes Pt sintering during thermal aging, which is not possible for gamma-Al2O3 supports. Notably, combined XRD, in-situ XAFS and STEM-HAADF results indicate that Pt species in the thermally aged Pt/MgAlOx samples are finely dispersed in the oxide matrix as isolated atoms. This strong metal-support interaction stabilizes Pt and minimizes the extent of sintering. However, such strong interactions result in Pt oxidation via coordination with the support so that NO oxidation activity can be adversely affected after aging which, in turn, decreases NOx trapping ability for these catalysts. Interestingly, a high-temperature reduction treatment regenerates essentially full NOx trapping performance. In fact, regenerated Pt/K/MgAlOx catalyst exhibits much better NOx trapping performance than fresh Pt/K/Al2O3 LNTs over the entire temperature range investigated here. In addition to thermal aging, Pt/K loading effects were systemically studied over the fresh samples. The results indicate that NOx trapping is kinetically limited at low temperatures, while thermodynamically limited at high temperatures. A simple conceptual model was developed to explain the Pt and K loading effects on NOx storage. An optimized K loading, which allows balancing between the

  19. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  20. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  1. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan

  2. A possible heterozygous advantage in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Emery, A E H

    2016-01-01

    In certain autosomal recessive disorders there is suggestive evidence that heterozygous carriers may have some selective advantage over normal homozygotes. These include, for example, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease and phenylketonuria. The best example so far, however, is that of significant heterozygous advantage in sickle-cell anaemia with increased resistance to falciparum malaria. PMID:27245530

  3. High-density mapping of the MHC identifies a shared role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in inflammatory bowel diseases and heterozygous advantage in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Philippe; Boucher, Gabrielle; Mallon, Dermot; Ellinghaus, Eva; Jostins, Luke; Huang, Hailiang; Ripke, Stephan; Gusareva, Elena S; Annese, Vito; Hauser, Stephen L; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Thomsen, Ingo; Leslie, Stephen; Daly, Mark J; Van Steen, Kristel; Duerr, Richard H; Barrett, Jeffrey C; McGovern, Dermot P B; Schumm, L Philip; Traherne, James A; Carrington, Mary N; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Karlsen, Tom H; Franke, Andre; Rioux, John D

    2015-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies of the related chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) known as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have shown strong evidence of association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This region encodes a large number of immunological candidates, including the antigen-presenting classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Studies in IBD have indicated that multiple independent associations exist at HLA and non-HLA genes, but they have lacked the statistical power to define the architecture of association and causal alleles. To address this, we performed high-density SNP typing of the MHC in >32,000 individuals with IBD, implicating multiple HLA alleles, with a primary role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Noteworthy differences were observed between these diseases, including a predominant role for class II HLA variants and heterozygous advantage observed in ulcerative colitis, suggesting an important role of the adaptive immune response in the colonic environment in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:25559196

  4. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness. PMID:25714122

  5. The Rural Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Science teachers in rural areas have the opportunity to present their students with concrete examples of science concepts they're studying simply by going outdoors. Examples presented focus on earth science, food webs, succession, and comparative ecology. Tips for developing topics using outdoor experiences are included. (JM)

  6. Blogging to My Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses blogging and its benefits. Blog is shorthand for weblog, which is a series of items posted on the Internet for others to read. It usually includes text, images, and links to other websites. Blogs provide a running commentary or conversation. Although many people use blogs as online journals, detailing the…

  7. Lack of survival advantage with autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk neuroblastoma consolidated by anti-GD2 immunotherapy and isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Brian H; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Cheung, Irene Y; Kuk, Deborah; Modak, Shakeel; Kramer, Kim; Roberts, Stephen S; Basu, Ellen M; Yataghene, Karima; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2016-01-26

    Since 2003, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients at our center received anti-GD2 antibody 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin - but not myeloablative therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Post-ASCT patients referred from elsewhere also received 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin. We therefore accrued a study population of two groups treated during the same period and whose consolidative therapy, aside from ASCT, was identical. We analyzed patients enrolled in 1st complete/very good partial remission (CR/VGPR). Their event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from study entry. Large study size allowed robust statistical analyses of key prognosticators including MYCN amplification, minimal residual disease (MRD), FCGR2A polymorphisms, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes of natural killer cells. The 170 study patients included 60 enrolled following ASCT and 110 following conventional chemotherapy. The two cohorts had similar clinical and biological features. Five-year rates for ASCT and non-ASCT patients were, respectively: EFS 65% vs. 51% (p = .128), and OS 76% vs. 75% (p = .975). In multivariate analysis, ASCT was not prognostic and only MRD-negativity after two cycles of 3F8/GM-CSF correlated with significantly improved EFS and OS. Although a trend towards better EFS is seen with ASCT, OS is near identical. Cure rates may be similar, as close surveillance detects localized relapse and effective salvage treatments are applied. ASCT may not be needed to improve outcome when anti-GD2 immunotherapy is used for consolidation after dose-intensive conventional chemotherapy. PMID:26623730

  8. Lack of survival advantage with autologous stem-cell transplantation in high-risk neuroblastoma consolidated by anti-GD2 immunotherapy and isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Brian H.; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Cheung, Irene Y.; Kuk, Deborah; Modak, Shakeel; Kramer, Kim; Roberts, Stephen S.; Basu, Ellen M.; Yataghene, Karima; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) patients at our center received anti-GD2 antibody 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin – but not myeloablative therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Post-ASCT patients referred from elsewhere also received 3F8/GM-CSF + isotretinoin. We therefore accrued a study population of two groups treated during the same period and whose consolidative therapy, aside from ASCT, was identical. We analyzed patients enrolled in 1st complete/very good partial remission (CR/VGPR). Their event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from study entry. Large study size allowed robust statistical analyses of key prognosticators including MYCN amplification, minimal residual disease (MRD), FCGR2A polymorphisms, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes of natural killer cells. The 170 study patients included 60 enrolled following ASCT and 110 following conventional chemotherapy. The two cohorts had similar clinical and biological features. Five-year rates for ASCT and non-ASCT patients were, respectively: EFS 65% vs. 51% (p = .128), and OS 76% vs. 75% (p = .975). In multivariate analysis, ASCT was not prognostic and only MRD-negativity after two cycles of 3F8/GM-CSF correlated with significantly improved EFS and OS. Although a trend towards better EFS is seen with ASCT, OS is near identical. Cure rates may be similar, as close surveillance detects localized relapse and effective salvage treatments are applied. ASCT may not be needed to improve outcome when anti-GD2 immunotherapy is used for consolidation after dose-intensive conventional chemotherapy. PMID:26623730

  9. Advantages of a Vertical High-Resolution Distributed-Temperature-Sensing System Used to Evaluate the Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Cousiño, J. A.; Victorero, F.; Bonilla, C. A.; Gironas, J. A.; Vera, S.; Bustamante, W.; Rojas, V.; Leiva, E.; Pasten, P.

    2015-12-01

    Technological innovations used for sustainable urban development, green roofs offer a range of benefits, including reduced heat island effect, rooftop runoff, roof surface temperatures, energy consumption, and noise levels inside buildings, as well as increased urban biodiversity. Green roofs feature layered construction, with the most important layers being the vegetation and the substrate layers located above the traditional roof. These layers provide both insulation and warm season cooling by latent heat flux, reducing the thermal load to the building. To understand and improve the processes driving this thermal energy reduction, it is important to observe the thermal dynamics of a green roof at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Traditionally, to observe the thermal behavior of green roofs, a series of thermocouples have been installed at discrete depths within the layers of the roof. Here, we present a vertical high-resolution distributed-temperature-sensing (DTS) system installed in different green roof modules of the Laboratory of Vegetated Infrastructure for Buildings (LIVE -its acronym in Spanish) of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. This DTS system allows near-continuous measurement of the thermal profile at spatial and temporal resolutions of approximately 1 cm and 30 s, respectively. In this investigation, the temperature observations from the DTS system are compared with the measurements of a series of thermocouples installed in the green roofs. This comparison makes it possible to assess the value of thermal observations at better spatial and temporal resolutions. We show that the errors associated with lower resolution observations (i.e., from the thermocouples) are propagated in the calculations of the heat fluxes through the different layers of the green roof. Our results highlight the value of having a vertical high-resolution DTS system to observe the thermal dynamics in green roofs.

  10. SU-F-19A-03: Dosimetric Advantages in Critical Structure Dose Sparing by Using a Multichannel Cylinder in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy to Treat Vaginal Cuff Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Syh, J; Syh, J; Patel, B; Zhang, J; Wu, H; Rosen, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The multichannel cylindrical vaginal applicator is a variation of traditional single channel cylindrical vaginal applicator. The multichannel applicator has additional peripheral channels that provide more flexibility in the planning process. The dosimetric advantage is to reduce dose to adjacent organ at risk (OAR) such as bladder and rectum while maintaining target coverage with the dose optimization from additional channels. Methods: Vaginal HDR brachytherapy plans are all CT based. CT images were acquired in 2 mm thickness to keep integrity of cylinder contouring. The CTV of 5mm Rind with prescribed treatment length was reconstructed from 5mm expansion of inserted cylinder. The goal was 95% of CTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose in both single channel planning (SCP)and multichannel planning (MCP) before proceeding any further optimization for dose reduction to critical structures with emphasis on D2cc and V2Gy . Results: This study demonstrated noticeable dose reduction to OAR was apparent in multichannel plans. The D2cc of the rectum and bladder were showing the reduced dose for multichannel versus single channel. The V2Gy of the rectum was 93.72% and 83.79% (p=0.007) for single channel and multichannel respectively (Figure 1 and Table 1). To assure adequate coverage to target while reducing the dose to the OAR without any compromise is the main goal in using multichannel vaginal applicator in HDR brachytherapy. Conclusion: Multichannel plans were optimized using anatomical based inverse optimization algorithm of inverse planning simulation annealing. The optimization solution of the algorithm was to improve the clinical target volume dose coverage while reducing the dose to critical organs such as bladder, rectum and bowels. The comparison between SCP and MCP demonstrated MCP is superior to SCP where the dwell positions were based on geometric array only. It concluded that MCP is preferable and is able to provide certain features superior to SCP.

  11. Advantage of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil regimen for cytotoxic T cell-mediated defence and its inhibition by additive steroid administration in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, S; Ozawa, K; Kaido, T; Mori, A; Fujimoto, Y

    2016-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that the recipients with the highest pre-existing numbers of CD8(+) effector T cells (TE ) [hyperparathyroidism (HPT)E recipients] occupied approximately 30% of adult transplant recipients performed in our hospital. HPTE recipients demonstrated very poor clinical outcome compared with the remaining 70% of recipients with the lowest pre-existing TE (LPTE recipient). This study aimed to clarify the best combined immunosuppressive regimen related to function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for HPTE recipients. Eighty-one HPTE recipients were classified into three types, according to the immunosuppressive regimens: type 1, tacrolimus (Tac)/glucocorticoid (GC); type 2, Tac/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/GC; and type 3, Tac/MMF. Frequencies of severe infection, rejection and hospital death were the highest in types 1 and 2, whereas the lowest occurred in type 3. The survival rate in type 3 was the highest (100%) during follow-up until post-operative day 2000. Regarding the immunological mechanism, in type 1 TE perforin and interferon (IFN)-γ were generated through the self-renewal of CD8(+) central memory T cells (TCM ), but decreased in the early post-transplant period due to marked down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta-1 of TCM. In type 2, the self-renewal TCM did not develop, and the effector function could not be increased. In type 3, in contrast, the effectors and cytotoxicity were correlated inversely with IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM levels, and increased at the highest level around the pre-transplant levels of IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM . However, the immunological advantage of Tac/MMF therapy was inhibited strongly by additive steroid administration. PMID:26560892

  12. Advantages and Challenges of Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischel, Detlef

    After a short review of the history toward high-energy superconducting (SC) accelerators for ion beam therapy (IBT), an overview is given on material properties and technical developments enabling to use SC components in a medical accelerator for full body cancer treatment. The design concept and the assembly of a commercially available SC cyclotron for proton therapy (PT) are described and the potential advantages for applying superconductivity are assessed. The discussion includes the first years of operation experience with regard to cryogenic and magnetic performance, automated beam control, and maintenance aspects. An outlook is given on alternative machine concepts for protons-only or for heavier ions. Finally, it is discussed whether the application of superconductivity might be expanded in the future to a broader range of subsystems of clinical IBT accelerators such as SC magnets for transfer beam lines or gantries.

  13. A High-resolution, Multi-epoch Spectral Atlas of Peculiar Stars Including RAVE, GAIA , and HERMES Wavelength Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaž

    2010-12-01

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 Å and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  14. A HIGH-RESOLUTION, MULTI-EPOCH SPECTRAL ATLAS OF PECULIAR STARS INCLUDING RAVE, GAIA , AND HERMES WAVELENGTH RANGES

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2010-12-15

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 A and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  15. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S.; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize “high-definition” electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety, and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH, and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 minutes on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of 5 types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, Rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring, and Ag/AgCl disc) and 7 conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron, and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and Rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, Rubber, and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels. PMID:20488204

  16. Immune tolerance strategies in siblings with infantile Pompe disease — Advantages for a preemptive approach to high-sustained antibody titers

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Elizabeth O.; Kazi, Zoheb; Lisi, Emily; Gambello, Michael J.; Kishnani, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has led to a significant improvement in the clinical course of patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD), an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder characterized by the deficiency in lysosomal acid α-glucosidase. A subset of IPD patients mounts a substantial immune response to ERT developing high sustained anti-rhGAA IgG antibody titers (HSAT) leading to the ineffectiveness of this treatment. HSAT have been challenging to treat, although preemptive approaches have shown success in high-risk patients (those who are cross-reactive immunological material [CRIM]-negative). More recently, the addition of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor known to target plasma cells, to immunotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, and intravenous immunoglobulin has shown success at significantly reducing the anti-rhGAA antibody titers in three patients with HSAT. In this report, we present the successful use of a bortezomib-based approach in a CRIM-positive IPD patient with HSAT and the use of a preemptive approach to prevent immunologic response in an affected younger sibling. We highlight the significant difference in clinical course between the two patients, particularly that a pre-emptive approach was simple and effective in preventing the development of high antibody titers in the younger sibling, thus supporting the role of immune tolerance induction (ITI) in the ERT-naïve high-risk setting. PMID:26167453

  17. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.; Bately, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  18. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2–3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Conclusion Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects. PMID:26844086

  19. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Advantages of Repeated Low Dose against Single High Dose of Kainate in C57BL/6J Mouse Model of Status Epilepticus: Behavioral and Electroencephalographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Edward; Sills, Graeme J.; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa

    2014-01-01

    A refined kainate (KA) C57BL/6J mouse model of status epilepticus (SE) using a repeated low dose (RLD) of KA (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal; at 30 min intervals) was compared with the established single high dose (SHD) of KA (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) model. In the RLD group, increased duration of convulsive motor seizures (CMS, Racine scale stage ≥3) with a significant reduction in mortality from 21% to 6% and decreased variability in seizure severity between animals/batches were observed when compared to the SHD group. There was a significant increase in the percentage of animals that reached stage-5 seizures (65% versus 96%) in the RLD group. Integrated real-time video-EEG analysis of both groups, using NeuroScore software, revealed stage-specific spikes and power spectral density characteristics. When the seizures progressed from non-convulsive seizures (NCS, stage 1–2) to CMS (stage 3–5), the delta power decreased which was followed by an increase in gamma and beta power. A transient increase in alpha and sigma power marked the transition from NCS to CMS with characteristic ‘high frequency trigger’ spikes on the EEG, which had no behavioral expression. During SE the spike rate was higher in the RLD group than in the SHD group. Overall these results confirm that RLD of KA is a more robust and consistent mouse model of SE than the SHD of KA mouse model. PMID:24802808

  1. A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Woo Chul; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won; Lyu, Chul Joo; Won, Sung Chul; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20-41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18-30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20-36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4-54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

  2. Anatomy-Based Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing Optimization in High-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Significant Dosimetric Advantage Over Other Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Dayee Raben, Adam; Sarkar, Abhirup; Grimm, Jimm; Simpson, Larry

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To perform an independent validation of an anatomy-based inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) algorithm in obtaining superior target coverage and reducing the dose to the organs at risk. Method and Materials: In a recent prostate high-dose-rate brachytherapy protocol study by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (0321), our institution treated 20 patients between June 1, 2005 and November 30, 2006. These patients had received a high-dose-rate boost dose of 19 Gy to the prostate, in addition to an external beam radiotherapy dose of 45 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Three-dimensional dosimetry was obtained for the following optimization schemes in the Plato Brachytherapy Planning System, version 14.3.2, using the same dose constraints for all the patients treated during this period: anatomy-based IPSA optimization, geometric optimization, and dose point optimization. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volume and organs at risk for each optimization method, from which the volume receiving at least 75% of the dose (V{sub 75%}) for the rectum and bladder, volume receiving at least 125% of the dose (V{sub 125%}) for the urethra, and total volume receiving the reference dose (V{sub 100%}) and volume receiving 150% of the dose (V{sub 150%}) for the planning target volume were determined. The dose homogeneity index and conformal index for the planning target volume for each optimization technique were compared. Results: Despite suboptimal needle position in some implants, the IPSA algorithm was able to comply with the tight Radiation Therapy Oncology Group dose constraints for 90% of the patients in this study. In contrast, the compliance was only 30% for dose point optimization and only 5% for geometric optimization. Conclusions: Anatomy-based IPSA optimization proved to be the superior technique and also the fastest for reducing the dose to the organs at risk without compromising the target coverage.

  3. 77 FR 2717 - High Liner Foods Incorporated; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Liner Foods Incorporated; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding High Liner Foods Incorporated's application for...

  4. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  5. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  6. Measuring home advantage in Spanish handball.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Aguilar, Oscar; Saavedra García, Miguel; Fernández Romero, Juan José

    2012-02-01

    Since Pollard established the system for analysing home advantage in 1986, it has been demonstrated and quantified in various sports, including many team sports. This study aims to assess whether home advantage exists in handball, using a sample of more than 19,000 Spanish handball league games. Results of the games played at home and away, the sex of the players, and the levels of the competition were included as variables. In Spanish handball, there was a home advantage of 61%, which means, on average, the team playing at home wins 61% of points available. This value varies according to sex and according to competition level, increasing as competition level decreases and season rank improves. PMID:22582700

  7. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  8. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  9. 77 FR 53884 - High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of High Mesa Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. An Analysis of Specialized Reading Instruction in High School English Classes for Students with Disabilities Included in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Kathy Rosvold

    2010-01-01

    This study is a qualitative case study that examined and analyzed the instructional strategies implemented by high school English teachers when teaching reading to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Ten teachers who teach high school English on collaborative teams made up of a general and a special educator participated in the…

  11. Acceleration of degradation by highly accelerated stress test and air-included highly accelerated stress test in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh; Tanahashi, Tadanori; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of hyper-hygrothermal stresses with or without air on the degradation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules, to shorten the required duration of a conventional hygrothermal-stress test [i.e., the “damp heat (DH) stress test”, which is conducted at 85 °C/85% relative humidity for 1,000 h]. Interestingly, the encapsulant within a PV module becomes discolored under the air-included hygrothermal conditions achieved using DH stress test equipment and an air-included highly accelerated stress test (air-HAST) apparatus, but not under the air-excluded hygrothermal conditions realized using a highly accelerated stress test (HAST) machine. In contrast, the reduction in the output power of the PV module is accelerated irrespective of air inclusion in hyper-hygrothermal test atmosphere. From these findings, we conclude that the required duration of the DH stress test will at least be significantly shortened using air-HAST, but not HAST.

  12. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  13. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  14. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  15. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage. PMID:24533517

  16. Polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate and high energies including the present status of dibaryons

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.

  17. Derivation of equations of motion for multi-blade rotors employing coupled modes and including high twist capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopher, R.

    1975-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived for a multiblade rotor. A high twist capability and coupled flatwise-edgewise assumed normal modes are employed instead of uncoupled flatwise - edgewise assumed normal models. The torsion mode is uncoupled. Support system models, consisting of complete helicopters in free flight, or grounded flexible supports, arbitrary rotor-induced inflow, and arbitrary vertical gust models are also used.

  18. Combined treatment of steel, including electrospark doping and subsequent irradiation with a high-intensity electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, V. D.; Denisova, Yu A.; Teresov, A. D.; Petrikova, E. A.; Shugurov, V. V.; Seksenalina, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Klopotov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of steel with tungsten and titanium has been performed. The studies on the surface layer of steel modified using the combined method (electrospark doping and the subsequent electron-beam treatment) have been carried out. Formation in the surface layer of a multi-phase submicrocrystalline structure with high strength properties has been revealed.

  19. The Danish People's High School Including a General Account of the Educational System of Denmark. Bulletin, 1915, No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Martin

    1915-01-01

    The folk high schools of Denmark and other Scandinavian countries are so unique and contain so much of interest to all who are concerned in the preparation of young men and women for higher and better living and for more efficient citizenship that, although two or three former bulletins of this bureau have been devoted to a description of these…

  20. The Co-Authored Curriculum: High-School Teachers' Reasons for Including Students' Extra-Curricular Interests in Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagay, Galit; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Peleg, Ran

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a gap between curricular requirements and what students actually want to know. One of the factors influencing what is taught in the classroom is teachers' attitudes towards integrating their students' interests. This study investigated what prompts high-school teachers who prepare students for national matriculation…

  1. Recordings for Teaching Literature and Language in the High School, Including a Bibliography of 500 Titles. Bulletin, 1952, No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Arno

    1952-01-01

    Recordings are not a new educational "gadget" to high-school language arts teachers. For more than a score of years some teachers have been using a few recordings of literature with varying degrees of success. Today, the extensive range of recordings available, the professional quality of the performances, and the fidelity of the reproduction…

  2. Coating-removal techniques: Advantages and disadvantages

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, W.E.

    1994-07-01

    The removal of radioactive and nonradioactive coatings from various surfaces is a subject of increasing interest for a variety of reasons, including remaining life assessment, nondestructive evaluation of structural integrity, and life extension through the adoption of new surface-modification methods. This review summarizes the state of the art in coating-removal technologies, presenting their advantages and limitations. The methods covered include laser ablation, microwaves, flashlamps, ice, CO2, and plastic blast media.

  3. Morphology and biology of Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 in high mountain lakes of East Siberia (including Lake Amut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheveleva, Natalya G.; Itigilova, Mydygma Ts.; Chananbaator, Ayushcuren

    2016-04-01

    Data on zooplankton from 13 high-mountain lakes of East Siberia have shown that the Holarctic copepod Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 dominates among crustaceans. In July, its abundance comprised 64%-98% of the total plankton fauna in the pelagial of these lakes, approximately 30% in the littoral zone and 10% in small northern thermokarst lakes. Biometric measurements and morphological descriptions based on scanning microscope images are supplemented by the data on its geographic distribution and phenology.

  4. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes.

    PubMed

    Harel-Beja, R; Tzuri, G; Portnoy, V; Lotan-Pompan, M; Lev, S; Cohen, S; Dai, N; Yeselson, L; Meir, A; Libhaber, S E; Avisar, E; Melame, T; van Koert, P; Verbakel, H; Hofstede, R; Volpin, H; Oliver, M; Fougedoire, A; Stalh, C; Fauve, J; Copes, B; Fei, Z; Giovannoni, J; Ori, N; Lewinsohn, E; Sherman, A; Burger, J; Tadmor, Y; Schaffer, A A; Katzir, N

    2010-08-01

    A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducted over three seasons in two locations in Israel and the US. The map includes 668 DNA markers (386 SSRs, 76 SNPs, six INDELs and 200 AFLPs), of which 160 were newly developed from fruit ESTs. These ESTs include candidate genes encoding for enzymes of sugar and carotenoid metabolic pathways that were cloned from melon cDNA or identified through mining of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative database (http://www.icugi.org/). The map covers 1,222 cM with an average of 2.672 cM between markers. In addition, a skeleton physical map was initiated and 29 melon BACs harboring fruit ESTs were localized to the 12 linkage groups of the map. Altogether, 44 fruit QTLs were identified: 25 confirming QTLs described using other populations and 19 newly described QTLs. The map includes QTLs for fruit sugar content, particularly sucrose, the major sugar affecting sweetness in melon fruit. Six QTLs interacting in an additive manner account for nearly all the difference in sugar content between the two genotypes. Three QTLs for fruit flesh color and carotenoid content were identified. Interestingly, no clear colocalization of QTLs for either sugar or carotenoid content was observed with over 40 genes encoding for enzymes involved in their metabolism. The RI population described here provides a useful resource for further genomics and metabolomics studies in melon, as well as useful markers for breeding for fruit quality. PMID:20401460

  5. Multiple phosphorylated forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein include an isoform induced in response to high salt concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, M H; Nadeau, E T; Grayhack, E J

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein is an essential multifunctional transcription factor which is highly homologous to human serum response factor. Mcm1 protein acts on a large number of distinctly regulated genes: haploid cell-type-specific genes, G2-cell-cycle-regulated genes, pheromone-induced genes, arginine metabolic genes, and genes important for cell wall and cell membrane function. We show here that Mcm1 protein is phosphorylated in vivo. Several (more than eight) isoforms of Mcm1 protein, resolved by isoelectric focusing, are present in vivo; two major phosphorylation sites lie in the N-terminal 17 amino acids immediately adjacent to the conserved MADS box DNA-binding domain. The implications of multiple species of Mcm1, particularly the notion that a unique Mcm1 isoform could be required for regulation of a specific set of Mcm1's target genes, are discussed. We also show here that Mcm1 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by NaCl. G. Yu, R. J. Deschenes, and J. S. Fassler (J. Biol. Chem. 270:8739-8743, 1995) showed that Mcm1 function is affected by mutations in the SLN1 gene, a signal transduction component implicated in the response to osmotic stress. We find that mcm1 mutations can confer either reduced or enhanced survival on high-salt medium; deletion of the N terminus or mutation in the primary phosphorylation site results in impaired growth on high-salt medium. Furthermore, Mcm1 protein is a target of a signal transduction system responsive to osmotic stress: a new isoform of Mcm1 is induced by NaCl or KCl; this result establishes that Mcm1 itself is regulated. PMID:9001236

  6. Acceleration of small, light projectiles (including hydrogen isotopes) to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Small, light projectiles have been accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With 35-mg plastic projectiles (4 mm in diameter), speeds of up to 4.5 km/s have been recorded. The pipe gun'' technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in situ in the gun barrel has been used to accelerate deuterium pellets (nominal diameter of 4 mm) to velocities of up to 2.85 km/s. The primary application of this technology is for plasma fueling of fusion devices via pellet injection of hydrogen isotopes. Conventional pellet injectors are limited to pellet speeds in the range 1-2 km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for plasma fueling applications, and the two-stage pneumatic technique offers performance in a higher velocity regime. However, experimental results indicate that the use of sabots to encase the cryogenic pellets and protect them for the high peak pressures will be required to reliably attain intact pellets at speeds of {approx}3 km/s or greater. In some limited tests, lithium hydride pellets were accelerated to speeds of up to 4.2 km/s. Also, repetitive operation of the two-stage gun (four plastic pellets fired at {approx}0.5 Hz) was demonstrated for the first time in preliminary tests. The equipment and operation are described, and experimental results and some comparisons with a theoretical model are presented. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2μm particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1μL of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. PMID:24508677

  8. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  9. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  10. Information Technology: Tomorrow's Advantage Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Stephen; Keen, Peter

    This textbook is designed for a one-semester introductory course in which the goal is to give students a foundation in the basics of information technology (IT). It focuses on how the technology works, issues relating to its use and development, how it can lend personal and business advantages, and how it is creating a globally networked society.…

  11. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  12. Calibration of ultra high speed laser engraving processes by correlating influencing variables including correlative evaluation with SEM and CLSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    Laser engraving is used for decades as a well-established process e. g. for the production of print and embossing forms for many goods in daily life, e. g. decorated cans and printed bank notes. Up to now it is more or less a so-called fire-and-forget process. From the original artist's plan to the digitization, then from the laser source itself (with electronic signals, RF and plasma discharge regarding CO2 lasers) to the behavior of the optical beam delivery — especially if an AOM is used — to the interaction of the laser beam with the material itself is a long process chain. The most recent results using CO2 lasers with AOMs and the research done with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) — as a set for correlative microscopy to evaluate the high speed engraving characteristics — are presented in this paper.

  13. Comparison of extraction techniques, including supercritical fluid, high-pressure solvent, and soxhlet, for organophosphorus hydraulic fluids from soil.

    PubMed

    David, M D; Seiber, J N

    1996-09-01

    The efficiencies of three extraction techniques for removal of nonpesticidal organophosphates from soil were determined. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a low solvent volume flow through technique referred to here as high-pressure solvent extraction (HPSE). SFE, optimized by varying parameters of temperature, pressure, and methanol polarity modifier, showed at least 90% efficiency in the extraction of OPs from both spiked and native soils. HPSE experiments showed efficient and consistent recoveries over a range of temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures up to 170 atm. Recovery of TCP from spiked soils with HPSE depends on the system variables of temperature and pressure, which dictate density and flow rate. HPSE provided extraction efficiencies comparable to those obtained with Soxhlet extraction and SFE but with substantial savings of time and cost. PMID:21619371

  14. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms. PMID:24328185

  15. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  16. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  17. Optimal reusable-tug and expendable-kickstage trajectories for high-energy planetary missions including correction for nodal precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsody, J.

    1976-01-01

    Equations are derived by using branched trajectory optimization techniques and the maximum principle to maximize the payload capability of a reusable tug/expendable kickstage vehicle configuration for planetary missions. The two stages and the payload are launched into a low earth orbit by a single space shuttle. The analysis includes correction for precession of the orbit. This correction is done by the tug. The tug propels the payload and the kickstage to an energy beyond earth escape and returns within a specified time to the precessed orbit. After separating from the tug, the kickstage accelerates the payload to the required injection conditions. Planetary injection conditions are specified by the mission energy and a fixed declination and right ascension of the outgoing asymptote. The multipoint boundary value problem resulting from the analysis is solved by a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. Partial derivatives of the boundary conditions are obtained by perturbing the initial conditions one at a time, integrating the trajectory and adjoint equations, and observing the changes in boundary conditions. Maximum payload capability is derived for two typical mission energies. In addition, the variations of several mission and stage parameters are also examined.

  18. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly (p < 0.05) greater rates of degradation for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions were observed in treatments (III-IV) compared to treatments (I-II), and this was especially the case with the degradative rates for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil. PMID:25929330

  19. Prediction of thermodynamic properties, including solubility equilibria and vapor pressures, for mixed aqueous electrolytes to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of different models have been proposed in the literature that treat the thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions. The most frequently used at present is the ion-interaction or virial coefficient approach, which was initially developed by Pitzer (1973) and Pitzer and Kim (1974) for aqueous solutions near room temperature. Since the model is based on a general equation for the excess Gibbs energy of the aqueous fluid, any thermodynamic property can be obtained from the appropriate derivatives. Thus the model has been used to describe osmotic and activity coefficients, as well as volumetric and thermal properties (e.g., heat capacity and enthalpy) of aqueous electrolytes. Success of this model when applied to complex and concentrated electrolyte mixtures was initially demonstrated for calculations of equilibria at room temperature between a brine phase and one or more solids by Harvie and Weare (1980). In this study we show that the same success holds over a wider range of temperature conditions. The model is applied to calculations of solubility equilibria, as well as to calculations of vapor pressures of electrolyte mixtures to high temperatures. 32 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Optimization of transistor design including large signal device/circuit interactions at extremely high frequencies (20-100+GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Ralph; Grubin, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Transistor design for extremely high frequency applications requires consideration of the interaction between the device and the circuit to which it is connected. Traditional analytical transistor models are to approximate at some of these frequencies and may not account for variations of dopants and semiconductor materials (especially some of the newer materials) within the device. Physically based models of device performance are required. These are based on coupled systems of partial differential equations and typically require 20 minutes of Cray computer time for a single AC operating point. A technique is presented to extract parameters from a few partial differential equation solutions for the device to create a nonlinear equivalent circuit model which runs in approximately 1 second of personal computer time. This nonlinear equivalent circuit model accurately replicates the contact current properties of the device as computed by the partial differential solver on which it is based. Using the nonlinear equivalent circuit model of the device, optimization of systems design can be performed based on device/circuit interactions.

  1. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  2. Do Evidence-Based Group Parenting Programs for High-Risk or Maltreating Parents Include Content about Psychological Maltreatment?: A Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy; Schniederman, Mel; Brassard, Marla R.; Donnelly, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is a widespread form of child maltreatment, both in high-risk and maltreating parents, yet there are no intervention programs that target it directly. In this study, the content of parenting programs for high-risk and maltreating parents was assessed to determine whether the program manuals include content on PM.…

  3. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    PubMed

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase. PMID:25399464

  4. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  5. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  6. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  7. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  8. High-Altitude High-Latitude Electron-Density and Magnetic-Field Enhancements Observed during Magnetic Storms - Including the Storm of 17 April 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Bilitza, Dieter; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the spectacular remote measurements from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite [Burch, Space Sci. Rev., 2003], the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on IMAGE had the capability of making accurate magnetospheric local electron-density and magnetic-field determinations in addition to obtaining remote electron-density profiles [Reinisch et al., GRL, 2001; Benson et al., JGR, 2003]. These determinations were made using interleaved passive and active modes of operation of the RPI; the former were used to produce dynamic spectra and the latter to produce plasmagrams during active sounding. The plasmagrams of particular interest in this investigation were produced during the apogee (8 RE) portion of the IMAGE orbit when the RPI often operated in a high-resolution mode (300 Hz frequency steps) designed for accurate frequency measurements of sounder-stimulated plasma resonances. Here we present examples from 2001 and 2002, when the IMAGE apogee was at high latitudes, of large increase the electron density and magnetic-field intensity (relative to quiet control conditions) during magnetic storms. During the 17 April 2002 storm, the electron density increased by about a factor of 4 and the magnetic-field intensity increased by nearly a factor of 2. During the much larger storm of 31 March 2001, the RPI data presented in Osherovich et al. [2007] indicates that the electron density increased by about a factor of 10.

  9. Expectations and Anticipations of Middle and High School Special Education Teachers in Preparing Their Students with Intellectual Disability for Future Adult Roles Including Those as Partner and Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of individual ethnographic interviews and focus groups, I explored the expectations and anticipations of middle and high school special education teachers as they carry out their professional charge of educating their students with intellectual disability for lives in the least restrictive environment, including possible adult…

  10. Guidance, Counseling, and Support Services for High School Students with Physical Disabilities: Visual, Hearing, Orthopedic, Neuromuscular, Epilepsy, Chronic Health Conditions. Includes State Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, June C.; And Others

    Intended for use by high school guidance personnel, the two volumes provide general information and a resource guide on physical disabilities including visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic handicap, neuromuscular handicap, epilepsy, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions. The first section provides an overview of each of the…

  11. The Impact of Including Children with Intellectual Disability in General Education Classrooms on the Academic Achievement of Their Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…

  12. Initial Perceptions of English as a Second Language Educators on Including Students with Limited English Proficiency in Minnesota's High Standards. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie; Liu, Kristin; Thurlow, Martha

    This report presents findings from an investigation of the perceptions, beliefs, and expectations of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) educators as they work toward including students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's High Standards. More and more states are implementing standards-based educational systems in which all…

  13. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  14. Correlative microscopy including CLSM and SEM to improve high-speed, high-resolution laser-engraved print and embossing forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schweitzer, Michael; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    The industrial market for processing large-scale films has seen dramatic changes since the 1980s and has almost completely been replaced by lasers and digital processes. A commonly used technology for engraving screens, print and embossing forms in the printing industry, well known since then, is the use of RF-excited CO2 lasers with a beam power up to about 1 kW, modulated in accordance to the pattern to be engraved. Future needs for high-security printing (banknotes, security papers, passports, etc.) will require laser engraving of at least half a million or even more structured elements with a depth from some μm up to 500 μm. Industry now wants photorealistic pictures in packaging design, which requires a similar performance. To ensure 'trusted pulses' from the digital process to the print result the use of correlative microscopy (CLSM and SEM) is demonstrated as a complete chain for a correlative print process in this paper.

  15. Advantage, Absence of Advantage, and Disadvantage Among Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy DiTomaso

    2008-09-23

    DiTomaso talks about survey data on the career experiences of 3,200 scientists and engineers from 24 major companies. Her survey findings indicate that most people who do well in their careers and make significant contributions to their organizations get assistance from others in their workplace in many forms, including offering opportunities such as good projects, providing resources that make good performance more likely, and opening up networking possibilities.

  16. Reproductive fitness advantage of BCR-ABL expressing leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David

    2010-08-01

    Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes confer a fitness advantage to cells that can lead to cancer. The tumor phenotype normally results from the interaction of many mutant genes making it difficult to estimate the fitness advantage provided by any oncogene, except when tumors depend on one oncogene only. We utilize a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), to quantitate the fitness advantage conferred by expression of BCR-ABL in hematopoietic cells from in vivo patient data. We show that BCR-ABL expression provides a high fitness advantage, which explains why this single mutation drives the chronic phase of CML. PMID:20153920

  17. Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teulings, Coen N.

    2005-01-01

    I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

  18. 2015: Rural Medicare Advantage Enrollment Update.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Chance; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Key Findings. (1) Rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by 6.8 percent between March 2014 and March 2015 to 2.1 million members, or 21.2 percent of all rural residents eligible for Medicare. This compares to a national enrollment in MA and other prepaid plans of 31.1 percent (16.7 million) of enrollees. (2) Rural enrollment in Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) plans (including point-of-service, or POS, plans), Preferred Provider Organization (PP0) plans, and other pre-paid plans (including Medicare Cost and Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly Plans) all increased by 5-13 percent. (3) Enrollment in private fee-for-service (PFFS) plans continued to decline (decreasing nationally by 15.8 percent and 12.1 percent in rural counties over the period March 2014-2015). Only eight states showed an increase in PFFS plan enrollment. Five states experienced decreases of 50 percent or more. (4) The five states with the highest percentages of rural beneficiaries enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan are Minnesota (51.8 percent), Hawaii (39.4 percent), Pennsylvania (36.2 percent), Wisconsin (35.5 percent), and New York (31.5 percent). PMID:26793818

  19. Taking Advantage of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald

    1967-01-01

    The problem of the effective development of educational programs for the educationally disadvantaged is discussed. Salient points for the revitalization of American education are presented, including the major thesis that all American children are educationally disadvantaged. To improve the education of disadvantaged children, the educational…

  20. High-speed civil transport impact: Role of sulfate, nitric acid trihydrate, and ice aerosols studied with a two-dimensional model including aerosol physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pitari, G.; Ricciardulli, L.; Visconti, G.; Rizi, V.

    1993-12-20

    The authors discuss a two-dimensional model used to study the atmospheric interactions of ozone with exhaust gases from high speed civil transport (HSCT) fleets. Their model encompases the stratosphere and troposphere, includes photochemical reactions as part of the sulfur cycle, and models sulfuric acid aerosols. The inclusion of heterogeneous chemistry effects tempers the impact of nitrogen oxide emissions from HSCT on ozone depletion, in support of previous work from other studies.

  1. Prediction of high-temperature thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolyte solutions including solubility equilibria, vapor pressure depression and boiling point elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which is theoretically derived but uses empirical parameters evaluated from experimental data on binary and ternary aqueous mixtures, is shown to accurately predict thermodynamic properties of aqueous eletrolytes to high temperatures and concentrations and for more complex compositions. Applications of the model include calculations of solubility equilibria, vapor pressures and boiling points of electrolyte mixtures. Examples of these calculations are given below. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 78 FR 69878 - First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tapfin, Staffworks, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on May 30, 2013 (78 FR 32464). At the request of a company... Tapfin, Staffworks, Aerotek Professional Services, Randstad, Insight Global, LLC and RemX Specialty..., Staffworks, Aerotek Professional Services, Randstad, Insight Global, LLC, and RemX Specialty Staffing,...

  3. The manifold advantages of articulatory representations, Including microphone and speaker normalization

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J. E.; Valdez, P. F.; Gurvits, L.

    2002-01-01

    I'm going to be making two broad points during my talk. The first is that we should do a transformation from speech acoustics to articulator positions as part of our speech processing. The second point I will try to make is that we can do a transformation from speech sounds to articulator positions.

  4. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-04-28

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. [open quotes]It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000[close quote], says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. [open quote]We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions[close quote]. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard.

  5. Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking. PMID:25793116

  6. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  7. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  8. Advantages of using flat-panel LCD for projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dean C.

    1995-04-01

    The advantages of applying flat panel Liquid CRystal Displays (LCD) for Projection Displays will be extensively discussed. The selection and fabrication of flat panel LCD in order to meet the specific requirements of projection displays through various technologies will be suggested and explored in detail. The compact, flexible size and easy portability of flat panel LCDs are well known. For practical reasons, it is desirable to take advantages some of these useful properties in Projection Displays. With the recent popularity of large format display sizes, high information content and practicality all increases the demand of projection enlargement for high level performance and comfortable viewing. As a result, Projection Displays are becoming the chosen technological option for effective presentation of visual information. In general, the Liquid Crystal Light Valves (LCLV) used in Projection Displays are simply transmissive flat panel liquid crystal displays. For example at the low end, the monochromatic LCD projection panels are simply transmissive LCDs to be used in combination with laptops or PCs and light sources such as overhead projectors. These projection panels are getting popular for their portability, readability and low cost. However, due to the passive nature of the LCD used in these projector panels, the response time, contrast ratio and color gamut are relatively limited. Whether the newly developed Active Addressing technology will be able to improve the response time, contrast ratio and color gamut of these passive matrix LCDs remain to be proven. In the middle range of projection displays, Liquid Crystal Light Valves using color Active Matrix LCDs are rapidly replacing the dominant CRT based projectors. LCLVs have a number of advantages including portability, easy set-up and data readability. There are several new developments using single crystal, polysilicon as active matrix for LCDs with improved performance. Since single crystal active matrix

  9. Advantages of redeployable security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A.

    1993-12-31

    Security systems must be proven dependable, cost effective, easily installed and maintained. Further, these technologies should not require skilled technicians to install, align, maintain and/or repair during the project`s life cycle. These new priorities and financial demands have to be addressed utilizing various existing and proven technologies that have been developed and are currently being applied. One of these technologies directly relates to the development and application of rapid deployment and redeployable sensor systems that permit flexible asset protection and smaller perimeters within a given complex, rather than intrusion detection systems for an entire facility. Both Rapid Deployment Intrusion Detection System (RDIDS), and Redeployable Intrusion Detection System (RIDS) technologies can be designed for operation in any weather conditions, impervious to salt air, chemical and most explosive environments, as well as highly resistant to false alarms. These systems utilize photovoltaic power with 12-hour battery backup as their primary source of energy. Sensor systems can be integrated with Radio Frequency (RF) polling transceivers operating in the VHF or UHF frequencies. This enhancement offers extensive flexibility and substantial cash savings Is compared to hard wired installations. RDIDS and RIDS can be deployed for limited areas and be operational in a fraction of the time required for conventional systems. The result affords a fully warranted long life RIDS, modular in design, flexible in application, false alarm free, self-diagnostic, and impervious to most environmental conditions. Further, RIDS can be engineered to interface with fiber optic technology thereby ensuring quality transmission in rural environments. Fiber optic integration proves even more effective when using CCTV cameras. The fiber optic module can be used for monitoring the tamper and alarm circuits as well as video transmission.

  10. [High molecular weight protein detected in higher plant cells by antibodies against dynein is associated with vesicular organelles including Golgi apparatus].

    PubMed

    Shanina, N A; Lazareva, E M; Chentsov, Iu S; Smirnova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein is a multisubunit complex driving organelles along microtubules to their minus-end. We used antibodies against two functional domains (motor and microtubule-binding) of one of principal components of the complex--dynein heavy chain of slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum--to test root meristem cells of wheat Triticum aestivum. The antibodies reacted with a high molecular weight protein (> 500 kDa) in the total cell extract and the band recognized by the antibodies in plant extracts had a lower electrophoretic mobility than the high molecular weight band of mammalian dynein. Antibodies coupled to protein A-Sepharose precipitated the high molecular weight protein from the purified cell extracts. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the antigen recognized by antibodies against dynein heavy chains is associated with the vesicles whose localization depends on the cell cycle stage. The antigen-positive vesicles were localized to the perinuclear region in interphase and early prophase, to the spindle periphery and to spindle pole region during mitosis, and to the interzonal region in the period of fragmoplast and cell plate formation. Some antigen-positive vesicles also reacted with antibodies against Golgi protein markers. The obtained data indicate that higher plant cells contain a high molecular weight protein interacting with antibodies against the motor and microtubules-binding domains of Dictyostelium dynein heavy chain. The revealed antigen was associated with the vesicular structures in the cytoplasm including the Golgi apparatus. PMID:18409378

  11. The Advantages of a Tapered Whisker

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M.; Kramer, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  12. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher M; Kramer, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals. PMID:20098714

  13. Ultraspectral imaging and the snapshot advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Gupta Roy, Subharup; Pantalone, Brett; Maione, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    Ultraspectral sensing has been investigated as a way to resolve terrestrial chemical fluorescence within solar Fraunhofer lines. Referred to as Fraunhofer Line Discriminators (FLDs), these sensors attempt to measure "band filling" of terrestrial fluorescence within these naturally dark regions of the spectrum. However, the method has challenging signal to noise ratio limitations due to the low fluorescence emission signal of the target, which is exacerbated by the high spectral resolution required by the sensor (<0.1 nm). To now, many Fraunhofer line discriminators have been scanning sensors; either pushbroom or whiskbroom, which require temporal and/or spatial scanning to acquire an image. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the snapshot throughput advantage in ultraspectral imaging for FLD. This is followed by preliminary results of our snapshot FLD sensor. The system has a spatial resolution of 280x280 pixels and a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 at a 658 nm operating wavelength.

  14. Advantages of Monodisperse and Chemically Robust "SpheriCal" Polyester Dendrimers as a "Universal" MS Calibrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Scott M.; Myers, Brittany K.; Bengtsson, Jonas; Malkoch, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The utilization of dendrimer calibrants as an alternative to peptides and proteins for high mass calibration is explored. These synthetic macromolecules exhibited a number of attractive advantages, including exceptional shelf-lives, broad compatibility with a wide range of matrices and solvents, and evenly spaced calibration masses across the mass range examined, 700-30,000 u. The exceptional purity of these dendrimers and the technical simplicity of this calibration platform validate their broad relevance for high molecular weight mass spectrometry.

  15. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  16. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

  17. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    PubMed

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

  18. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  19. Comparison of the home advantage in nine different professional team sports in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel A; Pollard, Richard; Luis-Pascual, Juan-Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Home advantage is a well-established phenomenon in many sports. The present study is unique in that it includes different sports analysed in the same country, at the same level of competition, and over the same time period. Nine team sports from Spain were included: baseball, basketball, handball, indoor soccer, roller hockey, rugby, soccer, volleyball, and water polo. Data for five seasons (2005-2006 to 2009-2010) were obtained, totaling 9,472 games. The results confirmed the existence of home advantage in all nine sports. There was a statistically significant difference between the sports; home advantage was highest in rugby (67.0%), and lowest in volleyball (55.7%), water polo (56.2%), and roller hockey (58.3%). The design of the study controlled for some of the likely causes of home advantage, and the results suggested that the high home advantage for rugby was likely a reflection of the continuous, aggressive, and intense nature of the sport. PMID:21987916

  20. Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3′-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

  1. Relative loudness of low- and high-frequency bands of speech-shaped babble, including the influence of bandwidth and input level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidser, Gitte; Katsch, Richard; Dillon, Harvey; Grant, Frances

    2002-02-01

    In a balancing test, ten normal-hearing listeners adjusted filtered speech-shaped babble-noise to equally loud levels. On average, they selected about 10 dB less gain for bands below 1 kHz than for bands above and including 1 kHz. The findings applied to two bandwidths (octave and equivalent rectangular bandwidth) and two levels (65 and 85 dB SPL). The outcome suggests that hearing aid fitting procedures aiming to equalize loudness of speech bands should prescribe less low-frequency gain than procedures aiming to normalize loudness of speech bands. A significant interaction was found between bandwidth and input level for the high-frequency bands.

  2. Neutral β-Lactams Inactivate High Molecular Mass Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Class B1, Including PBP2a of MRSA.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kinjal; Palzkill, Timothy; Pratt, R F

    2014-02-13

    The targets of β-lactam antibiotics are bacterial DD-peptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). β-Lactam SAR studies over many years have demonstrated the importance of a specifically placed negative charge, usually carboxylate, on these molecules. We show here that neutral analogues of classical β-lactam antibiotics are of comparable activity to the originals against β-lactam-resistant high molecular mass DD-peptidases of the B1 class, a group that includes PBP2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These neutral β-lactams may direct new development of antibiotics against certain penicillin-resistant bacteria. These molecules do have antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24900789

  3. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    ScienceCinema

    Goyal, Amit (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2012-06-28

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  4. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-22

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  5. Deep RNA sequencing of L. monocytogenes reveals overlapping and extensive stationary phase and sigma B-dependent transcriptomes, including multiple highly transcribed noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Identification of specific genes and gene expression patterns important for bacterial survival, transmission and pathogenesis is critically needed to enable development of more effective pathogen control strategies. The stationary phase stress response transcriptome, including many σB-dependent genes, was defined for the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) with the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Specifically, bacterial transcriptomes were compared between stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes 10403S and an otherwise isogenic ΔsigB mutant, which does not express the alternative σ factor σB, a major regulator of genes contributing to stress response, including stresses encountered upon entry into stationary phase. Results Overall, 83% of all L. monocytogenes genes were transcribed in stationary phase cells; 42% of currently annotated L. monocytogenes genes showed medium to high transcript levels under these conditions. A total of 96 genes had significantly higher transcript levels in 10403S than in ΔsigB, indicating σB-dependent transcription of these genes. RNA-Seq analyses indicate that a total of 67 noncoding RNA molecules (ncRNAs) are transcribed in stationary phase L. monocytogenes, including 7 previously unrecognized putative ncRNAs. Application of a dynamically trained Hidden Markov Model, in combination with RNA-Seq data, identified 65 putative σB promoters upstream of 82 of the 96 σB-dependent genes and upstream of the one σB-dependent ncRNA. The RNA-Seq data also enabled annotation of putative operons as well as visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions. Conclusions The results from these studies provide powerful evidence that RNA-Seq data combined with appropriate bioinformatics tools allow quantitative characterization of prokaryotic transcriptomes, thus providing exciting new strategies for exploring transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. See minireivew http://jbiol.com/content/8

  6. Alternative Medications for Medications Included in the Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly and Potentially Harmful Drug–Disease Interactions in the Elderly Quality Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Semla, Todd P.; Schmader, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) use the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria to designate the quality measure Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly (HRM). The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) use the HRM measure to monitor and evaluate the quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. NCQA additionally uses the AGS Beers Criteria to designate the quality measure Potentially Harmful Drug–Disease Interactions in the Elderly. Medications included in these measures may be harmful to elderly adults, negatively affect a health care plan’s quality ratings, and be denied as a health care plan drug benefit. Prescribers, pharmacists, patients, and health care plans may benefit from evidence-based alternative medication treatments to avoid these problems. Therefore the goal of this work was to develop a list of alternative medications to those included in the two measures. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review for 2000 to 2014 and a search of their personal files. From the evidence, they prepared a list of drug-therapy alternatives with supporting references. A reference list of non-pharmacological approaches was also provided when appropriate. NCQA, PQA, the 2015 AGS Beers Criteria panel, and the Executive Committee of the AGS reviewed the drug therapy alternatives and nonpharmacological approaches. Recommendations by these groups were incorporated into the final list of alternatives. The final product of drug-therapy alternatives to medications included in the two quality measures and some nonpharmacological resources will be useful to health professionals, consumers, payers, and health systems that care for older adults. PMID:26447889

  7. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. PMID:24506492

  8. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  9. Tax-advantaged investing: a wise choice.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    2001-01-01

    Your investment strategy should be just that--a plan to make the most of your assets. Considering the tax advantages and disadvantages help you stretch your investments and take full advantage of stocks, mutual funds, and other investments. PMID:11862646

  10. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  12. An Environmental Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O145 Clonal Population Exhibits High-Level Phenotypic Variation That Includes Virulence Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quinones, Beatriz; He, Xiaohua; Zhong, Wayne; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Lee, Bertram G.; Yambao, Jaszemyn C.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Cooley, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of environmental O145 strains recovered from a major produce production region in California. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that sequence type 78 (ST-78), a common ST in clinical strains, was the predominant genotype among the environmental strains. Similarly, all California environmental strains belonged to H28, a common H serotype in clinical strains. Although most environmental strains carried an intact fliC gene, only one strain retained swimming motility. Diverse stx subtypes were identified, including stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2e. Although no correlation was detected between the stx genotype and Stx1 production, high Stx2 production was detected mainly in strains carrying stx2a only and was correlated positively with the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin. All environmental strains were capable of producing enterohemolysin, whereas only 10 strains were positive for anaerobic hemolytic activity. Multidrug resistance appeared to be common, as nearly half of the tested O145 strains displayed resistance to at least two different classes of antibiotics. The core virulence determinants of enterohemorrhagic E. coli were conserved in the environmental STEC O145 strains; however, there was large variation in the expression of virulence traits among the strains that were highly related genotypically, implying a trend of clonal divergence. Several cattle isolates exhibited key virulence traits comparable to those of the STEC O145 outbreak strains, emphasizing the emergence of hypervirulent strains in agricultural environments. PMID:26637597

  13. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  14. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  15. Prochlorococcus: advantages and limits of minimalism.

    PubMed

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology. PMID:21141667

  16. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

  17. Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

  18. Spectroscopic Identification and Metallicity Determination of RR Lyrae Variables in Sloan, with a New Metallicity Calibration Including High-Temperature Phase Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Eckhart; Wilhelm, R. J.; De Lee, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    RR Lyrae stars provide important distance markers for tracing out the metallicity and physical extent of tidal streams and the galactic halo. Here we present a method for potentially identifying a few thousand RRL stars by comparing low-resolution, single-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR9. This method is tested against the heavily-sampled ‘Stripe 82’ of SDSS. We have also begun developing a new metallicity calibration that fills in the high-temperature regions in RR Lyrae phases for phase regions other than (and including) minimum light. Our calibration extends metallicity determinations provided by previous methods which were calibrated at minimum light only, and also has the potential for detecting shorter-period RRc stars. Phase information was taken from the MacAdam Student Observatory at the University of Kentucky, and the Moore Observatory at the University of Louisville. Spectroscopy was recorded at the University of Texas’ McDonald Observatory. This spectroscopic data set builds on a metallicity standard that we discuss. Ultimately, this new calibration will allow the gleaning of more accurate metallicity information from spectroscopic data taken by surveys such as SDSS.

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water. Diversity in Ralstonia pickettii

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin. PMID:21878094

  20. Development of a high-throughput LC/APCI-MS method for the determination of thirteen phytoestrogens including gut microbial metabolites in human urine and serum.

    PubMed

    Wyns, Ciska; Bolca, Selin; De Keukeleire, Denis; Heyerick, Arne

    2010-04-15

    The investigation into the potential usefulness of phytoestrogens in the treatment of menopausal symptoms requires large-scale clinical trials that involve rapid, validated assays for the characterization and quantification of the phytoestrogenic precursors and their metabolites in biological matrices, as large interindividual differences in metabolism and bioavailability have been reported. Consequently, a new sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS) for the quantitative determination of thirteen phytoestrogens including their most important gut microbial metabolites (genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, coumestrol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, enterodiol, enterolactone, isoxanthohumol, xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin) in human urine and serum within one single analytical run was developed. The method uses a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of enzymatic deconjugation followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid-phase extraction (SPE) for urine or serum, respectively. The phytoestrogens and their metabolites are detected with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), operating both in the positive and the negative mode. This bioanalytical method has been fully validated and proved to allow an accurate and precise quantification of the targeted phytoestrogens and their metabolites covering the lower parts-per-billion range for the measurement of relevant urine and serum levels following ingestion of phytoestrogen-rich dietary supplements. PMID:20299290

  1. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  2. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  3. The advantage of coronal scanning in cerebral computed angiotomography for diagnosis of moyamoya disease

    SciTech Connect

    Asari, S.; Satoh, T.; Sakurai, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sadamoto, K.

    1982-12-01

    The advantage of coronal scanning in cerebral computed angiotomography for diagnosis of and screening for moyamoya disease is demonstrated. Characteristic features on the coronal CT scan include (a) attenuation of and difficulty in following the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and carotid fork and (b) abnormal ''nebula-like'' high-density areas consisting of irregular, tortuous, or patchy vessels arising in the basal cisterns and extending to the basal ganglia.

  4. Transgenic male mating advantage provides opportunity for Trojan gene effect in a fish.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; DeWoody, J Andrew; Muir, William M

    2004-03-01

    Genetically modified (GM) strains now exist for many organisms, producing significant promise for agricultural production. However, if these organisms have some fitness advantage, they may also pose an environmental harm when released. High mating success of GM males relative to WT males provides such an important fitness advantage. Here, we provide documentation that GM male medaka fish modified with salmon growth hormone possess an overwhelming mating advantage. GM medaka offspring possess a survival disadvantage relative to WT, however. When both of these fitness components are included in our model, the transgene is predicted to spread if GM individuals enter wild populations (because of the mating advantage) and ultimately lead to population extinction (because of the viability disadvantage). Mating trials indicate that WT males use alternative mating tactics in an effort to counter the mating advantage of GM males, and we use genetic markers to ascertain the success of these alternative strategies. Finally, we model the impact of alternative mating tactics by WT males on transgene spread. Such tactics may reduce the rate of transgene spread, but not the outcome. PMID:14976259

  5. Using integration technology as a strategic advantage.

    PubMed

    Fry, P A

    1993-08-01

    The underlying premise of the Managed Competition Act previously cited is that through managed competition providers will be forced to lower care costs while increasing the level of positive care outcomes. Because it may also be that tomorrow's hospitals will find a severe rationing of technology, what can they do to prepare? Most of the systems in place today already have built within them all the necessary potential to address this premise and technology requirement with no change, no conversion, no expense for new equipment and software, and no disruption in day-to-day operations, just a little re-engineering. Today, however, these systems are similar to a 20-mule team pulling in different directions: all the power is there, but the wagon remains motionless and totally unable to reach its objective. It takes a skilled wagonmaster to bring them together, to make the mules work as a cohesive unit, to make the power of 20 mules greater than the sum of 20 mules. So it is and will be for the hospital of tomorrow. System integration is no longer a question of whether but of when. Those hospitals that use it today as a strategic advantage will be in a better position tomorrow to use it as a competitive strategic advantage in an environment that will reward low cost and high positive care outcomes and will penalize those that cannot compete. The technology is already here and economically within reach of nearly every hospital, just waiting to be used. The question that must nag all of us who want to make the health care system of America better is, Why not make the when now? Rich Helppie, president of Superior Consultant Company, summarized the solution well: The old ways will not give way to the new overnight. The re-engineering process in healthcare must evolve. Compared to the last 20 years, however, such evolution may appear to be a massive, forthright, complete, comprehensive, drastic and rapid revolution. Survival is the name of the game, and for healthcare

  6. Simultaneous determination in hair of multiclass drugs of abuse (including THC) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Di Corcia, D; D'Urso, F; Gerace, E; Salomone, A; Vincenti, M

    2012-06-15

    A simple procedure for the quantitative determination in hair samples of 13 common drugs of abuse or metabolites (morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, buprenorphine, methadone and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) has been developed and fully validated. The analytes were extracted from the matrix by a simple overnight incubation with methanol at 55 °C. An aliquot of the extract was directly injected into an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system equipped with Waters Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase eluted with a linear gradient (water/formic acid 5 mM:acetonitrile; v:v) from 98:2 to 0:100 in 4.5 min, followed by isocratic elution at 100% B for 1.0 min. The flow rate was 0.6 mL/min and the total run time was 8.0 min including re-equilibration at the initial conditions. The compounds were revealed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The absence of matrix interferents, together with excellent repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes tested. The method proved linear in the interval from the limit of quantification to 5.0 ng/mg (1.0 ng/mg for Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol) with correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.9970 to 0.9997. Quantitation limits were below the cut-off values recommended by the Society of Hair Testing and ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 ng/mg. Application of the present UHPLC-MS/MS procedure and instrumentation to hair analysis allows high sample-throughput, together with excellent sensitivity and selectivity, in workplace drug-screening controls and forensic investigations. These qualities, combined with minimal sample workup, make the cost of this screening affordable for most private and

  7. High-throughput LC-MS/MS based simultaneous determination of polyamines including N-acetylated forms in human saliva and the diagnostic approach to breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Mochizuki, Toshiki; Inoue, Koichi; Toyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimoto, Nobuyasu; Endo, Yumi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2013-12-17

    The determination of polyamines and their N-acetylated forms was performed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The polyamines efficiently reacted with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) in 0.1 M borax (pH 9.3) at 60 °C for 30 min. The resulting derivatives were analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and sensitively detected by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Furthermore, a rapid separation of the polyamine derivatives within 10 min was performed by UPLC using an antipressurized column packed with 1.7-μm octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica gel. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the attomole level (9-43 amol). This procedure was used to successfully determine 11 polyamines, including their N-acetylated forms, in the saliva of patients with primary and relapsed breast cancer and healthy volunteers. The level of several polyamines (Ac-PUT, Ac-SPD, Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) increases in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the levels of three polyamines (Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) were significantly higher only in the relapsed patients. The present method proved highly sensitive and is characterized by specificity and feasibility for sample analysis. Consequently, the proposed method is useful for the noninvasive salivary diagnosis of cancer patients and could be applied to determine polyamines in several specimens of biological nature. PMID:24274257

  8. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  9. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this notice to revise...

  10. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  11. Electronic Recruiting: An Alternative with Many Advantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Mary J.; Woo, Tony Chi-Hung

    1989-01-01

    Discusses electronic recruiting, a process which enables employers to directly access computerized college student resume information via modem. Addresses such advantages as providing up-to-date student information and alleviating paperwork. Provides an example of this system. (BHK)

  12. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  13. Quasi-independence, fitness, and advantageousness.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    I argue that the idea of 'quasi-independence' [Lewontin, R. C. (1978). Adaptation. Scientific American, 239(3), 212-230] cannot be understood without attending to the distinction between fitness and advantageousness [Sober, E. (1993). Philosophy of biology. Boulder: Westview Press]. Natural selection increases the frequency of fitter traits, not necessarily of advantageous ones. A positive correlation between an advantageous trait and a disadvantageous one may prevent the advantageous trait from evolving. The quasi-independence criterion is aimed at specifying the conditions under which advantageous traits will evolve by natural selection in this type of situation. Contrary to what others have argued [Sterelny, K. (1992). Evolutionary explanations of human behavior. Australian Journal of Philosophy, 70(2), 156-172, and Sterelny, K., & Griffiths, P. (1999). Sex and death. Chicago: University of Chicago Press], these conditions must involve a precise quantitative measure of (a) the extent to which advantageous traits are beneficial, and (b) the degree to which they are correlated with other traits. Driscoll (2004) [Driscoll, C. (2004). Can behaviors be adaptations? Philosophy of Science, 71, 16-35] recognizes the need for such a measure, but I argue that she does not provide the correct formulation. The account of quasi-independence that I offer clarifies this point. PMID:19720331

  14. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Moon-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheon; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  15. Competitive Advantage of PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  16. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

  17. The 'Adventist advantage'. Glendale Adventist Medical Center distinguishes itself.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2002-01-01

    Glendale Adventist Medical Center, Glendale, Calif., adopted an image-building campaign to differentiate the 450-bed hospital from its neighbors. This included the headline "Adventist Advantage," used in a series of sophisticated ads, printed in gold. In all their efforts, marketers consider the sensibilities of the sizable Armenian, Korean, Hispanic and Chinese populations. PMID:12134406

  18. Solvent refining of lube oils the MP advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The current trend in lube oil solvent refining is towards the increased use of MP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) as the solvent. This paper explains why by providing an economic analysis of using MP versus furfural refining. Included are a grassroots comparison; an analysis of converting an existing unit to MP; and a brief review of why MP provides an advantage.

  19. Orbit determination modelling analysis using GPS including perturbations due to geopotential coefficients of high degree and order, solar radiation pressure and luni-solar attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Cristiane Pardal, Paula; Koiti Kuga, Helio

    The problem of orbit determination consists essentially of estimating parameter values that completely specify the body trajectory in the space, processing a set of information (measure-ments) from this body. Such observations can be collected through a conventional tracking network on Earth or through sensors like GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful and low cost way to allow the computation of orbits for artificial Earth satellites. The Topex/Poseidon satellite is normally used as a reference for analyzing this system for space positioning. The orbit determination of artificial satellites is a nonlinear problem in which the disturbing forces are not easily modeled, like geopotential and direct solar radiation pressure. Through an onboard GPS receiver it is possible to obtain measurements (pseudo-range and phase) that can be used to estimate the state of the orbit. One intends to analyze the modeling of the orbit of an artificial satellite, using signals of the GPS constellation and least squares algorithms as a method of estimation, with the aim of analyzing the performance of the orbit estimation process. Accuracy is not the main goal; one pursues to verify how differences of modeling can affect the final accuracy of the orbit determination. To accomplish that, the following effects were considered: perturbations up to high degree and order for the geopoten-tial coefficients; direct solar radiation pressure, Sun attraction, and Moon attraction. It was also considered the position of the GPS antenna on the satellite body that, lately, consists of the influence of the satellite attitude motion in the orbit determination process. Although not presenting the ultimate accuracy, pseudo-range measurements corrected from ionospheric effects were considered enough to such analysis. The measurements were used to feed the batch least squares orbit determination process, in order to yield conclusive results about the orbit modeling issue. An application

  20. Three case studies of three high school teachers' definitions, beliefs, and implementation practices of inquiry-based science method including barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn-Morrison, Kimberly D.

    This study involved three teachers in various stages of implementation of inquiry-based science method. The cases were chosen because one participant was a novice in using inquiry-based science method, one participant was in her second year of implementation, and the third participant was experienced with inquiry-based science method. The cases were set in a rural high school in three different science classrooms. One of the classrooms was a regular biology class. One of the classrooms was an honors oceanography class and another was an advanced placement environmental science classroom. Data sources included interviews, observations, and document collection. Interviews, observations, and document collection were used to triangulate data. Each classroom was observed five times. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with each participant and at the end of the semester. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each observation. Documents were collected such as each teacher's lesson plans, student work, and assignments. Data was initially organized according to the research areas of teacher's definition, teacher's beliefs, teacher's barriers to implementation, and teacher's enablers to implementation. Then, patterns emerging from each of these cases were organized. Lastly, patterns emerging across cases were compared in a cross-case analysis. Patterns shared between cases were: Participants related inquiry-based science method with hands-on learning activities. Participants saw students as the center of the learning process. Participants had positive beliefs about constructivist learning practices that were strengthened after implementation of inquiry-based teaching. Facilitators of successful implementation of inquiry-based science method were positive student motivation, students' retention of knowledge, and a positive experience for lower level students. Barriers to successful implementation were teachers not having complete control of the

  1. [Mirtazapine--pharmacologic action and clinical advantages].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Purebl, György

    2009-03-01

    Mirtazapine is an effective antidepressant with unique and special mechanism of action characterized by high response and remission rates, relatively early onest of action and favourable side-effect profile. The present paper reviews some special points of the clinical use of mirtazapine, which is on the market in Hungary for almost 10 years, including its sleep-improving and anxiolytic effets. This review will also touch the management of the most commonly occuring side-effects. PMID:19731817

  2. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  3. High Stakes Testing in Texas: An Analysis of the Impact of Including Special Education Students in the Texas Academic Excellence Indicator System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas H.

    The accountability subset of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) was studied over 4 years to identify trends that might explain why the 1999 TAAS passing rate did not decrease as was predicted. Expanding the accountability index in those years to include special education students was expected to cause a decline in the TAAS…

  4. Curriculum Guide for Parent Education Programs (Including Special Sections for Rural Parents, Single Parents, Working Parents, and High Risk Parents). Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jo Ann; And Others

    This curriculum for parent education through cooperative preschools has a sequential approach, with topics developed for parents with different age children enrolled in the various laboratory settings. Introductory materials include the goals and objectives for community college parent cooperative programs, methods of presentation, and a…

  5. Advantages of Catalysis in Self-Assembled Molecular Capsules.

    PubMed

    Catti, Lorenzo; Zhang, Qi; Tiefenbacher, Konrad

    2016-06-27

    Control over the local chemical environment of a molecule can be achieved by encapsulation in supramolecular host systems. In supramolecular catalysis, this control is used to gain advantages over classical homogeneous catalysis in bulk solution. Two of the main advantages concern influencing reactions in terms of substrate and product selectivity. Due to size and/or shape recognition, substrate selective conversion can be realized. Additionally, noncovalent interactions with the host environment facilitate alternative reaction pathways and can yield unusual products. This Concept article discusses and highlights literature examples utilizing self-assembled molecular capsules to achieve catalytic transformations displaying a high degree of substrate and/or product selectivity. Furthermore, the advantage of supramolecular hosts in multicatalyst tandem reactions is covered. PMID:27150251

  6. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... and members of the military community. The Community Advantage Pilot Program will allow mission... military community. This new pilot program will replace the current Community Express Pilot Loan Program, which has been extended through April 30, 2011. (75 FR 80561, December 22, 2010) No new...

  7. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of…

  8. The Star Rating System and Medicare Advantage Plans.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    With nearly 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries opting to enroll in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans instead of fee-for-service Medicare, it's safe to say the MA program is quite popular. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers a Star Ratings program for MA plans, which offers measures of quality and service among the plans that are used not only to help beneficiaries choose plans but also to award additional payments to plans that meet high standards. These additional payments, in turn, are used by plans to provide additional benefits to beneficiaries or to reduce cost sharing--added features that are likely to factor into beneficiaries' choice of MA plans. The Star Ratings program is also meant to drive improvements in the quality of plans, and this secondary effort seems to have been successful. Despite this success, issues with the Star Ratings system remain, including: how performance metrics are developed, chosen, and maintained; how differences among beneficiary populations (particularly with regard to the dually eligible and those receiving low-income subsidies) should be recognized; and the extent to which health plans can control the variables on which they are being measured. Because the Star Ratings approach has been extended to providers of health care as well--hospitals, nursing homes, and dialysis facilities--these issues are worth exploring as CMS fine-tunes its methods of measurement. PMID:26072530

  9. High Speed Video Data Acquisition System (VDAS) for H. E. P. , including Reference Frame Subtractor, Data Compactor and 16 megabyte FIFO

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, K.L.; Baumbaugh, A.E.; Ruchti, R.; Baumbaugh, B.W.

    1987-02-01

    A Video-Data-Acquisition-System (VDAS) has been developed to record image data from a scintillating glass fiber-optic target developed for High Energy Physics. VDAS consists of a combination flash ADC, reference frame subtractor, high speed data compactor, an N megabyte First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory (where N is a multiple of 4), and a single board computer as a control processor. System data rates are in excess of 30 megabytes/second. The reference frame subtractor, in conjunction with the data compactor, records only the differences from a standard frame. This greatly reduces the amount of data needed to record an image. Typical image sizes are reduced by as much as a factor of 20. With the exception of the ECL ADC board, the system uses standard TTL components to minimize power consumption and cost. VDAS operation as well as enhancements to the original system are discussed.

  10. Behavior of an inversion-based precipitation retrieval algorithm with high-resolution AMPR measurements including a low-frequency 10.7-GHz channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Xiang, X.; Mugnai, A.; Hood, R. E.; Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passsive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The analysis is designed to first determine the improvements that can be gained by adding brightness temperature information from the AMPR low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) to a multispectral retrieval algorithm nominally run with satellite information at 19, 37, and 85 GHz. The impact of spatial resolution degradation of the high-resolution brightness temperature information on the retrieved rain/cloud liquid water contents and ice water contents is then quantified in order to assess the possible biases inherent to satellite-based retrieval. Careful inspection of the high-resolution aircraft dataset reveals five distinctive brightness temperature features associated with cloud structure and scattering effects that are not generally detectable in current passive microwave satellite measurements. Results suggest that the inclusion of 10.7-GHz information overcomes two basic problems associated with three-channel retrieval. Intercomparisons of retrievals carried out at high-resolution and then averaged to a characteristic satellite scale to the corresponding retrievals in which the brightness temperatures are first convolved down to the satellite scale suggest that with the addition of the 10.7-GHz channel, the rain liquid water contents will not be negatively impacted by special resolution degradation. That is not the case with the ice water contents as they appear ti be quite sensitive to the imposed scale, the implication being that as spatial resolution is reduced, ice water contents will become increasingly underestimated.

  11. Lung function score including a parameter of small airway disease as a highly predictive indicator of survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakamae, Mika; Yamashita, Mariko; Koh, Hideo; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakane, Takahiko; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Asao; Hino, Masayuki; Nakamae, Hirohisa

    2016-06-01

    Some studies on the predictive value of determining pulmonary function prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have shown a significant association between pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters and pulmonary complications, and mortality. However, the percentage of patients showing abnormalities in pretransplant PFT parameters is low. We comprehensively evaluated the effect of pretransplant PFT parameters, including a marker of small airway disease (ratio of the airflow rate of 50% vital capacity to the airflow rate of 25% vital capacity (V˙50/V˙25), on outcomes in 206 evaluable patients who underwent allo-HCT at our institute. Notable among the significant parameters in a univariable analysis, V˙50/V˙25 was the most powerful indicator of survival following allo-HCT (delta-Akaike information criterion [∆AIC] = 12.47, ∆χ(2)  = 14.47; P = 0.0001). Additionally, a pretransplant lung function score (pLFS) established by applying three parameters with superior predictive values including V˙50/V˙25 represented a better discriminating variable for the prediction of survival. Our data demonstrate that a pLFS incorporating a parameter of small airway disease, rather than the parameters of central airway obstruction, may be useful for predicting patient survival following allo-HCT. PMID:27018997

  12. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Teleportation of Entangled States through Divorce of Entangled Pair Mediated by a Weak Coherent Field in a High-Q Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-07-01

    We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.

  13. C-5-Modified Tetrahydropyrano-Tetrahydofuran-Derived Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Exert Potent Inhibition of the Replication of HIV-1 Variants Highly Resistant to Various PIs, including Darunavir

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Manabu; Hayashi, Hironori; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Teruya; Nakata, Hirotomo; Das, Debananda; Yamagata, Yuriko; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We identified three nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-015, -085, and -097, containing tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) with a C-5 hydroxyl. The three compounds were potent against a wild-type laboratory HIV-1 strain (HIV-1WT), with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3.0 to 49 nM, and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for GRL-015, -085, and -097 of 80, >100, and >100 μM, respectively. All the three compounds potently inhibited the replication of highly PI-resistant HIV-1 variants selected with each of the currently available PIs and recombinant clinical HIV-1 isolates obtained from patients harboring multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants (HIVMDR). Importantly, darunavir (DRV) was >1,000 times less active against a highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant (HIV-1DRVRP51); the three compounds remained active against HIV-1DRVRP51 with only a 6.8- to 68-fold reduction. Moreover, the emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was considerably delayed compared to the case of DRV. In particular, HIV-1 variants resistant to GRL-085 and -097 did not emerge even when two different highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variants were used as a starting population. In the structural analyses, Tp-THF of GRL-015, -085, and -097 showed strong hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone atoms of active-site amino acid residues (Asp29 and Asp30) of HIV-1 protease. A strong hydrogen bonding formation between the hydroxyl moiety of Tp-THF and a carbonyl oxygen atom of Gly48 was newly identified. The present findings indicate that the three compounds warrant further study as possible therapeutic agents for treating individuals harboring wild-type HIV and/or HIVMDR. IMPORTANCE Darunavir (DRV) inhibits the replication of most existing multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and has a high genetic barrier. However, the emergence of highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 strains (HIVDRVR) has recently been observed in vivo and in

  14. What factors contribute to an ownership advantage?

    PubMed

    Fayed, S A; Jennions, M D; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-04-23

    In most taxa, owners win fights when defending a territory against intruders. We calculated effect sizes for four factors that potentially contribute to an 'owner advantage'. We studied male fiddler crabs Uca mjoebergi, where owners won 92% of natural fights. Owners were not more successful because they were inherently better fighters (r=0.02). There was a small effect (r=0.18) of the owner's knowledge of territory quality (food availability) and a medium effect (r=0.29) of his having established relations with neighbours (duration of active tenure), but neither was statistically significant. There was, however, a significant effect due to the mechanical advantage the owner gained through access to the burrow during fights (r=0.48, p<0.005). PMID:18089521

  15. The oblique mastectomy incision: advantages and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gronet, Edward M; Halvorson, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Mastectomy has traditionally been performed using a transverse elliptical incision. The disadvantages of this approach are a potentially visible scar medially and poor subincisional soft-tissue coverage of implants laterally. A more natural and aesthetic result is obtained with an oblique incision running parallel to the pectoralis major muscle fibers. This approach offers women more freedom of choice in clothing as well as the potential for complete subincisional muscle coverage in alloplastic breast reconstruction, in addition to other functional advantages. PMID:24835870

  16. Sinus pericranii: advantages of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bigot, J L; Iacona, C; Lepreux, A; Dhellemmes, P; Motte, J; Gomes, H

    2000-10-01

    Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular anomaly involving an abnormal communication between the extracranial and intracranial circulations. A 3-year-old girl presented with a 2 x 2-cm, midline soft-tissue mass at the vertex. Plain skull films and CT using bone windows showed erosion of the parietal bones. MRI confirmed the clinical diagnosis by identifying communication of the vascular mass with the intracranial dural venous sinus. The advantages of MRI are discussed. PMID:11075608

  17. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Using hysteresis analysis of high-resolution water quality monitoring data, including uncertainty, to infer controls on nutrient and sediment transfer in catchments.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C E M; Freer, J E; Johnes, P J; Collins, A L

    2016-02-01

    A large proportion of nutrients and sediment is mobilised in catchments during storm events. Therefore understanding a catchment's hydrological behaviour during storms and how this acts to mobilise and transport nutrients and sediment to nearby watercourses is extremely important for effective catchment management. The expansion of available in-situ sensors is allowing a wider range of water quality parameters to be monitored and at higher temporal resolution, meaning that the investigation of hydrochemical behaviours during storms is increasingly feasible. Studying the relationship between discharge and water quality parameters in storm events can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to nutrient and sediment transport. Therefore, this paper uses 2 years of high temporal resolution (15/30 min) discharge and water quality (nitrate-N, total phosphorus (TP) and turbidity) data to examine hysteretic behaviour during storm events in two contrasting catchments, in the Hampshire Avon catchment, UK. This paper provides one of the first examples of a study which comprehensively examines storm behaviours for up to 76 storm events and three water quality parameters. It also examines the observational uncertainties using a non-parametric approach. A range of metrics was used, such as loop direction, loop area and a hysteresis index (HI) to characterise and quantify the storm behaviour. With two years of high resolution information it was possible to see how transport mechanisms varied between parameters and through time. This study has also clearly shown the different transport regimes operating between a groundwater dominated chalk catchment versus a surface-water dominated clay catchment. This information, set within an uncertainty framework, means that confidence can be derived that the patterns and relationships thus identified are statistically robust. These insights can thus be used to provide information

  19. Improvement of III-nitride visible and ultraviolet light-emitting diode performance, including extraction efficiency, electrical efficiency, thermal management and efficiency maintenance at high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vampola, Kenneth

    In this work, highly efficient broad-area LEDs on bulk GaN substrates were developed and the fabrication process and device layout were optimized. This optimization relied in part on electrical, optical, thermal and recombination models. The peak external quantum efficiency of the 450 nm LEDs was over 68% when biased at 20 mA. The efficiency characteristic showed a typical droop curve, decreasing at high current densities. The cause of this droop is unknown. An exploratory experiment was conducted to characterize electron overflow and its role in efficiency droop. Novel device structures were developed, allowing direct measurement of overflow electrons in LED-like structures under electrical injection. In these test structures, electrons were observed in the p-type region of the LED only at current densities where efficiency droop was active. The onset of efficiency droop was preceded by the onset of electron overflow. However, the magnitude of the overflow current could not be measured and it is undetermined whether the dominant cause of efficiency droop is electron overflow or some other process such as Auger recombination. Calibration structures allowing measurement of the magnitude of the overflow are proposed. Work on deep-ultraviolet, 275 nm, LEDs is also presented. Demonstration of direct-wafer bonded LEDs to beta-Ga2O3 is presented. A SiC substrate removal process is discussed. LEDs fabricated by this flip-chip process exhibited up to 1.8 times greater power compared to LEDs fabricated by a standard process but suffered from increased forward voltage and premature failure. Further process development leading to electrically efficient operation is proposed.

  20. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m2 intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m2 i.v. Days 3– 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m2 i.v. Days 1–2, thiotepa 40 mg/m2 i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m2 i.v. Day −5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days −4 to −3 and etoposide 150 mg/m2 i.v. Days −5 to −3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173) PMID:23242601

  1. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m(2) intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m(2) i.v. Days 3- 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m(2) i.v. Days 1-2, thiotepa 40 mg/m(2) i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m(2) i.v. Day -5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days -4 to -3 and etoposide 150 mg/m(2) i.v. Days -5 to -3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173). PMID:23242601

  2. Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Neme, Santiago; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander N.; Stekler, Joanne D.; Wald, Anna; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown. Methods. Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate clearance. Results. Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%–4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03–11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3–6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03–7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank P<.001). Conclusions. Anogenital wart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence. PMID:26110169

  3. Diffusion and Perfusion MRI to Differentiate Treatment-Related Changes Including Pseudoprogression from Recurrent Tumors in High-Grade Gliomas with Histopathologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Prager, A.J.; Martinez, N.; Beal, K.; Omuro, A.; Zhang, Z.; Young, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Treatment-related changes and recurrent tumors often have overlapping features on conventional MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of DWI and DSC perfusion imaging alone and in combination to differentiate treatment-related effects and recurrent high-grade gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively identified 68 consecutive patients with high-grade gliomas treated by surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and temozolomide, who then developed increasing enhancing mass lesions indeterminate for treatment-related changes versus recurrent tumor. All lesions were diagnosed by histopathology at repeat surgical resection. ROI analysis was performed of the enhancing lesion on the ADC and DSC maps. Measurements made by a 2D ROI of the enhancing lesion on a single slice were recorded as ADCLesion and rCBVLesion, and measurements made by the most abnormal small fixed diameter ROI as ADCROI and rCBVROI. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon rank sum tests with P = .05. RESULTS Ten of the 68 patients (14.7%) had treatment-related changes, while 58 patients (85.3%) had recurrent tumor only (n = 19) or recurrent tumor mixed with treatment effect (n = 39). DWI analysis showed higher ADCLesion in treatment-related changes than in recurrent tumor (P = .003). DSC analysis revealed lower relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV)Lesion and rCBVROI in treatment-related changes (P=.003 andP=.011, respectively). Subanalysis of patients with suspected pseudoprogression also revealed higher ADCLesion (P = .001) and lower rCBVLesion (P = .028) and rCBVROI (P = .032) in treatment-related changes. Applying a combined ADCLesion and rCBVLesion model did not outperform either the ADC or rCBV metric alone. CONCLUSIONS Treatment-related changes showed higher diffusion and lower perfusion than recurrent tumor. Similar correlations were found for patients with suspected pseudoprogression. PMID:25593202

  4. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOEpatents

    Norbert, Massie A.; Yale, Oster

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  7. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOEpatents

    Norbert, M.A.; Yale, O.

    1992-04-28

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 15 figs.

  8. High prevalence of medication use in professional football tournaments including the World Cups between 2002 and 2014: a narrative review with a focus on NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Tscholl, Philippe M; Vaso, Martin; Weber, Alexis; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The use of medication in international football has been monitored since the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Team physicians were asked to provide information on prescribed medication 72 h prior to each match for every player. 69% of adult male players reported using medication, with more than half the players using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Up to one-third of all players used NSAIDs prior to every match, regardless of whether they took the field or not. The mean intake of medication was significantly higher during the FIFA Women's World Cup (0.85 vs 0.77 substances per player and per match in men, p<0.001), whereas the use of NSAIDs was similar to that for men. In the Under-20 and Under-17 male competitions, the use of medication was lower as 60% of players used some kind of medication and 43% of the players used NSAIDs during the tournaments. Despite the potential side effects of medication, especially of NSAIDs in the recovery process after a sports activity, there is no evidence of decreasing intake. The reported incidence is alarming, and moreover is most probably underestimated, since self-medication by the players or treatment already prescribed by club physicians is not included in the published reports. Future studies should focus on the daily dosage, time of treatment and especially the medical indication for painkilling agents to better understand the underlying factors. PMID:25878074

  9. High prevalence of medication use in professional football tournaments including the World Cups between 2002 and 2014: a narrative review with a focus on NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Tscholl, Philippe M; Vaso, Martin; Weber, Alexis; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The use of medication in international football has been monitored since the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Team physicians were asked to provide information on prescribed medication 72 h prior to each match for every player. 69% of adult male players reported using medication, with more than half the players using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Up to one-third of all players used NSAIDs prior to every match, regardless of whether they took the field or not. The mean intake of medication was significantly higher during the FIFA Women's World Cup (0.85 vs 0.77 substances per player and per match in men, p<0.001), whereas the use of NSAIDs was similar to that for men. In the Under-20 and Under-17 male competitions, the use of medication was lower as 60% of players used some kind of medication and 43% of the players used NSAIDs during the tournaments. Despite the potential side effects of medication, especially of NSAIDs in the recovery process after a sports activity, there is no evidence of decreasing intake. The reported incidence is alarming, and moreover is most probably underestimated, since self-medication by the players or treatment already prescribed by club physicians is not included in the published reports. Future studies should focus on the daily dosage, time of treatment and especially the medical indication for painkilling agents to better understand the underlying factors. PMID:25878074

  10. Nanomaterials in the application of tumor vaccines: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Li, XD; Gao, JY; Yang, Y; Fang, HY; Han, YJ; Wang, XM; Ge, W

    2013-01-01

    Tumor vaccines are a novel approach to the treatment of malignancy, and are attracting the attention of the medical profession. Nanomaterials have significant advantages in the preparation of a tumor vaccine, including their ability to penetrate and target cancer tissue and their antigenic properties. In this review, we focus on several nanomaterials, ie, carbon nanotubes, nanoemulsions, nanosized aluminum, and nanochitosan. Applications for these nanomaterials in nanovaccines and their biological characteristics, as well as their potential toxicity, are discussed. PMID:23776336

  11. Reduced genetic variation occurs among genes of the highly clonal plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, including the effector gene avrBs2.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Gale; Ritchie, David; Kousik, C S; Bergelson, Joy

    2005-05-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, also known as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria group A, is the causal agent of bacterial spot in pepper and tomato. In order to test different models that may explain the coevolution of avrBs2 with its host plants, we sequenced avrBs2 and six chromosomal loci (total of 5.5 kb per strain) from a global sample of 55 X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains collected from diseased peppers. We found an extreme lack of genetic variation among all X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria genomic loci (average nucleotide diversity, pi = 9.1 x 10(-5)), including avrBs2. This lack of diversity is consistent with X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria having undergone a recent population bottleneck and/or selective sweep followed by population expansion. Coalescent analysis determined that approximately 1.4 x 10(4) to 7.16 x 10(4) bacterial generations have passed since the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the current X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria population. Assuming a range of 50 to 500 bacterial generations per year, only 28 to 1,432 years have passed since the MRCA. This time frame coincides with human intervention with the pathogen's host plants, from domestication to modern agricultural practices. Examination of 19 mutated (loss-of-function) avrBs2 alleles detected nine classes of mutations. All mutations affected protein coding, while no synonymous changes were found. The nature of at least one of the avrBs2 mutations suggests that it may be possible to observe one stage of an evolutionary arms race as X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria responds to selection pressure to alter avrBs2 to escape host plant resistance. PMID:15870329

  12. Reduced Genetic Variation Occurs among Genes of the Highly Clonal Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, Including the Effector Gene avrBs2

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Gale; Ritchie, David; Kousik, C. S.; Bergelson, Joy

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, also known as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria group A, is the causal agent of bacterial spot in pepper and tomato. In order to test different models that may explain the coevolution of avrBs2 with its host plants, we sequenced avrBs2 and six chromosomal loci (total of 5.5 kb per strain) from a global sample of 55 X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains collected from diseased peppers. We found an extreme lack of genetic variation among all X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria genomic loci (average nucleotide diversity, π = 9.1 × 10−5), including avrBs2. This lack of diversity is consistent with X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria having undergone a recent population bottleneck and/or selective sweep followed by population expansion. Coalescent analysis determined that approximately 1.4 × 104 to 7.16 × 104 bacterial generations have passed since the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the current X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria population. Assuming a range of 50 to 500 bacterial generations per year, only 28 to 1,432 years have passed since the MRCA. This time frame coincides with human intervention with the pathogen's host plants, from domestication to modern agricultural practices. Examination of 19 mutated (loss-of-function) avrBs2 alleles detected nine classes of mutations. All mutations affected protein coding, while no synonymous changes were found. The nature of at least one of the avrBs2 mutations suggests that it may be possible to observe one stage of an evolutionary arms race as X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria responds to selection pressure to alter avrBs2 to escape host plant resistance. PMID:15870329

  13. Multiresidue Determination of β2-Agonists Including Phenylethanolamine A in Animal-Derived Food by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; Pu, Rong-chun; Wang, Xi-xi; Luo, Chun-ying; Zhang, Li-chun; Zhang, Xin-shen

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) procedure for detection of nine β-agonists in animal-derived food is described. The method was based on enzymatic hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia, followed by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with perchloric acid and a solid-phase extraction scheme using two kinds of cartridges, HLB and MCX. The influence of sample solution pH in the extraction recovery was studied, and pH 4.0 was found to give the best recovery. The analytes were eluted with methanol containing 4% ammonia. A validation procedure for quantitative analysis of β-agonists in animal-derived food was performed. The three kinds of internal standards, d3-salbutamol, d6-ractopamine and d9-clenpenterol, were applied in the sample preparation and detection of UHPLC/MS/MS. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged between 74.9 and 106.9%. The relative standard deviations of detection were at 0.7-9.6%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01-0.05 and 0.03-0.20 µg/kg, respectively. The effect of sample matrix in the detection was discussed in detail. PMID:25480455

  14. The infrared spectrum of isothiazole in the range 600-1500 cm-1, including a high-resolution study of the ν studies of the full spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Wugt Larsen, R.; Aitken, R. A.; Kraus, H.; Nicolaisen, F. M.; Palmer, M. H.

    The gas-phase high-resolution infrared spectrum of isothiazole in the range 600-1500 cm-1 has been recorded, and revised band centres obtained for a number of vibrations. An analysis of the ν11(A') band at 818 cm-1 and the ν16(A'') band at 727 cm-1 has been performed, using the Watson Hamiltonian, A-reduction, IIIr representation. These were combined with previous microwave spectral data to provide combined analyses for rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants ΔJ, ΔJK, ΔK, δJ and δK. These extend the knowledge derived from previous microwave and IR spectral studies. The equilibrium structures and the derived harmonic frequencies were calculated by ab initio methods, using a variety of basis sets with MP2, MP4 and CCSD(T) methods, and a comparison of these with experimental data is discussed. At a pragmatic level, the closest correlation of the rotational constants with experiment is not obtained with the most sophisticated methodology. Similarly, the vibration frequencies and intensities also vary strongly with the procedure. In particular, we found that the cc-pVTZ+MP2 results probably provide the best numerical comparison with experimental IR data for this molecule.

  15. Apixaban and atrial fibrillation: no clear advantage.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    For the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and a high thrombotic risk, the standard treatment is warfarin, an anticoagulant. Dabigatran, a thrombin inhibitor, is the alternative when warfarin fails to maintain the INR within the therapeutic range. Patients with a moderate thrombotic risk may receive either warfarin or low-dose aspirin. Apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant, has been authorised in the European Union for use in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate or high risk of thrombosis. In a double-blind, randomised non-inferiority trial versus warfarin in 18 201 patients, the incidence of stroke or systemic embolism was lower in the apixaban group (average 1.3 versus 1.6 events per 100 patient-years; p = 0.01). This difference was mainly due to a lower incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and did not result in a clear decline in mortality. In addition, these results are undermined by multiple methodological flaws. Clinical evaluation included no trials comparing apixaban with dabigatran; any indirect comparison would be risky given the poor quality of the clinical assessment of both drugs in atrial fibrillation. A double-blind, randomised trial including 5598 patients compared apixaban with aspirin but provided little information on these options in patients with a moderate risk of thrombosis, as most patients were at high risk. In clinical trials, major bleeding events were less frequent with apixaban than with warfarin (average 2.1 versus 3.1 events per 100 patient-years), but they were more frequent with apixaban than with aspirin (1.4 versus 0.9 events per 100 patient-years). In 2013, there is no way of monitoring the anticoagulant activity of apixaban in routine clinical practice, and there is no antidote in case of overdose; the same is true for dabigatran. Apixaban is a substrate for various cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and for P-glycoprotein, creating a risk of multiple drug

  16. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  17. {sup 13}C-METHYL FORMATE: OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS INCLUDING ORION-KL AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Neill, Justin L.; Carvajal, Miguel; Field, David; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier; Baudry, Alain; Kleiner, Isabelle; Margulès, Laurent; Huet, Thérèse R.; Demaison, Jean E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es

    2015-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic center for methyl formate, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and its isotopologues H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4-287.4 GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} toward the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr B2(N-LMH), NGC 6334 IRS 1, W51 e2, and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1 mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward the Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4 ± 10.1 and 71.4 ± 7.8, respectively) are, for both the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of CO derived toward Orion-KL. Likewise, regarding the other sources, our results are consistent with the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C in CO. We also report the spectroscopic characterization, which includes a complete partition function, of the complex H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} species. New spectroscopic data for both isotopomers H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}, presented in this study, have made it possible to measure this fundamentally important isotope ratio in a large organic molecule for the first time.

  18. DISCOVERY OF FOUR HIGH PROPER MOTION L DWARFS, INCLUDING A 10 pc L DWARF AT THE L/T TRANSITION {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Philip J.; Gizis, John E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Skrutskie, Michael F. E-mail: gizis@udel.edu

    2013-10-20

    We discover four high proper motion L dwarfs by comparing the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to the Two Micron All Sky Survey. WISE J140533.32+835030.5 is an L dwarf at the L/T transition with a proper motion of 0.85 ± 0.''02 yr{sup –1}, previously overlooked due to its proximity to a bright star (V ≈ 12 mag). From optical spectroscopy we find a spectral type of L8, and from moderate-resolution J band spectroscopy we find a near-infrared spectral type of L9. We find WISE J140533.32+835030.5 to have a distance of 9.7 ± 1.7 pc, bringing the number of L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc from six to seven. WISE J040137.21+284951.7, WISE J040418.01+412735.6, and WISE J062442.37+662625.6 are all early L dwarfs within 25 pc, and were classified using optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra. WISE J040418.01+412735.6 is an L2 pec (red) dwarf, a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We use follow-up optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to classify a previously discovered fifth object WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 as an (L8 Opt/L9 NIR), confirming it as an L dwarf at the L/T transition within 10 pc. WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 shows tentative CH{sub 4} in the H band, possibly the result of unresolved binarity with an early T dwarf, a scenario not supported by binary spectral template fitting. If WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 is a single object, it represents the earliest onset of CH{sub 4} in the H band of an L/T transition dwarf in the SpeX Library. As very late L dwarfs within 10 pc, WISE J140533.32+835030.5 and WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 will play a vital role in resolving outstanding issues at the L/T transition.

  19. Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontaneous speech by 5 healthy speakers of American English. We then use locally-weighted linear regression to estimate the articulatory forward map from low-level articulator variables to high-level task/goal variables for these postures. We quantify the overall magnitude of the first derivative of the forward map as a measure of mechanical advantage. We find that postures assumed during grammatical pauses in speech as well as speech-ready postures are significantly more mechanically advantageous than postures assumed during absolute rest. Further, these postures represent empirical extremes of mechanical advantage, between which lie the postures assumed during various vowels and consonants. Relative mechanical advantage of different postures might be an important physical constraint influencing planning and control of speech production. PMID:25133544

  20. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Abbott, Kevin C; Salahudeen, Abdulla K; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Horwich, Tamara B

    2005-03-01

    In the general population, a high body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, the effect of overweight (BMI: 25-30) or obesity (BMI: >30) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is paradoxically in the opposite direction; ie, a high BMI is associated with improved survival. Although this "reverse epidemiology" of obesity or dialysis-risk-paradox is relatively consistent in MHD patients, studies in CKD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis have yielded mixed results. Growing confusion has developed among physicians, some of whom are no longer confident about whether to treat obesity in CKD patients. A similar reverse epidemiology of obesity has been described in geriatric populations and in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Possible causes of the reverse epidemiology of obesity include a more stable hemodynamic status, alterations in circulating cytokines, unique neurohormonal constellations, endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction, reverse causation, survival bias, time discrepancies among competitive risk factors, and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome. Reverse epidemiology may have significant clinical implications in the management of dialysis, CHF, and geriatric patients, ie, populations with extraordinarily high mortality. Exploring the causes and consequences of the reverse epidemiology of obesity in dialysis patients can enhance our insights into similar paradoxes observed for other conventional risk factors, such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol and homocysteine concentrations, and in other populations such as those with CHF, advanced age, cancer, or AIDS. Weight-gaining interventional studies in dialysis patients are urgently needed to ascertain whether they can improve survival and quality of life. PMID:15755821

  1. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed

  2. Ghost ileostomy: real and potential advantages.

    PubMed

    Miccini, Michelangelo; Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Gregori, Matteo; Barillari, Paolo; Tocchi, Adriano

    2010-10-01

    Loop ileostomy is created to minimize the clinical impact of colorectal anastomotic leak. However, a lot of complications may be associated with ileostomy presence and with its reversal. Moreover, patients hardly accept the quality of life resulting from ileostomy. We describe a simple technique (ghost ileostomy) to combine all the advantages of a disposable ileostomy without entailing its complications in patients submitted to low rectal resection. In case of uneventful postoperative course, the ghost ileostomy prevents all complications related to defunctioning ileostomy. At the same time, in case of anastomotic leakage, the ghost ileostomy is easily and safely converted into a defunctioning ileostomy. PMID:20887836

  3. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    PubMed

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example. PMID:8710317

  4. Using information networks for competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings. PMID:10146130

  5. Left hemispheric advantage for numerical abilities in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Annette; von Fersen, Lorenzo; Güntürkün, Onur

    2005-02-28

    In a two-choice discrimination paradigm, a bottlenose dolphin discriminated relational dimensions between visual numerosity stimuli under monocular viewing conditions. After prior binocular acquisition of the task, two monocular test series with different number stimuli were conducted. In accordance with recent studies on visual lateralization in the bottlenose dolphin, our results revealed an overall advantage of the right visual field. Due to the complete decussation of the optic nerve fibers, this suggests a specialization of the left hemisphere for analysing relational features between stimuli as required in tests for numerical abilities. These processes are typically right hemisphere-based in other mammals (including humans) and birds. The present data provide further evidence for a general right visual field advantage in bottlenose dolphins for visual information processing. It is thus assumed that dolphins possess a unique functional architecture of their cerebral asymmetries. PMID:15686828

  6. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  7. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    PubMed

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies. PMID:26381816

  8. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  9. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    PubMed Central

    Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414

  10. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  11. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. PMID:27324185

  12. [Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

    1997-12-01

    The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated. PMID:9476373

  13. Steel monoleg design tries for concrete advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The conceptual design of a fixed steel monoleg structure designed for North Sea water depths of 80-250 meters is described. The design was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and funded in part by the European Economic Community. The design aims to give a steel structure some of the advantages of concrete condeeps. Maintenance should be minimized by enclosing the risers inside a monopod. The single-shell, variable geometry of the column structure should also serve to equalize stresses, unlike a conventional space frame where stresses tend to concentrate around the nodes. Construction and installation could be vertical, as in condeep style, or horizontal, as in steel jackets. Thus the fixed steel platform could be either barge-towed and upended with ballast tanks or floated out vertically as built and towed, like a condeep, to a mating with an integrated deck before final tow and installation by simple ballasting.

  14. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  15. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

  16. Progestin-only injectables offer many advantages.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1995-06-01

    Progestin-only injectables are among the most effective and safe of all contraceptives, yet they are not widely used in many countries. This limited use is in part due to a lack of accurate information about health concerns, inadequate counseling for users about managing side effects, and their limited availability. Where they are available, progestin-only injectables rapidly become one of the preferred methods. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) are the two progestin-only injectables in use worldwide. The former drug is sold under the brand name Depo-Provera, and the latter as Noristerat. DMPA is delivered in a water-based, crystalline suspension and absorbed gradually by the body. The normal injection of 150 mg is intended to be administered every three months, but contraceptive protection continues for an additional two weeks to provide a grace period for women who are late receiving their next injection. NET-EN is an oily solution which requires a larger needle than DMPA for injection. A 200 mg injection of NET-EN is usually administered every two months. Both of these safe, highly effective drugs are injected in either the upper arm or buttocks. DMPA and NET-EN can be distributed easily in nonclinical settings where nonphysicians can provide them to clients. The main disadvantage of the method is the disruption of the menstrual cycle, but that is generally not a serious medical problem. Focusing mainly upon DMPA, this article includes discussion of menstrual irregularity, the reduced risk of endometrial cancer among DMPA users, and method availability. PMID:12289828

  17. Genetic dissection of an elite rice hybrid revealed that heterozygotes are not always advantageous for performance.

    PubMed Central

    Hua, J P; Xing, Y Z; Xu, C G; Sun, X L; Yu, S B; Zhang, Qifa

    2002-01-01

    We introduced an experimental design that produced an "immortalized F(2)" population allowing for complete dissection of genetic components underlying quantitative traits. Data for yield and three component traits of the immortalized F(2) were collected from replicated field trials over 2 years. Using 231 marker loci, we resolved the genetic effects into individual components and assessed relative performance of all the genotypes at both single- and two-locus levels. Single-locus analysis detected 40 QTL for the four traits. Dominance effects for about one-half of the QTL were negative, resulting in little "net" positive dominance effect. Correlation between genotype heterozygosity and trait performance was low. Large numbers of digenic interactions, including AA, AD, and DD, were detected for all the traits, with AA as the most prevalent interaction. Complementary two-locus homozygotes frequently performed the best among the nine genotypes of many two-locus combinations. While cumulative small advantages over two-locus combinations may partly explain the genetic basis of heterosis of the hybrid as double heterozygotes frequently demonstrated marginal advantages, double heterozygotes were never the best genotypes in any of the two-locus combinations. It was concluded that heterozygotes were not necessarily advantageous for trait performance even among genotypes derived from such a highly heterotic hybrid. PMID:12524357

  18. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  19. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  20. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  1. Some Suggested Advantages and Disadvantages of Collective Bargaining. Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, George W.

    This report reviews briefly some advantages and disadvantages of collective bargaining in higher education. Advantages discussed include: efficiency, equality of power, legal force, impasse resolution, communication, understanding the institution, resolution of individual problems, definition of policy, rights guarantee, faculty compensation,…

  2. There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing.

    PubMed

    Paap, Kenneth R; Greenberg, Zachary I

    2013-03-01

    Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent baseline to a condition that should require EP. For each of the measures there was no main effect of group and a highly significant main effect of condition. The critical marker for a bilingual advantage, the Group×Condition interaction, was significant for only one indicator, but in a pattern indicative of a bilingual disadvantage. Tasks include antisaccade (Study 1), Simon (Studies 1-3), flanker (Study 3), and color-shape switching (Studies 1-3). The two groups performed identically on the Raven's Advanced Matrices test (Study 3). Analyses on the combined data selecting subsets that are precisely matched on parent's educational level or that include only highly fluent bilinguals reveal exactly the same pattern of results. A problem reconfirmed by the present study is that effects assumed to be indicators of a specific executive process in one task (e.g., inhibitory control in the flanker task) frequently do not predict individual differences in that same indicator on a related task (e.g., inhibitory control in the Simon task). The absence of consistent cross-task correlations undermines the interpretation that these are valid indicators of domain-general abilities. In a final discussion the underlying rationale for hypothesizing bilingual advantages in executive processing based on the special linguistic demands placed on bilinguals is interrogated. PMID:23370226

  3. Ontogenetic change in skull morphology and mechanical advantage in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jaime B; Zelditch, Miriam L; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2010-03-01

    Weaning represents a challenging transition for young mammals, one particularly difficult for species coping with extreme conditions during feeding. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) experience such extreme conditions imposed by intense feeding competition during which the ability to consume large quantities of food quickly is highly advantageous. As adult spotted hyenas have massive skulls specialized for durophagy and can feed very rapidly, young individuals are likely at a competitive disadvantage until that specialized morphology is completely developed. Here we document developmental changes in skull size, shape, and mechanical advantage of the jaws. Sampling an ontogenetic series of Crocuta skulls from individuals ranging in age from 2 months to 18 years, we use linear measurements and geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses suggesting that size, limited mechanical advantage of the jaws, and/or limited attachment sites for jaw muscles might constrain the feeding performance of juveniles. We also examine skull development in relation to key life history events, including weaning and reproductive maturity, to inquire whether ontogeny of the feeding apparatus is slower or more protracted in this species than in carnivores not specialized for durophagy. We find that, although mechanical advantage reaches maturity in hyenas at 22 months, adult skull size is not achieved until 29 months of age, and skull shape does not reach maturity until 35 months. The latter is nearly 2 years after mean weaning age, and more than 1 year after reproductive maturity. Thus, skull development in Crocuta is indeed protracted relative to that in most other carnivores. Based on the skull features that continue to change and to provide additional muscle attachment area, protracted development may be largely due to development of the massive musculature required by durophagy. These findings may ultimately shed light on the adaptive significance of the unusual "role-reversed" pattern of

  4. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    PubMed

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  5. Advantages of less-tech, less-than-lethal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marts, Donna J.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages of developing less-tech technologies by reporting on two less-tech, less-than-lethal prototype law enforcement tools developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The devices were developed for the National Institute of Justice, less- than-lethal weapons program: 1) an air bag restraint device for use in restraining suspects who become violent during transport in patrol vehicles, and 2) a retractable spiked barrier strip for stopping fleeing vehicles during high-speed pursuit. The success of both projects relied on developing design requirements in conjunction with the actual users of the devices.

  6. Technical advantages of disk laser technology in short and ultrashort pulse processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, P.; Stollhof, J.; Weiler, S.; Massa, S.; Faisst, B.; Denney, P.; Gounaris, E.

    2011-03-01

    This paper demonstrates that disk-laser technology introduces advantages that increase efficiency and allows for high productivity in micro-processing in both the nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) regimes. Some technical advantages of disk technology include not requiring good pump beam quality or special wavelengths for pumping of the disk, high optical efficiencies, no thermal lensing effects and a possible scaling of output power without an increase of pump beam quality. With cavity-dumping, the pulse duration of the disk laser can be specified between 30 and hundreds of nanoseconds, but is independent of frequency, thus maintaining process stability. TRUMPF uses this technology in the 750 watts average power laser TruMicro 7050. High intensity, along with fluency, is important for high ablation rates in thinfilm removal. Thus, these ns lasers show high removal rates, above 60 cm2/s, in thin-film solar cell production. In addition, recent results in paint-stripping of aerospace material prove the green credentials and high processing rates inherent with this technology as it can potentially replace toxic chemical processes. The ps disk technology meanwhile is used in, for example, scribing of solar cells, wafer dicing and drilling injector nozzles, as the pulse duration is short enough to minimize heat input in the laser-matter interaction. In the TruMicro Series 5000, the multi-pass regenerative amplifier stage combines high optical-optical efficiencies together with excellent output beam quality for pulse durations of only 6 ps and high pulse energies of up to 0.25 mJ.

  7. The competitive advantage of a dual-transporter system.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sagi; Kafri, Moshe; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    2011-12-01

    Cells use transporters of different affinities to regulate nutrient influx. When nutrients are depleted, low-affinity transporters are replaced by high-affinity ones. High-affinity transporters are helpful when concentrations of nutrients are low, but the advantage of reducing their abundance when nutrients are abundant is less clear. When we eliminated such reduced production of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-affinity transporters for phosphate and zinc, the elapsed time from the initiation of the starvation program until the lack of nutrients limited growth was shortened, and recovery from starvation was delayed. The latter phenotype was rescued by constitutive activation of the starvation program. Dual-transporter systems appear to prolong preparation for starvation and to facilitate subsequent recovery, which may optimize sensing of nutrient depletion by integrating internal and external information about nutrient availability. PMID:22158820

  8. Building and Accessing Clausal Representations: The Advantage of First Mention versus the Advantage of Clause Recency

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Hargreaves, David J.; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated two seemingly contradictory phenomena: the Advantage of the First-Mentioned Participant (participants mentioned first in a sentence are more accessible than participants mentioned second) and the Advantage of the Most Recent Clause (concepts mentioned in the most recent clause are more accessible than concepts mentioned in an earlier clause). We resolved this contradiction by measuring how quickly comprehenders accessed participants mentioned in the first versus second clauses of two-clause sentences. Our data supported the following hypotheses: Comprehenders represent each clause of a two-clause sentence in its own mental substructure. Comprehenders have greatest access to information in the substructure that they are currently developing; that is, they have greatest access to the most recent clause. However, at some point, the first clause becomes more accessible because the substructure representing the first clause of a two-clause sentence serves as a foundation for the whole sentence-level representation. PMID:25505819

  9. Pathogenesis and transmission of H7 and H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mallards including the recent intercontinental H5 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of Asian lineage H5N1, and recently H5N8, HPAIVs, which can cause moderate to sev...

  10. The Arts: A Competitive Advantage for California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KPMG Peat Marwick, Washington, DC. Policy Economic Group.

    This 1993 study attempts to define the size and scope of state-wide economic activity generated by the arts in California. The analysis is based on data from surveys of nonprofit arts organization and five case studies. The case studies, which provided context for the core research, include examinations of: (1) artists in Los Angeles County; (2)…

  11. Taking Full Advantage of Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Teachers need a deeper understanding of the texts being discussed, in particular the various textual and visual aspects of picturebooks themselves, including the images, written text and design elements, to support how readers made sense of these texts. As teachers become familiar with aspects of literary criticism, art history, visual grammar,…

  12. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  13. Red Dirt Thinking on Remote Educational Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The discourse of remote education is often characterised by a rhetoric of disadvantage. This is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. A range of data support this view, including National Assessment Program-Literacy and…

  14. A Proposal for Including Patient-Generated Web-based Creative Writing Material into Psychotherapy: Advantages and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Creative writing presents both a challenging and promising modality for psychotherapy. Though it has been used in various settings, the application within a session can be difficult. This case study presents a use of a web-based format to engage a resistant patient through her creative writing. Benefits and potential pitfalls of using a patient’s writing in therapy are discussed. PMID:19727286

  15. Effect of Medicare Advantage Payments on Dually Eligible Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Adam; Dowd, Bryan E.

    2005-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of Medicare Advantage (MA) payments and State Medicaid policies on the choice by Medicaid eligible Medicare beneficiaries to either join a MA plan, remain in the fee-for-service (FFS) and enroll in Medicaid (dually enrolled), or remain in FFS Medicare without joining Medicaid. Individual plan choice was modeled using a multinomial logit. The sample includes Medicaid-eligible Medicare beneficiaries (including specified low income Medicare beneficiaries [SLMBs] and qualified Medicare beneficiaries [QMBs]) drawn from the 2000 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS). We find a $10 increase in monthly MA payment reduces the probability of dual enrollment by four percentage points, and FFS Medicare enrollment by 11 percentage points. PMID:17290630

  16. Using Rock Videos to Your Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Because videos are self-motivating for students, they are highly successful in the classroom. The two schools of videos--Visual Music and Visual Lyrics--are described, and how videos can be used in music classes is discussed. (RM)

  17. The College Advantage: Weathering the Economic Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Jayasundera, Tamara; Cheah, Ban

    2012-01-01

    The rising cost of college education and high unemployment levels among recent college graduates are raising the question "Is college worth its cost?" in the minds of many Americans. A recent study published by the Associated Press found that one out of every two recent college graduates is jobless or underemployed, suggesting maybe college isn't…

  18. An Assessment of Employment Opportunities for High School Graduates in Downtown Manhattan. A Study to Aid the Planning of a New Commercial High School, Including Assessment of Certain Community Resources Likely to be Available to the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Donald E.; And Others

    Characteristics of the entry-level job market in lower Manhattan, or "Downtown," for new high school graduates were assessed. Questionnaire-guided interviews with representatives of principal industries and occupations were conducted within five major employment groups: banking, insurance, securities, communications and transportation, and…

  19. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  20. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  1. Elf cites 5 advantages of horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    ELF Aquitaine used horizontal drilling during a pilot test program to bring commercial production from its Rospo Mare oil discovery in the Adriatic, which would have been a costly disappointment if drilled by a conventional vertical well bore. Rospo Mare is a large reservoir containing a top column of highly viscous crude underlain by a water column. The company felt that a well bore that penetrated the reservoir vertically would bring early flooding of the oil column and yield only water. By penetrating the reservoir with a horizontal well drilled high in the oil column, the well successfully produced on numerous tests from Oct. 1982 until the end of the test program in 1983. Production was termed excellent, with productivity during tests reportedly reaching ca 15 times the rate produced from nearby vertical wells. However, ELF said the results usually average ca 5 times the usual rate of vertical wells.

  2. Advantages of p++ polysilicon etch stop layer versus p++ silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charavel, Remy; Laconte, Jean; Raskin, Jean Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Boron highly doped silicon is now widely used as etch stop layer in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices fabrication. The present paper shows the advantages of replacing the p++ Si etch stop layer by a p++ polysilicon layer. The etch rate of Tetramethylammoniunhydroxide (TMAH) is measured for LPCVD polysilicon and silicon doped with Boron at concentrations from 8.1018 up to 4.1020 atoms/cm3 which is the Boron solubility limit into Si. TMAH etch being often used during back-end process, selectivity to aluminium is usually needed. The etch selectivity of various TMAH solutions for p++ Si, p++ Poly and aluminium have been measured, from 25 % to 5 % TMAH pure and mixed with silicon powder and ammonium persulfate. Contrarily to silicon, polysilicon is etched isotropically in TMAH solution which constitutes a great advantage when cavities with vertical walls have to be opened. Although the polysilicon etch rate is higher than the silicon one, the selectivity (doped/undoped) is the same for the both materials, allowing identical uses. Another great advantage of polysilicon is that it can be deposited at any process step and does not require clever epitaxy steps or wafer bonding as for silicon. The surface roughness of the etched Poly region is considerably decreased with TMAH mixed with silicon powder and ammonium persulfate mixture compared to pure 25 % TMAH solution. The definition of buried masks in polysilicon layer through Boron implant is the main foreseen application. The p++ Poly buried mask brings solutions for the fabrication of self-aligned double gate MOS, microfluidic or optical networks in MEMS field.

  3. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  4. Choosy Wolves? Heterozygote Advantage But No Evidence of MHC-Based Disassortative Mating.

    PubMed

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Lapalombella, Silvana; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and 12 autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci. We tested for deviations from random mating and evaluated the covariance of genetic variables at functional and STR markers with fitness proxies deduced from pedigree reconstructions. Results did not show evidences of MHC-based disassortative mating. Rather we found a higher peptide similarity between mates at MHC loci as compared with random expectations. Fitness values were positively correlated with heterozygosity of the breeders at both MHC and STR loci, whereas they decreased with relatedness at STRs. These findings may indicate fitness advantages for breeders that, while avoiding highly related mates, are more similar at the MHC and have high levels of heterozygosity overall. Such a pattern of MHC-assortative mating may reflect local coadaptation of the breeders, while a reduction in genetic diversity may be balanced by heterozygote advantages. PMID:26610365

  5. Cost reduction advantages of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, G. T.

    1983-05-01

    Features of the CAD/CAM system implemented at the General Dynamics Convair division are summarized. CAD/CAM was initiated in 1976 to enhance engineering, manufacturing and quality assurance and thereby the company's competitive bidding position. Numerical models are substituted for hardware models wherever possible and numerical criteria are defined in design for guiding computer-controlled parts manufacturing machines. The system comprises multiple terminals, a data base, digitizer, printers, disk and tape drives, and graphics displays. The applications include the design and manufacture of parts and components for avionics, structures, scientific investigations, and aircraft structural components. Interfaces with other computers allow structural analyses by finite element codes. Although time savings have not been gained compared to manual drafting, components of greater complexity than could have been designed by hand have been designed and manufactured.

  6. Advantages of diabetic tractional retinal detachment repair

    PubMed Central

    Sternfeld, Amir; Axer-Siegel, Ruth; Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas; Weinberger, Dov; Ehrlich, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes and complications of patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment (TRD) treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Patients and methods We retrospectively studied a case series of 24 eyes of 21 patients at a single tertiary, university-affiliated medical center. A review was carried out on patients who underwent PPV for the management of TRD due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy from October 2011 to November 2013. Preoperative and final visual outcomes, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and medical background were evaluated. Results A 23 G instrumentation was used in 23 eyes (95.8%), and a 25 G instrumentation in one (4.2%). Mean postoperative follow-up time was 13.3 months (4–30 months). Visual acuity significantly improved from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) 1.48 to LogMAR 1.05 (P<0.05). Visual acuity improved by ≥3 lines in 75% of patients. Intraoperative complications included iatrogenic retinal breaks in seven eyes (22.9%) and vitreal hemorrhage in nine eyes (37.5%). In two eyes, one sclerotomy was enlarged to 20 G (8.3%). Postoperative complications included reoperation in five eyes (20.8%) due to persistent subretinal fluid (n=3), vitreous hemorrhage (n=1), and dislocated intraocular lens (n=1). Thirteen patients (54.2%) had postoperative vitreous hemorrhage that cleared spontaneously, five patients (20.8%) required antiglaucoma medications for increased intraocular pressure, seven patients (29.2%) developed an epiretinal membrane, and two patients (8.3%) developed a macular hole. Conclusion Patients with diabetic TRD can benefit from PPV surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative complications can be attributed to the complexity of this disease. PMID:26604667

  7. A memory advantage for untrustworthy faces.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Inferences of others' social traits from their faces can influence how we think and behave towards them, but little is known about how perceptions of people's traits may affect downstream cognitions, such as memory. Here we explored the relationship between targets' perceived social traits and how well they were remembered following a single brief perception, focusing primarily on inferences of trustworthiness. In Study 1, participants encoded high-consensus trustworthy and untrustworthy faces, showing significantly better memory for the latter group. Study 2 compared memory for faces rated high and low on a series of traits (dominance, facial maturity, likeability, and trustworthiness), and found that untrustworthy and unlikeable faces were remembered best, with no differences for the other traits. Finally, Study 3 compared information about trustworthiness from facial appearance and from behavioral descriptions. Untrustworthy targets were remembered better than trustworthy targets both from behavior and faces, though the effects were significantly stronger for the latter. Faces perceived as untrustworthy therefore appear to be remembered better than faces perceived as trustworthy. Consistent with ecological theories of perception, cues to trustworthiness from facial appearance may thus guide who is remembered and who is forgotten at first impression. PMID:22874071

  8. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  9. The new Medicare Advantage a disadvantage for providers?

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Patrick K

    2004-03-01

    The Medicare Advantage program, a provision of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, encourages providers to think about dealing with Medicare Advantage plans the way they now deal with commercial payers. Consequently, the Medicare Advantage program could either benefit or harm providers. PMID:15029797

  10. Detection advantages of spatial oversampling in imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jerry A.; Caulfield, John T.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2013-09-01

    Cyan Systems has recently developed an approach to focal plane assembly (FPA) architecture which represent a significant advancement in information extraction from the data as it is being collected. This approach utilizes sub-pixels which achieve a high degree of oversampling of the sensors Point Spread Function (PSF), well beyond the Nyquist limit for a critically sampled sensor. The data contained in an oversampled image has the obvious advantage of readily discriminating between focal plane and object generated artifacts as the first step in false alarm rejection. This effect is particularly useful at identification of radiation events. However there are further advantages that can be exploited through nearest neighbor subpixel correlation, and pooling that achieves significant noise reduction and therefore improved sensitivity. In Cyan's architecture these processes are accomplished for the first time at the input to the preamp in the ROIC. This approach not only allows improved fidelity in imaging, but further reduces false alarm rates, improves detection ranges, and demonstrates an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. The small pixels that enable this approach also ensure improved radiation hardness reducing the capture cross section. The architecture has been modeled and simulations run which illustrate the dramatic improvements possible.

  11. Ecological advantages of partial migration as a conditional strategy.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Espino, Luis A; McLaughlin, Robert L; Robillard, Melissa

    2013-05-01

    Partial migration is a widespread phenomenon characterized by migrant and resident forms from the same population. In phenotypically plastic taxa with indeterminate growth, resident and migrant ecophenotypes can differ in size and life history traits in ways expected to maximize fitness in the different habitats they exploit. Studies of partial migration in different taxa have advocated either density-dependence or environmental stochasticity as explanations for partial migration. We used a demographic approach for a virtual Brook Trout population to demonstrate the ecological consequences of partial migration under interacting density dependence and environmental stochasticity. The maintenance of partial migration as a conditional strategy in species/populations where resident and migrant forms exhibit life history asymmetries provides ecological advantages. We show that density-dependent migration is expected to increase population fitness under constant environmental conditions or low environmental variation, but decreases population fitness under high environmental variation. These conditions favor intermediate levels of migration as an advantageous tactic. However, there are threshold rates of return migration below which partial migration is no longer a viable tactic. Our modeling approach also allowed the exploration of the distribution of the population by life stage and habitat in response to the strength of density dependence, costs of migration, and return rates, and demonstrated the importance of the conservation of ecophenotypes in partially migratory populations. PMID:23353041

  12. Practical advantages of mud cooling systems for drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Maury, V.; Guenot, A.

    1995-03-01

    Field case studies of borehole stability have shown that some failures, previously unexplained, were due to thermal effects, such as heating the upper part of open hole sections by mud circulation when drilling deeper or reheating of the bottomhole when mud circulation is stopped. A complete analysis of the thermal regime in boreholes was performed and as a consequence, cooling of mud appeared as a means to mitigate these effects. A series of tests were then carried out to check the practicality of installing such mud cooling systems. Many other advantages then appeared: decrease of the temperature of the borehole allowing better operation of the logging tools, better control of the mud rheology with less additives, extended use of MWD/LWD devices. But the most significant advantage is for the oil based muds which can be maintained at surface below their flash point, improving the safety of operations. This paper recalls and summarizes the results of observations, measurements and studies performed to determine the feasibility of such systems. Operational results are given for several field cases with emphasis on safety. The use of these very simple devices, which have been field proven on normal and high temperature (BHCT = 150 C), is now contemplated for future HP-HT wells.

  13. Robotic Pancreatic Resections: Feasibility and Advantages.

    PubMed

    Croner, Roland S

    2015-10-01

    The robot is an innovative tool to perform complex pancreatic resections. It upgrades conventional laparoscopy by adding specific ergonomic technical details (e.g., EndoWrist). Robotic complex pancreatic operations such as pancreaticoduodenectomy can be carried out safe with equal oncological results, morbidity, and mortality compared to open procedures. The patients benefit from less blood loss, decreased hospitalization, and all other benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Nevertheless, the robot has some limitations like missing haptic feedback and the high costs. It has to find its indications beneath conventional laparoscopic procedures, which is currently extensively discussed. But the available technology is certainly convincing, and a further improvement can be expected which will increase its widespread in the future. PMID:26722208

  14. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  15. Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

  16. The metabolic advantage of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1- Oncogenes express proteins of "Tyrosine kinase receptor pathways", a receptor family including insulin or IGF-Growth Hormone receptors. Other oncogenes alter the PP2A phosphatase brake over these kinases. 2- Experiments on pancreatectomized animals; treated with pure insulin or total pancreatic extracts, showed that choline in the extract, preserved them from hepatomas. Since choline is a methyle donor, and since methylation regulates PP2A, the choline protection may result from PP2A methylation, which then attenuates kinases. 3- Moreover, kinases activated by the boosted signaling pathway inactivate pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, demethylated PP2A would no longer dephosphorylate these enzymes. A "bottleneck" between glycolysis and the oxidative-citrate cycle interrupts the glycolytic pyruvate supply now provided via proteolysis and alanine transamination. This pyruvate forms lactate (Warburg effect) and NAD+ for glycolysis. Lipolysis and fatty acids provide acetyl CoA; the citrate condensation increases, unusual oxaloacetate sources are available. ATP citrate lyase follows, supporting aberrant transaminations with glutaminolysis and tumor lipogenesis. Truncated urea cycles, increased polyamine synthesis, consume the methyl donor SAM favoring carcinogenesis. 4- The decrease of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, elicits epigenic changes (PETEN, P53, IGFBP decrease; hexokinase, fetal-genes-M2, increase) 5- IGFBP stops binding the IGF - IGFR complex, it is perhaps no longer inherited by a single mitotic daughter cell; leading to two daughter cells with a mitotic capability. 6- An excess of IGF induces a decrease of the major histocompatibility complex MHC1, Natural killer lymphocytes should eliminate such cells that start the tumor, unless the fever prostaglandin PGE2 or inflammation, inhibit them... PMID:21649891

  17. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening

    PubMed Central

    Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H.; Hacker, Astrid; Sedlacek, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs. PMID:21779225

  19. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2002-12-01

    When it comes to philanthropy, executives increasingly see themselves as caught between critics demanding ever higher levels of "corporate social responsibility" and investors applying pressure to maximize short-term profits. In response, many companies have sought to make their giving more strategic, but what passes for strategic philanthropy is almost never truly strategic, and often isn't particularly effective as philanthropy. Increasingly, philanthropy is used as a form of public relations or advertising, promoting a company's image through high-profile sponsorships. But there is a more truly strategic way to think about philanthropy. Corporations can use their charitable efforts to improve their competitive context--the quality of the business environment in the locations where they operate. Using philanthropy to enhance competitive context aligns social and economic goals and improves a company's long-term business prospects. Addressing context enables a company to not only give money but also leverage its capabilities and relationships in support of charitable causes. The produces social benefits far exceeding those provided by individual donors, foundations, or even governments. Taking this new direction requires fundamental changes in the way companies approach their contribution programs. For example, philanthropic investments can improve education and local quality of life in ways that will benefit the company. Such investments can also improve the company's competitiveness by contributing to expanding the local market and helping to reduce corruption in the local business environment. Adopting a context-focused approach goes against the grain of current philanthropic practice, and it requires a far more disciplined approach than is prevalent today. But it can make a company's philanthropic activities far more effective. PMID:12510538

  20. Citation Advantage of Open Access Articles

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at “quasi-baseline” (December 2004, 0–6 mo after publication), in April 2005 (4–10 mo after publication), and in October 2005 (10–16 mo after publication). Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles) were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8%) were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication), 627 (49.0%) of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8%) of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1–1.6]; p = 0.001). 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication), non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4–4.7]; p < 0.001). The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5–2.9]) in the first 4–10 mo after publication (April 2005), with the odds ratio increasing

  1. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-05-01

    Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication), in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication), and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication). Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles) were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8%) were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication), 627 (49.0%) of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8%) of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001). 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication), non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001). The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9]) in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005), with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1.5-5.5) 10

  2. Some advantages of methane in an aircraft gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Because liquid methane may be obtained from existing natural gas sources or produced synthetically from a range of other hydrocarbon sources (coal, biomass, shale, organic waste), it is considered as an aviation fuel in a simplified cycle analysis of the performance of a turboprop engine intended for operation at Mach 0.8 and 10,688 m altitude. Performance comparisons are given for four cases in which the turbine cooling air is either not cooled or cooled to -111, -222, and -333 K, and the advantages and problems that may be expected from direct use of the cryogenic fuel in turbine cooling are discussed. It is shown that while (1) methane combustion characteristics are appreciably different from those of Jet A fuel and will require the development of different combustor designs, and (2) the safe integration of methane cryotanks into transport aircraft structures poses a major design problem, a highly fuel-efficient turboprop engine fueled by methane appears to be feasible.

  3. Multilayer reticles: advantages and challenges for 28nm chip making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotzel, Arthur; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Cotte, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Chip manufacturing with multilayer reticles offers the possibility to reduce reticle cost at the expense of scanner throughput, and is therefore an attractive option for small-volume production and test chips. Since 2010, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 1 uses this option for the 28nm IP shuttles and test chips offered to their customers for development and advance testing of their products. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of this approach and the practical experience gained during implementation. One issue that must be considered is the influence of the small image field and the asymmetric reticle illumination on the lithographic key parameters, namely layer to layer overlay. Theoretical considerations and experimental data concerning the effects of lens distortion, lens heating, and reticle heating on overlay performance are presented, and concepts to address the specific challenges of multilayer reticles for high-end chip production are discussed.

  4. Some advantages of methane in an aircraft gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid methane, which can be manufactured from any of the hydrocarbon sources such as coal, shale biomass, and organic waste considered as a petroleum replacement for aircraft fuels. A simple cycle analysis is carried out for a turboprop engine flying a Mach 0.8 and 10, 688 meters (35,000 ft.) altitude. Cycle performance comparisions are rendered for four cases in which the turbine cooling air is cooled or not cooled by the methane fuel. The advantages and disadvantages of involving the fuel in the turbine cooling system are discussed. Methane combustion characteristics are appreciably different from Jet A and will require different combustor designs. Although a number of similar difficult technical problems exist, a highly fuel efficient turboprop engine burning methane appear to be feasible.

  5. Inertial Fusion Target Physics Advantages with the Krypton Fluoride Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenschain, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The krypton fluoride (KrF) laser's short wavelength, broad bandwidth and capability to provide extremely uniform target illumination are advantages towards obtaining high gain direct drive implosions. The short wavelength helps suppress deleterious laser-plasma instabilities, and allows one to employ higher ablation pressures. In addition, the KrF architecture allows one to zoom down the focal diameter to follow the size of the imploding pellet, thereby improving the coupling efficiency. The NRL researchers have been conducting theoretical and experimental studies to quantify the beneficial effects of utilizing KrF light. Experiments using the Nike facility have confirmed that KrF light significantly increases the threshold for laser-plasma instability. This presentation will discuss the observed target physics with KrF light and its effects towards facilitating the high gains needed for power production with inertial fusion. Simulations indicate that shock ignited designs can achieve gains above 200 with KrF energies as low a 1 megajoule. For fusion energy a laser driver must be capable of high repetition rates (5-10 Hz) along with adequate efficiency and durability. The Electra KrF 30-cm aperture electron-beam-pumped amplifier has demonstrated long duration continuous operation at high-repetition rates. This and other advances show that the KrF laser should be able to meet the requirements.

  6. [Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].

    PubMed

    Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

    2001-10-01

    This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for

  7. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  8. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  9. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  10. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-02-08

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89

  11. Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

  12. Intramedullary Fixation of Clavicle Fractures: Anatomy, Indications, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Josef K; Balog, Todd P; Grassbaugh, Jason A

    2016-07-01

    Historically, management of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures has consisted of nonsurgical treatment. However, recent literature has supported surgical repair of displaced and shortened clavicle fractures. Several options exist for surgical fixation, including plate and intramedullary (IM) fixation. IM fixation has the potential advantages of a smaller incision and decreased dissection and soft-tissue exposure. For the last two decades, the use of Rockwood and Hagie pins represented the most popular form of IM fixation, but concerns exist regarding stability and complications. The use of alternative IM implants, such as Kirschner wires, titanium elastic nails, and cannulated screws, also has been described in limited case series. However, concerns persist regarding the complications associated with the use of these implants, including implant failure, migration, skin complications, and construct stability. Second-generation IM implants have been developed to reduce the limitations of earlier IM devices. Although anatomic and clinical studies have supported IM fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures, further research is necessary to determine the optimal fixation method. PMID:27227985

  13. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  14. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  15. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  16. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  17. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract but Not Concrete Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in "J Mem Lang" 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this "ambiguity advantage" may in reality be a "polysemy advantage": caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings…

  18. Distance Education in Rural Schools: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews distance-education technologies, their uses for rural schools, and related issues. Lists advantages and disadvantages for satellite TV teaching, microcomputer networks, and two-way TV instruction. Concludes that technologies' advantages outweigh disadvantages. Suggests final decision making and assessment depend on local program content…

  19. Aging and Text Comprehension: Interpretation and Domain Knowledge Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heisawn; Kim, Hyo Sik

    2009-01-01

    In this study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adults read two different history texts. In the "knowledge advantage" condition, readers read a history text about an event that was well-known to readers of all ages but most familiar to elderly adults. In the "no advantage" condition, readers read a history text about a political situation of a…

  20. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.

    2016-08-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  1. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  2. Medicare Advantage update: benefits, enrollment, and payments after the ACA.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the Medicare program paid private health plans $136 billion to cover about 13 million beneficiaries who received Part A and B benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program rather than traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare. Private plans have been a part of the program since the 1970s. Debate about the policy goals--Should they cost less per beneficiary than FFS Medicare? Should they be available to all beneficiaries? Should they be able to offer additional benefits?--has long accompanied Medicare's private plan option.This debate is reflected in the history of Medicare payment policy,and policy decisions over the years have affected plans' willingness to participate and beneficiaries' enrollment at different periods of the program. Recently, evidence that the Medicare program was paying more per beneficiary in MA relative to what would have been spent under FFS Medicare prompted policymakers to reduce MA payments in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). So far, plans continue to participate in MA and enrollment continues to grow, but payment reductions in 2012 through 2014 have been partially offset by payments made to plans through the quality bonus payment demonstration.This brief contains recent data on plan enrollment, availability, and benefits and discusses MA plan payment policy, including changes to MA payment made in the ACA and their actual and projected effects. PMID:24049878

  3. Unexpected advantages of a temporary fluid-loss control pill

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.

    1996-09-01

    Economics often dictate research; however, serendipity can benefit the results of research and simultaneously soften the rigidity of economic demands. Such as the case with a recently developed fluid-loss control pill. Economic reasons compelled researchers to find a replacement for an existing field product, the characteristics of which had to be duplicated. Initially, researchers sought to develop a pill that blocked fluid flow into and out of the wellbore and was mixable in brines from 8.35 to 19 lb/gal. The degradation of the replacement crosslinkable hydroxyethyl cellulose fluid (RXHEC) involves uncrosslinking and unzipping of backbone, which simplifies the disposal of returns. In addition to being environmentally acceptable, RXHEC is capable of breaking with weak acids, allowing the use of external breakers in acid-sensitive wells. Additional advantages include the ease with which tubulars can pass through the RXHEC pill and leave it in place, making a remedial pill unnecessary. The RXHEC uses a liquid gel concentrate (LGC) system and is stable beyond 125 C.

  4. Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Amorati, R; Valgimigli, L

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the importance of antioxidants in the protection of both natural and man-made materials, a large variety of testing methods have been proposed and applied. These include methods based on inhibited autoxidation studies, which are better followed by monitoring the kinetics of oxygen consumption or of the formation of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. Analytical determination of secondary oxidation products (e.g. carbonyl compounds) has also been used. The majority of testing methods, however, do not involve substrate autoxidation. They are based on the competitive bleaching of a probe (e.g. ORAC assay, β-carotene, crocin bleaching assays, and luminol assay), on reaction with a different probe (e.g. spin-trapping and TOSC assay), or they are indirect methods based on the reduction of persistent radicals (e.g. galvinoxyl, DPPH and TEAC assays), or of inorganic oxidizing species (e.g. FRAP, CUPRAC and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). Yet other methods are specific for preventive antioxidants. The relevance, advantages, and limitations of these methods are critically discussed, with respect to their chemistry and the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. A variety of cell-based assays have also been proposed, to investigate the biological activity of antioxidants. Their importance and critical aspects are discussed, along with arguments for the selection of the appropriate testing methods according to the different needs. PMID:25511471

  5. Preclinical modeling of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation - advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Stolfi, Jessica L; Pai, Chien-Chun S; Murphy, William J

    2016-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which was first successfully performed in the 1950s, remains a critical therapeutic modality for treatment of a diverse array of diseases, including a multitude of hematological malignancies, autoimmune disorders, amyloidosis and inherited genetic hematological disorders. Although great advances have been made in understanding and application of this therapy, significant complications still exist, warranting further investigation. Of critical importance, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in both acute and chronic forms, remains a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, responsible for both the development of chronic illness and morbidity, as well as mortality. Use of an appropriate preclinical model may provide significant insight into the mechanistic pathways leading to the development and progression of graft-versus-host disease, as well as cancer in general. However, existing preclinical modeling systems exhibit significant limitations, and development of models that recapitulate the complex and comprehensive clinical scenario and provide a tool by which therapeutic intervention may be developed and assessed is of utmost importance. Here, we review the present status of the field of graft-versus-host disease research. We discuss and summarize the preclinical models currently in use, as well as their advantages and limitations. PMID:26640088

  6. Advantages and disadvantages with drones in determining the erosion of a fire zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, María; Palencia, Covadonga; Sanz Ablanedo, Enoc

    2016-04-01

    The impact produced by the fire and the subsequent sensitivity of the soil, is very variable, depending on factors such as geology, soil composition, slope, exposure to wind and vegetation cover among others. Therefore, optimizing the use of limited resources is necessary, by identifying priority areas to apply corrective measures. The criteria for selecting the most vulnerable area after a fire should include a monitoring of the evolution of the affected areas including different variables such as the soil loss. But the trace of erosion flows often requires not only a high economic effort due to people working in field, but also adverse effects on the sensitive soil, because of the footsteps in vulnerable areas with steep slopes or areas that have lost their original structure after fire. For these reasons, monitoring of burnt soils is normally reduced to the minimum. Drones or UAVs can be used as an aerial measurement technology useful in different soil recovering studies. High-resolution digital terrain models and high-resolution orthophotos obtained from UAV can be used to achieve a continuum or unlimited number of measurements anywhere in the field test. As an aerial technique, this technique has some advantages. For example, excessive walking over burnt soils is avoided. Besides, due to the relatively low cost of the technique, the frequency of sampling may be higher than traditional sampling works. In recent years drones have been used to monitoring and measuring the recovery of the vegetation cover. In this work the capabilities of this technique as an erosion measurement tool will be explored. Two field area test,which were burnt on 8 August 2015, have been flown with a multirotor. The surface of each area is about 1500m2 and the aim is to measure the winter erosion with a precision and an accuracy better than 1 cm, demonstrating that drones are a very appropriate technique to study: • Burned hillsides in highly sensitive situations, requiring not

  7. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    (1) The first-line treatment for patients with partial epilepsy is carbamazepine monotherapy. Second-line options include monotherapy with valproic acid, gabapentin, lamotrigine or oxcarbazepine. Other antiepileptics are also available for combination therapy of refractory partial epilepsy. (2) Zonisamide is a sulphonamide derivative that inhibits carbonic anhydrase; it resembles topiramate, a drug already approved for use for this indication in the European Union. (3) The main clinical trial, a double-blind study lasting 36 weeks, compared the addition of zonisamide or placebo to ongoing treatment in 351 patients with refractory partial epilepsy. The "response rate" (the proportion of patients with at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of seizures) was significantly higher with zonisamide plus the previous treatment than with placebo plus the previous treatment (46.6% versus 17.6%). An indirect comparison suggests that this is no better than treatment with a second-line antiepileptic drug. (4) Results of three other placebo-controlled trials of third-line combinations in a total of 499 patients treated for 12 weeks were similar. (5) The main adverse effects of zonisamide are those typically seen with topiramate: neuropsychological disorders and disorders due to carbonic anhydrase inhibition (kidney stones, reduced perspiration, and hyperthermia). There are various other adverse effects, including a risk of severe skin rash. (6) The profile of interactions is complex. There is a risk of pharmacokinetic interactions, and of pharmacodynamic interactions with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (7) In France, treatment with zonisamide costs nearly 20 times more than treatment with carbamazepine or valproic acid. (8) Zonisamide has no therapeutic advantages over other antiepileptics available for combination therapy of partial epilepsy. PMID:17582922

  8. Parenting and Academic Achievement: Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roksa, Josipa; Potter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined how cultural capital, recently broadened to include not only high-status cultural activities but also a range of different parenting practices, influences children's educational success. Most of this research assumes that parents' current class location is the starting point of class transmission. However,…

  9. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  10. Seeking the competitive advantage: it's more than cost reduction.

    PubMed

    South, S F

    1999-01-01

    Most organizations focus considerable time and energy on reducing operating costs as a way to attain marketplace advantage. This strategy was not inappropriate in the past. To be competitive in the future, however, focus must be placed on other issues, not just cost reduction. The near future will be dominated by service industries, knowledge management, and virtual partnerships, with production optimization and flexibility, innovation, and strong partnerships defining those organizations that attain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage will reside in clarifying the vision and strategic plan, reviewing and redesigning work processes to optimize resources and value-added work, and creating change-ready environments and empowered workforces. PMID:10557880

  11. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  12. Too Few Americans Take Advantage of Local Parks

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158915.html Too Few Americans Take Advantage of Local Parks Modest changes would ... a center of physical activity for adults, older Americans and females," Cohen said in a news release ...

  13. Back to basics: a bilingual advantage in infant visual habituation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Rahman, Aishah A; Hameed, Waseem B; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study, 114 monolingual and bilingual infants were compared in a very basic task of information processing-visual habituation-at 6 months of age. Bilingual infants demonstrated greater efficiency in stimulus encoding as well as in improved recognition memory for familiar stimuli as compared to monolinguals. Findings reveal a generalized cognitive advantage in bilingual infants that is broad in scope, early to emerge, and not specific to language. PMID:25074016

  14. Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias?

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Angela; Treccani, Barbara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in executive-control tasks, but is this what all studies actually demonstrate? The idea of a bilingual advantage may result from a publication bias favoring studies with positive results over studies with null or negative effects. To test this hypothesis, we looked at conference abstracts from 1999 to 2012 on the topic of bilingualism and executive control. We then determined which of the studies they reported were subsequently published. Studies with results fully supporting the bilingual-advantage theory were most likely to be published, followed by studies with mixed results. Studies challenging the bilingual advantage were published the least. This discrepancy was not due to differences in sample size, tests used, or statistical power. A test for funnel-plot asymmetry provided further evidence for the existence of a publication bias. PMID:25475825

  15. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, MARY; MCWILLIAMS, J. MICHAEL; HSU, JOHN; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans. PMID:26389127

  16. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines. PMID:27503970

  17. Contributions of frontal and medial temporal lobe functioning to the errorless learning advantage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Guild, Emma B; Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Roberts, Judith; Clare, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals with episodic memory impairments, trial-and-error learning is less successful than when errors are avoided. This "errorless learning advantage" has been replicated numerous times, but its neurocognitive mechanism is uncertain, with existing evidence pointing to both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal lobe (FL) involvement. To test the relative contribution of MTL and FL functioning to the errorless learning advantage, 51 healthy older adults were pre-experimentally assigned to one of four groups based on their neuropsychological test performance: Low MTL-Low FL, Low MTL-High FL, High MTL-Low FL, High MTL-High FL. Participants learned two word lists under errorless learning conditions, and two word lists under errorful learning conditions, and memory was tested via free recall, cued recall, and source recognition. Performance on all three tests was better for those with High relative to Low MTL functioning. An errorless learning advantage was found in free and cued recall, in cued recall marginally more so for those with Low than High MTL functioning. Participants with Low MTL functioning were also more likely to misclassify learning errors as target words. Overall, these results are consistent with a MTL locus of the errorless learning advantage. The results are discussed in terms of the multi-componential nature of neuropsychological tests and the impact of demographic and mood variables on cognitive functioning. PMID:22248376

  18. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii,JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. PMID:25771812

  19. The advantages of a swept source optical coherence tomography system in the evaluation of occlusal disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Occlusal disorders are characterized by multiple dental and periodontal signs. Some of these are reversible (such as excessive tooth mobility, fremitus, tooth pain, migration of teeth in the absence of periodontitis), some are not (pathological occlusal/incisal wear, abfractions, enamel cracks, tooth fractures, gingival recessions). In this paper we prove the advantages of a fast swept source OCT system in the diagnosis of pathological incisal wear, a key sign of the occlusal disorders. On 15 extracted frontal teeth four levels of pathological incisal wear facets were artificially created. After every level of induced defect, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. A swept source OCT instrument is used in this study. The swept source is has a central wavelength of 1050 nm and a sweeping rate of 100 kHz. A depth resolution determined by the swept source of 12 μm in air was experimentally measured. The pathological incisal wear is qualitatively observed on the B-scans as 2D images and 3D reconstructions (volumes). For quantitative evaluations of volumes, we used the Image J software. Our swept source OCT system has several advantages, including the ability to measure (in air) a minimal volume of 2352 μm3 and to collect high resolution volumetric images in 2.5 s. By calculating the areas of the amount of lost tissue corresponding to each difference of B-scans, the final volumes of incisal wear were obtained. This swept source OCT method is very useful for the dynamic evaluation of pathological incisal wear.

  20. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    PubMed Central

    Kronick, Richard; Welch, W. Pete

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Data Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004–2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006–2011. Measures Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Results Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006–2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Discussion Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary. PMID:25068076

  1. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  2. Contracting with Medicare Advantage plans: a brief for critical access hospital administrators.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michelle; Fraser-Maginn, Roslyn; Mueller, Keith; King, Jennifer; Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; Lenardson, Jennifer; Silver, Lauren; Mueller, Curt

    2005-12-01

    This document summarizes the experience of CAH administrators with contracts offered by Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Telephone surveys were conducted with CAH administrators across the country to learn about their experiences with MA plans. This brief includes information about the contract terms administrators have been offered, their experiences negotiating with MA plans, and their advice for others dealing with this issue. PMID:16397967

  3. Explaining Girls' Advantage in Kindergarten Literacy Learning: Do Classroom Behaviors Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Douglas D.; LoGerfo, Laura F.; Burkam, David T.; Lee, Valerie E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in kindergarteners' literacy skills, specifically, whether differences in children's classroom behaviors explained females' early learning advantage. Data included information on 16,883 kindergartners (8,701 boys and 8,182 girls) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of…

  4. Local production of WHO-recommended alcohol-based handrubs: feasibility, advantages, barriers and costs

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Savage, Joanna; Kim, EunMi; Allegranzi, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reduction of health-care-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries is hampered by inadequate supplies of soap and water and the lack or high cost of alcohol-based handrubs (ABHs). Approach In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed and tested two formulations for ABHs that were suitable for production in health-care facilities. In 2011, the feasibility, advantages and costs of the local production of the two formulations – and the barriers to such production – were evaluated in an online survey. Local setting The survey included 34 health-care facilities and 5 private companies in 29 countries. Relevant changes Local production of one of the WHO formulations was feasible in every participating site. Twenty-one (54%) of the sites had replaced a previously used ABH with one of the WHO formulations. In 32 sites, the WHO formulation that had been produced was well tolerated and accepted by health-care workers. The WHO formulations were found to be less expensive than marketed ABHs. Barriers to local production included difficulty in identifying staff with adequate skills, the need for staff training, and constraints in ingredient and dispenser procurement. Lessons learnt The WHO formulations can be easily produced locally at low cost. They are well tolerated and accepted by health-care workers. Potential barriers to their local production – such as their smell and problems in the procurement of ingredients and dispensers and in performing quality control – require further investigation. PMID:24347736

  5. Advantages of treatment of ascites without sodium restriction and without complete removal of excess fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, T B; Lieberman, F L; Goodman, A R

    1978-01-01

    Two modifications of the standard method of treatment of ascites in chronic liver disease were investigated in three separate randomised trials involving a total of 201 patients. These modifications were (1) an unrestricted sodium intake and (2) limitation of diuresis to partial removal of ascites, to the point of relief of abdominal tension. Mean serum sodium fell significantly in all patient groups receiving the low sodium diet and did not fall in the groups given an unrestricted diet. Mean serum urea nitrogen rose significantly in the patient groups undergoing complete diuresis and did not change in the groups undergoing partial diuresis. Mean serum uric acid rose only in the groups undergoing complete diuresis. We concluded that the advantages of these two modifications of therapy of ascites were increased dietary palatability and decreased likelihood of hyponatraemia and of rise in serum urea nitrogen and uric acid. Disadvantages included dissatisfaction of patients over incomplete clearing of ascites, occasional difficulty in performing diagnostic studies because of prolonged ascites, and unsuitability of a high sodium intake in patients whose ascites is highly refractory to treatment. PMID:680588

  6. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure. PMID:27309729

  7. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure. PMID:27309729

  8. Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, J.; Gajić, R.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an

  9. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  10. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  11. Places and faces: Geographic environment influences the ingroup memory advantage.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Garrett, James V; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-03-01

    The preferential allocation of attention and memory to the ingroup (the ingroup memory advantage) is one of the most replicated effects in the psychological literature. But little is known about what factors may influence such effects. Here the authors investigated a potential influence: category salience as determined by the perceiver's geographic environment. They did so by studying the ingroup memory advantage in perceptually ambiguous groups for whom perceptual cues do not make group membership immediately salient. Individuals in an environment in which a particular group membership was salient (Mormon and non-Mormon men and women living in Salt Lake City, Utah) showed better memory for faces belonging to their ingroup in an incidental encoding paradigm. Majority group participants in an environment where this group membership was not salient (non-Mormon men and women in the northeastern United States), however, showed no ingroup memory advantage whereas minority group participants (Mormons) in the same environment did. But in the same environment, when differences in group membership were made accessible via an unobtrusive priming task, non-Mormons did show an ingroup memory advantage and Mormons' memory for ingroup members increased. Environmental context cues therefore influence the ingroup memory advantage for categories that are not intrinsically salient. PMID:20175617

  12. Potential end-to-end imaging information rate advantages of various alternative communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Various communication systems were considered which are required to transmit both imaging and a typically error sensitive, class of data called general science/engineering (gse) over a Gaussian channel. The approach jointly treats the imaging and gse transmission problems, allowing comparisons of systems which include various channel coding and data compression alternatives. Actual system comparisons include an Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS) which exhibits the rather significant potential advantages of sophisticated data compression coupled with powerful yet practical channel coding.

  13. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  14. Neuroanatomical Evidence in Support of the Bilingual Advantage Theory.

    PubMed

    Olulade, O A; Jamal, N I; Koo, D S; Perfetti, C A; LaSasso, C; Eden, G F

    2016-07-01

    The "bilingual advantage" theory stipulates that constant selection and suppression between 2 languages results in enhanced executive control (EC). Behavioral studies of EC in bilinguals have employed wide-ranging tasks and report some conflicting results. To avoid concerns about tasks, we employed a different approach, measuring gray matter volume (GMV) in adult bilinguals, reasoning that any EC-associated benefits should manifest as relatively greater frontal GMV. Indeed, Spanish-English-speaking bilinguals exhibited greater bilateral frontal GMV compared with English-speaking monolinguals. Was this observation attributable to the constant selection and inhibition of 2 spoken languages? To answer this question, we drew on bimodal bilinguals of American Sign Language (ASL) and English who, unlike unimodal bilinguals, can simultaneously use both languages and have been shown not to possess the EC advantage. In this group, there was no greater GMV when compared with monolinguals. Together these results provide neuroanatomical evidence in support of the bilingual advantage theory. PMID:26184647

  15. Advantages of doubly polished thin sections for the study of microfossils in volcanic rock

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, M

    2006-01-01

    Doubly polished thin sections, originally prepared for fluid inclusion studies, present great advantages in the study of microfossils in volcanic rocks. Better visibility and light conditions, variation in thickness of the thin sections and the possibility to combine fluid inclusion studies with microfossil studies lead to a wide range of advantages over ordinary thin sections. This includes the study of morphology, internal microstructures, colonies, association with the substrate that microfossils are attached to and geological and environmental context in which the microfossil once lived. When meeting the criteria of microfossil recognition the advantages of doubly polished thin sections are substantial and can be crucial in distinguishing between biogenic microfossils and abiotically formed abiomorphs. PMID:16759373

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    To make a significant impact on anthropogenic CO2 emissions, geologic carbon sequestration would require thousands of CO2 repositories around the world. Unconventional reservoirs, such as igneous rocks and fractured formations, may add substantial storage capacity and diversify CO2 storage options. In particular, basaltic rocks represent a promising target due to their widespread occurrence, potentially suitable reservoir structure and high reactivity with CO2, but a comprehensive evaluation of worldwide CO2 sequestration capacity in unconventional reservoirs is lacking. In this presentation we summarize available data on storage potential of basaltic rocks and fractured formations illustrated by field examples from the Columbia River Basalt, the Newark Rift Basin and IODP Site 1256, and discuss potential limiting factors, such as effective porosity and the risk of inducing earthquakes by CO2 injections. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), low-volume flows and intrusions, and ocean floor basalt represent three general classes of basaltic reservoirs, each characterized by different structure and storage capacity. Oceanic plateaus and LIPs are projected to have the highest CO2 storage capacity, on the order of thousands gigatons (Gt) per site, followed by continental LIPs and ocean floor basalts (hundreds to thousands Gt per site). Isolated basalt flows and intrusions are likely to offer only low- to moderate-capacity options. An important limiting factor on CO2 injection volumes and rates is the risk of inducing earthquakes by increasing pore pressure in the subsurface. On continents, available in situ stress analysis suggests that local stress perturbations at depth may create relaxed stress conditions, allowing for pore pressure increase without reactivating fractures and faults. Remote storage sites on oceanic plateaus and below the seafloor are advantageous due to low impact of potential seismic and/or leakage events. Other effects, such as thermal stresses created

  17. Comparison of Home Advantage in College and Professional Team Sports in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0.015). The mean difference was 3.73 home winning percentage points, being greatest for baseball, basketball, and hockey (all p<0.001). Plausible explanations for these results include differences in college and professional competition in terms of familiarity with local conditions, referee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage. PMID:26898053

  18. Safety advantages of a CDTE based PV module plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, M.; Meyers, P.

    1988-07-01

    We describe here a process for the manufacture of solar modules based on II-VI compounds which has several advantages over procedures typical of other thin film solar technologies-specifically amorphous silicon. These advantages arise from the fact that all raw materials and waste products are in solid or liquid form. In this paper we concentrate on the systems and equipment necessary to eliminate uncontrolled discharge of hazardous materials produced during the fabrication of CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar modules. (AIP)

  19. Spatial Ability Explains the Male Advantage in Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that females consistently outperform males in exact arithmetic, perhaps due to the former’s advantage in language processing. Much less is known about gender difference in approximate arithmetic. Given that approximate arithmetic is closely associated with visuospatial processing, which shows a male advantage we hypothesized that males would perform better than females in approximate arithmetic. In two experiments (496 children in Experiment 1 and 554 college students in Experiment 2), we found that males showed better performance in approximate arithmetic, which was accounted for by gender differences in spatial ability. PMID:27014124

  20. Minimally Invasive Suturectomy and Postoperative Helmet Therapy : Advantages and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sangjoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226853

  1. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-22

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  2. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.

  3. Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I.; Derov, John S.; Walker, Dennis E.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate a series of advantages of microsphere-assisted imaging over confocal and solid immersion lens microscopies including intrinsic flexibility, better resolution, higher magnification, and longer working distances. We discerned minimal feature sizes of ˜50-60 nm in nanoplasmonic arrays at the illumination wavelength λ = 405 nm. It is demonstrated that liquid-immersed, high-index (n ˜ 1.9-2.1) spheres provide a superior image quality compared to that obtained by spheres with the same index contrast in an air environment. We estimate that using transparent microspheres at deep UV wavelengths of ˜200 nm might make possible imaging of various nanostructures with extraordinary high ˜30 nm resolution.

  4. Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children.

    PubMed

    Antón, Eneko; Duñabeitia, Jon A; Estévez, Adelina; Hernández, Juan A; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J; Davidson, Douglas J; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals in a variety of tasks that do not tap into linguistic processes. The origin of this bilingual advantage has been questioned in recent years. While some authors argue that the reason behind this apparent advantage is bilinguals' enhanced executive functioning, inhibitory skills and/or monitoring abilities, other authors suggest that the locus of these differences between bilinguals and monolinguals may lie in uncontrolled factors or incorrectly matched samples. In the current study we tested a group of 180 bilingual children and a group of 180 carefully matched monolinguals in a child-friendly version of the ANT task. Following recent evidence from similar studies with children, our results showed no bilingual advantage at all, given that the performance of the two groups in the task and the indices associated with the individual attention networks were highly similar and statistically indistinguishable. PMID:24847298

  5. Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children

    PubMed Central

    Antón, Eneko; Duñabeitia, Jon A.; Estévez, Adelina; Hernández, Juan A.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Davidson, Douglas J.; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals in a variety of tasks that do not tap into linguistic processes. The origin of this bilingual advantage has been questioned in recent years. While some authors argue that the reason behind this apparent advantage is bilinguals' enhanced executive functioning, inhibitory skills and/or monitoring abilities, other authors suggest that the locus of these differences between bilinguals and monolinguals may lie in uncontrolled factors or incorrectly matched samples. In the current study we tested a group of 180 bilingual children and a group of 180 carefully matched monolinguals in a child-friendly version of the ANT task. Following recent evidence from similar studies with children, our results showed no bilingual advantage at all, given that the performance of the two groups in the task and the indices associated with the individual attention networks were highly similar and statistically indistinguishable. PMID:24847298

  6. The advantages of stereo vision in a face recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Humans can recognize a face with binocular vision, while computers typically use a single face image. It is known that the performance of face recognition (by a computer) can be improved using the score fusion of multimodal images and multiple algorithms. A question is: Can we apply stereo vision to a face recognition system? We know that human binocular vision has many advantages such as stereopsis (3D vision), binocular summation, and singleness of vision including fusion of binocular images (cyclopean image). For face recognition, a 3D face or 3D facial features are typically computed from a pair of stereo images. In human visual processes, the binocular summation and singleness of vision are similar as image fusion processes. In this paper, we propose an advanced face recognition system with stereo imaging capability, which is comprised of two 2-in-1 multispectral (visible and thermal) cameras and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, and linear discriminant analysis [LDA]). Specifically, we present and compare stereo fusion at three levels (images, features, and scores) by using stereo images (from left camera and right camera). Image fusion is achieved with three methods (Laplacian pyramid, wavelet transform, average); feature fusion is done with three logical operations (AND, OR, XOR); and score fusion is implemented with four classifiers (LDA, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression). The system performance is measured by probability of correct classification (PCC) rate (reported as accuracy rate in this paper) and false accept rate (FAR). The proposed approaches were validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Experimental results show that any type of stereo fusion can improve the PCC, meanwhile reduce the FAR. It seems that stereo image/feature fusion is superior to stereo score fusion in terms of recognition performance. Further score fusion after image

  7. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

  8. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

  9. Evolutionary advantage of diploidal over polyploidal sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; Moss de Oliveira, S.; Sá Martins, J. S.

    2003-03-01

    We modify the Penna model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation-accumulation theory, in order to verify if there would be any evolutionary advantage of triploid over diploid organisms. We show that this is not the case, and that diploidal sex is always better than that involving three individuals.

  10. Elasticity and Mechanical Advantage in Cables and Ropes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. The conditions under which one can gain mechanical advantage by pulling with a force F perpendicular to a cable (or rope) that is fixed at both ends are examined. While this is a commonly discussed example in introductory physics classes, its solution in terms of fundamental properties of the cable requires one to model the elasticity of…

  11. Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

  12. Binaural Advantage for Younger and Older Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and older adults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…

  13. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  14. Emerging Bilingualism: Dissociating Advantages for Metalinguistic Awareness and Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    The present studies revealed different factors associated with the reported advantages found in fully bilingual children for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Participants were 100 children in Study 1 and 80 children in Study 2 in the process of becoming bilingual by attending immersion programs. In both studies, "level of…

  15. Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

  16. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  17. The UNIX/XENIX Advantage: Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of the UNIX/XENIX operating system to support administrative office automation functions--word processing, spreadsheets, database management systems, electronic mail, and communications--at the Central Michigan University Libraries. Advantages and disadvantages of the XENIX operating system and system configuration are…

  18. Standardized phenotyping: advantages to horticulture, introduction to the workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces a workshop on standardized phenotyping and the advantages it provides for horticultural crops. The workshop was held at the 2009 American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference in St. Louis, MO, and was organized by the Genetics and Germplasm Working Group. The o...

  19. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  20. "Small Is Beautiful"--Advantages of a Small Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen

    1995-01-01

    From the perspective of a small (less than 50 full-time equivalent children) university-based childcare center, notes benefits afforded to large centers and advantages of being small, e.g., less institutional atmosphere, unified commitment to goals and philosophy, training beyond the basics, flexibility and spontaneity, more individualized…

  1. TAKING SCIENTIFIC ADVANTAGE OF A DISASTROUS OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 19 January 1996, the North Cape barge ran aground on Moonstone Beach in southern Rhode Island, releasing 828,000 gallons of refined oil. This opportunistic study was designed to take scientific advantage of the most severely affected seabird, the common loon (Gavia immer) . As...

  2. Upward Wealth Mobility: Exploring the Roman Catholic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Wealth inequality is among the most extreme forms of stratification in the United States, and upward wealth mobility is not common. Yet mobility is possible, and this paper takes advantage of trends among a unique group to explore the processes that generate mobility. I show that non-Hispanic whites raised in Roman Catholic families have been…

  3. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  4. Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

  5. Online Data Collection in Academic Research: Advantages and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Samuel; Dal, Michael; Matthiasdottir, Asrun

    2007-01-01

    Online data collection in academic research might be replacing paper-and-pencil surveys or questionnaires in the near future. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of online data collection, with particular reference to the conduct of two qualitative studies involving upper secondary school teachers and students in Iceland in 2002.…

  6. Advantages of fused night vision in complex urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alistair

    2014-10-01

    Fused night vision systems have been available for a number of years and have matured into practical devices for use by dismounted soldiers. This paper looks at the approaches taken to achieve fused systems and looks at the real world advantages of such systems in complex urban environments with multiple light sources.

  7. Will Medicare Advantage Benchmark Reforms Impact Plan Rebates and Enrollment?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act payment reforms. Study Design and Methods First difference regressions of county-level Medicare Advantage payment and enrollment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from 2006 – 2010. Results A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to Medicare Advantage plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point decrease in MA penetration (p < 0.001) and a 7.1% decline in the average MA enrollee's risk score (p < 0.001). Changes were markedly larger in counties with low levels of Traditional Medicare spending, a $10 decrease in monthly rebates was associated with a 0.64 percentage point decline in MA penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. Affordable Care Act reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in low spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 2.7 percentage points in the lowest spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. Conclusions Medicare Advantage enrollment responds to the generosity of supplemental benefits available. MA plans in low-cost counties may have difficulty offering the supplemental benefits that attract enrollees even when benchmarks are set at levels well above Traditional Medicare spending if plans do not find ways to deliver standard Medicare benefits at lower cost. PMID:25495112

  8. Advantages of In-house Audio Visual Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ralph

    1978-01-01

    Although the primary advantage of having an in-plant audiovisual production unit is having creative and technical personnel on hand when you most need them, experience shows that such a unit can also provide real benefits to the company both in terms of higher quality and lower costs. (VT)

  9. Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-07

    The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

  10. Analytical advantages of multivariate data processing. One, two, three, infinity?

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2008-08-01

    Multidimensional data are being abundantly produced by modern analytical instrumentation, calling for new and powerful data-processing techniques. Research in the last two decades has resulted in the development of a multitude of different processing algorithms, each equipped with its own sophisticated artillery. Analysts have slowly discovered that this body of knowledge can be appropriately classified, and that common aspects pervade all these seemingly different ways of analyzing data. As a result, going from univariate data (a single datum per sample, employed in the well-known classical univariate calibration) to multivariate data (data arrays per sample of increasingly complex structure and number of dimensions) is known to provide a gain in sensitivity and selectivity, combined with analytical advantages which cannot be overestimated. The first-order advantage, achieved using vector sample data, allows analysts to flag new samples which cannot be adequately modeled with the current calibration set. The second-order advantage, achieved with second- (or higher-) order sample data, allows one not only to mark new samples containing components which do not occur in the calibration phase but also to model their contribution to the overall signal, and most importantly, to accurately quantitate the calibrated analyte(s). No additional analytical advantages appear to be known for third-order data processing. Future research may permit, among other interesting issues, to assess if this "1, 2, 3, infinity" situation of multivariate calibration is really true. PMID:18613646

  11. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

    2002-03-01

    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  12. A Working Memory, Not Bilingual Advantage, in Controlled Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namazi, Mahchid; Thordardottir, Elin

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relationship between working memory (WM) and visually controlled attention (CA) in young bilingual and monolingual children. Previous research has shown that balanced bilingual children outperform monolinguals in CA. However, it is unclear whether this advantage is truly associated with bilingualism or whether potential WM and/or…

  13. Heterozygote advantage: the effect of artificial selection in livestock and pets.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of mutants in livestock and pets that have a heterozygote advantage because of artificial selection for these mutants in heterozygotes and strong detrimental effects from natural selection in homozygotes. In livestock, these mutants include ones that influence milk yield in dairy cattle, fecundity in sheep, litter size in pigs, muscling in beef cattle, color in horses, lean meat content in pigs, and comb morphology in chickens. In pets, these mutants include ones that influence tail length in cats and hairlessness, muscling, color, or ridgeback hair in dogs. A large variety of mutants are responsible, including small or large deletions or insertions and single base-pair nonsynonymous changes. Many of the mutants cause loss of function for the genes involved, a change that results in the pleiotropic effects of a desired phenotype in heterozygotes and low fitness or an undesirable phenotype in mutant homozygotes. I examine how selection changes the frequency of these mutants and provide an approach to estimate the amount of artificial selection that is necessary to maintain these mutants at the high frequencies often observed. The amount of artificial selection ranges from low selection favoring heterozygotes for double muscling in whippet dogs to very strong selection favoring the "flash" (part white, part solid) heterozygote in boxer dogs and the rose comb in chickens. In several examples (rose comb in Wyandotte chickens and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgeback dogs), there is actually stronger selection for the mutant than against it, making the frequency of the mutant greater than 50%. PMID:25524994

  14. Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’. Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage

  15. Advantages of Picosecond Laser Machining for Cutting-Edge Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, C.

    The demand to reduce the size, weight and material cost of modern electronic devices results in a requirement for precision micromachining to aid product development. Examples include making smaller and more powerful smartphones with brighter displays, eliminating the requirement for post-process cleaning and machining the latest bio- absorbable medical stents. The pace of innovation in high-tech industries has led to ultrafast (picosecond) industrial lasers becoming an important tool for many applications and the high repetition rates now available help to meet industrial throughput levels. This is due to the unique operating regime (megawatts of peak power) enabling clean cutting and patterning of sensitive materials and thin films used in a number of novel devices and allows micromachining of wide bandgap, "difficult" materials such as glass.

  16. Economic/operational advantages of top drive installations

    SciTech Connect

    Brouse, M.

    1996-10-01

    This article addresses specific types of drilling operations, procedures and techniques associated with top drive drilling that create selected and/or specific economic opportunities and justifications for using a rental top drive. Types of drilling operations and/or wells that commonly justify top drive drilling described here include: drilling through sloughing or swelling formations; drilling extended reach, high angle and/or horizontal wells; drilling underbalanced through normal and subnormal formations; and wells with high daily operating costs, time constraints, i.e., days vs. depth, and/or safety and environmental concerns. Top drives, of course, are not justified for every drilling operation. Here, the discussion indicates some situations where portable systems may be applicable.

  17. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Tony D.

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:24917839

  18. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects.

    PubMed

    Myers, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed. PMID:24917839

  19. Right ear advantage for vocal communication in frogs results from both structural asymmetry and attention modulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guangzhan; Xue, Fei; Yang, Ping; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2014-06-01

    Right-ear/left-hemisphere advantage (REA) in processing species-specific vocalizations has been demonstrated in mammals including humans. Two models for REA are typically proposed, a structural model and an attentional model. These hypotheses were tested in an anuran species, the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina) in which females strongly prefer male calls produced from inside mud-retuse burrows (high sexual attractiveness or HSA calls) to those produced in open fields (low sexual attractiveness or LSA calls). Isochronic playbacks were used to control for attention to stimuli presented to either the left or right sides of female subjects while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded from the left and right midbrain and telencephalon. The results show that relative EEG power in the delta band declined while those of the alpha and beta bands increased with time in the left but not the right midbrain. Since the anuran midbrain receives auditory information derived primarily from the contralateral auditory nerve, these results support the idea that REA occurs in frogs because communication sounds are processed preferentially in the left midbrain. Furthermore, though differences in the dynamic changes of the delta, alpha and beta bands in the left midbrain between acoustic stimuli were not statistically significant, these changes were stronger during the playback of HSA calls toward which females tend to allocate greater attentional resources. These results imply that REA in frogs results from the combined effects of structural asymmetry and attention modulation. PMID:24613236

  20. Assessment of a magnet system combining the advantages of cable-in-conduit forced-flow and pool-boiling magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, D.; Hassenzahl, W.; Felker, B.; Chaplin, M.

    1993-10-06

    This paper presents an idea for a magnet system that could be used to advantage in tokamaks and other fusion engineering devices. Higher performance designs, specifically newer tokamaks such as those for the international Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) use Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) forced flow coils to advantage to meet field and current density requirements. Pool boiling magnets lack structural integrity to resist high magnetic forces since helium cooling areas must surround each conductor. A second problem is that any leak can threaten the voltage standoff integrity of the magnet system. This is because a leak can result in low-pressure helium gas becoming trapped by limited conductance in the magnet bundle and low-pressure helium has poor dielectric strength. The system proposed here is basically a CICC system, with it`s inherent advantages, but bathed in higher pressure supercritical helium to eliminate the leak and voltage break-down problems. Schemes to simplify helium coolant plumbing with the proposed system are discussed. A brief historical review of related magnet systems is included. The advantages and disadvantages of using higher pressure, supercritical helium in combination with solid electrical insulation in a CICC system are discussed. Related electrical data from some previous works are compiled and discussed.

  1. [Advantages and limitations of renin inhibition with aliskiren].

    PubMed

    Azizi, M; Frank, M; Steichen, O; Blanchard, A

    2011-05-01

    In the current context of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or their combination, have proved to be effective in providing cardiovascular and renal protection. However, renin inhibition has long been recognized as the preferred site for blockade of the RAAS because renin represents the first, highly-regulated and rate-limiting step of the system. Up to now, the first orally active renin inhibitors initially tested in humans did not meet the necessary all the criteria (specificity, potency, and pharmacokinetic profile) to become clinically useful drugs. The synthesis of aliskiren, a potent alkane carboxamide renin inhibitor, now provides an orally active compound which, according to its pharmacological profile in normotensive subjects and in patients with hypertension, diabetic nephropathy or heart failure suggests that this drug may be of value for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular and renal disorders. However, long-term studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of aliskiren in these clinical settings. The results of the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiorenal Disease Endpoints (ALTITUDE) trial which has already included 8600 patients with type 2 diabetes, proteinuria and a high cardiovascular risk and compared the effects of aliskiren vs. a placebo on a composite endpoint including renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality should be provided in 2012. PMID:21570538

  2. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  3. Is there an in-group advantage in emotion recognition?

    PubMed

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Ambady, Nalini

    2002-03-01

    H. A. Elfenbein and N. Ambady (2002) examined the evidence for an in-group advantage in emotion recognition, whereby recognition is generally more accurate for perceivers from the same cultural group as emotional expressors. D. Matsumoto's (2002) comment centered on 3 asserted methodological requirements. This response addresses the lack of consensus conceming these "requirements" and demonstrates that none alter the presence of the in-group advantage. His analyses had a serious flaw and, once corrected, replicated the original findings. Furthermore, he described results from his empirical work not meeting a literal interpretation of his own requirements. Overall, where Matsumoto considers subtle cross-cultural differences in emotional expression a methodological artifact in judgment studies, the present authors find a core phenomenon worthy of attention. PMID:11931518

  4. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources.

    PubMed

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study's basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources. PMID:26731118

  5. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

  6. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources

    PubMed Central

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study’s basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources. PMID:26731118

  7. Paedomorphic Facial Expressions Give Dogs a Selective Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Bridget M.; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C.; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M.; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

  8. Development of the deontic advantage in reasoning: reply to Cummins.

    PubMed

    Astington, Janet Wilde; Dack, Lisa Ain

    2013-11-01

    In response to Cummins's report that comments on our article (Dack & Astington, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2011, Vol. 110, pp. 94-114), this article clarifies our perspective on what constitutes the deontic advantage, and notes similarities and differences between Cummins's perspective and our own. Like Cummins, we believe that young children are capable of deontic reasoning and that methodological factors alone cannot explain this ability. However, we maintain that it is important to be precise about methodology in order to facilitate investigation of how the deontic advantage changes over developmental time, and this question is our main interest, although as yet incompletely answered. Contrary to Cummins, we do not think that existing data can speak to the issue of the potential innateness of deontic reasoning. We also disagree with Cummins's perspective on norm versus normative proposition and with some of her comparisons between deontic and epistemic phenomena. PMID:23660177

  9. The half-truth of first-mover advantage.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Fernando; Lanzolla, Gianvito

    2005-04-01

    Many executives take for granted that the first company in a new product category gets an unbeatable head start and reaps long-lasting benefits. But that doesn't always happen. The authors of this article discovered that much depends on the pace at which the category's technology is changing and the speed at which the market is evolving. By analyzing these two factors, companies can improve their odds of succeeding as first movers with the resources they possess. Gradual evolution in both the technology and the market provides a first mover with the best conditions for creating a dominant position that is long lasting (Hoover in the vacuum cleaner industry is a good example). In such calm waters, a company can defend its advantages even without exceptional skills or extensive financial resources. When the market is changing rapidly and the product isn't, a first entrant with extensive resources can obtain a long-lasting advantage (as Sony did with its Walkman personal stereo); a company with only limited resources probably must settle for a short-term benefit. When the market is static but the product is changing constantly, first-mover advantages of either kind--durable or short-lived--are unlikely. Only companies with very deep pockets can survive (think of Sony and the digital cameras it pioneered). Rapid churn in both the technology and the market creates the worst conditions. But if companies have an acute sense of when to exit-as Netscape demonstrated when it agreed to be acquired by AOL-a worthwhile short-term gain is possible. Before venturing into a newly forming market, you need to analyze the environment, assess your resources, then determine which type offirst-mover advantage is most achievable. Once you've gone into the water, you have no choice but to swim. PMID:15807045

  10. Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Undergraduates at Indiana University, Bloomington, Including a Comparison Between I.U. Students and the State's High School Population. Indiana Studies in Higher Education, No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Linda Morton

    The use of alcohol and six classes of illicit drugs among 485 undergraduates at Indiana University, Bloomington, was studied in 1981-1982 and compared to a state study of alcohol/drug use by high school students. Attention was focused on the following questions: When does drug experimentation begin, and which drugs are currently most popular? How…

  11. The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Antón, Eneko; Macizo, Pedro; Estévez, Adelina; Fuentes, Luis J; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades several authors have suggested that bilinguals exhibit enhanced cognitive control as compared to monolinguals and some proposals suggest that this main difference between monolinguals and bilinguals is related to bilinguals' enhanced capacity of inhibiting irrelevant information. This has led to the proposal of the so-called bilingual advantage in inhibitory skills. However, recent studies have cast some doubt on the locus and generality of the alleged bilingual advantage in inhibitory skills. In the current study we investigated inhibitory skills in a large sample of 252 monolingual and 252 bilingual children who were carefully matched on a large number of indices. We tested their performance in a verbal Stroop task and in a nonverbal version of the same task (the number size-congruency task). Results were unequivocal and showed that bilingual and monolingual participants performed equally in these two tasks across all the indices or markers of inhibitory skills explored. Furthermore, the lack of differences between monolingual and bilingual children extended to all the age ranges tested and was not modulated by any of the independent factors investigated. In light of these results, we conclude that bilingual children do not exhibit any specific advantage in simple inhibitory tasks as compared to monolinguals. PMID:24217139

  12. Technology Survey Assistance Tool Focusing on Their Advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Risa; Takeuchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Hideo; Nasukawa, Tetsuya

    It is important for R&D managers, consultants, and other people seeking broad knowledge in technology fields to survey technical literature such as research papers, white papers, and technology news articles. One of the important kinds of information for those people regards the effectiveness of new technologies in their own businesses. General search engines are good at selecting documents revealing the details of a specific technology or a technology field, but it is hard to obtain useful information about how a technology will apply to individual business cases from such search results. There is a need for a technology survey assistance tool that helps users find technologies with suitable capabilities. In this paper, two technical tasks were tackled to develop the prototype of this assistance tool: Extraction of advantage phrases and scoring for the advantage phrases to find novel applications in the target technology field. We describe a new method to identify advantage phrases in technical documents and our scoring function that gives higher scores to novel applications of the technology. The results of evaluations showed our phrase identification method with only a few phrasal patterns performs almost as well as human annotators, and the proposed scoring conforms better to the decisions made by professionals than random sort.

  13. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract But Not Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A

    2016-02-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in J Mem Lang 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this ambiguity advantage may in reality be a polysemy advantage: caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings (homonymy). We report two lexical decision studies that investigated the effects of polysemy with new word sets. In both studies, polysemy was factorially manipulated while homonymy was controlled for. In Experiment 1, where the stimulus set consisted solely of concrete nouns, there was no effect of polysemy. However, in Experiment 2, where the stimulus set consisted of a mix of abstract nouns, verbs, and adjectives, there was a significant polysemy advantage. Together, these two studies strongly suggest that polysemy affects abstract but not concrete nouns. In addition, they rule out several alternative explanations for these polysemy effects, e.g., sense dominance, age-of-acquisition, familiarity, and semantic diversity. PMID:25373555

  14. Disadvantages and advantages of transtibial technique for creating the anterior cruciate ligament femoral socket.

    PubMed

    Robin, Brett N; Lubowitz, James H

    2014-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) femoral socket techniques have distinct advantages and disadvantages when considering the following techniques: transtibial, anteromedial portal, outside-in, and outside-in retroconstruction. There is no one perfect technique and we have an incomplete understanding of anatomical, biomechanical, isometry, stability, and clinical outcomes. Our primary focus is transtibial technique for creating the ACL femoral socket. Advantages include less invasive, isometric graft placement, stable Lachman exam, and minimal graft impingement with the tunnel and notch. Disadvantages include nonanatomic vertical graft placement that can cause rotational instability and positive pivot shift, interference screw divergence, graft-tunnel length mismatch, femoral socket constraint, posterior cruciate ligament impingement, and a short, oblique tibial tunnel that may undermine the medial plateau in an attempt to achieve anatomic ACL reconstruction. PMID:24951951

  15. Multimodal treatment of metastatic thymic carcinoma including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation: report of a case with more than 4-year disease-free survival.

    PubMed

    Geffen, D B; Benharroch, D; Yellin, A; Ariad, S; Or, R; Cohen, Y

    2001-12-01

    Thymic carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignancy differentiated from thymoma by the presence of cytologically malignant cells. There are few reports of the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma. We describe a patient who sought treatment for thymic carcinoma metastatic to pleura, pericardium, retroperitoneum, and neck nodes. He was treated with neoadjuvant etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin, and underwent resection. We then administered high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support, followed by radiation therapy. The patient remains in complete remission more than 4 years after diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic thymic carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy and postoperative high-dose chemotherapy. Metastatic thymic carcinoma may be curable by aggressive combined therapies. PMID:11801755

  16. Advantage and Choice: Social Relationships and Staff Assistance in Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Street, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To understand how “cumulative inequality” (CI), expressed as individual advantage and choice, and “external social supports” contribute to the quality of social relationships and perceptions of staff assistance for older individuals in different assisted living (AL) settings. Methods. Data are from 429 cognitively intact AL residents aged 60 years and older interviewed for the Florida Study of Assisted Living. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses show how individual advantage and choice and external social networks influence respondents’ social relationships and staff assistance in AL. Results. Controlling for resident and facility characteristics, being able to pay privately enhances resident satisfaction with staff assistance and having control over the move to AL is positively associated with perceptions of staff relationships and assistance. Maintaining contact with pre-AL friends predicts quality of coresident relationships, as does family contact. Regular contact with family buffers some of the disadvantages associated with CI for perceptions of staff relationships but not perceptions of staff assistance. Discussion. Individual advantage and choice influence the quality of staff relationships and assistance for AL residents but matter little for coresident relationships. External social relationships buffer some of the risks associated with CI for perceptions of staff relationships but not perceived quality of staff assistance. Findings highlight outcomes associated with CI, including predictable risks that disadvantaged elders face in particular types of AL settings, differential advantages others enjoy that influence positive perceptions of staff relationships and staff assistance, and the enduring importance of supportive social relationships. PMID:20007640

  17. Response speed advantage for vision does not extend to touch in early deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Early deaf adults typically respond faster than hearing controls when performing a speeded simple detection on visual targets. Whether this response time advantage can generalise to another intact modality (touch) or it is instead specific to visual processing remained unexplored. We tested eight early deaf adults and twelve hearing controls in a simple detection task, with visual or tactile targets delivered on the arms and occupying the same locations in external space. Catch trials were included in the experimental paradigm. Results revealed a response time advantage in deaf adults compared to hearing controls, selectively for visual targets. This advantage did not extend to touch. The number of anticipation errors was negligible and comparable in both groups. The present findings strengthen the notion that response time advantage in deaf adults emerges as a consequence of changes specific to visual processing. They also exclude the involvement of sensory-unspecific cognitive mechanisms in this improvement (e.g. increased impulsivity in initiation of response, longer-lasting sustained attention or higher motivation to perform the task). Finally, they provide initial evidence that the intact sensory modalities can reorganise independently from each other following early auditory deprivation. PMID:24477765

  18. Advantages of a new subnanometer aspheric profiling technique with respect to the unique requirements of EUV lithography mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Paul E.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a new noncontacting approach for obtaining the full aperture, absolute aspheric profile of optical surfaces. The approach has many advantages for a wide range of optics, including self-referencing and motion-insensitive operation; extremely high accuracy; compact size; and the ability to test concave, flat and convex optics over a wide range of spatial frequencies. In a separate paper, we describe the underlying theory of operation, a prototype instrument, preliminary measurement results, and projected accuracies. In this paper, we discuss the specific advantages that are especially relevant for Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) lithography components. These mirrors are responsible for the fabulously accurate imaging of the reticle onto the wafer. They therefore have typical surface accuracy requirements of a fraction of a nanometer, with the need to characterize the errors over an enormous range of spatial frequencies. The need to provide diffraction-limited imaging at EUV wavelengths over large Fields Of View (FOVs) and Numerical Apertures (NAs) puts a premium on freedom in the optical design. Specifically, the use of aspheres and convex mirrors can be of great help. Therefore, performance, FOV, and NA all benefit from the most accurate and flexible metrology. All of these factors make this new profiling technique well suited to the unique requirements of EUV lithography mirrors.

  19. Recent advantages in processing and fabrication of ceramic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R. B.; Ferrando, W. A.; Karmarkar, S. D.; Kerr, J.; Hess, P. W.; Divecha, A. P.

    1991-08-01

    The properties of ceramic superconductors are greatly influenced by the temperature, heating rate, pressure, and gas atmosphere used during processing and fabrication. For example, transport critical current density decreases drastically in the presence of trace amounts of CO2 in the sintering atmosphere. The grain boundaries of samples sintered in O2 atmospheres containing various levels of CO2 have been thoroughly characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Reduced total pressure during binder removal and sintering was found to prevent decomposition of the superconductor. We have developed a low-oxygen-pressure technique for calcining precursors and sintering long lengths of wires and coils. Other advances include the improvement of critical current density and levitation force through melt-growth processing, incorporating of insulating coatings, and powder-in-tube processing of superconductors.

  20. The Change Detection Advantage for Animals: An Effect of Ancestral Priorities or Progeny of Experimental Design?

    PubMed Central

    Laeng, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The “animate monitoring” hypothesis proposes that humans are evolutionarily predisposed to recruit attention toward animals. Support for this has repeatedly been obtained through the change detection paradigm where animals are detected faster than artifacts. The present study shows that the advantage for animals does not stand up to more rigorous experimental controls. Experiment 1 used artificially generated change detection scenes and counterbalanced identical target objects across two sets of scenes. Results showed that detection performance is determined more by the surrounding scene than semantic category. Experiment 2 used photographs from the original studies and replaced the target animals with artifacts in the exact same locations, such that the surrounding scene was kept constant while manipulating the target category. Results replicated the original studies when photos were not manipulated but agreed with the findings of our first experiment in that the advantage shifted to the artifacts when object categories replaced each other in the original scenes. A third experiment used inverted and blurred images so as to disrupt high-level perception but failed to erase the advantage for animals. Hence, the present set of results questions whether the supposed attentional advantage for animals can be supported by evidence from the change detection paradigm. PMID:27433331

  1. Associated petroleum gas utilization in Tomsk Oblast: energy efficiency and tax advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazim, A.; Romanyuk, V.; Ahmadeev, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    This article deals with oil production companies activities in increasing the utilization volume of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Tomsk Oblast. Cost-effectiveness analysis of associated petroleum gas utilization was carried out using the example of gas engine power station AGP-350 implementation at Yuzhno-Cheremshanskoye field, Tomsk Oblast. Authors calculated the effectiveness taking into account the tax advantages of 2012. The implementation of this facility shows high profitability, the payback period being less than 2 years.

  2. Supporting elderly homecare with smartwatches: advantages and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Lovis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The demographic transition in industrialized countries leads to a growth of elderly population. This population is more prone to chronic diseases and puts an increasing pressure on the healthcare system. One way to reduce the cost associated to the support of this population is to improve its autonomy to keep it independent as long as possible. Many assistive technologies and environmental interventions can be implemented to achieve this goal. In this paper, we are looking at the advantages and drawbacks of smartwatches as a platform to support elderly at home. By doing a literature search and by performing expert interview, we have identified the advantages of this technology to insure the success of promising applications as well as the obstacles that should be gone beyond. Among the advantages, the ubiquity of smartwatches makes possible a continuous medical surveillance, harder to achieve with other devices. Moreover, the versatility of smartwatches provides an appropriate ground to implement a centralized platform providing multiples services facilitating elderly homecare. However, the physical constraints of the watches such as the tiny screen size, the small connectors and the limited power autonomy can be significant barriers to the adoption of these tools. In conclusion, beside the actual homecare system, improving the autonomy and the independence of elderly at home can be leveraged by a combination of environmental and assistive technologies. Smartwatches have definitively the potential to become close assistants to help elderly in their daily life. However, this will not be achieved without dedicating a significant effort in designing appropriate user interfaces and certainly dedicated hardware to respond to the constraints associated with potential physical and cognitive impairments. PMID:25160270

  3. The Mechanisms Underlying the ASD Advantage in Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Giserman, Ivy; Carter, Alice S; Blaser, Erik

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are faster or more successful than typically developing control participants at various visual-attentional tasks (for reviews, see Dakin and Frith in Neuron 48:497-507, 2005; Simmons et al. in Vis Res 49:2705-2739, 2009). This "ASD advantage" was first identified in the domain of visual search by Plaisted et al. (J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:777-783, 1998). Here we survey the findings of visual search studies from the past 15 years that contrasted the performance of individuals with and without ASD. Although there are some minor caveats, the overall consensus is that-across development and a broad range of symptom severity-individuals with ASD reliably outperform controls on visual search. The etiology of the ASD advantage has not been formally specified, but has been commonly attributed to 'enhanced perceptual discrimination', a superior ability to visually discriminate between targets and distractors in such tasks (e.g. O'Riordan in Cognition 77:81-96, 2000). As well, there is considerable evidence for impairments of the attentional network in ASD (for a review, see Keehn et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:164-183, 2013). We discuss some recent results from our laboratory that support an attentional, rather than perceptual explanation for the ASD advantage in visual search. We speculate that this new conceptualization may offer a better understanding of some of the behavioral symptoms associated with ASD, such as over-focusing and restricted interests. PMID:24091470

  4. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  5. Does living donation have advantages over deceased donation in liver transplantation?

    PubMed

    Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment option for patients with end-stage liver disease. Living donor LT (LDLT) has developed as an alternative to deceased donor LT (DDLT) in order to overcome the critical shortage of deceased organ donations, particularly in Asia. LDLT offers several advantages over DDLT. The major advantage of LDLT is the reduction in waiting time mortality. Especially among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), LDLT can shorten the waiting time and lower the dropout rate. The Hong Kong group reported that median waiting time was significantly shorter for LDLT than for DDLT. Intention-to-treat survival rates of HCC patients with voluntary live donors were significantly higher than those of patients without voluntary live donors. In contrast, a multicenter adult-to-adult LDLT retrospective cohort study reported that LDLT recipients displayed a significantly higher rate of HCC recurrence than DDLT recipients, although LDLT recipients had shorter waiting times than DDLT recipients. The advantage of LDLT involves the more liberal criteria for HCC compared with those for DDLT. Various preoperative interventions including nutritional treatment can also be planned for both the donor and recipient in LDLT. Conversely, LDLT has marked unfavorable characteristics in terms of donor risks. Donor morbidity is not infrequent and the donor mortality rate is estimated at around 0.1-0.3%. In conclusion, living donation is not necessarily advantageous over deceased donation in LT. Taking the advantages and disadvantages of each option into consideration, LDLT and DDLT should both be used to facilitate effective LT for patients requiring transplant. PMID:20880167

  6. Absence of CTX-M Enzymes but High Prevalence of Clones, Including Clone ST131, among Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Subjects Living in the Area of Paris, France▿

    PubMed Central

    Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Blanco, Jorge; Amaqdouf, Karim; Mora, Azucena; Guize, Louis; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Quinolone-resistant and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates belonging to clone ST131 have been reported in the community. This study was designed to identify these E. coli isolates in the stools of 332 independent healthy subjects living in the area of Paris, France. Stools were plated on media without antibiotics, in order to obtain the dominant (Dm) fecal E. coli strain, and with nalidixic acid (NAL) and cefotaxime. Quinolone susceptibility, phylogenetic groups, and molecular profiles, including multilocus sequence types (ST), were determined for all NAL-resistant (NAL-R) isolates. Groups were also determined for the Dm strains from participants with NAL-R isolates and from a subgroup without NAL-R isolates. All B2 isolates were typed; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed for the ST131 isolates, and the results were compared with those for intercontinental clone ST131. Two participants (0.6%) had extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (SHV-2, TEM-52) fecal E. coli isolates, and 51 (15%) had NAL-R isolates; 51% of NAL-R isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A, 31% to group D, 16% to group B2, and 2% to group B1. The Dm strain was NAL-R in 3.3% of the 332 subjects. Forty-nine percent of the NAL-R isolates belonged to clones: ST10 and ST606 for group A isolates, ST117 and ST393 for group D isolates. Of all B2 isolates studied from 100 subjects (8 NAL-R strains; 19 NAL-susceptible dominant strains), 52% belonged to three clones: ST131 (n = 7), ST95 (n = 4), and ST141 (n = 3). This is the first study to show the presence of fecal E. coli isolates of clone ST131 in 7% of independent healthy subjects not colonized by CTX-M-15-producing isolates. PMID:18842941

  7. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  8. Proton Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: Dosimetric Advantages Over Photon Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun Krishnan, Sunil; Zhang Xiaodong; Dong Lei; Briere, Tina; Crane, Christopher H.; Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V{sub 45} were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V{sub 40} and V{sub 50} of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications.

  9. Neural correlates of advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions.

    PubMed

    Güroğlu, Berna; Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person's (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person's profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  10. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at e">http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89.

  11. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  12. Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Sandy; Wakelin, Delia; Lewis, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    Football fans' views on their role in the home advantage were obtained by placing links to an internet questionnaire on supporters' websites. Altogether, 461 fans from clubs which had been promoted, relegated or unchanged in the past season of the English football leagues rated crowd support as significantly more influential than familiarity, travel, territoriality and referee bias in contributing to the home advantage. Fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to victory, took credit for distracting opponents, and believed that they could influence officials into making decisions in their team's favour. However, they did not accept personal blame for poor results. No effects for gender, age or the team's outcome in the promotion/relegation battle emerged, though season ticket holders were more extreme in their feelings of responsibility overall. Furthermore, it was suggested that mechanisms such as the perception of being superior to rivals can encourage fans to retain their allegiance to their teams, even when outcomes are disappointing. Indeed, affiliation may become so incorporated into self-identity that supporters may not have the option of abandoning their team, but instead perceive a reciprocal relationship in which both they and the team are expected to do their best to achieve success. PMID:16089181

  13. Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Their advantages and disadvantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.

  14. Determination of Bromine Stable Isotope Ratios from Saline Solutions by "Wet Plasma" MC-ICPMS Including a Comparison between High- and Low-Resolution Modes, and Three Introduction Systems.

    PubMed

    Louvat, Pascale; Bonifacie, Magali; Giunta, Thomas; Michel, Agnès; Coleman, Max

    2016-04-01

    We describe a novel method for measuring stable bromine isotope compositions in saline solutions such as seawater, brines, and formation waters. Bromine is extracted from the samples by ion exchange chromatography on anion exchange resin AG 1-X4 with NH4NO3 and measured by MC-ICP-MS in wet plasma conditions. Sample introduction through a small spray chamber provided good sensitivity and stability of the Br signal compared to direct injection (d-DIHEN) and desolvation (APEX). NH4NO3 media allowed fast (<3 min) washing of the system. Despite Ar2H(+) spectral interference on (81)Br(+), for the first time low-resolution mode (with appropriate tuning of Ar2H(+)/(81)Br(+) sensitivity) gave higher precision (81)Br/(79)Br measurements than high-resolution (HR), due to the narrowness of the (81)Br(+) plateau in HR mode and to slight mass drifting with time. Additionally, 1 μg Br is the lower amount needed for a triplicate determination of δ(81)Br by MC-ICP-MS, with reproducibility often < ± 0.1‰ (2 SD). Four HBr solutions were prepared by evaporation/condensation in order to obtain in-house reference solutions with 3‰ variations in δ(81)Br and to assess the reproducibility and accuracy of the method. Long-term (>3 years) reproducibility between ± 0.11 and ± 0.27‰ (2 SD) was obtained for the four HBr solutions, the international standard reference material NIST SRM 977 (δ(81)BrSMOB = -0.65 ± 1.1‰, 1 SD), and seawaters (synthetic and natural). The accuracy of the MC-ICP-MS method was validated by comparing the δ(81)Br obtained for these solutions with dual-inlet IRMS measurements on CH3Br gas. Finally, the method was successfully applied to 22 natural samples. PMID:26898343

  15. Neural Correlates of the In-Group Memory Advantage on the Encoding and Recognition of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Herzmann, Grit; Curran, Tim

    2013-01-01

    People have a memory advantage for faces that belong to the same group, for example, that attend the same university or have the same personality type. Faces from such in-group members are assumed to receive more attention during memory encoding and are therefore recognized more accurately. Here we use event-related potentials related to memory encoding and retrieval to investigate the neural correlates of the in-group memory advantage. Using the minimal group procedure, subjects were classified based on a bogus personality test as belonging to one of two personality types. While the electroencephalogram was recorded, subjects studied and recognized faces supposedly belonging to the subject’s own and the other personality type. Subjects recognized in-group faces more accurately than out-group faces but the effect size was small. Using the individual behavioral in-group memory advantage in multivariate analyses of covariance, we determined neural correlates of the in-group advantage. During memory encoding (300 to 1000 ms after stimulus onset), subjects with a high in-group memory advantage elicited more positive amplitudes for subsequently remembered in-group than out-group faces, showing that in-group faces received more attention and elicited more neural activity during initial encoding. Early during memory retrieval (300 to 500 ms), frontal brain areas were more activated for remembered in-group faces indicating an early detection of group membership. Surprisingly, the parietal old/new effect (600 to 900 ms) thought to indicate recollection processes differed between in-group and out-group faces independent from the behavioral in-group memory advantage. This finding suggests that group membership affects memory retrieval independent of memory performance. Comparisons with a previous study on the other-race effect, another memory phenomenon influenced by social classification of faces, suggested that the in-group memory advantage is dominated by top

  16. Measurement and Calculation of Electrochemical Potentials in Hydrogenated High Temperature Water, including an Evaluation of the Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia/Iron-Iron Oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) Probe as Reference Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton; Mark A. Ando

    2001-10-22

    The importance of knowing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP, also referred to as E{sub con}) of nickel-base alloys in hydrogenated water is related to the need to understand the effects of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen concentration ([H{sub 2}]) on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Also, the use of a reference electrode (RE) can improve test quality by heightening the ability to detect instances of out-of-specification or unexpected chemistry. Three methods are used to measure and calculate the ECP of nickel-based alloys in hydrogenated water containing {approx} 1 to 150 scc/kg H{sub 2} (0.1 to 13.6 ppm H{sub 2}) at 260 to 360 C. The three methods are referred to as the specimen/component method, the platinum (Pt) method, and the yttria-stabilized zirconia/iron-iron oxide (YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) RE method. The specimen/component method relies upon the assumption that the specimen or component behaves as a hydrogen electrode, and its E{sub corr} is calculated using the Nernst equation. The present work shows that this method is valid for aqueous H{sub 2} levels {ge} {approx} 5 to 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The Pt method uses a voltage measurement between the specimen or component and a Pt electrode, with the Pt assumed to behave as a hydrogen electrode; this method is valid as long as the aqueous H{sub 2}level is known. The YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which represents a relatively new approach for measuring E{sub corr} in this environment, can be used even if the aqueous H{sub 2} level is unknown. The electrochemical performance of the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} probe supports its viability as a RE for use in high temperature hydrogenated water. Recent design modifications incorporating a teflon sealant have improved the durability of this RE (however, some of the REs do still fail prematurely due to water in-leakage). The Pt method is judged to represent the best overall approach, though there are cases where the other methods are superior

  17. Total Ossiculoplasty: Advantages of Two-Point Stabilization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Berenholz, Leonard; Burkey, John; Lippy, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate a porous polyethylene prosthesis with two-point stabilization in total ossiculoplasty. This approach utilizes a lateral as well as a medial graft to stabilize a total ossicular prosthesis (TOP). Study Design. Retrospective cohort review of total ossiculoplasty. Methods. All patients who underwent total ossiculoplasty during the years 2004–2007 were included in the study group. Only five patients (10%) had primary surgery whereas 45 (90%) underwent revision surgery. Cartilage grafts covering the prosthesis (Sheehy, Xomed) laterally were used in all patients with areolar tissue being used for medial stabilization at the stapes footplate. Follow-up examination and audiometrics were performed a mean of 8.1 months following surgery. Results. The percentage of patients closing their ABG to within 10 dB was 44% with 66% closing their ABG to within 20 dB. The mean four-frequency hearing gain was 15.7 dB. The mean postoperative ABG was 15.7 dB. Conclusion. Audiometric results following total ossiculoplasty surgery using two-point stabilization exceeded results from the otologic literature. Proper two-point fixation with areolar tissue and stabilization utilizing cartilage were the keys to achieving a relatively high percentage of success in chronic ear disease in this sample. PMID:22966231

  18. Advantages of environmental scanning electron microscopy in studies of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Pope, R K; Scheetz, R W; Ray, R I; Wagner, P A; Little, B J

    1993-08-01

    Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microalgae, are composed predominantly of water which prohibits direct observation in a traditional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Preparation for SEM requires that microorganisms be fixed, frozen or dehydrated, and coated with a conductive film before observation in a high vacuum environment. Sample preparation may mechanically disturb delicate samples, compromise morphological information, and introduce other artifacts. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) provides a technology for imaging hydrated or dehydrated biological samples with minimal manipulation and without the need for conductive coatings. Sporulating cultures of three fungi, Aspergillus sp., Cunninghamella sp., and Mucor sp., were imaged in the ESEM to assess usefulness of the instrument in the direct observation of delicate, uncoated, biological specimens. Asexual sporophores showed no evidence of conidial displacement or disruption of sporangia. Uncoated algal cells of Euglena gracilis and Spirogyra sp. were examined using the backscatter electron detector (BSE) and the environmental secondary electron detector (ESD) of the ESEM. BSE images had more clearly defined intracellular structures, whereas ESD gave a clearer view of the surface E. gracilis cells fixed with potassium permanganate, Spirogyra sp. stained with Lugol's solution, and Saprolegnia sp. fixed with osmium tetroxide were compared using BSE and ESD to demonstrate that cellular details could be enhanced by the introduction of heavy metals. The effect of cellular water on signal quality was evaluated by comparing hydrated to critical point dried specimens. PMID:8400431

  19. Selectivity of the highly preorganized tetradentate ligand 2,9-di(pyrid-2-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline for metal ions in aqueous solution, including lanthanide(III) ions and the uranyl(VI) cation.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Ashley N; Cockrell, Gregory M; Williams, Neil J; Zhang, Gang; VanDerveer, Donald G; Lee, Hee-Seung; Thummel, Randolph P; Hancock, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    Some metal ion complexing properties of DPP (2,9-Di(pyrid-2-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline) are reported with a variety of Ln(III) (Lanthanide(III)) ions and alkali earth metal ions, as well as the uranyl(VI) cation. The intense π-π* transitions in the absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of 10(-5) M DPP were monitored as a function of pH and metal ion concentration to determine formation constants of the alkali-earth metal ions and Ln(III) (Ln = lanthanide) ions. It was found that log K(1)(DPP) for the Ln(III) ions has a peak at Ln(III) = Sm(III) in a plot of log K(1) versus 1/r(+) (r(+) = ionic radius for 8-coordination). For Ln(III) ions larger than Sm(III), there is a steady rise in log K(1) from La(III) to Sm(III), while for Ln(III) ions smaller than Sm(III), log K(1) decreases slightly to the smallest Ln(III) ion, Lu(III). This pattern of variation of log K(1) with varying size of Ln(III) ion was analyzed using MM (molecular mechanics) and DFT (density functional theory) calculations. Values of strain energy (∑U) were calculated for the [Ln(DPP)(H(2)O)(5)](3+) and [Ln(qpy)(H(2)O)(5)](3+) (qpy = quaterpyrdine) complexes of all the Ln(III) ions. The ideal M-N bond lengths used for the Ln(III) ions were the average of those found in the CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) for the complexes of each of the Ln(III) ions with polypyridyl ligands. Similarly, the ideal M-O bond lengths were those for complexes of the Ln(III) ions with coordinated aqua ligands in the CSD. The MM calculations suggested that in a plot of ∑U versus ideal M-N length, a minimum in ∑U occurred at Pm(III), adjacent in the series to Sm(III). The significance of this result is that (1) MM calculations suggest that a similar metal ion size preference will occur for all polypyridyl-type ligands, including those containing triazine groups, that are being developed as solvent extractants in the separation of Am(III) and Ln(III) ions in the treatment of nuclear waste, and (2) Am(III) is very

  20. Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25492891

  1. Inhibitory processes in visual perception: a bilingual advantage.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Marx, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Bilingual inhibitory control advantages are well established. An open question is whether inhibitory superiority also extends to visual perceptual phenomena that involve inhibitory processes. This research used ambiguous figures to assess inhibitory bilingual superiority in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old mono- and bilingual children (N=141). Findings show that bilinguals across all ages are superior in inhibiting a prevalent interpretation of an ambiguous figure to perceive the alternative interpretation. In contrast, mono- and bilinguals revealed no differences in understanding that an ambiguous figure can have two distinct referents. Together, these results suggest that early bilingual inhibitory control superiority is also evident in visual perception. Bilinguals' conceptual understanding of figure ambiguity is comparable to that of their monolingual peers. PMID:24878102

  2. Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

  3. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. PMID:27493184

  4. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  5. COMP-1 promotes competitive advantage of nematode sperm.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jody M; Chavez, Daniela R; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Competition among sperm to fertilize oocytes is a ubiquitous feature of sexual reproduction as well as a profoundly important aspect of sexual selection. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms sperm use to gain competitive advantage or how these mechanisms are regulated genetically. In this study, we utilize a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify a gene, comp-1, whose function is specifically required in competitive contexts. We show that comp-1 functions in sperm to modulate their migration through and localization within the reproductive tract, thereby promoting their access to oocytes. Contrary to previously described models, comp-1 mutant sperm show no defects in size or velocity, thereby defining a novel pathway for preferential usage. Our results indicate not only that sperm functional traits can influence the outcome of sperm competition, but also that these traits can be modulated in a context-dependent manner depending on the presence of competing sperm. PMID:25789512

  6. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders. PMID:17463410

  7. Total hip arthroplasty: areview of advances, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Zi, Ying; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of Osteoarthritis (OA) has been unsatisfactory and often surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) is required. THA is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage arthritic hip conditions. Cemented THA has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with OA. An improvement in Timed “Up and Go” (TUG) before surgery might contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of DVT after THA, though post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a chronic condition in the lower extremity does not appear to be a major complication after DVT in patients undergoing THA. For OA, four domains to be evaluated: pain, physical function, joint imaging, and patient global assessment. Thus, THA can be cost saving or, at least cost- effective in improving quality-adjusted life expectancy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances as well as advantages and limitations of THA. PMID:25784971

  8. Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Colucci, C

    1998-01-01

    This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers. PMID:10181647

  9. Scintillation advantages of lowest order Bessel-Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, H. T.; Baykal, Y.; Sermutlu, E.; Cai, Y.

    2008-08-01

    For a weak turbulence propagation environment, the scintillation index of the lowest order Bessel-Gaussian beams is formulated. Its triple and single integral versions are presented. Numerical evaluations show that at large source sizes and large width parameters, when compared at the same source size, Bessel-Gaussian beams tend to exhibit lower scintillations than the Gaussian beam scintillations. This advantage is lost however for excessively large width parameters and beyond certain propagation lengths. Large width parameters also cause rises and falls in the scintillation index of off-axis positions toward the edges of the received beam. Comparisons against the fundamental Gaussian beam are made on equal source size and equal power basis.

  10. [Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery--advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, advances in techniques and technology led to major changes in cataract surgical practice patterns. In this progression towards ever faster eye rehabilitation after surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) may be the next and ultimate step. It is not routinely performed: however, there are certain situations in which SBCS might be beneficial to the patients. It has been considered a good option in patients who have significant cataract in both eyes and are not good candidates for having anesthesia and surgery twice. The question is, if the benefits by bilateral surgery justify the risk of simultaneous complications, in particular endophthalmitis. In this perspective we present the clinical, social and economic advantages and disadvantages of such surgical procedures. PMID:17290841

  11. Gaining information advantage: an integrated approach to airborne mission recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundgren, Mats; Ljunggren, Lars

    1999-08-01

    Information advantage is the key success factor in all conflicts. In a modern combat aircraft the amount of available information is continuously increasing with new and more sophisticated sensor systems. By incorporating an integrated mission recording system the vast amount of information captured in a modern combat aircraft is recorded. Evaluating this information, whether for aircraft development, pilot training or in combat, will maximize the experience from each flight and enhance the efficiency of the following missions. All Lot 3 of the Swedish fighter JAS39 Gripen as well as the export versions will be equipped with a digital mission recording system. The system is called DiRECT and is used for video, audio and data recording on a direct access, solid- state memory.

  12. Male advantage in sound localization at cocktail parties.

    PubMed

    Zündorf, Ida C; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Lewald, Jörg

    2011-06-01

    Sex differences exist in the structural organization of the human brain and are related to cognitive abilities. Females usually outperform men in verbal fluency, verbal memory, perceptual speed, numerical calculation, and fine motor skills, whereas males are superior in visuospatial abilities, throwing accuracy, and mathematical reasoning. Here we demonstrated a male advantage in spatial abilities for the auditory modality. We employed a sound localization task based on the so-called "cocktail party situation", requiring extraction of auditory information of a specific sound source when multiple competing sound sources were present. The results indicated better performance of males than females for localizing target sounds in a multi-source sound environment. This finding suggests a sex difference in the attentional mechanisms extracting spatial information of one acoustic event of interest from an auditory scene composed of multiple sound sources. It seems that the known male superiority in spatial abilities may be supramodal, rather than a specificity of the visual modality. PMID:20828679

  13. Stereo advantage for a peg-in-hole task using a force-feedback manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    An improved assessment methodology has been implemented at NOSC and tested using an instrumented peg-in-hole (PiH) taskboard. Several aspects of the methodology are discussed in light of their implications for future studies of manipulator performance. Using a simple (but high-fidelity) force-feedback manipulator, a group of 9 trained operators showed a consistent advantage for stereoscopic TV viewing over monoscopic TV viewing when performing the PiH task. To introduce a controlled element of spatial uncertainty into the testing procedure, taskboard orientation relative to the manipulator and remote video camera head was changed in a randomized order on a trial-by-trial basis. The stereoscopic advantage demonstrated by this study can reasonably be expected to be even more pronounced as the quality of the stereo TV interface is improved and force-feedback provided through the manipulator system is diminished and/or distorted.

  14. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. Methods To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel—audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel—interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel—key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics approval City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. Planned outputs We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: ‘what to expect in your virtual consultation’. Discussion The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they

  15. The hydrodynamic advantages of synchronized swimming in a rectangular pattern.

    PubMed

    Daghooghi, Mohsen; Borazjani, Iman

    2015-10-01

    Fish schooling is a remarkable biological behavior that is thought to provide hydrodynamic advantages. Theoretical models have predicted significant reduction in swimming cost due to two physical mechanisms: vortex hypothesis, which reduces the relative velocity between fish and the flow through the induced velocity of the organized vortex structure of the incoming wake; and the channeling effect, which reduces the relative velocity by enhancing the flow between the swimmers in the direction of swimming. Although experimental observations confirm hydrodynamic advantages, there is still debate regarding the two mechanisms. We provide, to our knowledge, the first three-dimensional simulations at realistic Reynolds numbers to investigate these physical mechanisms. Using large-eddy simulations of self-propelled synchronized swimmers in various rectangular patterns, we find evidence in support of the channeling effect, which enhances the flow velocity between swimmers in the direction of swimming as the lateral distance between swimmers decreases. Our simulations show that the coherent structures, in contrast to the wake of a single swimmer, break down into small, disorganized vortical structures, which have a low chance for constructive vortex interaction. Therefore, the vortex hypothesis, which is relevant for diamond patterns, was not found for rectangular patterns, but needs to be further studied for diamond patterns in the future. Exploiting the channeling mechanism, a fish in a rectangular school swims faster as the lateral distance decreases, while consuming similar amounts of energy. The fish in the rectangular school with the smallest lateral distance (0.3 fish lengths) swims 20% faster than a solitary swimmer while consuming similar amount of energy. PMID:26447493

  16. Chronic multiunit recordings in behaving animals: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Supèr, Hans; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2005-01-01

    By simultaneous recording from neural responses at many different loci at the same time, we can understand the interaction between neurons, and thereby gain insight into the network properties of neural processing, instead of the functioning of individual neurons. Here we will discuss a method for recording in behaving animals that uses chronically implanted micro-electrodes that allow one to track neural responses over a long period of time. In a majority of cases, multiunit activity, which is the aggregate spiking activity of a number of neurons in the vicinity of an electrode tip, is recorded through these electrodes, and occasionally single neurons can be isolated. Here we compare the properties of multiunit responses to the responses of single neurons in the primary visual cortex. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the multiunit signal as opposed to a signal of single neurons. We demonstrate that multiunit recording provides a reliable and useful technique in cases where the neurons at the electrodes have similar response properties. Multiunit recording is therefore especially valuable when task variables have an effect that is consistent across the population of neurons. In the primary visual cortex, this is the case for figure-ground segregation and visual attention. Multiunit recording also has clear advantages for cross-correlation analysis. We show that the cross-correlation function between multiunit signals gives a reliable estimate of the average single-unit cross-correlation function. By the use of multiunit recording, it becomes much easier to detect relatively weak interactions between neurons at different cortical locations. PMID:15581712

  17. Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

  18. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  19. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of the Functional Hypothesis and Evolutionary Advantage of Stone-Tipped Spears

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Jayne; Schoville, Benjamin J.; Brown, Kyle S.

    2014-01-01

    Stone-tipped weapons were a significant innovation for Middle Pleistocene hominins. Hafted hunting technology represents the development of new cognitive and social learning mechanisms within the genus Homo, and may have provided a foraging advantage over simpler forms of hunting technology, such as a sharpened wooden spear. However, the nature of this foraging advantage has not been confirmed. Experimental studies and ethnographic reports provide conflicting results regarding the relative importance of the functional, economic, and social roles of hafted hunting technology. The controlled experiment reported here was designed to test the functional hypothesis for stone-tipped weapons using spears and ballistics gelatin. It differs from previous investigations of this type because it includes a quantitative analysis of wound track profiles and focuses specifically on hand-delivered spear technology. Our results do not support the hypothesis that tipped spears penetrate deeper than untipped spears. However, tipped spears create a significantly larger inner wound cavity that widens distally. This inner wound cavity is analogous to the permanent wound cavity in ballistics research, which is considered the key variable affecting the relative ‘stopping power’ or ‘killing power’ of a penetrating weapon. Tipped spears conferred a functional advantage to Middle Pleistocene hominins, potentially affecting the frequency and regularity of hunting success with important implications for human adaptation and life history. PMID:25162397