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Sample records for advection dominated flows

  1. Jet Magnetically Accelerated from Advection Dominated Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Zhi-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    A jet model for the jet power arising from a steady, optically thin, advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) around a Kerr black hole (BH) is proposed. We investigate the typical numerical solutions of ADAF, and calculate the jet power from an ADAF using a general relativistic version of electronic circuit theory. It is shown that the jet power concentrates in the inner region of the accretion flow, and the higher the degree to which the flow advection-dominated is, the lower the jet power from the ADAF is.

  2. STANDING SHOCK INSTABILITY IN ADVECTION-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Truong; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Becker, Peter A.; Putney, Joy

    2016-03-10

    Depending on the values of the energy and angular momentum per unit mass in the gas supplied at large radii, inviscid advection-dominated accretion flows can display velocity profiles with either preshock deceleration or preshock acceleration. Nakayama has shown that these two types of flow configurations are expected to have different stability properties. By employing the Chevalier and Imamura linearization method and the Nakayama instability boundary conditions, we discover that there are regions of parameter space where disks/shocks with outflows can be stable or unstable. In regions of instability, we find that preshock deceleration is always unstable to the zeroth mode with zero frequency of oscillation, but is always stable to the fundamental mode and overtones. Furthermore, we also find that preshock acceleration is always unstable to the zeroth mode and that the fundamental mode and overtones become increasingly less stable as the shock location moves away from the horizon when the disk half-height expands above ∼12 gravitational radii at the shock radius. In regions of stability, we demonstrate the zeroth mode to be stable for the velocity profiles that exhibit preshock acceleration and deceleration. Moreover, for models that are linearly unstable, our model suggests the possible existence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with ratios 2:3 and 3:5. These ratios are believed to occur in stellar and supermassive black hole candidates, for example, in GRS 1915+105 and Sgr A*, respectively. We expect that similar QPO ratios also exist in regions of stable shocks.

  3. The connection of standard thin disk with advection-dominated accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-qing; Lu, Ju-fu; G. U., Wei-min

    2005-04-01

    Using the standard Runge-Kutta method, a global solution of the basic equations describing black hole accretion flows is derived. It is proved that transition from a standard thin disk to an advection-dominated accretion flow is realizable in case of high viscosity, without introducing any additional mechanism of energy transfer or specifying any ad hoc outer boundary condition.

  4. CLUMPY ACCRETION ONTO BLACK HOLES. I. CLUMPY-ADVECTION-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOW STRUCTURE AND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianmin; Cheng Cheng; Li Yanrong

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of clumps embedded in and confined by the advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which collisions among the clumps are neglected. We start from the collisionless Boltzmann equation and assume that interaction between the clumps and the ADAF is responsible for transporting the angular momentum of clumps outward. The inner edge of the clumpy-ADAF is set to be the tidal radius of the clumps. We consider strong- and weak-coupling cases, in which the averaged properties of clumps follow the ADAF dynamics and are mainly determined by the black hole potential, respectively. We propose the analytical solution of the dynamics of clumps for the two cases. The velocity dispersion of clumps is one magnitude higher than the ADAF for the strong-coupling case. For the weak-coupling case, we find that the mean radial velocity of clumps is linearly proportional to the coefficient of the drag force. We show that the tidally disrupted clumps would lead to an accumulation of the debris to form a debris disk in the Shakura-Sunyaev regime. The entire hot ADAF will be efficiently cooled down by photons from the debris disk, giving rise to a collapse of the ADAF, and quench the clumpy accretion. Subsequently, evaporation of the collapsed ADAF drives resuscitate of a new clumpy-ADAF, resulting in an oscillation of the global clumpy-ADAF. Applications of the present model are briefly discussed to X-ray binaries, low ionization nuclear emission regions, and BL Lac objects.

  5. Is There an Advection-dominated Accretion Flow in Radio Galaxies with Double-peaked Balmer Lines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tohru; Murayama, Takashi; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2002-03-01

    In order to examine the prediction that the broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) with double-peaked Balmer lines harbor an accretion disk characterized by an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) in their nuclei, we investigate narrow emission line flux ratios of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) which are photoionized by nuclear continuum radiation. We compile data from the literature and confirm the pioneering work of Eracleous & Halpern that the BLRGs with the double-peaked Balmer emission exhibit larger flux ratios of both [O I] λ6300/[O III] λ5007 and [O II] λ3727/[O III] λ5007 than the BLRGs without the double-peaked Balmer emission. To examine whether or not these properties are attributed to the difference in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the ionizing radiation between the BLRGs with and without the double-peaked Balmer emission, we perform photoionization model calculations using two types of input continuum radiation; one has the strong big blue bump which is expected for standard optically thick accretion disks and the other does not exhibit a strong big blue bump as expected for optically thin ADAFs. We find that the data of the BLRGs with the double-peaked Balmer lines are consistent with the models adopting the SED without a strong big blue bump, while the data of the BLRGs without the double-peaked emission lines are well described by the models adopting the SED with a strong big blue bump. On the other hand, the observed differences in the NLR emission are hard to explain by the difference in the contribution of shocks. These results support the idea that the double-peaked Balmer lines arise at an outer region of an accretion disk which is illuminated by an inner, geometrically thick ADAF.

  6. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  7. Jet-dominated advective systems of all mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körding, Elmar; Fender, R.

    We show that the radio emission of black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries (XRBs) follows the analytical prediction of a jet model where the jet carries a constant fraction of the accretion power. The radio emission can therefore be used as a tracer of the accretion rate. This measure is normalised with efficiently radiating objects. As it is independent of the X-ray fluxes, the measure allows us to compare the accretion rate dependency of the bolometric X-ray lumi- nosity of BHs and NSs. For NSs, it scales linearly with accretion rate while the scaling for BHs is quadratic - as expected for inefficient accretion flows. We find the same behaviour in AGN. This new approach uses the jet power to obtain the accretion rate. Thus, we know both the jet power and the radiated power of an accreting BH. This allows us to show that some accretion power is likely to be advected into the black hole, while the jet power dominates over the bolometric luminosity of a hard state BH.

  8. Clay with Desiccation Cracks is an Advection Dominated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Kurtzman, D.; Sher, Y.; Ronen, Z.; Dahan, O.

    2012-04-01

    , indicating deep soil evaporation. Daily fluctuation of the air temperature in the desiccation cracks supported thermally induced air convection within the cracks void and could explain the deep soil salinization process. Combination of all the abovementioned observations demonstrated that the formation of desiccation cracks network in dispersive clay sediments generates a bulk advection dominated environment for both air and water flow, and that the reference to clay sediments as "hydrologically safe" should to be reconsidered.

  9. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The XMM data on black-hole X-ray novae are only now becoming available and they have so far not been included in any publications. This work is part of a larger project that makes use of both XMM and Chandra data. Our first publication on the Chandra results is the following: "New Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons from Chandra" by M.R. Garcia, J.E. McClintock, R. Narayan, P. Callanan, D. Barret and S. Murray (2001, ApJ, 553, L47). Therein we present the luminosities of the two black-hole X-ray novae, GRO J0422+22 and 4U1 543-47, which were observed by Chandra. These results are combined with the luminosities of four additional black-hole X-ray novae, which were observed as part of a Chandra GTO program (PI: S. Murray). The very low, but nonzero, quiescent X-ray luminosities of these black hole binaries is very difficult to understand in the context of standard viscous accretion disk theory. The principal result of this work is that X-ray novae that contain black hole primaries are about 100 times fainter that X-ray novae that contain neutron star primaries. This result had been suggested in earlier work, but the present work very firmly establishes this large luminosity difference. The result is remarkable because the black-hole and the neutron-star systems are believed to be similar in many respects. Most importantly, the mass transfer rate from the secondary star is believed to be very comparable for the two kinds of systems for similar orbital periods. The advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model provides a natural framework for understanding the extraordinarily low luminosities of the black hole systems and the hundred-fold greater luminosities of the neutron star systems. The chief feature of an ADAF is that the heat energy in the accreting gas is trapped in the gas and travels with it, rather than being radiated promptly. Thus the accreting gas reaches the central object with a huge amount of thermal energy. If the accretor is a black hole, the

  10. Advecting Procedural Textures for 2D Flow Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of specially generated 3D procedural textures for visualizing steady state 2D flow fields. We use the flow field to advect and animate the texture over time. However, using standard texture advection techniques and arbitrary textures will introduce some undesirable effects such as: (a) expanding texture from a critical source point, (b) streaking pattern from the boundary of the flowfield, (c) crowding of advected textures near an attracting spiral or sink, and (d) absent or lack of textures in some regions of the flow. This paper proposes a number of strategies to solve these problems. We demonstrate how the technique works using both synthetic data and computational fluid dynamics data.

  11. Chaotic Advection in a Bounded 3-Dimensional Potential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Smith, Lachlan; Lester, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    3-dimensional potential, or Darcy flows, are central to understanding and designing laminar transport in porous media; however, chaotic advection in 3-dimensional, volume-preserving flows is still not well understood. We show results of advecting passive scalars in a transient 3-dimensional potential flow that consists of a steady dipole flow and periodic reorientation. Even for the most symmetric reorientation protocol, neither of the two invarients of the motion are conserved; however, one invarient is closely shadowed by a surface of revolution constructed from particle paths of the steady flow, creating in practice an adiabatic surface. A consequence is that chaotic regions cover 3-dimensional space, though tubular regular regions are still transport barriers. This appears to be a new mechanism generating 3-dimensional chaotic orbits. These results contast with the experimental and theoretical results for chaotic scalar transport in 2-dimensional Darcy flows. Wiggins, J. Fluid Mech. 654 (2010).

  12. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work supported in part by this grant is part of a larger program on the detection of black hole event horizons, which is also partially supported by NASA grant GO0-1105A. This work has been carried out primarily in collaboration with Dr. M. Garcia and Prof. R. Narayan at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and with D. Barret and J. Hameury at Centre d'Etude Spoliate des Rayonnements, France. Our purpose is to confirm the existence of black-hole event horizons by comparing accreting black holes to secreting neutron stars in quiescent X-ray novae. Such a comparison is feasible because black holes and neutron stars are both present in similar environments in X-ray novae. Our second purpose is to assess the nature of accretion flows onto black holes at very low mass transfer rates. Observations of some XMM targets are still pending, whereas most of the Chandra observations have been completed. We anticipate further publications on this work in the future.

  13. MAST solution of advection problems in irrotational flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, Costanza; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    2007-03-01

    A new numerical-analytical Eulerian procedure is proposed for the solution of convection-dominated problems in the case of existing scalar potential of the flow field. The methodology is based on the conservation inside each computational elements of the 0th and 1st order effective spatial moments of the advected variable. This leads to a set of small ODE systems solved sequentially, one element after the other over all the computational domain, according to a MArching in Space and Time technique. The proposed procedure shows the following advantages: (1) it guarantees the local and global mass balance; (2) it is unconditionally stable with respect to the Courant number, (3) the solution in each cell needs information only from the upstream cells and does not require wider and wider stencils as in most of the recently proposed higher-order methods; (4) it provides a monotone solution. Several 1D and 2D numerical test have been performed and results have been compared with analytical solutions, as well as with results provided by other recent numerical methods.

  14. Advective velocity and energy dissipation rate in an oscillatory flow.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ziaul; Hondzo, Miki; Porte-Agel, Fernando

    2005-07-01

    Characterizing the transport processes at the sediment-water interface along sloping boundaries in lakes and reservoirs is of fundamental interest in lake and reservoir water quality management. The turbulent bottom boundary layer (TBBL) along a slope, induced by the breaking of internal waves in a linearly stratified fluid, was investigated through laboratory measurements. Fast response micro-scale conductivity and temperature probes in conjunction with laser-Doppler velocimetry were used to measure the time series of salinity, temperature, and velocity along a sloping boundary. Turbulent energy spectra were computed from the velocity data using a time-dependent advective velocity and Taylor's hypothesis. The energy spectra were used to estimate the energy dissipation rate at different positions in the TBBL. The advective velocity in this near-zero mean shear flow is based on an integral time scale (T(int)). The integral time scale is related to the average frequency of the spectral energy density of the flow velocity. The energy dissipation rate estimated from the variable advective velocity with an averaging time window equal to the integral time scale (T=T(int)) was 43% higher than the energy dissipation rate estimated from a constant advective velocity. The estimated dissipation rates with T=T(int) were comparable to values obtained by curve-fitting a theoretical Batchelor spectrum for the temperature gradient spectra. This study proposes the integral time scale to be used for the oscillatory flows as (a) a time-averaging window to estimate the advective velocity and associated energy dissipation level, and (b) a normalizing parameter in the energy spectrum.

  15. THE ADVECTION OF SUPERGRANULES BY THE SUN'S AXISYMMETRIC FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, David H.; Williams, Peter E.; Rosa, Kevin Dela; Cuntz, Manfred E-mail: peter.williams@nasa.go

    2010-12-10

    We show that the motions of supergranules are consistent with a model in which they are simply advected by the axisymmetric flows in the Sun's surface shear layer. We produce a 10 day series of simulated Doppler images at a 15 minute cadence that reproduces most spatial and temporal characteristics seen in the SOHO/MDI Doppler data. Our simulated data have a spectrum of cellular flows with just two components-a granule component that peaks at spherical wavenumbers of about 4000 and a supergranule component that peaks at wavenumbers of about 110. We include the advection of these cellular components by the axisymmetric flows-differential rotation and meridional flow-whose variations with latitude and depth (wavenumber) are consistent with observations. We mimic the evolution of the cellular pattern by introducing random variations to the phases of the spectral components at rates that reproduce the levels of cross-correlation as functions of time and latitude. Our simulated data do not include any wave-like characteristics for the supergranules yet can reproduce the rotation characteristics previously attributed to wave-like behavior. We find rotation rates which appear faster than the actual rotation rates and attribute this to projection effects. We find that the measured meridional flow does accurately represent the actual flow and that the observations indicate poleward flow to 65{sup 0}-70{sup 0} latitude with equatorward countercells in the polar regions.

  16. Is Chaotic Advection Inherent to Porous Media Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel; Metcalfe, Guy; Trefry, Mike

    2013-11-01

    All porous media, including granular and packed media, fractured and open networks, are typified by the inherent topological complexity of the pore-space. This topological complexity admits a large number density of stagnation points under steady Stokes flow, which in turn generates a 3D fluid mechanical analouge of the Bakers map, termed the Baker's flow. We demonstrate that via this mechanism, chaotic advection at the pore-scale is inherent to almost all porous media under reasonable conditions, and such dynamics have significant implications for a range of fluid-borne processes including transport and mixing, chemical reactions and biological activity.

  17. Advection-Based Sparse Data Management for Visualizing Unsteady Flow.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Richen; Liu, Lu; Yuan, Xiaoru; Huang, Jian; Meng, Xiangfei; Pan, Jingshan

    2014-12-01

    When computing integral curves and integral surfaces for large-scale unsteady flow fields, a major bottleneck is the widening gap between data access demands and the available bandwidth (both I/O and in-memory). In this work, we explore a novel advection-based scheme to manage flow field data for both efficiency and scalability. The key is to first partition flow field into blocklets (e.g. cells or very fine-grained blocks of cells), and then (pre)fetch and manage blocklets on-demand using a parallel key-value store. The benefits are (1) greatly increasing the scale of local-range analysis (e.g. source-destination queries, streak surface generation) that can fit within any given limit of hardware resources; (2) improving memory and I/O bandwidth-efficiencies as well as the scalability of naive task-parallel particle advection. We demonstrate our method using a prototype system that works on workstation and also in supercomputing environments. Results show significantly reduced I/O overhead compared to accessing raw flow data, and also high scalability on a supercomputer for a variety of applications.

  18. Dependence of advection-diffusion-reaction on flow coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenbo; Luna, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    A study on an advection-diffusion-reaction system is presented. Variability of the reaction process in such a system triggered by a highly localized source is quantified. It is found, for geophysically motivated parameter regimes, that the difference in bulk concentration subject to realizations of different source locations is highly correlated with the local flow topology of the source. Such flow topologies can be highlighted by Lagrangian coherent structures. Reaction is relatively enhanced in regions of strong stretching, and relatively suppressed in regions where vortices are present. In any case, the presence of a divergence-free background flow helps speed up the reaction process, especially when the flow is time-dependent. Probability density of various quantities characterizing the reaction processes is also obtained. This reveals the inherent complexity of the reaction-diffusion process subject to nonlinear background stirring.

  19. Thermal Instability of Advection-Dominated Disks against Revised Local Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shoji; Yamasaki, Tatsuya; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming

    1997-04-01

    The thermal stability of advection-dominated accretion disks against local perturbations is re-examined in order to correct some errors in our previous paper. Thermal perturbations which are local in the radial direction are found to also be local in the vertical direction. Because of this, the using of vertically integrated quantities was irrelevant in analyzing the stability of local thermal perturbations when the disks are geometrically thick. Our new results, obtained by correcting the error, show that if the turbulence acts as a diffusion process in thermal energy transport, it strongly dampens the thermal perturbations. In these cases when the diffusion process is weak, however, perturbations grow due to a variation of the viscous heating associated with the perturbations. One such example of growth is in the case where radiation pressure greatly dominates the gas pressure.

  20. A BABCOCK–LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL WITH MULTI-CELLULAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION IN ADVECTION- AND DIFFUSION-DOMINATED REGIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Belucz, Bernadett; Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Dikpati, Mausumi E-mail: dikpati@ucar.edu

    2015-06-20

    Babcock–Leighton type-solar dynamo models with single-celled meridional circulation are successful in reproducing many solar cycle features. Recent observations and theoretical models of meridional circulation do not indicate a single-celled flow pattern. We examine the role of complex multi-cellular circulation patterns in a Babcock–Leighton solar dynamo in advection- and diffusion-dominated regimes. We show from simulations that the presence of a weak, second, high-latitude reverse cell speeds up the cycle and slightly enhances the poleward branch in the butterfly diagram, whereas the presence of a second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing to an antisolar type. A butterfly diagram constructed from the middle of convection zone yields a solar-like pattern, but this may be difficult to realize in the Sun because of magnetic buoyancy effects. Each of the above cases behaves similarly in higher and lower magnetic diffusivity regimes. However, our dynamo with a meridional circulation containing four cells in latitude behaves distinctly differently in the two regimes, producing solar-like butterfly diagrams with fast cycles in the higher diffusivity regime, and complex branches in butterfly diagrams in the lower diffusivity regime. We also find that dynamo solutions for a four-celled pattern, two in radius and two in latitude, prefer to quickly relax to quadrupolar parity if the bottom flow speed is strong enough, of similar order of magnitude as the surface flow speed.

  1. Dynamics of Magnetic Flux Tubes in an Advective Flow around a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Giri, Kinsuk

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields cannibalized by an accretion flow would very soon have a dominant toroidal component. Without changing the topology, we study the movements of these flux tubes inside a geometrically thick advective disk which undergo centrifugal pressure supported shocks. We also consider the effects of the flux tubes on the flow. We use a finite element method (Total Variation Diminishing) for this purpose and specifically focussed whether the flux tubes contribute to changes in outflow properties in terms of its collimation and outflow rates. It is seen that depending upon the cross sectional radius of the flux tubes (which control the drag force), these field lines may move towards the central object or oscillate vertically before eventually escaping out of the funnel wall (pressure zero surface). These interesting results obtained with and without flux tubes point to the role the flux tubes play in collimation of jets and outflows.

  2. The predictability of advection-dominated flux-transport solar dynamo models

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Sabrina; Fournier, Alexandre; Aubert, Julien

    2014-01-20

    Space weather is a matter of practical importance in our modern society. Predictions of forecoming solar cycles mean amplitude and duration are currently being made based on flux-transport numerical models of the solar dynamo. Interested in the forecast horizon of such studies, we quantify the predictability window of a representative, advection-dominated, flux-transport dynamo model by investigating its sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters through a perturbation analysis. We measure the rate associated with the exponential growth of an initial perturbation of the model trajectory, which yields a characteristic timescale known as the e-folding time τ {sub e}. The e-folding time is shown to decrease with the strength of the α-effect, and to increase with the magnitude of the imposed meridional circulation. Comparing the e-folding time with the solar cycle periodicity, we obtain an average estimate for τ {sub e} equal to 2.76 solar cycle durations. From a practical point of view, the perturbations analyzed in this work can be interpreted as uncertainties affecting either the observations or the physical model itself. After reviewing these, we discuss their implications for solar cycle prediction.

  3. VERTICAL CONVECTION IN NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Li, Ang; Kawanaka, Norita E-mail: norita@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-05-20

    We present the effects of vertical convection on the structure and luminosity of the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a stellar-mass black hole in spherical coordinates. We find that the convective energy transfer can suppress the radial advection in the NDAF and that the density, temperature, and opening angle are slightly changed. As a result, the neutrino and annihilation luminosities are increased, which allows the energy requirement of gamma-ray bursts to be achieved.

  4. Modeling velocity in gradient flows with coupled-map lattices with advection.

    PubMed

    Lind, Pedro G; Corte-Real, João; Gallas, Jason A C

    2002-07-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate large scale behavior of gradient flows based on a lattice of coupled maps which, in addition to the usual diffusive term, incorporates advection, as an asymmetry in the coupling between nearest neighbors. This diffusive-advective model predicts traveling patterns to have velocities obeying the same scaling as wind velocities in the atmosphere, regarding the advective parameter as a sort of geostrophic wind. In addition, the velocity and wavelength of traveling wave solutions are studied. In general, due to the presence of advection, two regimes are identified: for strong diffusion the velocity varies linearly with advection, while for weak diffusion a power law is found with a characteristic exponent proportional to the diffusion.

  5. Update on Advection-Diffusion Purge Flow Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous purge is commonly used in sensitive spacecraft optical or electronic instruments to prevent infiltration of contaminants and/or water vapor. Typically, purge is sized using simplistic zero-dimensional models that do not take into account instrument geometry, surface effects, and the dependence of diffusive flux on the concentration gradient. For this reason, an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was recently developed to model contaminant infiltration and removal by purge. The solver uses a combined Navier-Stokes and Advection-Diffusion approach. In this talk, we report on updates in the model, namely inclusion of a particulate transport model.

  6. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described.

  7. Simulation of Helical Flow Hydrodynamics in Meanders and Advection-Turbulent Diffusion Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusti, T. P.; Hertanti, D. R.; Bahsan, E.; Soeryantono, H.

    2013-12-01

    Particle-based numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), may be able to simulate some hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviors better than grid-based numerical methods. This study simulates hydrodynamics in meanders and advection and turbulent diffusion in straight river channels using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. The simulators generate three-dimensional data for hydrodynamics and one-dimensional data for advection-turbulent diffusion. Fluid at rest, sloshing, and helical flow are simulated in the river meanders. Spill loading and step loading are done to simulate concentration patterns associated with advection-turbulent diffusion. Results indicate that helical flow is formed due to disturbance in morphology and particle velocity in the stream and the number of particles does not have a significant effect on the pattern of advection-turbulent diffusion concentration.

  8. Advection-Dominant MHD Computation for External Kinks and Edge-Localized Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Separation of temporal and spatial scales is the primary consideration for computation of macroscopic dynamics in magnetically confined plasma. Dynamic shock capturing is not needed, but nonlinear external kinks and ELMs advect large gradients near the plasma surface. Using an implicit time-advance with Galerkin projection can be problematic in these applications when advection is stronger than dissipation on the spatial scale of the mesh. The applied math community has investigated many approaches to stabilizing numerical advection. One approach is the least-squares finite element method, which has previously been applied to MHD and plasma-fluid models. Here, we adapt this technique for MHD computation with the NIMROD code, starting with the scalar dependent fields that need to have definite sign: density and temperature. Time-splitting physical diffusion maintains the original size of the algebraic systems that are solved at each time-step. Upwinding explicit terms where derivatives are discontinuous avoids overshoot error while minimizing numerical dissipation. Work supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  9. A global spectral element model for poisson equations and advective flow over a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Huan; Wang, Faming; Zeng, Zhong; Qiu, Zhouhua; Yin, Linmao; Li, Liang

    2016-03-01

    A global spherical Fourier-Legendre spectral element method is proposed to solve Poisson equations and advective flow over a sphere. In the meridional direction, Legendre polynomials are used and the region is divided into several elements. In order to avoid coordinate singularities at the north and south poles in the meridional direction, Legendre-Gauss-Radau points are chosen at the elements involving the two poles. Fourier polynomials are applied in the zonal direction for its periodicity, with only one element. Then, the partial differential equations are solved on the longitude-latitude meshes without coordinate transformation between spherical and Cartesian coordinates. For verification of the proposed method, a few Poisson equations and advective flows are tested. Firstly, the method is found to be valid for test cases with smooth solution. The results of the Poisson equations demonstrate that the present method exhibits high accuracy and exponential convergence. Highprecision solutions are also obtained with near negligible numerical diffusion during the time evolution for advective flow with smooth shape. Secondly, the results of advective flow with non-smooth shape and deformational flow are also shown to be reasonable and effective. As a result, the present method is proved to be capable of solving flow through different types of elements, and thereby a desirable method with reliability and high accuracy for solving partial differential equations over a sphere.

  10. A forward-in-time advection scheme and adaptive multilevel flow solver for nearly incompressible atmospheric flow

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.E.; Bretherton, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a new forward-in-time advection method for nearly incompressible flow, MU, and its application to an adaptive multilevel flow solver for atmospheric flows. MU is a modification of Leonard et al.`s UTOPIA scheme. MU, like UTOPIA, is based on third-order accurate semi-Lagrangian multidimensional upwinding for constant velocity flows. for varying velocity fields, MU is a second-order conservative method. MU has greater stability and accuracy than UTOPIA and naturally decomposes into a monotone low-order method and a higher-order accurate correction for use with flux limiting. Its stability and accuracy make it a computationally efficient alternative to current finite-difference advection methods. We present a fully second-order accurate flow solver for the anelastic equations, a prototypical low Mach number flow. The flow solver is based on MU which is used for both momentum and scalar transport equations. This flow solver can also be implemented with any forward-in-time advection scheme. The multilevel flow solver conserves discrete global integrals of advected quantities and includes adaptive mesh refinements. Its second-order accuracy is verified using a nonlinear energy conservation integral for the anelastic equations. For a typical geophysical problem in which the flow is most rapidly varying in a small part of the domain, the multilevel flow solver achieves global accuracy comparable to uniform-resolution simulation for 10% of the computational cost. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Modeling the advection of discontinuous quantities in Geophysical flows using Particle Level Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V.; Samuel, H.; Evonuk, M.

    2010-12-01

    Advection is one of the major processes that commonly acts on various scales in nature (core formation, mantle convective stirring, multi-phase flows in magma chambers, salt diapirism ...). While this process can be modeled numerically by solving conservation equations, various geodynamic scenarios involve advection of quantities with sharp discontinuities. Unfortunately, in these cases modeling numerically pure advection becomes very challenging, in particular because sharp discontinuities lead to numerical instabilities, which prevent the local use of high order numerical schemes. Several approaches have been used in computational geodynamics in order to overcome this difficulty, with variable amounts of success. Despite the use of correcting filters or non-oscillatory, shock-preserving schemes, Eulerian (fixed grid) techniques generally suffer from artificial numerical diffusion. Lagrangian approaches (dynamic grids or particles) tend to be more popular in computational geodynamics because they are not prone to excessive numerical diffusion. However, these approaches are generally computationally expensive, especially in 3D, and can suffer from spurious statistical noise. As an alternative to these aforementioned approaches, we have applied a relatively recent Particle Level set method [Enright et al., 2002] for modeling advection of quantities with the presence of sharp discontinuities. We have tested this improved method, which combines the best of Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, against well known benchmarks and classical Geodynamic flows. In each case the Particle Level Set method accuracy equals or is better than other Eulerian and Lagrangian methods, and leads to significantly smaller computational cost, in particular in three-dimensional flows, where the reduction of computational time for modeling advection processes is most needed.

  12. Fast and accurate advection of sharp discontinuities in Geophysical flows using hybrid implicit surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Henri

    2010-05-01

    Advection is one of the major processes that commonly acts on various scales in nature (core formation, mantle convective stirring, multi-phase flows in magma chambers, salt diapirism ...). While this process can be modeled numerically by solving conservation equations, various geodynamic scenarios involve advection of quantities with sharp discontinuities. Unfortunately, in these cases modeling numerically pure advection becomes very challenging, in particular because sharp discontinuities lead to numerical instabilities, which prevent the local use of high order numerical schemes. Several approaches have been used in computational geodynamics in order to overcome this difficulty, with variable amounts of success. Despite the use of correcting filters or non-oscillatory, shock-preserving schemes, Eulerian (fixed grid) techniques generally suffer from artificial numerical diffusion. Lagrangian approaches (dynamic grids or particles) tend to be more popular in computational geodynamics because they are not prone to excessive numerical diffusion. However, these approaches are generally computationally expensive, especially in 3D, and can suffer from spurious statistical noise. As an alternative to these aforementioned approaches, I have applied a relatively recent Particle Level set method [Enright et al., 2002] for modeling advection of quantities with the presence of sharp discontinuities. I have adapted this improved method, which combines the best of Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, and I have tested it against well known benchmarks and classical Geodynamic flows. In each case the Particle Level Set method accuracy equals or is better than other Eulerian and Lagrangian methods, and leads to significantly smaller computational cost, in particular in three-dimensional flows, where the reduction of computational time for modeling advection processes is most needed.

  13. Alteration of chaotic advection in blood flow around partial blockage zone: Role of hematocrit concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Soumyabrata; Chaudhury, Kaustav; DasGupta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distributions of particles carried by blood exhibit complex filamentary pattern under the combined effects of geometrical irregularities of the blood vessels and pulsating pumping by the heart. This signifies the existence of so called chaotic advection. In the present article, we argue that the understanding of such pathologically triggered chaotic advection is incomplete without giving due consideration to a major constituent of blood: abundant presence of red blood cells quantified by the hematocrit (HCT) concentration. We show that the hematocrit concentration in blood cells can alter the filamentary structures of the spatial distribution of advected particles in an intriguing manner. Our results reveal that there primarily are two major impacts of HCT concentrations towards dictating the chaotic dynamics of blood flow: changing the zone of influence of chaotic mixing and determining the enhancement of residence time of the advected particles away from the wall. This, in turn, may alter the extent of activation of platelets or other reactive biological entities, bearing immense consequence towards dictating the biophysical mechanisms behind possible life-threatening diseases originating in the circulatory system.

  14. A computational Lagrangian-Eulerian advection remap for free surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashgriz, Nasser; Barbat, Tiberiu; Wang, Gang

    2004-01-01

    A VOF-based algorithm for advecting free surfaces and interfaces across a 2-D unstructured grid is presented. This algorithm is based on a combination of a Computational Lagrangian-Eulerian Advection Remap and the Volume of the Fluid method (CLEAR-VOF). A set of geometric tools are used to remap the advected shape of the volume fraction from one cell onto the Eulerian fixed unstructured grid. The geometric remapping is used to compute the fluxes onto a group of neighbouring cells of the mesh. These fluxes are then redistributed and corrected to satisfy the conservation of mass. Here, we present methods for developing identification algorithms for surface cells and incorporating them with CLEAR-VOF. The CLEAR-VOF algorithm is then tested for translation of several geometries. It is also incorporated in a finite element based flow solver and tested in a laminar flow over a broad-crested weir and a turbulent flow over a semi-circular obstacle.

  15. Advective and Conductive Heat Flow Budget Across the Wagner Basin, Northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, F.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Müller, C.; Hutnak, M.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Harris, R. N.; Sclater, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    In May 2015, we conducted a cruise across the northern Gulf of California, an area of continental rift basin formation and rapid deposition of sediments. The cruise was undertaken aboard the R/V Alpha Helix; our goal was to study variation in superficial conductive heat flow, lateral changes in the shallow thermal conductivity structure, and advective transport of heat across the Wagner basin. We used a Fielax heat flow probe with 22 thermistors that can penetrate up to 6 m into the sediment cover. The resulting data set includes 53 new heat flow measurements collected along three profiles. The longest profile (42 km) contains 30 measurements spaced 1-2 km apart. The western part of the Wagner basin (hanging wall block) exhibit low to normal conductive heat flow whereas the eastern part of the basin (foot wall block) heat flow is high to very high (up to 2500 mWm-2). Two other short profiles (12 km long each) focused on resolving an extremely high heat flow anomaly up to 15 Wm-2 located near the intersection between the Wagner bounding fault system and the Cerro Prieto fault. We hypothesize that the contrasting heat flow values observed across the Wagner basin are due to horizontal water circulation through sand layers and fault pathways of high permeability. Circulation appears to be from west (recharge zone) to east (discharge zone). Additionally, our results reveal strong vertical advection of heat due to dehydration reactions and compaction of fine grained sediments.

  16. Simulation of advective flow under steady-state and transient recharge conditions, Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed several ground-water models in support of an investigation of ground-water contamination being conducted by the Army National Guard Bureau at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Regional and subregional steady-state models and regional transient models were used to (1) improve understanding of the hydrologic system, (2) simulate advective transport of contaminants, (3) delineate recharge areas to municipal wells, and (4) evaluate how model discretization and time-varying recharge affect simulation results. A water-table mound dominates ground-water-flow patterns. Near the top of the mound, which is within Camp Edwards, hydraulic gradients are nearly vertically downward and horizontal gradients are small. In downgradient areas that are further from the top of the water-table mound, the ratio of horizontal to vertical gradients is larger and horizontal flow predominates. The steady-state regional model adequately simulates advective transport in some areas of the aquifer; however, simulation of ground-water flow in areas with local hydrologic boundaries, such as ponds, requires more finely discretized subregional models. Subregional models also are needed to delineate recharge areas to municipal wells that are inadequately represented in the regional model or are near other pumped wells. Long-term changes in recharge rates affect hydraulic heads in the aquifer and shift the position of the top of the water-table mound. Hydraulic-gradient directions do not change over time in downgradient areas, whereas they do change substantially with temporal changes in recharge near the top of the water-table mound. The assumption of steady-state hydraulic conditions is valid in downgradient area, where advective transport paths change little over time. In areas closer to the top of the water-table mound, advective transport paths change as a function of time, transient and steady-state paths

  17. Chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and in their corresponding 3-D periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.

    2016-03-01

    Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.

  18. A numerical treatment of geodynamic viscous flow problems involving the advection of material interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Effective numerical treatment of multicomponent viscous flow problems involving the advection of sharp interfaces between materials of differing physical properties requires correction techniques to prevent spurious diffusion and dispersion. We develop a particular algorithm, based on modern shock-capture techniques, employing a two-step nonlinear method. The first step involves the global application of a high-order upwind scheme to a hyperbolic advection equation used to model the distribution of distinct material components in a flow field. The second step is corrective and involves the application of a global filter designed to remove dispersion errors that result from the advection of discontinuities (e.g., material interfaces) by high-order, minimally dissipative schemes. The filter introduces no additional diffusion error. Nonuniform viscosity across a material interface is allowed for by the implementation of a compositionally weighted-inverse interface viscosity scheme. The combined method approaches the optimal accuracy of modern shock-capture techniques with a minimal increase in computational time and memory. A key advantage of this method is its simplicity to incorporate into preexisting codes be they finite difference, element, or volume of two or three dimensions.

  19. Permeability generation and resetting of tracers during metamorphic fluid flow: implications for advection-dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Ian

    Advection-dispersion fluid flow models implicitly assume that the infiltrating fluid flows through an already fluid-saturated medium. However, whether rocks contain a fluid depends on their reaction history, and whether any initial fluid escapes. The behaviour of different rocks may be illustrated using hypothetical marble compositions. Marbles with diverse chemistries (e.g. calcite + dolomite + quartz) are relatively reactive, and will generally produce a fluid during heating. By contrast, marbles with more restricted chemistries (e.g. calcite + quartz or calcite-only) may not. If the rock is not fluid bearing when fluid infiltration commences, mineralogical reactions may produce a reaction-enhanced permeability in calcite + dolomite + quartz or calcite + quartz, but not in calcite-only marbles. The permeability production controls the pattern of mineralogical, isotopic, and geochemical resetting during fluid flow. Tracers retarded behind the mineralogical fronts will probably be reset as predicted by the advection-dispersion models; however, tracers that are expected to be reset ahead of the mineralogical fronts cannot progress beyond the permeability generating reaction. In the case of very unreactive lithologies (e.g. pure calcite marbles, cherts, and quartzites), the first reaction to affect the rocks may be a metasomatic one ahead of which there is little pervasive resetting of any tracer. Centimetre-scale layering may lead to the formation of self-perpetuating fluid channels in rocks that are not fluid saturated due to the juxtaposition of reactants. Such layered rocks may show patterns of mineralogical resetting that are not predicted by advection-dispersion models. Patterns of mineralogical and isotopic resetting in marbles from a number of terrains, for example: Chillagoe, Marulan South, Reynolds Range (Australia); Adirondack Mountains, Old Woman Mountains, Notch Peak (USA); and Stephen Cross Quarry (Canada) vary as predicted by these models.

  20. The orientation field of fibers advected by a two-dimensional chaotic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Bardia; Mehlig, Bernhard; Voth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    We examine the orientation of slender fibers advected by a 2D chaotic flow. The orientation field of these fibers show fascinating structures called scar lines, where they rotate by π over short distances. We use the standard map as a convenient model to represent a time-periodic 2D incompressible fluid flow. To understand the fiber orientation field, we consider the stretching field, given by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Cauchy-Green strain tensors. The eigenvector field is strongly aligned with the fibers over almost the entire field, but develops topological singularities at certain points which do not exist in the advected fiber field. The singularities are points that have experienced zero stretching, and the number of such points increases rapidly with time. A key feature of both the fiber orientation and the eigenvector field are the scar lines. We show that certain scar lines form from fluid elements that are initially stretched in one direction and then stretched in an orthogonal direction to cancel the initial stretching. The scar lines that satisfy this condition contain the singularities of the eigenvector field. These scar lines highlight the major differences between the passive director field and the much more widely studied passive scalar field.

  1. An advective volume-balance model for flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian

    2016-11-01

    Volume-balance models are used by petroleum engineers to simulate multiphase and multicomponent flow phenomena in porous media and the extraction process in oil reservoirs. In these models, mass conservation equations and Darcy's law are supplemented by a balance condition for the pore and fluid volumes. This provides a pressure equation suitable for simulating a compressible flow within a compressible solid matrix. Here we present an alternative interpretation of the volume-balance condition that includes the advective transport within a consolidated porous media. We obtain a modified equation for the time evolution of the pressure field. Preliminary numerical tests of phase separation due to gravity suggest the model reproduces qualitatively the physical phenomena. Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).

  2. Chaotic advection of finite-size bodies in a cavity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhansky, A.

    2003-07-01

    We considered advection of neutrally buoyant discs in two-dimensional chaotic Stokes flow. The goal of the study is to explore a possibility to enhance laminar mixing in batch-flow mixers. Addition of freely moving bodies to periodically driven chaotic flow renders the flowfield nonperiodic [D. F. Zhang and D. A. Zumbrunnen, AIChE J. 42, 3301 (1996)], i.e., the Lagrangian chaos of the bodies motion induces Eulerian chaos of the flow that makes mixing more intensive. The presence of three bodies creates new topological features that do not exist in "pure" fluid. The trajectories of the discs in the augmented phase space tangle and form a braid that leads to so-called topological chaos [P. L. Boyland, H. Aref, and M. A. Stremler, J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)]. Simulations were performed using a new variant of the immersed boundaries method that allows the direct numerical simulation of fluid-solid flows on a regular rectangular grid without explicit calculation of the forces that the particles exert on the fluid.

  3. Dark energy domination in the Virgocentric flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Nasonova, O. G.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The standard ΛCDM cosmological model implies that all celestial bodies are embedded in a perfectly uniform dark energy background, represented by Einstein's cosmological constant, and experience its repulsive antigravity action. Aims: Can dark energy have strong dynamical effects on small cosmic scales as well as globally? Continuing our efforts to clarify this question, we now focus on the Virgo Cluster and the flow of expansion around it. Methods: We interpret the Hubble diagram from a new database of velocities and distances of galaxies in the cluster and its environment, using a nonlinear analytical model, which incorporates the antigravity force in terms of Newtonian mechanics. The key parameter is the zero-gravity radius, the distance at which gravity and antigravity are in balance. Results: 1. The interplay between the gravity of the cluster and the antigravity of the dark energy background determines the kinematical structure of the system and controls its evolution. 2. The gravity dominates the quasi-stationary bound cluster, while the antigravity controls the Virgocentric flow, bringing order and regularity to the flow, which reaches linearity and the global Hubble rate at distances ⪆15 Mpc. 3. The cluster and the flow form a system similar to the Local Group and its outflow. In the velocity-distance diagram, the cluster-flow structure reproduces the group-flow structure with a scaling factor of about 10; the zero-gravity radius for the cluster system is also 10 times larger. Conclusions: The phase and dynamical similarity of the systems on the scales of 1-30 Mpc suggests that a two-component pattern may be universal for groups and clusters: a quasi-stationary bound central component and an expanding outflow around it, caused by the nonlinear gravity-antigravity interplay with the dark energy dominating in the flow component.

  4. Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Painter, Scott L.; Hyman, Jeffrey D.

    2015-10-12

    Although hydraulic fracturing has been used for natural gas production for the past couple of decades, there are significant uncertainties about the underlying mechanisms behind the production curves that are seen in the field. A discrete fracture network based reservoir-scale work flow is used to identify the relative effect of flow of gas in fractures and matrix diffusion on the production curve. With realistic three dimensional representations of fracture network geometry and aperture variability, simulated production decline curves qualitatively resemble observed production decline curves. The high initial peak of the production curve is controlled by advective fracture flow of free gas within the network and is sensitive to the fracture aperture variability. Matrix diffusion does not significantly affect the production decline curve in the first few years, but contributes to production after approximately 10 years. These results suggest that the initial flushing of gas-filled background fractures combined with highly heterogeneous flow paths to the production well are sufficient to explain observed initial production decline. Lastly, these results also suggest that matrix diffusion may support reduced production over longer time frames.

  5. Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production

    DOE PAGES

    Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Viswanathan, Hari S.; ...

    2015-10-12

    Although hydraulic fracturing has been used for natural gas production for the past couple of decades, there are significant uncertainties about the underlying mechanisms behind the production curves that are seen in the field. A discrete fracture network based reservoir-scale work flow is used to identify the relative effect of flow of gas in fractures and matrix diffusion on the production curve. With realistic three dimensional representations of fracture network geometry and aperture variability, simulated production decline curves qualitatively resemble observed production decline curves. The high initial peak of the production curve is controlled by advective fracture flow of freemore » gas within the network and is sensitive to the fracture aperture variability. Matrix diffusion does not significantly affect the production decline curve in the first few years, but contributes to production after approximately 10 years. These results suggest that the initial flushing of gas-filled background fractures combined with highly heterogeneous flow paths to the production well are sufficient to explain observed initial production decline. Lastly, these results also suggest that matrix diffusion may support reduced production over longer time frames.« less

  6. Novel Non-invasive Estimation of Coronary Blood Flow using Contrast Advection in Computed Tomography Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Parastou; Seo, Jung-Hee; Rahsepar, Amirali; George, Richard; Lardo, Albert; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising tool for assessment of coronary stenosis and plaque burden. Recent studies have shown the presence of axial contrast concentration gradients in obstructed arteries, but the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is not well understood. We use computational fluid dynamics to study intracoronary contrast dispersion and the correlation of concentration gradients with intracoronary blood flow and stenotic severity. Data from our CFD patient-specific simulations reveals that contrast dispersions are generated by intracoronary advection effects, and therefore, encode the coronary flow velocity. This novel method- Transluminal Attenuation Flow Encoding (TAFE) - is used to estimate the flowrate in phantom studies as well as preclinical experiments. Our results indicate a strong correlation between the values estimated from TAFE and the values measured in these experiments. The flow physics of contrast dispersion associated with TAFE will be discussed. This work is funded by grants from Coulter Foundation and Maryland Innovation Initiative. The authors have pending patents in this technology and RM and ACL have other financial interests associated with TAFE.

  7. Correlation Networks from Flows. The Case of Forced and Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tupikina, Liubov; Molkenthin, Nora; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Complex network theory provides an elegant and powerful framework to statistically investigate different types of systems such as society, brain or the structure of local and long-range dynamical interrelationships in the climate system. Network links in climate networks typically imply information, mass or energy exchange. However, the specific connection between oceanic or atmospheric flows and the climate network's structure is still unclear. We propose a theoretical approach for verifying relations between the correlation matrix and the climate network measures, generalizing previous studies and overcoming the restriction to stationary flows. Our methods are developed for correlations of a scalar quantity (temperature, for example) which satisfies an advection-diffusion dynamics in the presence of forcing and dissipation. Our approach reveals that correlation networks are not sensitive to steady sources and sinks and the profound impact of the signal decay rate on the network topology. We illustrate our results with calculations of degree and clustering for a meandering flow resembling a geophysical ocean jet.

  8. Flame speeds and curvature of premixed, spherically expanding flames advecting in a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Dan; Ochs, Bradley; Ranjan, Devesh; Menon, Suresh

    2016-11-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology to study sub- and supersonic combustion, which is based on classical flame bomb studies but incorporates a mean flow, allowing for a wider variety of turbulent conditions and the inclusion of effects like compressibility, while supporting shear-free spherical flames. Homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is generated via an active vane grid. Methane-air flame kernels advecting with the mean flow are generated using Laser Induced Breakdown ignition. The facility is accessing the thin reaction zone regime with uRMS' /SL0 = 6 . 9 - 22 , L11 /δF = 44 - 68 and Reλ = 190 - 550 . The flame kernels are probed with OH-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). To validate the facility, results at Ū = 30 m/s are compared to existing data using a scaling derived from a spectral closure of the G-equation. This indicates the reacting flow remains Galilean invariant under the given conditions. The differences between global and local turbulent consumption speeds derived from OH-PLIF results are discussed with a focus on modeling efforts. The curvature of flame wrinkles is evaluated to examine the impact of different turbulent scales on flame development. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under basic research Grant FA9550-15-1-0512 (Project monitor: Dr. Chiping Li).

  9. Orbital Advection by Interpolation: A Fast and Accurate Numerical Scheme for Super-Fast MHD Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M; Guan, X; Gammie, F

    2008-04-11

    In numerical models of thin astrophysical disks that use an Eulerian scheme, gas orbits supersonically through a fixed grid. As a result the timestep is sharply limited by the Courant condition. Also, because the mean flow speed with respect to the grid varies with position, the truncation error varies systematically with position. For hydrodynamic (unmagnetized) disks an algorithm called FARGO has been developed that advects the gas along its mean orbit using a separate interpolation substep. This relaxes the constraint imposed by the Courant condition, which now depends only on the peculiar velocity of the gas, and results in a truncation error that is more nearly independent of position. This paper describes a FARGO-like algorithm suitable for evolving magnetized disks. Our method is second order accurate on a smooth flow and preserves {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to machine precision. The main restriction is that B must be discretized on a staggered mesh. We give a detailed description of an implementation of the code and demonstrate that it produces the expected results on linear and nonlinear problems. We also point out how the scheme might be generalized to make the integration of other supersonic/super-fast flows more efficient. Although our scheme reduces the variation of truncation error with position, it does not eliminate it. We show that the residual position dependence leads to characteristic radial variations in the density over long integrations.

  10. Correlation Networks from Flows. The Case of Forced and Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tupikina, Liubov; Molkenthin, Nora; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Complex network theory provides an elegant and powerful framework to statistically investigate different types of systems such as society, brain or the structure of local and long-range dynamical interrelationships in the climate system. Network links in climate networks typically imply information, mass or energy exchange. However, the specific connection between oceanic or atmospheric flows and the climate network’s structure is still unclear. We propose a theoretical approach for verifying relations between the correlation matrix and the climate network measures, generalizing previous studies and overcoming the restriction to stationary flows. Our methods are developed for correlations of a scalar quantity (temperature, for example) which satisfies an advection-diffusion dynamics in the presence of forcing and dissipation. Our approach reveals that correlation networks are not sensitive to steady sources and sinks and the profound impact of the signal decay rate on the network topology. We illustrate our results with calculations of degree and clustering for a meandering flow resembling a geophysical ocean jet. PMID:27128846

  11. On the potential importance of transient air flow in advective radon entry into buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Holman, H.Y. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors have investigated, using a mathematical model, the temporal variations of air flux within the soil mass surrounding a basement in the presence of time dependent periodic variations of barometric pressure and a persistent under-pressure at the basement. The results of transient air flow show that for a homogeneous soil medium, the effects of barometric fluctuations are most significant in the cases where soil permeability to air is low and the fluctuation frequency is high. In these cases, the barometric fluctuation can greatly enhance the magnitude of fluxes as well as introduce flow direction reversals from surrounding soil into the basement. These large fluxes with direction reversals have strong implications in regard to advective transport of radon. The results suggest that the transient oscillations have to be accounted for in quantifying radon entry into buildings. In the actual field set up, the transient behavior will be further influenced by soil permeability heterogeneity, by soil moisture variations, and by the effects of multiple periodic components in the barometric pressure fluctuations.

  12. Dark Energy Domination In The Virgocentric Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Gene; Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    2011-04-01

    Dark energy (DE) was first observationally detected at large Gpc distances. If it is a vacuum energy formulated as Einstein's cosmological constant, Λ, DE should also have dynamical effects at much smaller scales. Previously, we found its effects on much smaller Mpc scales in our Local Group (LG) as well as in other nearby groups. We used new HST observations of member 3D distances from the group centers and Doppler shifts. We find each group's gravity dominates a bound central system of galaxies but DE antigravity results in a radial recession increasing with distance from the group center of the outer members. Here we focus on the much larger (but still cosmologically local) Virgo Cluster and systems around it using new observations of velocities and distances. We propose an analytic model whose key parameter is the zero-gravity radius (ZGR) from the cluster center where gravity and DE antigravity balance. DE brings regularity to the Virgocentric flow. Beyond Virgo's 10 Mpc ZGR, the flow curves to approach a linear global Hubble law at larger distances. The Virgo cluster and its outer flow are similar to the Local Group and its local outflow with a scaling factor of about 10; the ZGR for Virgo is 10 times larger than that of the LG. The similarity of the two systems on the scales of 1 to 30 Mpc suggests that a quasi-stationary bound central component and an expanding outflow applies to a wide range of groups and clusters due to small scale action of DE as well as gravity. Chernin, et al 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics 507, 1271 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0066 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0555

  13. Temporal Variability from the Two-Component Advective Flow Solution and Its Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Broja G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of the energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability timescales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high-inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006-07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase, the time lag increases with time. We find a systematic evolution of QPO frequency and hard lags in these outbursts. In XTE J1550-564, the lag changes from hard to soft (i.e., from a positive to a negative value) at a crossing frequency (ν c) of ˜3.4 Hz. We present possible mechanisms to explain the lag behavior of high and low-inclination sources within the framework of a single two-component advective flow model.

  14. Investigating redox processes under diffusive and advective flow conditions using a coupled omics and synchrotron approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Kelly, S.; Skinner, K.; Mishra, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    FeIII- and SO42--reducing microorganisms and the mineral phases they produce have profound implications for many processes in aquatic and terrestrial systems. In addition, many of these microbially-catalysed geochemical transformations are highly dependent upon introduction of reactants via advective and diffusive hydrological transport. We have characterized microbial communities from a set of static microcosms to test the effect of ethanol diffusion and sulfate concentration on UVI-contaminated sediment. The spatial distribution, valence states, and speciation of both U and Fe were monitored in situ throughout the experiment by synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy, in parallel with solution measurements of pH and the concentrations of sulfate, ethanol, and organic acids. After reaction initiation, a ~1-cm thick layer of sediment near the sediment-water (S-W) interface became visibly dark. Fe XANES spectra of the layer were consistent with the formation of FeS. Over the 4 year duration of the experiment, U LIII-edge XANES indicated reduction of U, first in the dark layer and then throughout the sediment. Next, the microcosms were disassembled and samples were taken from the overlying water and different sediment regions. We extracted DNA and characterized the microbial community by sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons with the Illumina MiSeq platform and found that the community evolved from its originally homogeneous composition, becoming significantly spatially heterogeneous. We have also developed an x-ray accessible column to probe elemental transformations as they occur along the flow path in a porous medium with the purpose of refining reactive transport models (RTMs) that describe coupled physical and biogeochemical processes in environmental systems. The elemental distribution dynamics and the RTMs of the redox driven processes within them will be presented.

  15. Chaotic flow and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent: Competitive autocatalytic reactions in advection-reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in competitive autocatalytic reactions. To study this subject, we use a computationally efficient method for solving advection-reaction-diffusion equations for periodic flows using a mapping method with operator splitting. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, there are two species, B and C, which both react autocatalytically with species A (A +B -->2B and A +C -->2C). If there is initially a small amount of spatially localized B and C and a large amount of A, all three species will be advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that the small scale interactions associated with the chaotic velocity field, specifically the local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs), can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction is complete. The species, B or C, that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If species B and C start in regions having similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. Funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  16. A Petroleum Vapor Intrusion Model Involving Upward Advective Soil Gas Flow Due to Methane Generation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Yue; Verginelli, Iason; Zeng, Tian; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Wen, Yuezhong; Ma, Jie

    2015-10-06

    At petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) sites at which there is significant methane generation, upward advective soil gas transport may be observed. To evaluate the health and explosion risks that may exist under such scenarios, a one-dimensional analytical model describing these processes is introduced in this study. This new model accounts for both advective and diffusive transport in soil gas and couples this with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, limited by oxygen availability. The predicted results from the new model are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results obtained from a three-dimensional numerical model. These results suggest that this analytical model is suitable for describing cases involving open ground surface beyond the foundation edge, serving as the primary oxygen source. This new analytical model indicates that the major contribution of upward advection to indoor air concentration could be limited to the increase of soil gas entry rate, since the oxygen in soil might already be depleted owing to the associated high methane source vapor concentration.

  17. A field study of air flow and turbulent features of advection fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The setup and initial operation of a set of specialized meteorological data collection hardware are described. To study the life cycle of advection fogs at a lake test site, turbulence levels in the fog are identified, and correlated with the temperature gradients and mean wind profiles. A meteorological tower was instrumented to allow multiple-level measurements of wind and temperature on a continuous basis. Additional instrumentation was: (1)hydrothermograph, (2)microbarograph, (3)transmissometers, and (4)a boundary layer profiler. Two types of fogs were identified, and important differences in the turbulence scales were noted.

  18. Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of ground-water flow directions and traveltimes for advective flow were developed for the regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The work included: (1) descriptions of compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) descriptions of pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantitative estimates of traveltimes for advective transport originating at or near the water table. A particle-tracking postprocessing program was used to compute pathlines on the basis of output from an existing three-dimensional steady-state flow model. The flow model uses 1980 conditions to approximate average annual conditions for 1950-80. The advective transport model required additional information about the nature of flow across model boundaries, aquifer thickness, and porosity. Porosity of two types of basalt strata has been reported for more than 1,500 individual cores from test holes, wells, and outcrops near the south side of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The central 80 percent of samples had porosities of 0.08 to 0.25, the central 50 percent of samples, O. 11 to 0.21. Calibration of the model involved choosing a value for porosity that yielded the best solution. Two radiologic contaminants, iodine-129 and tritium, both introduced to the flow system about 40 years ago, are relatively conservative tracers. Iodine- 129 was considered to be more useful because of a lower analytical detection limit, longer half-life, and longer flow path. The calibration value for porosity was 0.21. Most flow in the aquifer is contained within a regional-scale compartment and follows paths that discharge to the Snake River downstream from Milner Dam. Two intermediate-scale compartments exist along the southeast side of the aquifer and near Mud Lake.One intermediate-scale compartment along the southeast side of the aquifer discharges to the Snake River near American Fails

  19. Broadband Spectral Energy Distributions of Active Galactic Nuclei from an Accretion Disk with Advective Coronal Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Shimura, Toshiya; Mineshige, Shin

    2001-01-01

    Recent multiwaveband observations of Seyfert nuclei and QSOs established significant deviations in the spectral shape of the big blue bump from a blackbody spectral shape; soft X-ray excess has a spectral index α (Fν~ν-α) of 1.6 and hard X-ray tail with α of ~0.7. We construct a disk-corona model which accounts for such broadband spectral properties. We study the emission spectrum emerging from a vertical disk-corona structure composed of two-temperature plasma by solving hydrostatic equilibrium and radiative transfer self-consistently. A fraction f of viscous heating due to mass accretion is assumed to be dissipated in a corona with a Thomson optical depth of τc, where advective cooling is also included, and a remaining fraction, 1-f, dissipates within a main body of the disk. Our model can nicely reproduce the soft X-ray excess with a power-law shape and the hard tail extending to ~50 keV. The different spectral slopes (α~1.5 below 2 keV and ~0.5 above) are the results of different emission mechanisms and different sites; the former slope is due to unsaturated Comptonization from the innermost zone, and the latter is due to a combination of the Comptonization, bremsstrahlung, and a reflection of the coronal radiation at the disk-corona boundary from the inner to surrounding zone (<=300 Schwarzschild radii). The emergent optical spectrum is redder (α~0.3) than that of the standard disk (α~-0.3), being consistent with observations, due to the different efficiencies of spectral hardening of disk emission at different radii. Further, we find that the cutoff frequency of the hard X-ray (~coronal electron temperature) and broadband spectral shape are insensitive to the black hole mass, while the peak frequency of the big blue bump is sensitive to the mass as the peak frequency ~M-1/4BH.

  20. A partially open porous media flow with chaotic advection: towards a model of coupled fields.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel; Ord, Alison; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Trefry, Mike; Hobbs, Bruce E; Regenaur-Lieb, Klaus; Morris, Jeffery

    2010-01-13

    In nature, dissipative fluxes of fluid, heat and/or reacting species couple to each other and may also couple to deformation of a surrounding porous matrix. We use the well-known analogy of Hele-Shaw flow to Darcy flow to make a model porous medium with porosity proportional to local cell height. Time- and space-varying fluid injection from multiple source/sink wells lets us create many different kinds of chaotic flows and chemical concentration patterns. Results of an initial time-dependent potential flow model illustrate that this is a partially open flow, in which parts of the material transported by the flow remain in the cell forever and parts pass through with residence time and exit time distributions that have self-similar features in the control parameter space of the stirring. We derive analytically the existence boundary in stirring control parameter space between where isolated fluid regions can and cannot remain forever in the open flow. Experiments confirm the predictions.

  1. HYDROMAGNETICS OF ADVECTIVE ACCRETION FLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES: REMOVAL OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM BY LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC STRESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Chatterjee, Koushik E-mail: kchatterjee009@gmail.com

    2015-07-01

    We show that the removal of angular momentum is possible in the presence of large-scale magnetic stresses in geometrically thick, advective, sub-Keplerian accretion flows around black holes in steady state, in the complete absence of α-viscosity. The efficiency of such an angular momentum transfer could be equivalent to that of α-viscosity with α = 0.01–0.08. Nevertheless, the required field is well below its equipartition value, leading to a magnetically stable disk flow. This is essentially important in order to describe the hard spectral state of the sources when the flow is non/sub-Keplerian. We show in our simpler 1.5 dimensional, vertically averaged disk model that the larger the vertical-gradient of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field is, the stronger the rate of angular momentum transfer becomes, which in turn may lead to a faster rate of outflowing matter. Finding efficient angular momentum transfer in black hole disks via magnetic stresses alone, is very interesting when the generic origin of α-viscosity is still being explored.

  2. Characterization of GX 339-4 outburst of 2010-11: analysis by XSPEC using two component advective flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Dipak; Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2015-02-01

    We study spectral properties of GX 339-4 during its 2010-11 outburst with two component advective flow (TCAF) model after its inclusion in XSPEC as a table model. We compare results fitted by TCAF model with combined disc blackbody and power-law model. For a spectral fit, we use 2.5-25 keV spectral data of the Proportional Counter Array instrument onboard RXTE satellite. From our fit, accretion flow parameters such as Keplerian (disc) rate, sub-Keplerian (halo) rate, location and strength of shock are extracted. We quantify how the disc and the halo rates vary during the entire outburst. We study how the halo to disc accretion rate ratio (ARR), quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), shock locations and its strength vary when the system passes through hard, hard-intermediate, soft-intermediate and soft states. We find pieces of evidence of monotonically increasing and decreasing nature of QPO frequencies depending on the variation of ARR during rising and declining phases. Interestingly, on days of transition from hard state to hard-intermediate spectral state (during the rising phase) or vice-versa (during decline phase), ARR is observed to be locally maximum. Non-constancy of ARR while obtaining reasonable fits points to the presence of two independent components in the flow.

  3. Advection Scheme for Phase-changing Porous Media Flow of Fluids with Large Density Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan; Padrino, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Many flows in a porous media involve phase changes between fluids with a large density ratio. For instance, in the water-steam phase change the density ratio is about 1000. These phase changes can be results of physical changes, or chemical reactions, such as fuel combustion in a porous media. Based on the mass conservation, the velocity ratio between the fluids is of the same order of the density ratio. As the result the controlling Courant number for the time step in a numerical simulation is determined by the high velocity and low density phase, leading to small time steps. In this work we introduce a numerical approximation to increase the time step by taking advantage of the large density ratio. We provide analytical error estimation for this approximate numerical scheme. Numerical examples show that using this approximation about 40-fold speedup can be achieved at the cost of a few percent error. Work partially supported by LDRD project of LANL.

  4. Images and spectral properties of two-component advective flows around black holes: effects of photon bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-03-01

    Two-component advective flow (TCAF) successfully explains spectral and timing properties of black hole candidates. We study the nature of photon trajectories in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole and incorporate this in predicting images of TCAF with a black hole at the Centre. We also compute the emitted spectra. We employ a Monte Carlo simulation technique to achieve our goal. For accurate prediction of the image and the spectra, null trajectories are generated without constraining the motion to any specific plane. Redshift, bolometric flux and corresponding temperature have been calculated with appropriate relativistic consideration. The CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer or CENBOL near the inner region of the disc, which acts as the Compton cloud, is appropriately modelled as a thick accretion disc in Schwarzschild geometry for the purpose of imaging and computing spectra. The variations of spectra and image with physical parameters such as the accretion rate (dot{m}_d) and inclination angle are presented. We show that the gravitational bending effects of photons do change the spectral shape to some extent.

  5. Sweet and Sour: Attenuating Sulfidogenesis in an Advective Flow Column System with Perchlorate or Nitrate Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrektson, A. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Piceno, Y.; Boussina, A.; Jin, Y.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Tom, L.; Hu, P.; Conrad, M. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Coates, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biogenesis in oil reservoirs is a primary cause of souring and of associated costs in reservoir and pipeline maintenance. In addition to the corrosive effects of the H2S itself, abiotic and biological oxidation also generates sulfuric acid, further degrading metallic surfaces. Amending these environments with perchlorate (ClO4-) resolves these problems by inhibition of biological sulfate reduction and re-oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur by dissimilatory (per)chlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB). Triplicate flow through columns packed with San Francisco bay sediment were flushed with bay water ([SO4=] = 25-30 mM) containing yeast extract with 50 mM inhibitor concentrations (NO3-or ClO4-) decreasing to 25 mM and finally 12.5 mM. Influent and effluent geochemistry was monitored and DNA was prepared from the sediment bed for microbial community analysis. Souring was reversed by both treatments (at 50 mM) compared to the control columns that had no ion addition. Nitrate began to re-sour when treatment concentration was decreased to 25 mM but treatment had to be decreased to 12.5 mM before the perchlorate treated columns began to re-sour. However, the treated columns re-soured to a lesser extent than the control columns. Phylochip microbial community analyses indicated microbial community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Isotopic analysis of sulfate showed trends that broadly agreed with the geochemistry but also suggested further sulfur cycling was occurring. This study indicates that perchlorate shows great promise as an inhibitor of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms are involved in this process.

  6. Derivation of a Multiparameter Gamma Model for Analyzing the Residence-Time Distribution Function for Nonideal Flow Systems as an Alternative to the Advection-Dispersion Equation

    DOE PAGES

    Embry, Irucka; Roland, Victor; Agbaje, Oluropo; ...

    2013-01-01

    A new residence-time distribution (RTD) function has been developed and applied to quantitative dye studies as an alternative to the traditional advection-dispersion equation (AdDE). The new method is based on a jointly combined four-parameter gamma probability density function (PDF). The gamma residence-time distribution (RTD) function and its first and second moments are derived from the individual two-parameter gamma distributions of randomly distributed variables, tracer travel distance, and linear velocity, which are based on their relationship with time. The gamma RTD function was used on a steady-state, nonideal system modeled as a plug-flow reactor (PFR) in the laboratory to validate themore » effectiveness of the model. The normalized forms of the gamma RTD and the advection-dispersion equation RTD were compared with the normalized tracer RTD. The normalized gamma RTD had a lower mean-absolute deviation (MAD) (0.16) than the normalized form of the advection-dispersion equation (0.26) when compared to the normalized tracer RTD. The gamma RTD function is tied back to the actual physical site due to its randomly distributed variables. The results validate using the gamma RTD as a suitable alternative to the advection-dispersion equation for quantitative tracer studies of non-ideal flow systems.« less

  7. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  8. Lagrangian dimensionality reduction of convection dominated nonlinear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Mojgani, Rambod

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new projection-based model reduction approach for convection dominated nonlinear fluid flows. In this method the evolution of the fluid is approximated in the Lagrangian frame of reference. More specifically, global basis functions are utilized for both the state of the system and the positions of the Lagrangian computational domain. In this approach, wave-like solutions exhibit low-rank structure and thus, can be approximated efficiently using a small number of reduced bases. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the reduction of several simple but representative flow problems.

  9. Vortex-dominated flow with viscous core structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Krause, E.; Ting, L.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of vortex-dominated flows are reviewed with special emphasis on those for which the viscous core structures play an important role. The problems to be described are: The interaction and merging of two-dimensional vortices and of curved vortex filaments, the roll-up and decay of trailing far wakes, and the initiation of vortex breakdown. The analysis utilizes finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations complemented by asymptotic expansion techniques.

  10. Steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport, Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The steady-state and transient flow models cover an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the 890 square miles of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Model results can be used in numerical simulations to evaluate the movement of contaminants in the aquifer. Saturated flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer was simulated using the MODFLOW-2000 groundwater flow model. Steady-state flow was simulated to represent conditions in 1980 with average streamflow infiltration from 1966-80 for the Big Lost River, the major variable inflow to the system. The transient flow model simulates groundwater flow between 1980 and 1995, a period that included a 5-year wet cycle (1982-86) followed by an 8-year dry cycle (1987-94). Specified flows into or out of the active model grid define the conditions on all boundaries except the southwest (outflow) boundary, which is simulated with head-dependent flow. In the transient flow model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress, and was variable in time and location. The models were calibrated by adjusting aquifer hydraulic properties to match simulated and observed heads or head differences using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Various summary, regression, and inferential statistics, in addition to comparisons of model properties and simulated head to measured properties and head, were used to evaluate the model calibration. Model parameters estimated for the steady-state calibration included hydraulic conductivity for seven of nine hydrogeologic zones and a global value of vertical anisotropy. Parameters

  11. Special Course on Unstructured Grid Methods for Advection Dominated Flows (Les Methodes Utilisant un Maillage non Structure Pour l’Etude des Ecoulements Caracterises par l’Advection)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    prisms t;- xIll with r a triangle or "tilted" such prisms , -k ( A n- ) x A ii" Ai u I)T jor tetrahedrons. Define for q _ 0 i Vl ={vL2(Sn{): vI KE(IPq...cont’d 1-47 ’Tv I 1I / _ Reference prism "Tilted prism " ,/ \\, 11 Fmo f Stn-I /7’/’/7171:1+ S~FIG. S - Space-time discrctization of the SD-method H " 2-1...impilnlentlltionI of tree strllucilres. Tihis is required so that now N, 0 I ndes coln be ticoed in the memory space released by the dolotion of -.. 0 previous

  12. Fast multigrid solution of the advection problem with closed characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Yavneh, I.; Venner, C.H.; Brandt, A.

    1996-12-31

    The numerical solution of the advection-diffusion problem in the inviscid limit with closed characteristics is studied as a prelude to an efficient high Reynolds-number flow solver. It is demonstrated by a heuristic analysis and numerical calculations that using upstream discretization with downstream relaxation-ordering and appropriate residual weighting in a simple multigrid V cycle produces an efficient solution process. We also derive upstream finite-difference approximations to the advection operator, whose truncation terms approximate {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} (Laplacian) viscosity, thus avoiding spurious solutions to the homogeneous problem when the artificial diffusivity dominates the physical viscosity.

  13. Steady-State and Transient Groundwater Flow and Advective Transport, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and Vicinity, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Ackerman, D. J.; Rousseau, J. P.; Rattray, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport through the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The model domain covers an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. Numerical models simulated 1980 steady-state conditions and transient flow for 1980-95. In the transient model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress. The models were calibrated using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. The steady-state model reasonably simulated the observed water-table altitude and gradients. Simulation of transient conditions reproduced changes in the flow system resulting from episodic infiltration from the Big Lost River. Analysis of simulations shows that flow is (1) dominantly horizontal through interflow zones in basalt, vertical anisotropy resulting from contrasts in hydraulic conductivity of different types of basalt and the interbedded sediments, (2) temporally variable due to streamflow infiltration from the Big Lost River, and (3) moving downward downgradient of the INL. Particle-tracking simulations were used to evaluate how simulated groundwater flow paths and travel times differ between the steady-state and transient flow models, and how well model-derived groundwater flow directions and velocities compare to independently-derived estimates. Particle tracking also was used to simulate the growth of tritium plumes originating at two INL facilities over a 16 year period under steady-state and transient flow conditions (1953-68). The shape, dimensions, and areal extent of these plumes were compared to a map of the plumes for 1968 from tritium releases beginning in 1952

  14. An extension of Prandtl-Batchelor theory and consequences for chaotic advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezic, Igor

    2002-09-01

    We extend the Prandtl-Batchelor theory of steady laminar motion at large Reynolds number to derive conditions that steady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows have to satisfy. We combine these results with ergodic theory to show that flows with strong Beltrami property (e.g., ABC flows) cannot be a paradigm for chaotic advection in inertia-dominated boundary-driven three-dimensional flows. Our results indicate that viscous forces are responsible for chaotic advection in steady, three-dimensional boundary-driven Navier-Stokes flows at large Reynolds numbers.

  15. Gravity-flow processes and deposits in a tidally dominated coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidam, E.; Ogston, A. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are characterized by episodic sediment delivery to marine environments, and have been recognized as a source of sediment gravity flows along storm-dominated coasts. These important modes of cross-shelf sediment transport are largely dependent on suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), bottom slope, and energy supplied by waves and currents. The mechanics and deposits of gravity flows are relatively unstudied on tidally dominated coasts receiving episodic SMR sediment discharge. Data collected during and after a March 2014 sediment delivery event from the small mountainous Elwha River (WA, USA) demonstrates the challenges of forming and preserving gravity-flow deposits in a persistently energetic tidal system. The river discharges to a narrow strait; near the river mouth, maximum boundary-layer tidal currents (50 cm above bed) reach 80-100 cm/s during spring tides and 30-60 cm/s during neap tides. Since 2011, the deconstruction of two dams has generated fluvial SSCs from 3 g/L to >9 g/L (max. monitoring value) during rainstorms and freshets. Instruments stationed near the river mouth since 2011 have shown that tidal currents advect this fine-grained sediment for days to weeks after delivery, and ultimately disperse it away from the river mouth. In March 2014, fluvial SSC reached ≥9 g/L during the largest river discharge since dam removal began. One day later, boundary-layer SSCs reached 2 g/L and 1 g/L at 23 and 102 cmab, respectively, and 5-8 days later, the bed under the instrument system aggraded by ~30 cm. Currents subsequently eroded the deposit, and within 3 weeks the bed elevation returned to its pre-event level. This is consistent with evidence of little to no grain-size change of the sand/gravel seabed in 10-60 m water depth up to 5 km from the river mouth since the dam removal began. To date, the only measurable accumulation of new sediment is in an embayment adjacent to the river mouth where currents weaken. These

  16. Quantifying Heat Flow from a Restless Caldera: Shallow Measurement from a Vapor Dominated Area of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Harris, R. N.; Hurwitz, S.; Fulton, P. M.; Davis, M. G.; Werner, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Any attempt to characterize the vigor of magmatic activity and forecast future volcanism in Yellowstone caldera requires knowledge regarding the thermal state of its magmatic system, one of the largest and most focused heat sources on Earth. Current knowledge of heat transport between magma and the ground surface is limited. Advective heat transport from the caldera has been quantified by measuring chloride flux from the major rivers draining the caldera, based on the assumptions of the chloride inventory method (Fournier, JVGR1979). We have quantified the total (conductive, advective, and evaporative) heat flux from one of the most active thermal areas in Yellowstone caldera, the Obsidian Pool thermal area (OPTA) which includes 0.1 km2 of thermal ground within the Mud Volcano thermal area. The OPTA is characterized by vapor dominated conditions. Rising steam and other gases (mainly CO2) fill open fractures beneath a low-permeability cap consisting of clay minerals (Bargar and Muffler, 1982). Conduction-dominated heat transfer through the clay cap is associated with a high temperature gradient. We made at least 4 soil-temperature measurements at 0-1 m depth at 251 locations in the OPTA and measured soil thermal conductivity in the laboratory. Evaporative heat from several thermal pools was quantified based on pool temperatures and meteorological data. Our preliminary analysis indicates that surface heat loss from OPTA is dominantly conductive. Extrapolation of the OPTA results to approximately 35 km2 of vapor-dominated area in Yellowstone caldera and surroundings would yield a total heat flow that constitutes a major fraction of the total heat power from Yellowstone’s magmatic system.

  17. Efficient mass transport by optical advection

    PubMed Central

    Kajorndejnukul, Veerachart; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    2015-01-01

    Advection is critical for efficient mass transport. For instance, bare diffusion cannot explain the spatial and temporal scales of some of the cellular processes. The regulation of intracellular functions is strongly influenced by the transport of mass at low Reynolds numbers where viscous drag dominates inertia. Mimicking the efficacy and specificity of the cellular machinery has been a long time pursuit and, due to inherent flexibility, optical manipulation is of particular interest. However, optical forces are relatively small and cannot significantly modify diffusion properties. Here we show that the effectiveness of microparticle transport can be dramatically enhanced by recycling the optical energy through an effective optical advection process. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that this new advection mechanism permits an efficient control of collective and directional mass transport in colloidal systems. The cooperative long-range interaction between large numbers of particles can be optically manipulated to create complex flow patterns, enabling efficient and tunable transport in microfluidic lab-on-chip platforms. PMID:26440069

  18. Parallel-dominant and perpendicular-dominant components of the fast bulk flow: Comparing with the PSBL beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. Q.; Dai, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Rème, H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Wei, X. H.

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing multipoint observations by the Cluster satellites, we investigated the ion distributions of the fast bulk flows (FBFs) in the plasma sheet. Simultaneous observation by C1 and C3 revealed that parallel-dominant and perpendicular-dominant components of the flows coexist and correspond to Bx-dominant and Bz-dominant magnetic field regions within the FBFs, respectively. In both cases, the ions distributions are characterized by a single-beam/crescent shape. In particular, no reflected ions are found within the FBFs. Statistical analysis showed that within the FBFs, the strength of the Bx component is typically less than 5 nT for Bz-dominant regions and above 10 nT for Bx-dominant regions. To distinguish between the parallel-dominant component of the FBFs and the field-aligned beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL), we further statistically analyzed the tailward parallel flows (TPF) with positive Bz in the plasma sheet. The results indicated that the FBFs tend to have higher velocity, weaker B, and higher magnetic tilt angle (θMTA) than the TPFs/PSBL beams. Statistically, in the region of B > 30 nT (θMTA > 10°), only PSBL beams can be observed, while in the region of B < 10 nT (θMTA > 30°), the FBFs are dominant. In the intermediate region (10° < θMTA < 30°) of the plasma sheet, the FBFs and the PSBL beams cooccur. These Cluster observations suggest that the X line can produce both perpendicular flow in central plasma sheet and parallel flow in the PSBL. In addition, the parallel-dominant component of the FBFs could be an important origin for the PSBL beams.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.C.; Ely, D.M.; Tiedeman, C.R.; O'Brien, G.M.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2001-08-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS). The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 underground Test Area (UGTA) sites. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the regional-scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work.

  20. BUOYANT ADVECTION OF GASES IN UNSATURATED SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Gregory E.; Falta, Ronald W.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    In unsaturated soil, methane and volatile organic compounds can significantly alter the density of soil gas and induce buoyant gas flow. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted in a two-dimensional, homogeneous sand pack with gas permeabilities ranging from 110 to 3,000 darcy. Pure methane gas was injected horizontally into the sand and steady-state methane profiles were measured. Experimental results are in close agreement with a numerical model that represents the advective and diffusive components of methane transport. Comparison of simulations with and without gravitational acceleration permits identification of conditions where buoyancy dominates methane transport. Significant buoyant flow requires a Rayleigh number greater than 10 and an injected gas velocity sufficient to overcome dilution by molecular diffusion near the source. These criteria allow the extension of laboratory results to idealized field conditions for methane as well as denser-than-air vapors produced by volatilizing nonaqueous phase liquids trapped in unsaturated soil. PMID:20396624

  1. Higher-order conservative interpolation between control-volume meshes: Application to advection and multiphase flow problems with dynamic mesh adaptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Percival, J. R.; Salinas, P.; Xie, Z.; Fang, F.; Pain, C. C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    A general, higher-order, conservative and bounded interpolation for the dynamic and adaptive meshing of control-volume fields dual to continuous and discontinuous finite element representations is presented. Existing techniques such as node-wise interpolation are not conservative and do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields, whilst conservative methods such as Grandy interpolation are often too diffusive. The new method uses control-volume Galerkin projection to interpolate between control-volume fields. Bounded solutions are ensured by using a post-interpolation diffusive correction. Example applications of the method to interface capturing during advection and also to the modelling of multiphase porous media flow are presented to demonstrate the generality and robustness of the approach.

  2. Episodic Jet Power Extracted from a Spinning Black Hole Surrounded by a Neutrino-dominated Accretion Flow in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinwu; Liang, En-Wei; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2014-07-01

    It was suggested that the relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powered via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism or the annihilation of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos from a neutrino cooling-dominated accretion flow (NDAF). The advection and diffusion of the large-scale magnetic field of an NDAF is calculated, and the external magnetic field is found to be dragged inward efficiently by the accretion flow for a typical magnetic Prandtl number \\mathscr{P}_m=η /ν ˜ 1. The maximal BZ jet power can be ~1053-1054 erg s-1 for an extreme Kerr black hole, if an external magnetic field with 1014 Gauss is advected by the NDAF. This is roughly consistent with the field strength of the disk formed after a tidal disrupted magnetar. The accretion flow near the black hole horizon is arrested by the magnetic field if the accretion rate is below than a critical value for a given external field. The arrested accretion flow fails to drag the field inward and the field strength decays, and then the accretion re-starts, which leads to oscillating accretion. The typical timescale of such episodic accretion is of an order of one second. This can qualitatively explain the observed oscillation in the soft extended emission of short-type GRBs.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Mary C.; Ely, D. Matthew; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Brien, Grady M.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Faunt, Claudia C.

    2001-01-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system. The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 Underground Test Areas. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work. The methods presented in this report are used in three ways. (1) The ratings for individual observations are obtained by manipulating the measures of prediction uncertainty, and do not involve recalibrating the model. In this analysis, observation locations are each omitted individually and the resulting increase in uncertainty in the predictions is calculated. The uncertainty is quantified as standard deviations on the simulated advective transport. The increase in uncertainty is quantified as the percent increase in the standard deviations caused by omitting the one observation location from the calculation of standard deviations. In general, observation locations associated with larger increases are rated as more important. (2) Ratings for largely geographically based groups are obtained using a straightforward extension of the method used for

  4. Pathways for Advective Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-19

    the approach is given and an application to the Gulf of Mexico is described where the analysis precisely identifies the boundaries of coherent vortical structures as well as pathways for advective transport.

  5. Novel Methods for Measuring Depth of Anesthesia by Quantifying Dominant Information Flow in Multichannel EEGs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Moon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose novel methods for measuring depth of anesthesia (DOA) by quantifying dominant information flow in multichannel EEGs. Conventional methods mainly use few EEG channels independently and most of multichannel EEG based studies are limited to specific regions of the brain. Therefore the function of the cerebral cortex over wide brain regions is hardly reflected in DOA measurement. Here, DOA is measured by the quantification of dominant information flow obtained from principle bipartition. Three bipartitioning methods are used to detect the dominant information flow in entire EEG channels and the dominant information flow is quantified by calculating information entropy. High correlation between the proposed measures and the plasma concentration of propofol is confirmed from the experimental results of clinical data in 39 subjects. To illustrate the performance of the proposed methods more easily we present the results for multichannel EEG on a two-dimensional (2D) brain map.

  6. Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.

  7. Local and nonlocal advection of a passive scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. K.

    2006-11-01

    Passive and active scalar mixing is examined in a simple one-parameter family of two-dimensional flows based on quasi-geostrophic dynamics, in which the active scalar, the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity, is confined to a single horizontal surface (so-called surface quasi-geostrophic dynamics) and in which a passive scalar field is also advected by the (horizontal, two-dimensional) velocity field at a finite distance from the surface. At large distances from the surface the flow is determined by the largest horizontal scales, the flow is spectrally nonlocal, and a chaotic advection-type regime dominates. At small distances, z, scaling arguments suggest a transition wavenumber kc˜1/2z, where the slope of the passive scalar spectrum changes from k-5/3, determined by local dynamics, to k-1, determined by nonlocal dynamics, analogous to the transition to a k-1 slope in the Batchelor regime in three-dimensional turbulence. Direct numerical simulations reproduce the qualitative aspects of this transition. Other characteristics of the simulated scalar fields, such as the relative dominance of coherent or filamentary structures, are also shown to depend strongly on the degree of locality.

  8. Surfzone alongshore advective accelerations: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2014-12-01

    The sources, magnitudes, and impacts of non-linear advective accelerations on alongshore surfzone currents are investigated with observations and a numerical model. Previous numerical modeling results have indicated that advective accelerations are an important contribution to the alongshore force balance, and are required to understand spatial variations in alongshore currents (which may result in spatially variable morphological change). However, most prior observational studies have neglected advective accelerations in the alongshore force balance. Using a numerical model (Delft3D) to predict optimal sensor locations, a dense array of 26 colocated current meters and pressure sensors was deployed between the shoreline and 3-m water depth over a 200 by 115 m region near Duck, NC in fall 2013. The array included 7 cross- and 3 alongshore transects. Here, observational and numerical estimates of the dominant forcing terms in the alongshore balance (pressure and radiation-stress gradients) and the advective acceleration terms will be compared with each other. In addition, the numerical model will be used to examine the force balance, including sources of velocity gradients, at a higher spatial resolution than possible with the instrument array. Preliminary numerical results indicate that at O(10-100 m) alongshore scales, bathymetric variations and the ensuing alongshore variations in the wave field and subsequent forcing are the dominant sources of the modeled velocity gradients and advective accelerations. Additional simulations and analysis of the observations will be presented. Funded by NSF and ASDR&E.

  9. HEMP advection model

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.W. Jr.; Barton, R.T.

    1981-01-21

    A continuous rezoning procedure has been implemented in the computational cycle of a version of the HEMP two-dimensional, Lagrange, fluid dynamics code. The rezoning problem is divided into two steps. The first step requires the solving of ordinary Lagrange equations of motion; the second step consists of adding equipotential grid relaxation along with an advective remapping scheme.

  10. Wind tunnel measurement of turbulent and advective scalar fluxes: a case study on intersection ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štĕpán; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine processes of pollution ventilation in the X-shaped street intersection in an idealized symmetric urban area for the changing approach flow direction. A unique experimental setup for simultaneous wind tunnel measurement of the flow velocity and the tracer gas concentration in a high temporal resolution is assembled. Advective horizontal and vertical scalar fluxes are computed from averaged measured velocity and concentration data within the street intersection. Vertical advective and turbulent scalar fluxes are computed from synchronized velocity and concentration signals measured in the plane above the intersection. All the results are obtained for five approach flow directions. The influence of the approach flow on the advective and turbulent fluxes is determined. The contribution of the advective and turbulent flux to the ventilation is discussed. Wind direction with the best dispersive conditions in the area is found. The quadrant analysis is applied to the synchronized signals of velocity and concentration fluctuation to determine events with the dominant contribution to the momentum flux and turbulent scalar flux.

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurement of Turbulent and Advective Scalar Fluxes: A Case Study on Intersection Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štĕpán; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine processes of pollution ventilation in the X-shaped street intersection in an idealized symmetric urban area for the changing approach flow direction. A unique experimental setup for simultaneous wind tunnel measurement of the flow velocity and the tracer gas concentration in a high temporal resolution is assembled. Advective horizontal and vertical scalar fluxes are computed from averaged measured velocity and concentration data within the street intersection. Vertical advective and turbulent scalar fluxes are computed from synchronized velocity and concentration signals measured in the plane above the intersection. All the results are obtained for five approach flow directions. The influence of the approach flow on the advective and turbulent fluxes is determined. The contribution of the advective and turbulent flux to the ventilation is discussed. Wind direction with the best dispersive conditions in the area is found. The quadrant analysis is applied to the synchronized signals of velocity and concentration fluctuation to determine events with the dominant contribution to the momentum flux and turbulent scalar flux. PMID:22649290

  12. Auxin flow-mediated competition between axillary buds to restore apical dominance

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Jozef; Medveďová, Zuzana; Kalousek, Petr; Matiješčuková, Natálie; Friml, Jiří; Reinöhl, Vilém; Procházka, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Apical dominance is one of the fundamental developmental phenomena in plant biology, which determines the overall architecture of aerial plant parts. Here we show apex decapitation activated competition for dominance in adjacent upper and lower axillary buds. A two-nodal-bud pea (Pisum sativum L.) was used as a model system to monitor and assess auxin flow, auxin transport channels, and dormancy and initiation status of axillary buds. Auxin flow was manipulated by lateral stem wounds or chemically by auxin efflux inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) treatments, which served to interfere with axillary bud competition. Redirecting auxin flow to different points influenced which bud formed the outgrowing and dominant shoot. The obtained results proved that competition between upper and lower axillary buds as secondary auxin sources is based on the same auxin canalization principle that operates between the shoot apex and axillary bud. PMID:27824063

  13. Identification of the Dominant Flow Structure in the Viscous Wall Region of a Turbulent Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Pipe flows. 20. ABSTRPACT (Conltinue an reverse aide If necessary end Identify by block nmnI.) Simultaneous measurements of the fluctuating velocity...fully developed tur- bulent pipe flow. Multiple wall probes were used to measure the velocity gradients in the axial and spanwise directions at the...experiments of Beatty, Ferrell and Richardson * (Corrsin 1956) who pumped a dye solution through a pipe and then observed the formation of residual dye into

  14. Capillary deposition of advected floating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Debaisieux, Aymeric; Gregori, Federico

    2016-11-01

    The deposition and aggregation of particles flowing through a confined environment can dramatically hinder the transport of suspensions. Yet, the mechanisms responsible for the deposition of particles in shear flow are not fully understood. Here, we use an experimental model system in which floating particles are advected on the surface of a water channel and deposited on fixed obstacles through attractive capillary effects. By varying the flow rate of the liquid, the wetting properties and size of the particles and obstacles, we can tune the magnitude of the capillary and hydrodynamic forces that determine the probability of deposition and the equilibrium position on the substrate. We show that arrays of obstacles can be designed to efficiently capture the floating particles advected by the flow.

  15. Diffusion and Advection using Cellular Potts Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Debasis; Glazier, James

    2005-03-01

    The Cellular Potts Model (CPM) is a robust cell level methodology for simulation of biological tissues and morphogenesis. Standard diffusion solvers in the CPM use finite difference methods on the underlying CPM lattice. These methods have difficulty in simulating local advection in the ECM due to physiology and morphogenesis. To circumvent the problem of instabilities we simulate advection-diffusion within the framework of CPM using off-lattice finite-difference methods. We define a set of generalised fluid "cells" or particles which separate advection and diffusion from the lattice. Diffusion occurs between neighboring fluid cells by local averaging rules which approximate the Laplacian. CPM movement of the cells by spin flips handles the advection. The extension allows the CPM to model viscosity explicitly by including a relative velocity constraint on the fluid. The extended CPM correctly reproduces flow profiles of viscous fluids in cylindrical tube, during Stokes flow across a sphere and in flow in concentric cylindrical shells. We illustrate various conditions for diffusion including multiple instantaneous sources, continuous sources, moving sources and different boundary geometries and conditions to validate our approximation by comparing with analytical and established numerical solutions.

  16. Extracting energetically dominant flow features in a complicated fish wake using singular-value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2009-04-01

    We developed a method to extract the energetically dominant flow features in a complicated fish wake according to an energetic point of view, and applied singular-value decomposition (SVD) to two-dimensional instantaneous fluid velocity, vorticity and λ2 (vortex-detector) data. We demonstrate the effectiveness and merits of the use of SVD through an example regarding the wake of a fish executing a fast-start turn. The energy imparted into the water by a swimming fish is captured and portrayed through SVD. The analysis and interpretation of complicated data for the fish wake are greatly improved, and thus help to characterize more accurately a complicated fish wake. The velocity vectors and Galilean invariants (i.e., vorticity and λ2) resulting from SVD extraction are significantly helpful in recognizing the energetically dominant large-scale flow features. To obtain successful SVD extractions, we propose useful criteria based on the Froude propulsion efficiency, which is biologically and physically related. We also introduce a novel and useful method to deduce the topology of dominant flow motions in an instantaneous fish flow field, which is based on combined use of the topological critical-point theory and SVD. The concept and approach proposed in this work are useful and adaptable in biomimetic and biomechanical research concerning the fluid dynamics of a self-propelled body.

  17. A new modeling approach for simulating microtopography-dominated, discontinuous overland flow on infiltrating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Chu, Xuefeng

    2015-04-01

    Realistic modeling of discontinuous overland flow on irregular topographic surfaces has been proven to be a challenge. This study is aimed to develop a new modeling framework to simulate the discontinuous puddle-to-puddle (P2P) overland flow dynamics for infiltrating surfaces with various microtopographic characteristics. In the P2P model, puddles were integrated in a well-delineated, cascaded drainage system to facilitate explicit simulation of their dynamic behaviors and interactions. Overland flow and infiltration were respectively simulated by using the diffusion wave model and a modified Green-Ampt model for the DEM-derived flow drainage network that consisted of a series of puddle-based units (PBUs). The P2P model was tested by using a series of data from laboratory overland flow experiments for various microtopography, soil, and rainfall conditions. The modeling results indicated that the hierarchical relationships and microtopographic properties of puddles significantly affected their connectivity, filling-spilling dynamics, and the associated threshold flow. Surface microtopography and rainfall characteristics also exhibited strong influences on the spatio-temporal distributions of infiltration rates, runoff fluxes, and unsaturated flow. The model tests demonstrated its applicability in simulating microtopography-dominated overland flow on infiltrating surfaces.

  18. Flow induced by ependymal cilia dominates near-wall cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the lateral ventricles.

    PubMed

    Siyahhan, Bercan; Knobloch, Verena; de Zélicourt, Diane; Asgari, Mahdi; Schmid Daners, Marianne; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2014-05-06

    While there is growing experimental evidence that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow induced by the beating of ependymal cilia is an important factor for neuronal guidance, the respective contribution of vascular pulsation-driven macroscale oscillatory CSF flow remains unclear. This work uses computational fluid dynamics to elucidate the interplay between macroscale and cilia-induced CSF flows and their relative impact on near-wall dynamics. Physiological macroscale CSF dynamics are simulated in the ventricular space using subject-specific anatomy, wall motion and choroid plexus pulsations derived from magnetic resonance imaging. Near-wall flow is quantified in two subdomains selected from the right lateral ventricle, for which dynamic boundary conditions are extracted from the macroscale simulations. When cilia are neglected, CSF pulsation leads to periodic flow reversals along the ventricular surface, resulting in close to zero time-averaged force on the ventricle wall. The cilia promote more aligned wall shear stresses that are on average two orders of magnitude larger compared with those produced by macroscopic pulsatile flow. These findings indicate that CSF flow-mediated neuronal guidance is likely to be dominated by the action of the ependymal cilia in the lateral ventricles, whereas CSF dynamics in the centre regions of the ventricles is driven predominantly by wall motion and choroid plexus pulsation.

  19. An adaptive remeshing scheme for vortex dominated flows using three-dimensional unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Paresh

    1995-10-01

    An adaptive remeshing procedure for vortex dominated flows is described, which uses three-dimensional unstructured grids. Surface grid adaptation is achieved using the static pressure as an adaptation parameter, while entropy is used in the field to accurately identify high vorticity regions. An emphasis has been placed in making the scheme as automatic as possible so that a minimum user interaction is required between remeshing cycles. Adapted flow solutions are obtained on two sharp-edged configurations at low speed, high angle-of-attack flow conditions. The results thus obtained are compared with fine grid CFD solutions and experimental data, and conclusions are drawn as to the efficiency of the adaptive procedure.

  20. Elliptic Anisotropy ν2 May Be Dominated by Particle Escape instead of Hydrodynamic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; He, Liang; Edmonds, Terrence; Liu, Feng; Molnar, Denes; Wang, Fuqiang

    2016-12-01

    It is commonly believed that azimuthal anisotropies in relativistic heavy ion collisions are generated by hydrodynamic evolution of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma. Here we use transport models to study how azimuthal anisotropies depend on the number of collisions that each parton suffers. We find that the majority of ν2 comes from the anisotropic escape of partons, not from the parton collective flow, for semi-central Au+Au collisions at 200A GeV. As expected, the fraction of ν2 from the anisotropic particle escape is even higher for smaller systems such as d+Au. Our transport model results also confirm that azimuthal anisotropies would be dominated by hydrodynamic flow at unrealistically-high parton cross sections. Our finding thus naturally explains the similarity of azimuthal anisotropies in small and large systems; however, it presents a challenge to the paradigm of anisotropic flow.

  1. A Streamline-Upwind Model for Filling Front Advection in Powder Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Guillaume; Cheng, Zhi Qiang; Barriere, Thierry; Liu, Bao Sheng; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-01

    The filling process of powder injection molding is modeled by the flows of two variably adjacent domains in the mold cavity. The feedstock is filled into the cavity while the air is expelled out by the injected feedstock [1]. Eulerian description is adopted. The filling patterns are determined by the solution of an advection equation, governed by the velocity field in both the feedstock flow and air flow [2]. In the real physics, the advance of filling front depends mainly on the flow of feedstock that locates behind the front. The flow of air in front of the injected material plays in fact no meaningful effect. However, the actual algorithm for solution of the advection equation takes equally the importance for both the flow of viscous feedstock and that of the slight air. Under such a condition, the injection flow of feedstock in simulation may be misdirected unrealistically by the velocity field in the air portion of the mold cavity. To correct this defect, an upwind scheme is proposed to reinforce the effect of upwind flow and reduce the effect of downstream flow. The present paper involves the investigation of an upwind algorithm for simulation of the filling state during powder injection molding. A Petrov-Galerkin upwind based method (SUPG) is adopted for numerical simulation of the transport equation instead of the Taylor-Galerkin method in previous work. In the proposed implementation of the Streamline-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach. A stabilization method is used to prevent oscillations in the convection-dominated problems. It consists in the introduction of an artificial diffusion in streamline direction. Suitable modification of the test function is the important issue. It ensures the stable simulation of filling process and results in the more realistic prediction of filling patterns. The implementation of upwind scheme in mould filling state simulation, based on an advection equation and the whole velocity field of feedstock and air flow, makes

  2. Ionospheric oxygen ions dominant bursty bulk flows: Cluster and Double Star observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Q.-G.; Zhang, H.; Fu, S. Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Pu, Z. Y.; Korth, A.; Daly, P. W.; Fritz, T. A.

    2008-07-01

    Two extreme oxygen-rich bursty bulk flows (BBFs) with predominant ionospheric O+ ions have been observed on 8 November 2004 by the Cluster and Double Star spacecraft during a strong magnetic storm time period with Dst = -373 nT. The oxygen densities in two BBFs are found to be 3-5 times larger than the hydrogen densities and the oxygen thermal pressures in the BBFs are 8 times higher than the hydrogen thermal pressure. These BBFs are associated with nested magnetic structures and are observed simultaneously by the CLUSTER and the DSP TC-1 spacecraft. Thus, the flow braking region should be greatly pushed inside the usual pressure balance region (even inside the inner magnetosphere) since the BBF is dominated by oxygen ions. Results in this paper indicate that oxygen dominated BBFs can be formed during a strong magnetic storm time period. The observations made in this paper suggest that singly charged oxygen ions embedded in the BBFs could be carried into the ring current region by bursty flows during very intense magnetic storms.

  3. Role of slip on the Yih-Marangoni instability in an interface dominated channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Geetanjali; Usha, R.

    2015-11-01

    A linear stability analysis of Poiseuille flow of two immiscible fluids of different viscosities and densities in a slippery channel, in the presence of an insoluble surfactant at the interface is examined, within the framework of Orr-Sommerfeld system. The equations governing the flow system are solved numerically by a Chebyshev collocation method for a wide range of dimensionless parameters describing the flow system. The effects of slip on the neutral stability boundaries for the interface modes in the presence/absence of an insoluble surfactant at the interface are examined for different thickness ratios of the two layers. Slip conditions at the wall show a promise for control of the Yih-Marangoni instability of the corresponding flow system in a rigid channel. The influence of the parameters on the critical Reynolds number for the shear mode is assessed. The interaction between the two modes under the influence of different parameters displays interesting scenarios such as coalescence of modes. The study reveals that it is possible to control instabilities in interface dominated rigid channel flows by designing the walls of the channel as hydrophobic/rough/porous or undulated surfaces as these can be modeled as one with slip at the substrates.

  4. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  5. Optimal Stretching in Advection-Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevins, Thomas D.; Kelley, Douglas H.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate growth of the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in chaotic, time-varying flows. In slow flows, reacted regions tend to lie near vortex edges, whereas fast flows restrict reacted regions to vortex cores. We show that reacted regions travel toward vortex centers faster as flow speed increases, but nonreactive scalars do not. For either slow or fast flows, reaction is promoted by the same optimal range of the local advective stretching, but stronger stretching causes reaction blowout and can hinder reaction from spreading. We hypothesize that optimal stretching and blowout occur in many advection-diffusion-reaction systems, perhaps creating ecological niches for phytoplankton in the ocean.

  6. Optimal Stretching in Advection-Reaction-Diffusion Systems.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Thomas D; Kelley, Douglas H

    2016-10-14

    We investigate growth of the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in chaotic, time-varying flows. In slow flows, reacted regions tend to lie near vortex edges, whereas fast flows restrict reacted regions to vortex cores. We show that reacted regions travel toward vortex centers faster as flow speed increases, but nonreactive scalars do not. For either slow or fast flows, reaction is promoted by the same optimal range of the local advective stretching, but stronger stretching causes reaction blowout and can hinder reaction from spreading. We hypothesize that optimal stretching and blowout occur in many advection-diffusion-reaction systems, perhaps creating ecological niches for phytoplankton in the ocean.

  7. Advection around ventilated U-shaped burrows: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Andreas; Lewandowski, JöRg; Hamann, Enrico; Nützmann, Gunnar

    2013-05-01

    Advective transport in the porous matrix of sediments surrounding burrows formed by fauna such as Chironomus plumosus has been generally neglected. A positron emission tomography study recently revealed that the pumping activity of the midge larvae can indeed induce fluid flow in the sediment. We present a numerical model study which explores the conditions at which advective transport in the sediment becomes relevant. A 0.15 m deep U-shaped burrow with a diameter of 0.002 m within the sediment was represented in a 3-D domain. Fluid flow in the burrow was calculated using the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible laminar flow in the burrow, and flow in the sediment was described by Darcy's law. Nonreactive and reactive transport scenarios were simulated considering diffusion and advection. The pumping activity of the model larva results in considerable advective flow in the sediment at reasonable high permeabilities with flow velocities of up to 7.0 × 10-6 m s-1 close to the larva for a permeability of 3 × 10-12 m2. At permeabilities below 7 × 10-13 m2 advection is negligible compared to diffusion. Reactive transport simulations using first-order kinetics for oxygen revealed that advective flux into the sediment downstream of the pumping larva enhances sedimentary uptake, while the advective flux into the burrow upstream of the larvae inhibits diffusive sedimentary uptake. Despite the fact that both effects cancel each other with respect to total solute uptake, the advection-induced asymmetry in concentration distribution can lead to a heterogeneous solute and redox distribution in the sediment relevant to complex reaction networks.

  8. Influence of anatomical dominance and hypertension on coronary conduit arterial and microcirculatory flow patterns: a multiscale modeling study.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J

    2016-07-01

    Coronary hemodynamics are known to be affected by intravascular and extravascular factors that vary regionally and transmurally between the perfusion territories of left and right coronary arteries. However, despite clinical evidence that left coronary arterial dominance portends greater cardiovascular risk, relatively little is known about the effects of left or right dominance on regional conduit arterial and microcirculatory blood flow patterns, particularly in the presence of systemic or pulmonary hypertension. We addressed this issue using a multiscale numerical model of the human coronary circulation situated in a closed-loop cardiovascular model. The coronary model represented left or right dominant anatomies and accounted for transmural and regional differences in vascular properties and extravascular compression. Regional coronary flow dynamics of the two anatomical variants were compared under normotensive conditions, raised systemic or pulmonary pressures with maintained flow demand, and after accounting for adaptations known to occur in acute and chronic hypertensive states. Key findings were that 1) right coronary arterial flow patterns were strongly influenced by dominance and systemic/pulmonary hypertension; 2) dominance had minor effects on left coronary arterial and all microvascular flow patterns (aside from mean circumflex flow); 3) although systemic hypertension favorably increased perfusion pressure, this benefit varied regionally and transmurally and was offset by increased left ventricular and septal flow demands; and 4) pulmonary hypertension had a substantial negative effect on right ventricular and septal flows, which was exacerbated by greater metabolic demands. These findings highlight the importance of interactions between coronary arterial dominance and hypertension in modulating coronary hemodynamics.

  9. Effect of advanced and delayed rotation on the dominant flow pattern and its temporal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uksul, Esra; Krishna, Swathi; Mulleners, Karen

    2015-11-01

    During a flapping cycle of an insect, complex time dependent flows are produced as the wing reciprocates, producing a maximum lift at the stroke reversals. By flipping the wing rapidly at the end of each stroke, the insect modulates the flow around the wing and hence the aerodynamic forces necessary to hover. The duration and starting point of the flip play an important role in determining the amount of lift produced. To understand and tailor the effect of wing kinematics on the aerodynamic performance we focussed on the vortex dynamics of the flow field. Phase-averaged data from particle image velocimetry was used to evaluate the flow features inherent to changes in rotation during a stroke of a flat plate, which is modelled based on hoverfly characteristics. The period of rotation is one-third of the total time period. A +10% phase shift is used for delayed rotation, a -10% phase shift for advanced rotation. Vortex detection methods like the λ2 and Γ2 criteria are used to determine the effect of a delay or early rotation on the trajectories, size, shape and location of the prominent vortical structures. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to study the influence of the phase-shifts on the dominant mode structure and the related time-scales.

  10. Influence of numerical dissipation in computing supersonic vortex-dominated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, O. A.; Chuang, A.

    1986-01-01

    Steady supersonic vortex-dominated flows are solved using the unsteady Euler equations for conical and three-dimensional flows around sharp- and round-edged delta wings. The computational method is a finite-volume scheme which uses a four-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping with explicit second- and fourth-order dissipation terms. The grid is generated by a modified Joukowski transformation. The steady flow solution is obtained through time-stepping with initial conditions corresponding to the freestream conditions, and the bow shock is captured as a part of the solution. The scheme is applied to flat-plate and elliptic-section wings with a leading edge sweep of 70 deg at an angle of attack of 10 deg and a freestream Mach number of 2.0. Three grid sizes of 29 x 39, 65 x 65 and 100 x 100 have been used. The results for sharp-edged wings show that they are consistent with all grid sizes and variation of the artificial viscosity coefficients. The results for round-edged wings show that separated and attached flow solutions can be obtained by varying the artificial viscosity coefficients. They also show that the solutions are independent of the way time stepping is done. Local time-stepping and global minimum time-steeping produce same solutions.

  11. Identification of dominant flow structures in rapidly rotating convection of liquid metals using Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Susanne; Aurnou, Jonathan M.; Schmid, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    We will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr 0 . 025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 ×10-6 . In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.

  12. Sediments and processes on a small stream-flow dominated, devonian alluvial fan, Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Philip A.

    1981-05-01

    The main conglomerate type of a small Devonian alluvial fan in Shetland, northern Britain, is an inverse to normally graded framework-supported gravel. The sedimentological details of these beds and fundamental considerations of the mechanics of movement of highly concentrated flows suggests that neither debris-flow nor grain-flow were responsible for the deposition of these conglomerates. On the contrary, these inverse to normally graded conglomerates were deposited by water as thick gravel sheets with little topographic relief, but broadly analogous to longitudinal bars. They were deposited under high aggradation conditions first on the rising and then on the falling flood. The high concentration of material in transport on the rising and peak flood was responsible for the polymodal and unstratified nature of the conglomerates. As the flood waned, normal grading was developed and a preferred horizontal fabric was produced under low concentrations of sediment. Other conglomerate types, comparatively of lesser importance, were deposited from highly concentrated clast dispersions and are notably richer in matrix and locally possess inverse grading. The hydrological environment was one of flashy discharges of short duration but of high velocity. Flow was dissipated rapidly, perhaps due to extreme water loss. This example from the Devonian of Shetland provides an interesting alternative to the mass-transport dominated fan models currently in vogue.

  13. New Insights Into the Heat Sources of Mantle Plumes, or: Where Does all the Heat Come From, Heat Producing Elements, Advective or Conductive Heat Flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushmer, T.; Beier, C.; Turner, S.

    2007-12-01

    Melting anomalies in the Earth's upper mantle have often been attributed to the presence of mantle plumes that may originate in the lower mantle, possibly from the core-mantle boundary. Globally, mantle plumes exhibit a large range in buoyancy flux that which is proportional to their temperature and volume. Plumes with higher buoyancy fluxes should have higher temperatures and experience higher degrees of partial melting. Excess heat in mantle plumes could reflect either a) an enrichment of the heat producing elements (HPE: U, Th, K) in their mantle source leading to an increase of heat production by radioactive decay or b) advective or conductive heat transport across the core-mantle boundary. The advective transport of heat may result in a physical contribution of material from the core to the lower mantle. If core material is incorporated into the lower mantle, mantle plumes with a higher buoyancy flux should have higher core tracers, e.g. increased 186Os and Fe concentrations. Geophysical and dynamic modelling indicate that at least Afar, Easter, Hawaii, Louisville and Samoa may all originate at the core-mantle boundary. These plumes encompass the whole range of known buoyancy fluxes from 1.2 Mgs -1(Afar) to 6.5 Mgs -1 (Hawaii) providing evidence that the buoyancy flux is largely independent of other geophysical parameters. In an effort to explore whether the heat producing elements are the cause of excess heat we looked for correlations between fractionation corrected concentrations of the HPE and buoyancy flux. Our results suggest that there is no correlation between HPE concentrations and buoyancy flux (with and without an additional correction for variable degrees of partial melting). As anticipated, K, Th and U are positively correlated with each other (e.g. Hawaii, Iceland and Galapagos have significantly lower concentrations than e.g. Tristan da Cunha, the Canary Islands and the Azores). We also find no correlation between currently available Fe

  14. Debris-flow dominance of alluvial fans masked by runoff reworking and weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Ventra, Dario; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-07-01

    Arid alluvial fan aggradation is highly episodic and fans often comprise active and inactive sectors. Hence the morphology and texture of fan surfaces are partly determined by secondary processes of weathering and erosion in addition to primary processes of aggradation. This introduces considerable uncertainty in the identification of formative processes of terrestrial and Martian fans from aerial and satellite imagery. The objectives of this study are (i) to develop a model to describe the sedimentological and morphological evolution of inactive fan surfaces in arid settings, and (ii) to assess the relative importance of primary processes of aggradation and secondary processes of weathering and reworking for surface morphology and sedimentology and for the stratigraphic record. We studied an alluvial fan characterized by a recently active sector and a long-abandoned, inactive sector along the coast of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. Here, rates of primary geomorphic activity are exceptionally low because of extreme aridity, while weathering rates are relatively high because of the effects of coastal fogs. Long-term processes of fan aggradation and reworking were determined through sedimentological facies analysis of stratigraphic sections. Ground surveys for textural and morphological patterns at the fan surface were integrated with remote-sensing by an Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). Discharges and sediment-transport capacities were calculated to estimate the efficiency of secondary runoff in reshaping the inactive fan sector. Stratigraphic sections reveal that the fan was dominantly aggraded by debris flows, whereas surface morphology is dominated by debris-flow signatures in the active sector and by weathering and runoff on the inactive sector. On the latter, rapid particle breakdown prevents the formation of a coarse desert pavement. Furthermore, relatively frequent local runoff events erode proximal debris-flow channels on the inactive sector to form local lag

  15. Regional scale analysis of the topographic signatures of landslide/debris flow dominated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Righetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of alpine headwater basins is strongly influenced by erosion processes. The relationship between landforms and erosion processes has been analyzed based on the relationship between slope and drainage area (Montgomery and Foufoula-Georgiou, 1993), because among parameters derived from a DTM (Digital Terrain Model), slope and drainage area are deemed to be pertinent for studying overall erosion dynamics. Thanks to LiDAR and high resolution topography now is possible to reach a better representation of hillslope morphology, and then recognize in detail the topographic signature of valley incision by landslides and debris flows (Tarolli and Dalla Fontana, 2009). In this work we present a tentative of a regional scale analysis of such signature. In the analysis we derived the slope-area relationship using high-resolution DTMs with 2.5 m cells derived from LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. We considered 23 catchments, characterized by soil-mantled landscape, and where several debris flows occurred in the year 2009. The results showed that in 83% catchments the topographic signature of debris flow processes is clearly present, while in the remaining catchments only hillslopes, unchanneled valleys and alluvial channels regions are recognized. The slope-area relationships of few catchments where no debris flows were observed during 2009 events, nor reported in the historical database, were then analyzed. For these basins the slope-area relationship does not evidence the topographic signature of debris flow processes. According to these results the presented methodology really can help for a right preliminary analysis and classification of alpine catchments based on their dominant geomorphological processes. The methodology should be used for a first and quick interpretation, in support to field surveys and more complex physically based modeling analysis.

  16. Dynamically dominant exact coherent structures in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krygier, Michael; Grigoriev, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Unstable Exact Coherent Structures (ECS), which are solutions to the Navier-Stokes equation, provide a connection between turbulence and dynamical systems and offer a method for exploiting the low dimensionality of weakly turbulent flows. We investigate ECS in an intermittent Taylor-Couette flow (TCF) found in a small-aspect-ratio geometry with counter-rotating cylinders (η = 0 . 5 , Γ = 1 , Rei = - 1200 , Reo = 1200). The presence of end-caps breaks the axial translational symmetry of TCF, but continuous rotational symmetry remains, which suggest that typical ECS should be the relative versions of equilibria and time-periodic orbits. Indeed, previous studies (Meseguer et al., 2009 and Deguchi, Meseguer & Mellibovsky, 2014) found several unstable traveling wave solutions (relative equilibria). We have shown that the dynamically dominant ECS for weakly turbulent TCF in the small-aspect-ratio geometry are relative periodic orbits (not relative equilibria), as evidenced by the frequent visits of their neighborhoods by the turbulent flow. This work is supported by a Grant from the Army Research Office (Contract # W911NF-15-1-0471).

  17. Improving Landslide Inventories by Limiting Land Classification to Drainage Areas of Debris Flow-Dominated Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, N. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Landslide inventories, frequently created by aerial photograph interpretation (API), are often used in the production of hillslope hazard maps to characterize past landslides or to evaluate a hazard model. In the former application of inventories, potential landslides in hazard maps are delineated as areas that have similar morphometrics as past landslides at locations of modeled hillslope instability. Therefore, the accuracy of the inventory has a strong influence upon hazard extent. In the latter application, the partial inventories that sometimes result from API, due to the subjectivity of interpretation and revegetation of landslides, likely results in incorrect evaluations. A more complete, less subjective technique is needed to not only better characterize past landslides and improve evaluation of hazard models, but also to assess the extent of areas prone to significant mass wasting in mountainous regions due to the evolution of landscapes. Inventory accuracy continues to improve with new technology and automated techniques, though rarely is the form of a channel's topography incorporated into the inventory process despite the growing evidence of a topographic signature of debris flows. This signature demarcates the transition between the dominant channel erosional process: fluvial or debris flow. These process transitions are often observed at scaling breaks in log-log plots of a channel's drainage area versus slope (DS plot). The scaling breaks, above which the effects of fluvial power laws upon channel topography are not observed and below which debris flow scars are not found, may signify the lowest point in the watershed where debris flows occur. We present an inventory technique that limits a land classification algorithm to areas that are upstream from this scaling break determined from DS plots of five streams in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) region of the southern Appalachians. Topographic data for the DS plots and the

  18. Social insect colony as a biological regulatory system: modelling information flow in dominance networks

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Anjan K.; Sumana, Annagiri; Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Social insects provide an excellent platform to investigate flow of information in regulatory systems since their successful social organization is essentially achieved by effective information transfer through complex connectivity patterns among the colony members. Network representation of such behavioural interactions offers a powerful tool for structural as well as dynamical analysis of the underlying regulatory systems. In this paper, we focus on the dominance interaction networks in the tropical social wasp Ropalidia marginata—a species where behavioural observations indicate that such interactions are principally responsible for the transfer of information between individuals about their colony needs, resulting in a regulation of their own activities. Our research reveals that the dominance networks of R. marginata are structurally similar to a class of naturally evolved information processing networks, a fact confirmed also by the predominance of a specific substructure—the ‘feed-forward loop’—a key functional component in many other information transfer networks. The dynamical analysis through Boolean modelling confirms that the networks are sufficiently stable under small fluctuations and yet capable of more efficient information transfer compared to their randomized counterparts. Our results suggest the involvement of a common structural design principle in different biological regulatory systems and a possible similarity with respect to the effect of selection on the organization levels of such systems. The findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that dominance behaviour has been shaped by natural selection to co-opt the information transfer process in such social insect species, in addition to its primal function of mediation of reproductive competition in the colony. PMID:25320069

  19. Social insect colony as a biological regulatory system: modelling information flow in dominance networks.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Anjan K; Sumana, Annagiri; Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2014-12-06

    Social insects provide an excellent platform to investigate flow of information in regulatory systems since their successful social organization is essentially achieved by effective information transfer through complex connectivity patterns among the colony members. Network representation of such behavioural interactions offers a powerful tool for structural as well as dynamical analysis of the underlying regulatory systems. In this paper, we focus on the dominance interaction networks in the tropical social wasp Ropalidia marginata-a species where behavioural observations indicate that such interactions are principally responsible for the transfer of information between individuals about their colony needs, resulting in a regulation of their own activities. Our research reveals that the dominance networks of R. marginata are structurally similar to a class of naturally evolved information processing networks, a fact confirmed also by the predominance of a specific substructure-the 'feed-forward loop'-a key functional component in many other information transfer networks. The dynamical analysis through Boolean modelling confirms that the networks are sufficiently stable under small fluctuations and yet capable of more efficient information transfer compared to their randomized counterparts. Our results suggest the involvement of a common structural design principle in different biological regulatory systems and a possible similarity with respect to the effect of selection on the organization levels of such systems. The findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that dominance behaviour has been shaped by natural selection to co-opt the information transfer process in such social insect species, in addition to its primal function of mediation of reproductive competition in the colony.

  20. Effect of random errors in planar PIV data on pressure estimation in vortex dominated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of pressure estimation techniques from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements to random errors in measured velocity data is investigated using the flow over a circular cylinder as a test case. Direct numerical simulations are performed for ReD = 100, 300 and 1575, spanning laminar, transitional, and turbulent wake regimes, respectively. A range of random errors typical for PIV measurements is applied to synthetic PIV data extracted from numerical results. A parametric study is then performed using a number of common pressure estimation techniques. Optimal temporal and spatial resolutions are derived based on the sensitivity of the estimated pressure fields to the simulated random error in velocity measurements, and the results are compared to an optimization model derived from error propagation theory. It is shown that the reductions in spatial and temporal scales at higher Reynolds numbers leads to notable changes in the optimal pressure evaluation parameters. The effect of smaller scale wake structures is also quantified. The errors in the estimated pressure fields are shown to depend significantly on the pressure estimation technique employed. The results are used to provide recommendations for the use of pressure and force estimation techniques from experimental PIV measurements in vortex dominated laminar and turbulent wake flows.

  1. Heat flow in vapor dominated areas of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field: Implications for the thermal budget of the Yellowstone Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Harris, Robert N.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Murphy, Fred

    2012-10-01

    Characterizing the vigor of magmatic activity in Yellowstone requires knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of heat transport between magma and the ground surface. We present results from a heat flow study in two vapor dominated, acid-sulfate thermal areas in the Yellowstone Caldera, the 0.11 km2 Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) and the 0.25 km2 Solfatara Plateau Thermal Area (SPTA). Conductive heat flux through a low permeability layer capping large vapor reservoirs is calculated from soil temperature measurements at >600 locations and from laboratory measurements of soil properties. The conductive heat output is 3.6 ± 0.4 MW and 7.5 ± 0.4 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively. The advective heat output from soils is 1.3 ± 0.3 MW and 1.2 ± 0.3 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively and the heat output from thermal pools in the OPTA is 6.8 ± 1.4 MW. These estimates result in a total heat output of 11.8 ± 1.4 MW and 8.8 ± 0.4 MW from OPTA and SPTA, respectively. Focused zones of high heat flux in both thermal areas are roughly aligned with regional faults suggesting that faults in both areas serve as conduits for the rising acid vapor. Extrapolation of the average heat flux from the OPTA (103 ± 2 W·m-2) and SPTA (35 ± 3 W·m-2) to the ˜35 km2 of vapor dominated areas in Yellowstone yields 3.6 and 1.2 GW, respectively, which is less than the total heat output transported by steam from the Yellowstone Caldera as estimated by the chloride inventory method (4.0 to 8.0 GW).

  2. Heat flow in vapor dominated areas of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field: implications for the thermal budget of the Yellowstone Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Harris, Robert; Werner, Cynthia Anne; Murphy, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the vigor of magmatic activity in Yellowstone requires knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of heat transport between magma and the ground surface. We present results from a heat flow study in two vapor dominated, acid-sulfate thermal areas in the Yellowstone Caldera, the 0.11 km2 Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) and the 0.25 km2 Solfatara Plateau Thermal Area (SPTA). Conductive heat flux through a low permeability layer capping large vapor reservoirs is calculated from soil temperature measurements at >600 locations and from laboratory measurements of soil properties. The conductive heat output is 3.6 ± 0.4 MW and 7.5 ± 0.4 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively. The advective heat output from soils is 1.3 ± 0.3 MW and 1.2 ± 0.3 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively and the heat output from thermal pools in the OPTA is 6.8 ± 1.4 MW. These estimates result in a total heat output of 11.8 ± 1.4 MW and 8.8 ± 0.4 MW from OPTA and SPTA, respectively. Focused zones of high heat flux in both thermal areas are roughly aligned with regional faults suggesting that faults in both areas serve as conduits for the rising acid vapor. Extrapolation of the average heat flux from the OPTA (103 ± 2 W·m−2) and SPTA (35 ± 3 W·m−2) to the ~35 km2 of vapor dominated areas in Yellowstone yields 3.6 and 1.2 GW, respectively, which is less than the total heat output transported by steam from the Yellowstone Caldera as estimated by the chloride inventory method (4.0 to 8.0 GW).

  3. Effects of warming on groundwater flow in mountainous snowmelt-dominated catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Ge, S.; Molotch, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, warmer air temperatures have led to an earlier onset of spring snowmelt and lower snowmelt rates; i.e. because snowmelt has shifted earlier when energy availability is lower. These changes to snowmelt will likely affect the partitioning of snowmelt water between surface runoff and groundwater flow, and therefore, the lag time between snowmelt and streamflow. While the connection between snowmelt and surface runoff has been well-studied, the impact of snowmelt variability on groundwater flow processes has received limited attention, especially in mountainous catchments. We construct a two-dimensional, finite element, coupled flow and heat transport hydrogeologic model to evaluate how changes in snowmelt onset and rate may alter groundwater discharge to streams in mountainous catchments. The coupled hydrogeologic model simulates seasonally frozen ground by incorporating permeability variation as a function of temperature and allows for modeling of pore water freeze and thaw. We apply the model to the Green Lakes Valley (GLV) watershed in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, a representative snowmelt-dominated catchment. Snowmelt for the GLV catchment is reconstructed from a 12 year (1996-2007) dataset of hydrometeorological records and satellite-derived snow covered area. Modeling results suggest that on a yearly cycle, groundwater infiltration and discharge is limited by the seasonally frozen subsurface. Under average conditions from 1996 to 2007, maximum groundwater discharge to the surface lags maximum snowmelt by approximately two months. Ongoing modeling is exploring how increasing air temperatures affect lag times between snowmelt and groundwater discharge to streams. This study has implications for water resource availability and its temporal variability in a warming global climate.

  4. High Order Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian

    2014-11-01

    In most fluid phenomena, advection plays an important roll. A numerical scheme capable of making quantitative predictions and simulations must compute correctly the advection terms appearing in the equations governing fluid flow. Here we present a high order forward semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme specifically tailored to compute material derivatives. The scheme relies on the geometrical interpretation of material derivatives to compute the time evolution of fields on grids that deform with the material fluid domain, an interpolating procedure of arbitrary order that preserves the moments of the interpolated distributions, and a nonlinear mapping strategy to perform interpolations between undeformed and deformed grids. Additionally, a discontinuity criterion was implemented to deal with discontinuous fields and shocks. Tests of pure advection, shock formation and nonlinear phenomena are presented to show performance and convergence of the scheme. The high computational cost is considerably reduced when implemented on massively parallel architectures found in graphic cards. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).

  5. Constraints upon water advection in sediments of the Mariana Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.H.; Menke, W.; Morin, R.

    1983-02-10

    Thermal gradient measurements, consolidation tests, and pore water compositions from the Mariana Trough imply that water is moving through the sediments in areas with less than about 100 m of sediment cover. The maximum advection rates implied by the thermal measurements and consolidation tests may be as high as 10/sup -5/ cm s/sup -1/ but are most commonly in the range of 1 to 5 x 10/sup -6/ cm s/sup -1/. Theoretical calculations of the effect of the highest advection rates upon carbonate dissolution indicate that dissolution may be impeded or enhanced (depending upon the direction of flow) by a factor of 2 to 5 times the rate for diffusion alone. The average percentage of carbonate is consistently higher in two cores from the area with no advection or upward advection than the average percentage of carbonate in three cores from the area with downward advection. This increase in average amount of carbonate in cores with upward moving water or no movement cannot be attributed solely to differences in water depth or in amount of terrigenous dilution. If the sediment column acts as a passive boundary layer, then the water velocities necessary to affect chemical gradients of silica are in the range 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -10/ cm s/sup -1/. However, if dissolution of silica occurs within the sediment column, then the advection velocities needed to affect chemical gradients are at least 3 x 10/sup -8/ cm s/sup -1/ and may be as high as 3 x 10/sup -6/ cm s/sup -1/. This order of magnitude increase in advection velocities when chemical reactions occur within the sediments is probably applicable to other cations in addition to silica. If so, then the advection velocities needed to affect heat flow (>10/sup -8/ cm s/sup -1/) and pore water chemical gradients are much nearer in magnitude than previously assumed.

  6. Sedimentology of Holocene debris flow-dominated alluvial fans, northwest Wyoming: Contributions to alluvial fan facies models

    SciTech Connect

    Cechovic, M.T.; Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Facies models for debris flow-dominated alluvial fans are based exclusively upon studies of relatively few fans in the arid American southwest. Detailed geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic analyses of several highly-active, debris flow-dominated alluvial fans in northern Yellowstone National Park, WY (temperature, semi-arid) serve to diversify and increase the usefulness of alluvial fan facies models. These fans display an intricate distributary pattern of incised active (0--6 m deep; 700--900 m long) and abandoned channels (1--4 m deep; 400 m long) with levees/levee complexes (<3 m high; <20 m wide; <750 m long) and lobes constructed by pseudoplastic to plastic debris flows. The complex pattern of debris flow deposits is due to repeated channel back filling and overtopping by debris flows behind in-channel obstructions which subsequently lead to channel abandonment. Debris-flow deposition is dominant due to: (1) small, steep (up to 35 degrees) source area catchments, (2) extensive mud rock outcrops in the source area, and (3) episodic summer rainfall events. Proximal to distal fan surfaces exhibit sheetflood deposits several cm thick and up to 70 m in lateral extent. Vertical lithofacies profiles reveal: (1) massive, matrix- and clast-supported gravel units (1--2 m thick) deposited by clast-poor and clast-rich debris flows respectively, with reworked; scoured tops overlain by thin (<0.25 m) trough cross-bedded gravel and ripple cross-laminated sand intervals, and (2) volumetrically less significant 1--2 m thick intervals comprising fining-upward sequences of interbedded cm-scale trough cross-bedded pebbly gravel, massive sand, horizontally stratified sand, and mud rock deposited by hyperconcentrated flow and stream flow during decelerating sheetflood events. Organic rich layers record periods of non-deposition. Channelized stream flow is restricted to minor reworking of in-channel debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow deposits.

  7. Striated populations in disordered environments with advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.; Succi, Sauro

    2017-01-01

    Growth in static and controlled environments such as a Petri dish can be used to study the spatial population dynamics of microorganisms. However, natural populations such as marine microbes experience fluid advection and often grow up in heterogeneous environments. We investigate a generalized Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (FKPP) equation describing single species population subject to a constant flow field and quenched random spatially inhomogeneous growth rates with a fertile overall growth condition. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that the non-equilibrium steady-state population density develops a flow-driven striation pattern. The striations are highly asymmetric with a longitudinal correlation length that diverges linearly with the flow speed and a transverse correlation length that approaches a finite velocity-independent value. Linear response theory is developed to study the statistics of the steady states. Theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with the numerical steady states of the generalized FKPP equation obtained from Lattice Boltzmann simulations. These findings suggest that, although the growth disorder can be spatially uncorrelated, correlated population structures with striations emerge naturally at sufficiently strong advection.

  8. Crossing the threshold: gene flow, dominance and the critical level of standing genetic variation required for adaptation to novel environments.

    PubMed

    Nuismer, S L; MacPherson, A; Rosenblum, E B

    2012-12-01

    Genetic architecture plays an important role in the process of adaptation to novel environments. One example is the role of allelic dominance, where advantageous recessive mutations have a lower probability of fixation than advantageous dominant mutations. This classic observation, termed 'Haldane's sieve', has been well explored theoretically for single isolated populations adapting to new selective regimes. However, the role of dominance is less well understood for peripheral populations adapting to novel environments in the face of recurrent and maladaptive gene flow. Here, we use a combination of analytical approximations and individual-based simulations to explore how dominance influences the likelihood of adaptation to novel peripheral environments. We demonstrate that in the face of recurrent maladaptive gene flow, recessive alleles can fuel adaptation only when their frequency exceeds a critical threshold within the ancestral range.

  9. Detectable MeV neutrinos from black hole neutrino-dominated accretion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Bing; Li, Ye; Ma, Ren-Yi; Xue, Li

    2016-06-01

    Neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) around rotating stellar-mass black holes (BHs) have been theorized as the central engine of relativistic jets launched in massive star core collapse events or compact star mergers. In this work, we calculate the electron neutrino/antineutrino spectra of NDAFs by fully taking into account the general relativistic effects, and investigate the effects of viewing angle, BH spin, and mass accretion rate on the results. We show that even though a typical NDAF has a neutrino luminosity lower than that of a typical supernova (SN), it can reach 1050- 1051 erg s-1 peaking at ˜10 MeV , making NDAFs potentially detectable with the upcoming sensitive MeV neutrino detectors if they are close enough to Earth. Based on the observed gamma-ray burst (GRB) event rate in the local universe and requiring that at least three neutrinos are detected to claim a detection, we estimate a detection rate up to ˜(0.10 - 0.25 ) per century for GRB-related NDAFs by the Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) detector if one neglects neutrino oscillation. If one assumes that all type Ib/c SNe have an engine-driven NDAF, the Hyper-K detection rate would be ˜(1 - 3 ) per century. By considering neutrino oscillations, the detection rate may decrease by a factor of 2-3. Detecting one such event would establish the observational evidence of NDAFs in the Universe.

  10. Dynamic typology of hydrothermal systems: competing effects of advection, dispersion and reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejs, David

    2016-04-01

    Genetic interpretation hydrothermal systems relies on recognition of (i) hydrothermal fluid source, (ii) fluid migration pathways, and (iii) deposition site identified by hydrothermal alteration and/or mineralization. Frequently, only the last object is of interest or accessible to direct observation, but constraints on the fluid source (volume) and pathways can be obtained from evaluation of the time-integrated fluid flux during hydrothermal event. Successful interpretation of the petrological record, that is, progress of alteration reactions, relies on identification of individual contributions arising from solute advection (to the deposition site), its lateral dispersion, and reaction efficiency. Although these terms are all applicable in a mass-conservation relationship within the framework of the transport theory, they are rarely considered simultaneously and their relative magnitudes evaluated. These phenomena operate on variable length and time scales, and may in turn provide insight into the system dynamics such as flow, diffusion and reaction rates, or continuous vs. episodic behavior of hydrothermal events. In addition, here we demonstrate that they also affect estimate of the net fluid flux, frequently by several orders of magnitude. The extent of alteration and mineralization reactions between the hydrothermal fluid and the host environment is determined by: (i) temperature, pressure or any other gradients across the mineralization site, (ii) magnitude of disequilibrium at inflow to the mineralization site, which is related to physico-chemical gradient between the fluid source and the mineralization site, and (iii) chemical redistribution (dispersion) within the mineralization site. We introduce quantitative mass-transport descriptors - Péclet and Damköhler II numbers - to introduce division into dispersion-dominated, advection-dominated and reaction-constrained systems. Dispersive systems are characterized by lateral solute redistribution, driven by

  11. Effect of advection on variations in zooplankton at a single location near Cabo Nazca, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S L; Brink, K H; Santander, H; Cowles, T J; Huyer, A

    1980-04-01

    Temporal variations in the biomass and species composition of zooplankton at a single midshelf station in an upwelling area off Peru can be explained to a large extent by onshore-offshore advection in the upper 20 m of the water column. During periods of strong or sustained near-surface onshore flow, peaks in biomass of zooplankton were observed at midshelf and typically oceanic species of copepod were collected. In periods of offshore flow at the surface, a copepod capable of migrating into oxygen-depleted layers deeper than 30 m was collected. A simple translocation model of advection applied to the cross-shelf distribution of Paracalanus parvus suggests that the fluctuations in P. pavus observed in the midshelf time-series were closely related to onshore-offshore flow in the upper 20 m. Fluctuations in abundance of the numerically dominant copepod, Acartia tonsa, were apparently affected by near surface flow also. The population age-structure suggests that A. tonsa was growing at maximal rates, due in part to its positive feeding response to the dinoflagellate/diatom assemblage of phytoplankton.

  12. Advective hydrogel membrane chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification in bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Brower, Mark; Pollard, David; Kanani, Dharmesh; Jacquemart, Renaud; Kachuik, Bradley; Stout, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely employed for the capture and purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Because of the high cost of protein A resins, there is a significant economic driving force to seek new downstream processing strategies. Membrane chromatography has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional resin based column chromatography. However, to date, the application has been limited to mostly ion exchange flow through (FT) mode. Recently, significant advances in Natrix hydrogel membrane has resulted in increased dynamic binding capacities for proteins, which makes membrane chromatography much more attractive for bind/elute operations. The dominantly advective mass transport property of the hydrogel membrane has also enabled Natrix membrane to be run at faster volumetric flow rates with high dynamic binding capacities. In this work, the potential of using Natrix weak cation exchange membrane as a mAb capture step is assessed. A series of cycle studies was also performed in the pilot scale device (> 30 cycles) with good reproducibility in terms of yield and product purities, suggesting potential for improved manufacturing flexibility and productivity. In addition, anion exchange (AEX) hydrogel membranes were also evaluated with multiple mAb programs in FT mode. Significantly higher binding capacity for impurities (support mAb loads up to 10Kg/L) and 40X faster processing speed were observed compared with traditional AEX column chromatography. A proposed protein A free mAb purification process platform could meet the demand of a downstream purification process with high purity, yield, and throughput.

  13. NUCLEAR DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS IN TWO DIMENSIONS. I. TORUS EVOLUTION WITH PARAMETRIC MICROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D.

    2013-02-15

    We explore the evolution of radiatively inefficient accretion disks in which nuclear reactions are dynamically important ('Nuclear Dominated Accretion Flows' or NuDAFs). Examples of such disks are those generated by the merger of a white dwarf with a neutron star or black hole, or by the collapse of a rotating star. Here, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations that systematically explore the effect of adding a single nuclear reaction to a viscous torus. The equation of state, anomalous shear stress, and nuclear reactions are given parametric forms. Our results point to the existence of two qualitatively different regimes of NuDAF evolution: (1) steady accretion with quiescent burning or (2) detonation of the disk. These outcomes are controlled primarily by the ratio {Psi} of the nuclear energy released to the enthalpy at the burning radius. Disks detonate if {Psi} exceeds a critical value {Psi}{sub crit} {approx} 1, and if burning occurs in regions where neutrino cooling is unimportant. Thermonuclear runaways are seeded by the turbulent mixing of hot ash with cold fuel at the burning front. Disks with {Psi} < {Psi}{sub crit} do not explode, but instead power a persistent collimated outflow of unbound material composed primarily of ash, with a mass-loss rate that increases with {Psi}. We discuss the implications of our results for supernova-like counterparts from astrophysical events in the NuDAF regime. In particular, detonations following a white dwarf-neutron star merger could account for some subluminous Type Ia supernovae, such as the class defined by SN 2002cx.

  14. Value of seasonal flow forecast to reservoir operation for water supply in snow-dominated catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Voisin, Nathalie; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    The recursive application of forecasting and optimization can make management strategies more flexible and efficient by improving the potential for anticipating, and thus adapting, to adverse events. In the field of reservoir operation, this means enriching the information base on which release decisions are made. At a minimum, this includes the available reservoir storage, but reservoir management can greatly benefit from consideration of other pieces of information as, for instance, weather and flow forecasts. However, the utility or value of inflow forecasts is directly related to forecast quality. In this work, we focus on snow-dominated water resource systems, where the prediction of the volume and timing of snowmelt can greatly enhance the operational performance. We use the Oroville-Thermalito reservoir complex in the Feather River Basin, California, as a case study to explore the effect of forecast quality on optimal release strategies. We use Deterministic Dynamic Programming to optimize medium-range and seasonal reservoir operation based on different forecasts of reservoir inflows. We determine maximum reservoir operation performance by forcing the optimization with observed inflows, which is equivalent to a perfect forecast. The forecast quality is then progressively degraded to relate forecast skill to changes in release decisions and to determine the minimum forecast skill that is required to affect decision-making. We generate forecasted inflow sequences using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model. Forecast initial conditions are created using observed meteorology, while inflow forecasts are based on seasonal climate forecasts. Although the forecast skill level is specific to the Feather River basin, the methodology should be transferable to other systems with strong seasonal runoff regimes. We assess the transferability of the case study results to other systems using alternative reservoir characteristics of the Oroville

  15. Plan curvature and landslide probability in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlmacher, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Damaging landslides in the Appalachian Plateau and scattered regions within the Midcontinent of North America highlight the need for landslide-hazard mapping and a better understanding of the geomorphic development of landslide terrains. The Plateau and Midcontinent have the necessary ingredients for landslides including sufficient relief, steep slope gradients, Pennsylvanian and Permian cyclothems that weather into fine-grained soils containing considerable clay, and adequate precipitation. One commonly used parameter in landslide-hazard analysis that is in need of further investigation is plan curvature. Plan curvature is the curvature of the hillside in a horizontal plane or the curvature of the contours on a topographic map. Hillsides can be subdivided into regions of concave outward plan curvature called hollows, convex outward plan curvature called noses, and straight contours called planar regions. Statistical analysis of plan-curvature and landslide datasets indicate that hillsides with planar plan curvature have the highest probability for landslides in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides in clayey soils (CH and CL). The probability of landslides decreases as the hillsides become more concave or convex. Hollows have a slightly higher probability for landslides than noses. In hollows landslide material converges into the narrow region at the base of the slope. The convergence combined with the cohesive nature of fine-grained soils creates a buttressing effect that slows soil movement and increases the stability of the hillside within the hollow. Statistical approaches that attempt to determine landslide hazard need to account for the complex relationship between plan curvature, type of landslide, and landslide susceptibility. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Submarine slumps, slides, and flows dominate sculpting of Beringian Margin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Karl, H.A.; Edwards, B.D.; Gardner, J.V.; Hall, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The 1,400 km long Beringian margin is characterized by several very large submarine canyons and by a large oceanic plateau at the southern end. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery provides a perspective of this margin that is unattainable with conventional acoustic profiles. The broad coverage of GLORIA images emphasizes that, of all the sedimentary processes affecting this vast margin, mass movement is clearly the dominant shaping process. Styles of failure include mud and debris flows, slumps, and massive block slides, some covering areas greater than 1,500 km{sup 2}. GLORIA imagery and seismic-reflection profiles show evidence for a wide variety of slides and slumps in the canyons of the northern margin, Navarin and Pervenets. The 100 km long shelf edge between these two canyons is characterized by a series of scalloped slide scars and incipient scars associated with blocks of sedimentary material, 1 to 2 km across. One of the largest single slide masses is a huge block tens of kilometers wide that occurs on the rise in the central part of the margin beyond the mouth of Zhemchug Canyon. Sliding of this block may have initiated the incision of the world's largest submarine canyon. The removal of this block accelerated headward erosion by retrograde failure until Zhemchug Canyon was cut back to a fault parallel to the shelf edge. Mass movement along the southern margin is widespread at the edges of Umnak Plateau. One mass failure, well-defined by GLORIA, is about 30 km wide and 55 km long. This and other slides along the plateau are associated with diapiric-like structures, suggesting relatively recent tectonism.

  17. Waves, advection, and cloud patterns on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schinder, Paul J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Smith, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    The stable layers adjacent to the nearly neutral layer within the Venus clouds are found to be capable of supporting vertically trapped, horizontally propagating waves with horizontal wavelengths of about 10 km and speeds of a few meters per second relative to the mean wind in the neutral layer. These waves may possibly be excited by turbulence within the neutral layer. Here, the properties of the waves, and the patterns which they might produce within the visible clouds if excited near the subsolar point are examined. The patterns can be in agreement with many features in images. The waves are capable of transferring momentum latitudinally to help maintain the general atmospheric spin, but at present we are not able to evaluate wave amplitudes. We also examine an alternative possibility that the cloud patterns are produced by advection and shearing by the mean zonal and meridional flow of blobs formed near the equator. It is concluded that advection and shearing by the mean flow is the most likely explanation for the general pattern of small scale striations.

  18. Parallel algorithms for semi-lagrangian advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevsky, A. V.; Thomas, S. J.

    1997-08-01

    Numerical time step limitations associated with the explicit treatment of advection-dominated problems in computational fluid dynamics are often relaxed by employing Eulerian-Lagrangian methods. These are also known as semi-Lagrangian methods in the atmospheric sciences. Such methods involve backward time integration of a characteristic equation to find the departure point of a fluid particle arriving at a Eulerian grid point. The value of the advected field at the departure point is obtained by interpolation. Both the trajectory integration and repeated interpolation influence accuracy. We compare the accuracy and performance of interpolation schemes based on piecewise cubic polynomials and cubic B-splines in the context of a distributed memory, parallel computing environment. The computational cost and interprocessor communication requirements for both methods are reported. Spline interpolation has better conservation properties but requires the solution of a global linear system, initially appearing to hinder a distributed memory implementation. The proposed parallel algorithm for multidimensional spline interpolation has almost the same communication overhead as local piecewise polynomial interpolation. We also compare various techniques for tracking trajectories given different values for the Courant number. Large Courant numbers require a high-order ODE solver involving multiple interpolations of the velocity field.

  19. Differentiating transpiration from evaporation in seasonal agricultural wetlands and the link to advective fluxes in the root zone.

    PubMed

    Bachand, P A M; Bachand, S; Fleck, J; Anderson, F; Windham-Myers, L

    2014-06-15

    The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flow rates and tracer concentrations at wetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactor model solutions, a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these non-ideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a flux model, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment-water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemical mechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition, our understanding of

  20. Dominant formation of the microsized carbon coils by a short time SF6 flow incorporation during the initial deposition stage.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Chul; Yi, Soung Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    By SF6 gas incorporation for relatively short time during the initial deposition stage, carbon coils could be formed on nickel catalyst layer-deposited silicon oxide substrate using C2H2 and H2 as source gases under thermal chemical vapor deposition system. The characteristics (formation density and morphology) of as-grown carbon coils were investigated as a function of SF6 flow injection time. 5-min SF6 flow injection time is appropriate to produce the dominant microsized geometry for carbon coils without the appearance of the nanosized carbon coils. The geometry for the microsized carbon coils follows a typical double-helix structure and the shape of the rings constituting the coils is a flat-type. Fluorine's intrinsic etching characteristics for the nanosized carbon coils during the initial deposition stage seems to be the cause for the dominant formation of the microsized carbon coils in the case of 5-min SF6 flow injection time.

  1. Prediction of biopore- and matrix-dominated flow from X-ray CT-derived macropore network characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Moldrup, Per; Schaap, Marcel G.; Tuller, Markus; Kulkarni, Ramaprasad; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Prediction and modeling of localized flow processes in macropores is of crucial importance for sustaining both soil and water quality. However, currently there are no reliable means to predict preferential flow due to its inherently large spatial variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive performance of previously developed empirical models for both water and air flow and to explore the potential applicability of X-ray computed tomography (CT)-derived macropore network characteristics. For this purpose, 65 cylindrical soil columns (6 cm diameter and 3.5 cm height) were extracted from the topsoil (5 cm to 8.5 cm depth) in a 15 m × 15 m grid from an agricultural field located in Silstrup, Denmark. All soil columns were scanned with an industrial X-ray CT scanner (129 µm resolution) and later employed for measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability at -30 and -100 cm matric potential, and gas diffusivity at -30 and -100 cm matric potential. Distribution maps for saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability, and gas diffusivity reflected no autocorrelation irrespective of soil texture and organic matter content. Existing empirical predictive models for saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability showed poor performance, as they were not able to realistically capture macropore flow. The tested empirical model for gas diffusivity predicted measurements at -100 cm matric potential reasonably well, but failed at -30 cm matric potential, particularly for soil columns with biopore-dominated flow. X-ray CT-derived macroporosity matched the measured air-filled porosity at -30 cm matric potential well. Many of the CT-derived macropore network characteristics were strongly interrelated. Most of the macropore network characteristics were also significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability, and gas diffusivity. The predictive Ahuja et al. (1984) model for saturated hydraulic

  2. Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hai Duong

    2001-12-01

    The accurate prediction of buffet boundaries is essential in modern military aircraft and suspension bridge design in order to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of unsteady loads. The design of lightweight structures and thermal protection systems for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles depends on the accurate prediction of the aerothermal loads, the structural temperatures and their gradients, and the structural deformations and stresses. Despite their bounded nature, limit-cycle oscillations can exhibit important amplitudes which affect the fatigue life of aircraft structures. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to develop and design an integrated multidisciplinary computational methodology for the analyses of the coupled responses exhibited by these phenomena. To simulate fluid/structure interaction problems in turbulent flows, we formulate the k--epsilon turbulence model and Reichardt's wall law in ALE form for dynamic meshes. This law is used with the generalized boundary conditions on k and epsilon of Jaeger and Dhatt and allows a closer integration to the wall compared to standard logarithmic laws and boundary conditions on k and epsilon. In order to apply the methodology to buffeting problems dominated by vortex shedding, we validate our solution approach on the square cylinder benchmark problem. There, we stress the minimization of numerical dissipation induced by an upwinding scheme, and apply our methodology to the aeroelastic stability analysis of a sectional dynamic model of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Then, we extend the three field formulation of aeroelasticity to a four-field formulation of aerothermoelasticity for the analysis of aerodynamic heating on structures. With a k--epsilon model, the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated up to a distance delta from the real wall. This gap creates a problem for the transmission of the structural temperature to the fluid system. To resolve this problem, we exchange the

  3. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    PubMed

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  4. Theory of advection-driven long range biotic transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We propose a simple mechanistic model to examine the effects of advective flow on the spread of fungal diseases spread by wind-blown spores. The model is defined by a set of two coupled non-linear partial differential equations for spore densities. One equation describes the long-distance advectiv...

  5. Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Artemove, Y.V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Novikov, I.D.

    2006-02-01

    We have constructed numerically global solutions of advective accretion disks around black holes that describe a continuous transition between the effectively optically thick outer and optically thin inner disk regions. We have concentrated on models of accretion flows with large mass accretion rates, and we have employed a bridging formula for radiative losses at high and low effective optical depths.

  6. Finding the best windows: An apparent environmental threshold determines which diffuse flows are dominated by subsurface microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olins, H. C.; Rogers, D.; Scholin, C. A.; Preston, C. J.; Vidoudez, C.; Ussler, W.; Pargett, D.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Birch, J. M.; Girguis, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are hotspots of microbial primary productivity often described as "windows into the subsurface biosphere." High temperature vents have received the majority of research attention, but cooler diffuse flows are as, if not more, important a source of heat and chemicals to the overlying ocean. We studied patterns of in situ gene expression and co-registered geochemistry in order to 1) describe the diversity and physiological poise of active microbial communities that span thermal and geochemical gradients from active diffuse flow to background vent field seawater, and 2) determine to what extent seawater or subsurface microbes were active throughout this environment. Analyses of multiple metatranscriptomes from 5 geochemically distinct sites (some from samples preserved in situ) show that proximate diffuse flows showed strikingly different transcription profiles. Specifically, caldera background and some diffuse flows were similar, both dominated by seawater-derived Gammaproteobacteria despite having distinct geochemistries. Intra-field community shows evidence of increased primary productivity throughout the entire vent field and not just at individual diffuse flows. In contrast, a more spatially limited, Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated transcription profile from the most hydrothermally-influenced diffuse flow appeared to be driven by the activity of vent-endemic microbes, likely reflecting subsurface microbial activity. We suggest that the microbial activity within many diffuse flow vents is primarily attributable to seawater derived Gammaproteobacterial sulfur oxidizers, while in certain other flows vent-endemic Epsilonproteobactiera are most active. These data reveal a diversity in microbial activity at diffuse flows that has not previously been recognized, and reshapes our thinking about the relative influence that different microbial communities may have on local processes (such as primary production) and potentially global biogeochemical

  7. Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama

    1993-01-01

    This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.

  8. Non-Linear Interactions between Consumers and Flow Determine the Probability of Plant Community Dominance on Maine Rocky Shores

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; McCoy, Michael W.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.; Crain, Caitlin M.; Ewanchuk, Patrick J.; Bertness, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Although consumers can strongly influence community recovery from disturbance, few studies have explored the effects of consumer identity and density and how they may vary across abiotic gradients. On rocky shores in Maine, recent experiments suggest that recovery of plant- or animal- dominated community states is governed by rates of water movement and consumer pressure. To further elucidate the mechanisms of consumer control, we examined the species-specific and density-dependent effects of rocky shore consumers (crabs and snails) on community recovery under both high (mussel dominated) and low flow (plant dominated) conditions. By partitioning the direct impacts of predators (crabs) and grazers (snails) on community recovery across a flow gradient, we found that grazers, but not predators, are likely the primary agent of consumer control and that their impact is highly non-linear. Manipulating snail densities revealed that herbivorous and bull-dozing snails (Littorina littorea) alone can control recovery of high and low flow communities. After ∼1.5 years of recovery, snail density explained a significant amount of the variation in macroalgal coverage at low flow sites and also mussel recovery at high flow sites. These density-dependent grazer effects were were both non-linear and flow-dependent, with low abundance thresholds needed to suppress plant community recovery, and much higher levels needed to control mussel bed development. Our study suggests that consumer density and identity are key in regulating both plant and animal community recovery and that physical conditions can determine the functional forms of these consumer effects. PMID:23940510

  9. Studies of vortex dominated flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, Hampton, VA, July 9-11, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Salas, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on waves and bifurcations in vortex filaments, a ring-vortex representation of an axisymmetric vortex sheet, and comparison of experiment with the dynamics of the von Karman vortex trail. Also considered are force-free and loss-free transitions between vortex flow states, a vortex breakdown simulation based on a nonlinear inviscid method, and the prediction of highly vortical flows using an Euler equation model. Other topics include the theory of high-Reynolds-number flow past a blunt body, progress on the calculation of large-scale separation at high Reynolds numbers, and viscous-inviscid interaction solvers and computation of highly separated flows. Papers are also presented on simulation studies of vortex dynamics of a leading edge vortex flap, methods for numerical simulation of leading edge vortex flow, and comparison of measured and computed pitot pressures in a leading edge vortex from a delta wing.

  10. A kinetic study of solar wind electrons in the transition region from collision dominated to collisionless flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lie-Svendsen, O.; Leer, E.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of the velocity distribution function of a test population of electrons in the solar corona and inner solar wind region, using a recently developed kinetic model. The model solves the time dependent, linear transport equation, with a Fokker-Planck collision operator to describe Coulomb collisions between the 'test population' and a thermal background of charged particles, using a finite differencing scheme. The model provides information on how non-Maxwellian features develop in the distribution function in the transition region from collision dominated to collisionless flow. By taking moments of the distribution the evolution of higher order moments, such as the heat flow, can be studied.

  11. Computation of vortex-dominated flow for a delta wing undergoing pitching oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Chuang, H. Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The conservative, unsteady Euler equations for the flow relative to a moving frame of reference are used to solve for the three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows around a sharp-edged delta wing. The resulting equations are solved by using an implicit, approximately factored, finite-volume scheme. Implicit second-order and explicit second- and fourth-order dissipations are added to the scheme. The boundary conditions are explicitly satisfied. The grid is generated by locally using a modified Joukowski transformation in crossflow planes at the grid-chord stations. The computational applications cover a steady flow around a delta wing, whose results serve as the initial conditions for the unsteady flow around a pitching delta wing at a large mean angle of attack. The steady results are compared with the experimental data, and the unsteady results are compared with results of a flux-difference splitting scheme.

  12. Tendency to occupy a statistically dominant spatial state of the flow as a driving force for turbulent transition.

    PubMed

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-03-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid motion occurring at large Reynolds numbers is generally associated with the instability of the laminar flow. On the other hand, since the turbulent flow characteristically appears in the form of spatially localized structures (e.g., eddies) filling the flow field, a tendency to occupy such a structured state of the flow cannot be ruled out as a driving force for turbulent transition. To examine this possibility, we propose a simple analytical model that treats the flow as a collection of localized spatial structures, each of which consists of elementary cells in which the behavior of the particles (atoms or molecules) is uncorrelated. This allows us to introduce the Reynolds number, associating it with the ratio between the total phase volume for the system and that for the elementary cell. Using the principle of maximum entropy to calculate the most probable size distribution of the localized structures, we show that as the Reynolds number increases, the elementary cells group into the localized structures, which successfully explains turbulent transition and some other general properties of turbulent flows. An important feature of the present model is that a bridge between the spatial-statistical description of the flow and hydrodynamic equations is established. We show that the basic assumptions underlying the model, i.e., that the particles are indistinguishable and elementary volumes of phase space exist in which the state of the particles is uncertain, are involved in the derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Taking into account that the model captures essential features of turbulent flows, this suggests that the driving force for the turbulent transition is basically the same as in the present model, i.e., the tendency of the system to occupy a statistically dominant state plays a key role. The instability of the flow at high Reynolds numbers can then be a mechanism to initiate structural rearrangement of

  13. A local heat transfer analysis of lava cooling in the atmosphere: application to thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Augusto

    1998-05-01

    The local cooling process of thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows in the atmosphere was studied by a transient, one-dimensional heat transfer model taking into account the most relevant processes governing its behavior. Thermal diffusion-dominated lava flows include any type of flow in which the conductive-diffusive contribution in the energy equation largely overcomes the convective terms. This type of condition is supposed to be satisfied, during more or less extended periods of time, for a wide range of lava flows characterized by very low flow-rates, such as slabby and toothpaste pahoehoe, spongy pahoehoe, flow at the transition pahoehoe-aa, and flows from ephemeral vents. The analysis can be useful for the understanding of the effect of crust formation on the thermal insulation of the lava interior and, if integrated with adequate flow models, for the explanation of local features and morphologies of lava flows. The study is particularly aimed at a better knowledge of the complex non-linear heat transfer mechanisms that control lava cooling in the atmosphere and at the estimation of the most important parameters affecting the global heat transfer coefficient during the solidification process. The three fundamental heat transfer mechanisms with the atmosphere, that is radiation, natural convection, and forced convection by the wind, were modeled, whereas conduction and heat generation due to crystallization were considered within the lava. The magma was represented as a vesiculated binary melt with a given liquidus and solidus temperature and with the possible presence of a eutectic. The effects of different morphological features of the surface were investigated through a simplified description of their geometry. Model results allow both study of the formation in time of the crust and the thermal mushy layer underlying it, and a description of the behavior of the temperature distribution inside the lava as well as radiative and convective fluxes to the

  14. Remote characterization of dominant wavelengths of surface folds on lava flows using Lidar and Discrete Fourier Transform analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, N.; Cashman, K.

    2014-12-01

    The crust of lava flows (of all compositions) is commonly folded into arcuate ridges, bent such that the convex ridges point down flow. In theory, the geometry of flow surface folds can be used to constrain the thickness and viscosity of the folding layer (from the fold wavelength) and the compressional stress (from the fold amplitude). Crustal thickness is controlled primarily by lava composition and extent of cooling. Therefore, lavas of more evolved compositions (higher silica content) have thicker crusts, which should generate surface folds with larger wavelengths. We have determined the characteristic scale of surface folds using 1000m along-channel segments from Lidar-derived 3D Digital Terrain Models over a range of lava compositions (53-72 wt% SiO2). All profiles were analyzed by discrete Fourier transform (DFT) analysis in Matlab, used to determine the spatial scale of periodic surface features. The DFT periodograms produce 1D arrays of spectral density over a range of spatial frequencies, which describe the amplitude and spatial scale (wavelength) of lava surface topography. The DFT analysis allows for unbiased measurements of dominant surface fold wavelengths as well as identification of primary and secondary folds (i.e. folds within folds). Measurements of multiple fold generations are not possible from satellite images or in the field on intermediate to high silica blocky lavas. In our analyses, strong signals of surface periodicities were found at multiple frequencies for all lava flows, indicating multiple generations of surface folds. Additionally, mafic to intermediate lavas (<60 wt% SiO2) show a positive correlation between dominant fold wavelengths and wt% silica. This correlation breaks down with high silica lavas (>65 wt% SiO2) which have a much larger range in dominant wavelength (10 - >100m). The deviation in expected dominant wavelengths for high silica flows is likely explained by effective viscosity, which is strongly influenced by lava

  15. Atoll island hydrogeology: flow and freshwater occurrence in a tidally dominated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberdorfer, June A.; Hogan, Patrick J.; Buddemeier, Robert W.

    1990-12-01

    A layered-aquifer model of groundwater occurrence in an atoll island was tested with a solute-transport numerical model. The computer model used, SUTRA, incorporates density-dependent flow. This can be significant in freshwater-saltwater interactions associated with the freshwater lens of an atoll island. Boundary conditions for the model included ocean and lagoon tidal variations. The model was calibrated to field data from Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, and tested for sensitivity to a variety of parameters. This resulted in a hydraulic conductivity of 10 m day -1 for the surficial aquifer and 1000 m day -1 for the deeper aquifer; this combination of values gave an excellent reproduction of the tidal response data from test wells. The average salinity distribution was closely reproduced using a dispersivity of 0.02m. The computer simulation quantitatively supports the layered-aquifer model, including under conditions of density-dependent flow, and shows that tidal variations are the predominant driving force for flow beneath the island. The oscillating, vertical flow produced by the tidal variations creates an extensive mixing zone of brackish water. The layered-aquifer model with tidally driven flow is a significant improvement over the Ghyben-Herzberg-Dupuit model as it is conventionally applied to groundwater studies for many Pacific reef islands.

  16. Unified Application of Vapor Screen Flow Visualization and Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurement Techniques to Vortex- and Shock Wave-Dominated Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack. The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).

  17. Unified Application Vapor Screen Flow Visualization and Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurement Techniques to Vortex- and Shock Wave-Dominated Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack (alpha). The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).

  18. Experimental tsunami deposits: Linking hydrodynamics to sediment entrainment, advection lengths and downstream fining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel P. L.; Delbecq, Katie; Kim, Wonsuck; Mohrig, David

    2016-01-01

    A goal of paleotsunami research is to quantitatively reconstruct wave hydraulics from sediment deposits in order to better understand coastal hazards. Simple models have been proposed to predict wave heights and velocities, based largely on deposit grain size distributions (GSDs). Although seemingly consistent with some recent tsunamis, little independent data exist to test these equations. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate inversion assumptions and uncertainties. A computer-controlled lift gate instantaneously released 6.5 m3 of water into a 32 m flume with shallow ponded water, creating a hydraulic bore that transported sand from an upstream source dune. Differences in initial GSDs and ponded water depths influenced entrainment, transport, and deposition. While the source dune sand was fully suspendable based on size alone, experimental tsunamis produced deposits dominated by bed load sand transport in the upstream 1/3 of the flume and suspension-dominated transport downstream. The suspension deposits exhibited downstream fining and thinning. At 95% confidence, a published advection-settling model predicts time-averaged flow depths to approximately a factor of two, and time-averaged downstream flow velocities to within a factor of 1.5. Finally, reasonable scaling is found between flume and field cases by comparing flow depths, inundation distances, Froude numbers, Rouse numbers and grain size trends in suspension-dominated tsunami deposits, justifying laboratory study of sediment transport and deposition by tsunamis.

  19. Dominant root locus in state estimator design for material flow processes: A case study of hot strip rolling.

    PubMed

    Fišer, Jaromír; Zítek, Pavel; Skopec, Pavel; Knobloch, Jan; Vyhlídal, Tomáš

    2017-02-13

    The purpose of the paper is to achieve a constrained estimation of process state variables using the anisochronic state observer tuned by the dominant root locus technique. The anisochronic state observer is based on the state-space time delay model of the process. Moreover the process model is identified not only as delayed but also as non-linear. This model is developed to describe a material flow process. The root locus technique combined with the magnitude optimum method is utilized to investigate the estimation process. Resulting dominant roots location serves as a measure of estimation process performance. The higher the dominant (natural) frequency in the leftmost position of the complex plane the more enhanced performance with good robustness is achieved. Also the model based observer control methodology for material flow processes is provided by means of the separation principle. For demonstration purposes, the computer-based anisochronic state observer is applied to the strip temperatures estimation in the hot strip finishing mill composed of seven stands. This application was the original motivation to the presented research.

  20. Differentiating transpiration from evaporation in seasonal agricultural wetlands and the link to advective fluxes in the root zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachand, P.A.M.; S. Bachand,; Fleck, Jacob A.; Anderson, Frank E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flowrates and tracer concentrations atwetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactormodel solutions, a continuous flowstirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these nonideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a fluxmodel, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment–water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemicalmechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition,our understanding of internal

  1. Development and Application of Energetic Actuators for Shear and Vortex Dominated Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    overall effectiveness of the actuator. The SJA was also tested in single shot as well burst mode with pulsing frequencies of 500 – 1000 Hz in the...performance in comparison with steady blowing, with 99% less momentum. McManus and Magill (1996) used pulsed angular injection to create co-rotating...vortices to attach separated flow. This actuation technique reportedly worked well for high angles of attack and is referred to as pulsed vortex

  2. Optic Flow Dominates Visual Scene Polarity in Causing Adaptive Modification of Locomotor Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.

  3. Tomography-based characterization of ice-air interface dynamics of temperature gradient snow metamorphism under advective conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Pirmin Philipp; Andreoli, Christian; Schneebeli, Martin; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-12-01

    Snow at or close to the surface commonly undergoes temperature gradient metamorphism under advective flow, which alters its microstructure and physical properties. A functional understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on regional and global climate to assessing avalanche formation. Time-lapse X-ray microtomography was applied to investigate the structural dynamics of temperature gradient snow metamorphism exposed to an advective airflow in controlled laboratory conditions. Experiments specifically analyzed sublimation and deposition of water vapor on the ice structure. In addition, an analysis of the ice-air interface dynamics was carried out using a macroscopic equivalent model of heat and water vapor transport through a snow layer. The results indicate that sublimation of the ice matrix dominated for flow rates < 10-6 m3 s-1 while during increased mass flow rates the water vapor deposition supplied by the advective flow counteracted sublimation. A flow rate dependence of water vapor deposition at the ice interface was observed, asymptotically approaching an average estimated maximum deposition rate on the whole sample of 1.05 · 10-4 kg m-3 s-1. The growth of microsized whisker-like crystals on larger ice crystals was detected on microscope photographs, leading to an increase of the specific surface area and thus suggest a change of the physical and optical properties of the snow. The estimated values of the curvature effect of the ice crystals and the interface kinetic coefficient are in good agreement with previously published values.

  4. Continuous flow dielectrophoretic particle concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Eric B.

    2007-04-17

    A continuous-flow filter/concentrator for separating and/or concentrating particles in a fluid is disclosed. The filter is a three-port device an inlet port, an filter port and a concentrate port. The filter separates particles into two streams by the ratio of their dielectrophoretic mobility to their electrokinetic, advective, or diffusive mobility if the dominant transport mechanism is electrokinesis, advection, or diffusion, respectively.Also disclosed is a device for separating and/or concentrating particles by dielectrophoretic trapping of the particles.

  5. Identifying the representative flow unit for capillary dominated two-phase flow in porous media using morphology-based pore-scale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yaoming; Sungkorn, Radompon; Toelke, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we extend pore-morphology-based methods proposed by Hazlett (1995) and Hilpert and Miller (2001) to simulate drainage and imbibition in uniformly wetting porous media and add an (optional) entrapment of the (non-)wetting phase. By improving implementation, this method allows us to identify the statistical representative elementary volume and estimate uncertainty by computing fluid flow properties and saturation distributions of hundreds of subsamples within a reasonable time-frame. The method was utilized to study three different porous medium systems and results demonstrate that morphology-based pore-scale modeling is a viable approach to assess the representative elementary volume with respect to capillary dominated two-phase flow. The focus of this paper is the determination of the representative elementary volume for multiphase-flow properties for a digital representation of a rock.

  6. Persistence of cluster synchronization under the influence of advection.

    PubMed

    Guirey, Emma; Bees, Martin; Martin, Adrian; Srokosz, Meric

    2010-05-01

    We present a study on the emergence of spatial structure in plankton dynamics under the influence of stirring and mixing. A distribution of plankton is represented as a lattice of nonidentical, interacting, oscillatory plankton populations. Each population evolves according to (i) the internal biological dynamics represented by an NPZ model with population-specific phytoplankton growth rate, (ii) sub-grid-cell stirring and mixing parameterized by a nearest-neighbor coupling, and (iii) explicit advection resulting from a constant horizontal shear. Using the methods of synchronization theory, the emergent spatial structure of the simulation is investigated as a function of the coupling strength and rate of advection. Previous work using similar methods has neglected the effects of explicit stirring (i.e., at scales larger than the grid cell), leaving as an open question the relevance of the work to real marine systems. Here, we show that persistent spatial structure emerges for a range of coupling strengths for all realistic levels of surface ocean shear. Spatially, this corresponds to the formation of temporally evolving clusters of local synchronization. Increasing shear alters the spatial characteristics of this clustering by stretching and narrowing patches of synchronized dynamics. These patches are not stretched into stripes of synchronized abundance aligned with the flow, as may be expected, but instead lie at an angle to the flow. This study shows that advection does not diminish the relevance of conclusions from previous studies of spatial structure in plankton simulations. In fact, the inclusion of advection adds characteristic filamental structure, as observed in real-world plankton distributions. The results also show that the ability of coupled oscillators to synchronize depends strongly on the spatial arrangement of oscillator natural frequencies; under the influence of advection, therefore, the impact of the coupling strength on the emergent spatial

  7. An operator splitting algorithm for the three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Liaqat Ali; Liu, Philip L.-F.

    1998-09-01

    Operator splitting algorithms are frequently used for solving the advection-diffusion equation, especially to deal with advection dominated transport problems. In this paper an operator splitting algorithm for the three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation is presented. The algorithm represents a second-order-accurate adaptation of the Holly and Preissmann scheme for three-dimensional problems. The governing equation is split into an advection equation and a diffusion equation, and they are solved by a backward method of characteristics and a finite element method, respectively. The Hermite interpolation function is used for interpolation of concentration in the advection step. The spatial gradients of concentration in the Hermite interpolation are obtained by solving equations for concentration gradients in the advection step. To make the composite algorithm efficient, only three equations for first-order concentration derivatives are solved in the diffusion step of computation. The higher-order spatial concentration gradients, necessary to advance the solution in a computational cycle, are obtained by numerical differentiations based on the available information. The simulation characteristics and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by several advection dominated transport problems.

  8. Sensitivity of solute advective travel time to porosities of hydrogeologic units.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianting; Pohlmann, Karl F; Chapman, Jenny B; Russell, Charles E; Carroll, Rosemary W H; Shafer, David S

    2010-01-01

    An integral approach is proposed to quantify uncertainty and sensitivity of advective travel time to the effective porosities of hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along groundwater flow paths. The approach is applicable in situations where a groundwater flow model exists, but a full solute transport model is not available. The approach can be used to: (1) determine HGUs whose porosities are influential to the solute advective travel time; and (2) apportion uncertainties of solute advective travel times to the uncertainty contributions from individual HGU porosities. A simple one-dimensional steady-state flow example is used to illustrate the approach. Advective travel times of solutes are obtained based on the one-dimensional steady-state flow results in conjunction with the HGU porosities. The approach can be easily applicable to more complex multi-dimensional cases where advective solute travel time can be calculated based on simulated flow results from groundwater flow models. This approach is particularly valuable for optimizing limited resources when designing field characterization programs for uncertainty reduction by identifying HGUs that contribute most to the estimation uncertainty of advective travel times of solutes.

  9. Gene flow and population structure of a solitary top carnivore in a human-dominated landscape.

    PubMed

    McManus, Jeannine S; Dalton, Desiré L; Kotzé, Antoinette; Smuts, Bool; Dickman, Amy; Marshal, Jason P; Keith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    While African leopard populations are considered to be continuous as demonstrated by their high genetic variation, the southernmost leopard population exists in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, where anthropogenic activities may be affecting this population's structure. Little is known about the elusive, last free-roaming top predator in the region and this study is the first to report on leopard population structuring using nuclear DNA. By analyzing 14 microsatellite markers from 40 leopard tissue samples, we aimed to understand the populations' structure, genetic distance, and gene flow (Nm). Our results, based on spatially explicit analysis with Bayesian methods, indicate that leopards in the region exist in a fragmented population structure with lower than expected genetic diversity. Three population groups were identified, between which low to moderate levels of gene flow were observed (Nm 0.5 to 3.6). One subpopulation exhibited low genetic differentiation, suggesting a continuous population structure, while the remaining two appear to be less connected, with low emigration and immigration between these populations. Therefore, genetic barriers are present between the subpopulations, and while leopards in the study region may function as a metapopulation, anthropogenic activities threaten to decrease habitat and movement further. Our results indicate that the leopard population may become isolated within a few generations and suggest that management actions should aim to increase habitat connectivity and reduce human-carnivore conflict. Understanding genetic diversity and connectivity of populations has important conservation implications that can highlight management of priority populations to reverse the effects of human-caused extinctions.

  10. Dynamo dominated accretion and energy flow: The mechanism of active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Li, H.

    1998-12-31

    An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. The authors suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. They believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-{alpha} clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars, etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. They believe they have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described are: (1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk {alpha}-viscosity, and (2) the mechanism of the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity.

  11. Gene flow and population structure of a solitary top carnivore in a human-dominated landscape

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Jeannine S; Dalton, Desiré L; Kotzé, Antoinette; Smuts, Bool; Dickman, Amy; Marshal, Jason P; Keith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    While African leopard populations are considered to be continuous as demonstrated by their high genetic variation, the southernmost leopard population exists in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, where anthropogenic activities may be affecting this population's structure. Little is known about the elusive, last free-roaming top predator in the region and this study is the first to report on leopard population structuring using nuclear DNA. By analyzing 14 microsatellite markers from 40 leopard tissue samples, we aimed to understand the populations' structure, genetic distance, and gene flow (Nm). Our results, based on spatially explicit analysis with Bayesian methods, indicate that leopards in the region exist in a fragmented population structure with lower than expected genetic diversity. Three population groups were identified, between which low to moderate levels of gene flow were observed (Nm 0.5 to 3.6). One subpopulation exhibited low genetic differentiation, suggesting a continuous population structure, while the remaining two appear to be less connected, with low emigration and immigration between these populations. Therefore, genetic barriers are present between the subpopulations, and while leopards in the study region may function as a metapopulation, anthropogenic activities threaten to decrease habitat and movement further. Our results indicate that the leopard population may become isolated within a few generations and suggest that management actions should aim to increase habitat connectivity and reduce human–carnivore conflict. Understanding genetic diversity and connectivity of populations has important conservation implications that can highlight management of priority populations to reverse the effects of human-caused extinctions. PMID:25691961

  12. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  13. Evolution and advection of solar mesogranulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard; Auffret, Herve; Roudier, Thierry; Vigneau, Jean; Simon, George W.; Frank, Zoe; Shine, Richard A.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-01-01

    A three-hour sequence of observations at the Pic du Midi observatory has been obtained which shows the evolution of solar mesogranules from appearance to disappearance with unprecedented clarity. It is seen that the supergranules, which are known to advect the granules with their convective motion, also advect the mesogranules to their boundaries. This process controls the evolution and disappearance of mesogranules.

  14. Advection of surface-derived organic carbon fuels microbial reduction in Bangladesh groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Cheung, Jennifer; Watson, Marlena; Stute, Martin; Freyer, Greg A.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Matin Ahmed, Kazi; Jahangir Alam, Md.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Thomas, James; Layton, Alice C.; Zheng, Yan; Bostick, Benjamin C.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) by drinking shallow groundwater causes widespread disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries. The release of As naturally present in sediment to groundwater has been linked to the reductive dissolution of iron oxides coupled to the microbial respiration of organic carbon (OC). The source of OC driving this microbial reduction-carbon deposited with the sediments or exogenous carbon transported by groundwater-is still debated despite its importance in regulating aquifer redox status and groundwater As levels. Here, we used the radiocarbon (14C) signature of microbial DNA isolated from groundwater samples to determine the relative importance of surface and sediment-derived OC. Three DNA samples collected from the shallow, high-As aquifer and one sample from the underlying, low-As aquifer were consistently younger than the total sediment carbon, by as much as several thousand years. This difference and the dominance of heterotrophic microorganisms implies that younger, surface-derived OC is advected within the aquifer, albeit more slowly than groundwater, and represents a critical pool of OC for aquifer microbial communities. The vertical profile shows that downward transport of dissolved OC is occurring on anthropogenic timescales, but bomb 14C-labeled dissolved OC has not yet accumulated in DNA and is not fueling reduction. These results indicate that advected OC controls aquifer redox status and confirm that As release is a natural process that predates human perturbations to groundwater flow. Anthropogenic perturbations, however, could affect groundwater redox conditions and As levels in the future.

  15. Contour advection with surgery: A technique for investigating finescale structure in tracer transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugh, Darryn W.; Plumb, R. Alan

    1994-01-01

    We present a trajectory technique, contour advection with surgery (CAS), for tracing the evolution of material contours in a specified (including observed) evolving flow. CAS uses the algorithms developed by Dritschel for contour dynamics/surgery to trace the evolution of specified contours. The contours are represented by a series of particles, which are advected by a specified, gridded, wind distribution. The resolution of the contours is preserved by continually adjusting the number of particles, and finescale features are produced that are not present in the input data (and cannot easily be generated using standard trajectory techniques). The reliability, and dependence on the spatial and temporal resolution of the wind field, of the CAS procedure is examined by comparisons with high-resolution numerical data (from contour dynamics calculations and from a general circulation model), and with routine stratospheric analyses. These comparisons show that the large-scale motions dominate the deformation field and that CAS can accurately reproduce small scales from low-resolution wind fields. The CAS technique therefore enables examination of atmospheric tracer transport at previously unattainable resolution.

  16. Accuracy of a pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler in a wave-dominated flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, J.R.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of velocities measured by a pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PCADP) in the bottom boundary layer of a wave-dominated inner-shelf environment is evaluated. The downward-looking PCADP measured velocities in eight 10-cm cells at 1 Hz. Velocities measured by the PCADP are compared to those measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter for wave orbital velocities up to 95 cm s-1 and currents up to 40 cm s-1. An algorithm for correcting ambiguity errors using the resolution velocities was developed. Instrument bias, measured as the average error in burst mean speed, is -0.4 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 0.8). The accuracy (root-mean-square error) of instantaneous velocities has a mean of 8.6 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 6.5) for eastward velocities (the predominant direction of waves), 6.5 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 4.4) for northward velocities, and 2.4 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 1.6) for vertical velocities. Both burst mean and root-mean-square errors are greater for bursts with ub ??? 50 cm s-1. Profiles of burst mean speeds from the bottom five cells were fit to logarithmic curves: 92% of bursts with mean speed ??? 5 cm s-1 have a correlation coefficient R2 > 0.96. In cells close to the transducer, instantaneous velocities are noisy, burst mean velocities are biased low, and bottom orbital velocities are biased high. With adequate blanking distances for both the profile and resolution velocities, the PCADP provides sufficient accuracy to measure velocities in the bottom boundary layer under moderately energetic inner-shelf conditions.

  17. Flow variations and macroinvertebrate community responses in a small groundwater-dominated stream in south east England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bendix, J.; Hupp, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the macroinvertebrate community in response to flow variations in the Little Stour River, Kent, UK, were examined over a 6 year period (1992-1997). This period included the final year of the 1988-1992 drought, followed by some of the wettest conditions recorded this century and a second period of drought between 1996 and 1997. Each year, samples were collected from 15 sites during late-summer base-flow conditions. Correspondence analysis identified clear differences between samples from upstream and downstream sites, and between drought and non-drought years. Step-wise multiple regression was used to identify hydrological indicators of community variation. Several different indices were used to describe the macroinvertebrate community, including macroinvertebrate community abundance, number of families and species, and individual species. Site characteristics were fundamental in accounting for variation in the unstandardized macroinvertebrate community. However, when differences between sites were controlled, hydrological conditions were found to play a dominant role in explaining ecological variation. Indices of high discharge (or their absence), 4-7 months prior to sampling (i.e. winter-spring), were found to be the most important variables for describing the late-summer community The results are discussed in relation to the role of flow variability in shaping instream communities and management implications. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Changes in the macroinvertebrate community in response to flow variations in the Little Stour River, Kent, UK, were examined over a 6 year period (1992-1997). This period included the final year of the 1988-1992 drought, followed by some of the wettest conditions recorded this century and a second period of drought between 1996 and 1997. Each year, samples were collected from 15 sites during late-summer base-flow conditions. Correspondence analysis identified clear differences between samples from upstream

  18. Minimal model for zero-inertia instabilities in shear-dominated non-Newtonian flows.

    PubMed

    Boi, S; Mazzino, A; Pralits, J O

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of fluid instabilities in the relevant limit of vanishing fluid inertia (i.e., arbitrarily close to zero Reynolds number) has been investigated for the well-known Kolmogorov flow. The finite-time shear-induced order-disorder transition of the non-Newtonian microstructure and the corresponding viscosity change from lower to higher values are the crucial ingredients for the instabilities to emerge. The finite-time low-to-high viscosity change for increasing shear characterizes the rheopectic fluids. The instability does not emerge in shear-thinning or -thickening fluids where viscosity adjustment to local shear occurs instantaneously. The lack of instabilities arbitrarily close to zero Reynolds number is also observed for thixotropic fluids, in spite of the fact that the viscosity adjustment time to shear is finite as in rheopectic fluids. Renormalized perturbative expansions (multiple-scale expansions), energy-based arguments (on the linearized equations of motion), and numerical results (of suitable eigenvalue problems from the linear stability analysis) are the main tools leading to our conclusions. Our findings may have important consequences in all situations where purely hydrodynamic fluid instabilities or mixing are inhibited due to negligible inertia, as in microfluidic applications. To trigger mixing in these situations, suitable (not necessarily viscoelastic) non-Newtonian fluid solutions appear as a valid answer. Our results open interesting questions and challenges in the field of smart (fluid) materials.

  19. JET LUMINOSITY FROM NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanaka, Norita; Piran, Tsvi; Krolik, Julian H. E-mail: tsvi.piran@mail.huji.ac.il

    2013-03-20

    A hyperaccretion disk formed around a stellar-mass black hole is a plausible model for the central engine that powers gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If the central black hole rotates and a poloidal magnetic field threads its horizon, a powerful relativistic jet may be driven by a process resembling the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We estimate the luminosity of such a jet as a function of mass accretion rate and other accretion parameters assuming that the poloidal magnetic field strength is comparable to the inner accretion disk pressure. We show that the jet efficiency attains its maximal value when the accretion flow is cooled via optically thin neutrino emission. The jet luminosity is much larger than the energy deposition through neutrino-antineutrino annihilation ({nu} {nu}-bar {yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}) provided that the black hole is spinning rapidly enough. When the accretion rate onto a rapidly spinning black hole is larger than 0.003-0.01 M{sub Sun} s{sup -1}, the disk becomes optically thin to neutrinos, its pressure increases and the jet luminosity is sufficient to drive a GRB. The transition of the accretion rate above and below this limiting value may cause the large variability observed in GRB.

  20. Dynamo Dominated Accretion and Energy Flow: The Mechanism of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Li, H.

    An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. We suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. We believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-α clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. We believe we have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described here are: 1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk viscosity, and 2) the mechanism of the α - Ω dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the α - Ω dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity. The predicted form of the emission of both the flux and the magnetic energy density is a force-free magnetic helix extending axially from the disk a distance depending upon its winding number and radius of its flux surfaces, a distance of Mpc's. This

  1. Verification of Advective Bar Elements Implemented in the Aria Thermal Response Code.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Brantley

    2016-01-01

    A verification effort was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the new advective bar capability in the Aria thermal response code. Several approaches to the verification process were taken : a mesh refinement study to demonstrate solution convergence in the fluid and the solid, visually examining the mapping of the advective bar element nodes to the surrounding surfaces, and a comparison of solutions produced using the advective bars for simple geometries with solutions from commercial CFD software . The mesh refinement study has shown solution convergence for simple pipe flow in both temperature and velocity . Guidelines were provided to achieve appropriate meshes between the advective bar elements and the surrounding volume. Simulations of pipe flow using advective bars elements in Aria have been compared to simulations using the commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent (r) and provided comparable solutions in temperature and velocity supporting proper implementation of the new capability. Verification of Advective Bar Elements iv Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to Dean Dobranich for his guidance and expertise through all stages of this effort . His advice and feedback was instrumental to its completion. Thanks also goes to Sam Subia and Tolu Okusanya for helping to plan many of the verification activities performed in this document. Thank you to Sam, Justin Lamb and Victor Brunini for their assistance in resolving issues encountered with running the advective bar element model. Finally, thanks goes to Dean, Sam, and Adam Hetzler for reviewing the document and providing very valuable comments.

  2. Advection, diffusion, and delivery over a network.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Luke L M; López, Eduardo; Maini, Philip K; Fricker, Mark D; Jones, Nick S

    2012-08-01

    Many biological, geophysical, and technological systems involve the transport of a resource over a network. In this paper, we present an efficient method for calculating the exact quantity of the resource in each part of an arbitrary network, where the resource is lost or delivered out of the network at a given rate, while being subject to advection and diffusion. The key conceptual step is to partition the resource into material that does or does not reach a node over a given time step. As an example application, we consider resource allocation within fungal networks, and analyze the spatial distribution of the resource that emerges as such networks grow over time. Fungal growth involves the expansion of fluid filled vessels, and such growth necessarily involves the movement of fluid. We develop a model of delivery in growing fungal networks, and find good empirical agreement between our model and experimental data gathered using radio-labeled tracers. Our results lead us to suggest that in foraging fungi, growth-induced mass flow is sufficient to account for long-distance transport, if the system is well insulated. We conclude that active transport mechanisms may only be required at the very end of the transport pathway, near the growing tips.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...

  4. Genetic differentiation in spite of high gene flow in the dominant rainforest tree of southeastern Australia, Nothofagus cunninghamii

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, C J; Worth, J R P; Jordan, G J; Jones, R C; Vaillancourt, R E

    2016-01-01

    Nothofagus cunninghamii is a long-lived, wind-pollinated tree species that dominates the cool temperate rainforests of southeastern Australia. The species' distribution is more or less continuous in western Tasmania but is fragmented elsewhere. However, it is unknown whether this fragmentation has affected the species' genetic architecture. Thus, we examined N. cunninghamii using 12 nuclear microsatellites and 633 individuals from 18 populations spanning the species' natural range. Typical of wind-pollinated trees, there was low range-wide genetic structure (FST=0.04) consistent with significant gene flow across most of the species' range. However, gene flow was not high enough to overcome the effects of drift across some disjunctions. Victorian populations (separated from Tasmania by the 240 km wide Bass Strait) formed a genetic group distinct from Tasmanian populations, had lower diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar)=5.4 in Victoria versus 6.9 in Tasmania) and were significantly more differentiated from one another than those in Tasmania (FST=0.045 in Victoria versus 0.012 in Tasmania). Evidence for bottlenecking was found in small populations that were at least 20 km from other populations. Interestingly, we found little divergence in microsatellite markers between the extremes of genetically based morphological and physiological altitudinal clines suggesting adaptive differentiation is strongly driven by selection because it is likely to be occurring in the presence of gene flow. Even though the cool temperate rainforests of Australia are highly relictual, the species is relatively robust to population fragmentation due to high levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, especially in Tasmania. PMID:26350630

  5. Genetic differentiation in spite of high gene flow in the dominant rainforest tree of southeastern Australia, Nothofagus cunninghamii.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C J; Worth, J R P; Jordan, G J; Jones, R C; Vaillancourt, R E

    2016-01-01

    Nothofagus cunninghamii is a long-lived, wind-pollinated tree species that dominates the cool temperate rainforests of southeastern Australia. The species' distribution is more or less continuous in western Tasmania but is fragmented elsewhere. However, it is unknown whether this fragmentation has affected the species' genetic architecture. Thus, we examined N. cunninghamii using 12 nuclear microsatellites and 633 individuals from 18 populations spanning the species' natural range. Typical of wind-pollinated trees, there was low range-wide genetic structure (FST=0.04) consistent with significant gene flow across most of the species' range. However, gene flow was not high enough to overcome the effects of drift across some disjunctions. Victorian populations (separated from Tasmania by the 240 km wide Bass Strait) formed a genetic group distinct from Tasmanian populations, had lower diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar)=5.4 in Victoria versus 6.9 in Tasmania) and were significantly more differentiated from one another than those in Tasmania (FST=0.045 in Victoria versus 0.012 in Tasmania). Evidence for bottlenecking was found in small populations that were at least 20 km from other populations. Interestingly, we found little divergence in microsatellite markers between the extremes of genetically based morphological and physiological altitudinal clines suggesting adaptive differentiation is strongly driven by selection because it is likely to be occurring in the presence of gene flow. Even though the cool temperate rainforests of Australia are highly relictual, the species is relatively robust to population fragmentation due to high levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, especially in Tasmania.

  6. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  7. Macrophyte decomposition in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated constructed wetland: Rates associated with environmental and biotic variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thullen, J.S.; Nelson, S.M.; Cade, B.S.; Sartoris, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of senesced culm material of two bulrush species was studied in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated treatment wetland in southern California. Decomposition of the submerged culm material during summer months was relatively rapid (k = 0.037 day-1), but slowed under extended submergence (up to 245 days) and during fall and spring sampling periods (k = 0.009-0.014 day-1). Stepwise regression of seasonal data indicated that final water temperature and abundance of the culm-mining midge, Glyptotendipes, were significantly associated with culm decomposition. Glyptotendipes abundance, in turn, was correlated with water quality parameters such as conductivity and dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations. No differences were detected in decomposition rates between the bulrush species, Schoenoplectus californicus and Schoenoplectus acutus.

  8. Removal of metal ions by Phormidium bigranulatum (cyanobacteria)-dominated mat in batch and continuous flow systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Rai, Jyoti; Gaur, J P

    2012-01-01

    Live Phormidium bigranulatum-dominated mat successfully removed Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Percent metal removal approached equilibrium within 4h, independent of mat thickness (0.2-1.6 mm), in batch system. But % metal removal increased with increase in mat thickness due to enhancement of biomass, which provided more metal binding sites. Metal accumulation decreased with increase in mat thickness due to lessened metal availability vis-à-vis biomass. Metal removal (%) increased with increasing mat area, but decreased with increasing metal concentration in the solution. In continuous flow system, metal accumulation increased with increasing volume of single or multi-metal solution passed over the mat. The mat removed all the tested metals from the multi-metal solution with almost the same efficiency. The maximum removal of the test metals occurred at the lowest tested flow rate. Raceway type ponds can be employed for large-scale use of Phormidium mat in bioremediation of metalliferous wastewaters.

  9. Evolution and Advection of Solar Mesogranulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    unprecedented clarity. We see that the supergranules, which are known to carry along (advect) the granules with their convective motion, also advect...I Solar mesogranulation, Solar observations, Solar super- 2 granulation 16. PRICE COCE 1i7. SECJ-3T LSiIATO 8 EUITY CLASSIFICA ION 19. SECURITY CLAS...mo~iesý sho~ed that granules are adl~ectedl b• Richard Muller*, Hers& Auffret*, Thierry Roudiert, the larger-scale consectie flowss. and thu, could

  10. A Quasi-Conservative Adaptive Semi-Lagrangian Advection-Diffusion Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Joern

    2014-05-01

    Many processes in atmospheric or oceanic tracer transport are conveniently represented by advection-diffusion type equations. Depending on the magnitudes of both components, the mathematical representation and consequently the discretization is a non-trivial problem. We will focus on advection-dominated situations and will introduce a semi-Lagrangian scheme with adaptive mesh refinement for high local resolution. This scheme is well suited for pollutant transport from point sources, or transport processes featuring fine filamentation with corresponding local concentration maxima. In order to achieve stability, accuracy and conservation, we combine an adaptive mesh refinement quasi-conservative semi-Lagrangian scheme, based on an integral formulation of the underlying advective conservation law (Behrens, 2006), with an advection diffusion scheme as described by Spiegelman and Katz (2006). The resulting scheme proves to be conservative and stable, while maintaining high computational efficiency and accuracy.

  11. The necessity of field research in prescription of Environmental Flows - A case of the hydropower dominated Middle Zambezi Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwelwa, Elenestina; Crosato, Alessandra; Wright, Nigel; Beevers, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The research work in the Middle Zambezi sub-catchment has the key objective to investigate the state of the river and its flood plain in terms of flow variation, river and flood plain morphological variation for both the pre and post hydropower schemes. From the rich biodiversity that this area supports, both Zambia and Zimbabwe has established National Parks with Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore safari areas being designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The habitat sustenance depend on the river channels and the associated morphological features with the flood and recession interaction whose modification can lead to negative environmental consequences. The research findings on the state of the sub-catchment flows and morphology will be outlined. Highlights will be given on the following findings: dominance of hydropower regulation in the water balance of the river reach, historical map analysis and related rates of river channel morphology changes associated to dam operating events and, bed load sediment characterisation and distribution. With the use of SOBEK-Rural (1D/2D) model, analysis of future state of the sub-catchment will be outlined, taking into account the following scenarios: no dam state of the river reach; continue with current water regulation and operations; modification in water regulation to take into account favorable changes and; climate related variation of droughts. The research deductions and implications for maintaining the current dam operation practices will be outline as relates to the sustainability of the hydro-morphology and ecosystem of the catchment which support a rich wildlife habitat. The research observed critical water needs form the basis for environmental flows prescription and recommendation. Whereas the restoration of regular flooding has been identified to be important, the most critical need however is the timing of flood gate regulation which has been observed as a trigger to loss of islands and bars

  12. A New Methodology For Estimating CO2 Advective Fluxes In Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Canepa, E.; Georgieva, E.; Kerschbaumer, G.; Minerbi, S.; Seufert, G.

    2007-12-01

    A key problem in using the eddy correlation (EC) technique for estimating the carbon dioxide Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of terrestrial ecosystems is the potential bias caused by advective fluxes of CO2. Advective fluxes are often not considered since they are difficult to identify and to quantify, especially in complex mountainous terrain with highly variable wind patterns and drainage flows. We propose a methodology to estimate these fluxes based on a full 3-Dimensional (3D) approach applied to the topographically complex alpine forest site of Renon (1736 m a.s.l.). This is an aerodynamic method based on the computation of advective fluxes across the aerial faces of a control volume including the plant ecosystem. Data used for the computation of CO2 advective fluxes were collected during an extensive field campaign performed in 2005 in the framework of CarboEurope-IP research project. Vertical profiles of wind, air temperature and CO2 concentration have been measured at five towers and a spatial interpolation was performed in order to get 3D fields of such variables. The frame of reference used was orthogonal and the vertical direction was parallel to the gravity. Each anemometer was aligned in this frame of reference and no rotations were applied to the wind velocity components. The analysis of the 3D fields of wind velocity, CO2 mixing ratio and air density highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of CO2 source/sink strength and the strong de-coupling between air flow below and above the canopy during stable nights. The total CO2 advection calculated using the proposed methodology exhibited prevailing positive values during the night-time period. Advective fluxes estimated during windy nights were of the same magnitude and sign of vertical turbulent flux measured above canopy by the EC technique. This observation suggests that the friction velocity correction routinely applied to night-time periods may not be efficient at the Renon site. During light windy nights

  13. Debris flow dominated alluvial fans in the Australian high country indicate that landscape denudation through the Holocene has been dominated by post-bushfire runoff events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marren, Philip; Nyman, Petter; Kermode, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Bushfires play a major role in shaping landscapes across the globe. Whilst the role of fire in shaping and changing vegetation assemblages is relatively well understood, there is still debate about the significance of fire in driving landscape denudation, relative to other processes, such as major rainfall and flood events and questions remain about the frequency of extreme fire events over longer timescales in response to climate forcing. Studies of post-fire landscape impact of recent bushfires in southeast Australia indicate that where storm events occur shortly after a major bushfire, hillslope erosion is enhanced, due to debris flows and erosion of both primary hillslope sediment and sediment stored in hillslope channel networks. In Australia, knowledge of long-term bushfire frequency is largely derived from pollen and micro-charcoal records in lake-sediment archives and is not directly relevant to resolving questions regarding fire impacts on landscape denudation and sediment transfer. We excavated trenches in four alluvial fans at the base of hillslopes in the high country of northeast Victoria, Australia. This area was burnt by bushfires in 1939 and 2003, and regional climate and hydrology are strongly controlled by El Niño. The trenches were up to 3.5m deep, and in most cases intersected underlying floodplain sediment at the base of the trench, indicating that they provide a full record of sedimentation for that sector of the fan. Fan stratigraphy consisted of sub-horizontal (parallel to the fan surface) units 0.3-0.5m thick, with occasional units 1-1.2m thick, and cross-cutting channelized units. Debris flow deposits accounted for 70-80% of the observed sediments, with water-laid gravels and soil units forming the remainder. Most soil layers were burnt, and most (but not all) debris flow units contained charcoal. A typical stratigraphy consisted of 6-8 debris flow units per fan, with four units containing a fire signature or overlying a burnt soil layer

  14. Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical scheme for simulating advection, dispersion, and transient storage in streams and a comparison of numerical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, T.J.; Runkel, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Past applications of one-dimensional advection, dispersion, and transient storage zone models have almost exclusively relied on a central differencing, Eulerian numerical approximation to the nonconservative form of the fundamental equation. However, there are scenarios where this approach generates unacceptable error. A new numerical scheme for this type of modeling is presented here that is based on tracking Lagrangian control volumes across a fixed (Eulerian) grid. Numerical tests are used to provide a direct comparison of the new scheme versus nonconservative Eulerian numerical methods, in terms of both accuracy and mass conservation. Key characteristics of systems for which the Lagrangian scheme performs better than the Eulerian scheme include: nonuniform flow fields, steep gradient plume fronts, and pulse and steady point source loadings in advection-dominated systems. A new analytical derivation is presented that provides insight into the loss of mass conservation in the nonconservative Eulerian scheme. This derivation shows that loss of mass conservation in the vicinity of spatial flow changes is directly proportional to the lateral inflow rate and the change in stream concentration due to the inflow. While the nonconservative Eulerian scheme has clearly worked well for past published applications, it is important for users to be aware of the scheme's limitations. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  15. The dominant mechanisms of hyporheic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Alexander H.; Stewardson, Michael J.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanisms driving hyporheic exchange are of significant interest facilitating transfer of nutrients, oxygen and energy essential for benthic ecology. The hyporheic zone is the region directly beneath the sediment-water interface (SWI) marking the transition from stream to porous flow. Hyporheic exchange is controlled by a range of variables of the stream, streambed and the geometry of the SWI. The boundary layer of a stream is characterized by a slip velocity across the SWI, facilitating transition from free fluid to Darcian flow. Mass and momentum transfer across the SWI are driven by either (1) advective pumping from variation in dynamic head at the SWI causing potential flow into and out of the streambed, or; (2) turbulent structures in the boundary layer which penetrate into the streambed. Unlike the advective pumping, turbulent structures penetrate well beyond the characteristic mixing length scale and lead to permanent displacement of fluid. The advective pumping model assumes a potential field directly beneath the SWI, despite the slip layer propagating into the bed. Furthermore, turbulent exchange can lead to a permanent displacement of fluid, while advective pumping is multidirectional and periodic. Models derived from flume experiments have been based on one of these mechanisms and have been presented as two alternative approaches for modelling hyporheic exchange. However, the incongruence of these mechanisms leads us to investigate and model each individually. Our investigation treats coherent turbulent penetration and advective pumping as unique mechanisms which both contribute to rates of hyporheic exchange. Using bedforms as a proxy for advective pumping allowed us to gain insight into the dynamics of exchange mechanisms. Analysis of 93 past flume experiments has shown that bedforms alter the dependence of hyporheic exchange on these exchange mechanisms. Power models developed through a multilinear regression analysis showed that exchange in

  16. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation in novel Horizontal-Flow Biofilm Reactors dominated by an Acidithiobacillus and a Thiobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, S; Kennelly, C; Clifford, E; Collins, G

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is an odourous, highly toxic gas commonly encountered in various commercial and municipal sectors. Three novel, laboratory-scale, Horizontal-Flow Biofilm Reactors (HFBRs) were tested for the removal of H2S gas from air streams over a 178-day trial at 10°C. Removal rates of up to 15.1 g [H2S] m(-3) h(-1) were achieved, demonstrating the HFBRs as a feasible technology for the treatment of H2S-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures. Bio-oxidation of H2S in the reactors led to the production of H(+) and sulfate (SO(2-)4) ions, resulting in the acidification of the liquid phase. Reduced removal efficiency was observed at loading rates of 15.1 g [H2S] m(-3) h(-1). NaHCO3 addition to the liquid nutrient feed (synthetic wastewater (SWW)) resulted in improved H2S removal. Bacterial diversity, which was investigated by sequencing and fingerprinting 16S rRNA genes, was low, likely due to the harsh conditions prevailing in the systems. The HFBRs were dominated by two species from the genus Acidithiobacillus and Thiobacillus. Nonetheless, there were significant differences in microbial community structure between distinct HFBR zones due to the influence of alkalinity, pH and SO4 concentrations. Despite the low temperature, this study indicates HFBRs have an excellent potential to biologically treat H2S-contaminated airstreams.

  17. Analysis of the dominant vibration frequencies of rail bridges for structure-borne noise using a power flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The use of concrete bridges in urban rail transit systems has raised many concerns regarding low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-borne noise due to the vibration of bridges when subjected to moving trains. Understanding the mechanism that determines the dominant frequencies of bridge vibrations is essential for both vibration and noise reduction. This paper presents a general procedure based on the force method to obtain the power flows within a coupled vehicle-track-bridge system, the point mobility of the system and the dynamic interaction forces connecting various components. The general coupling system consists of multi-rigid-bodies for the vehicles, infinite Euler beams representing the rails, two-dimensional or three-dimensional elements of the concrete bridges, and spring-dashpot pairs to model the wheel-rail contacts, the vehicle suspensions, the rail pads and the bridge bearings. The dynamic interaction of the coupled system is solved in the frequency domain by assuming the combined wheel-rail roughness moves forward relative to the stationary vehicles. The proposed procedure is first applied to a rail on discrete supports and then to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge. The computed results show that the wheel-rail contact forces, the power flows to the rail/bridge subsystem and the accelerations of the bridge are primarily dominated by the contents around the natural frequency of a single wheel adhered to the elastically supported rail. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same rigid body, then δmnab(ω) can be expressed as δmnab(ω)=-{(}/{Mlω}, where Ml is the mass of the lth rigid body. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same infinite rail, δmnab(ω) can be expressed as [8] δmnab(ω)=-j{((e-je)}/{4EIk}, where xm and xn are the x-coordinates of the mth and nth spring

  18. Local and nonlocal advected invariants and helicities in magnetohydrodynamics and gas dynamics I: Lie dragging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Dasgupta, B.; McKenzie, J. F.; Hu, Q.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper advected invariants and conservation laws in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gas dynamics are obtained using Lie dragging techniques. There are different classes of invariants that are advected or Lie dragged with the flow. Simple examples are the advection of the entropy S (a 0-form), and the conservation of magnetic flux (an invariant 2-form advected with the flow). The magnetic flux conservation law is equivalent to Faraday's equation. The gauge condition for the magnetic helicity to be advected with the flow is determined. Different variants of the helicity in ideal fluid dynamics and MHD including: fluid helicity, cross helicity and magnetic helicity are investigated. The fluid helicity conservation law and the cross-helicity conservation law in MHD are derived for the case of a barotropic gas. If the magnetic field lies in the constant entropy surface, then the gas pressure can depend on both the entropy and the density. In these cases the conservation laws are local conservation laws. For non-barotropic gases, we obtain nonlocal conservation laws for fluid helicity and cross helicity by using Clebsch variables. These nonlocal conservation laws are the main new results of the paper. Ertel's theorem and potential vorticity, the Hollman invariant, and the Godbillon-Vey invariant for special flows for which the magnetic helicity is zero are also discussed.

  19. Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1996-01-01

    We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.

  20. An ecological economic assessment of flow regimes in a hydropower dominated river basin: the case of the lower Zambezi River, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Fanaian, Safa; Graas, Susan; Jiang, Yong; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The flow regime of rivers, being an integral part of aquatic ecosystems, provides many important services benefiting humans in catchments. Past water resource developments characterized by river embankments and dams, however, were often dominated by one (or few) economic use(s) of water. This results in a dramatically changed flow regime negatively affecting the provision of other ecosystem services sustained by the river flow. This study is intended to demonstrate the value of alternative flow regimes in a river that is highly modified by the presence of large hydropower dams and reservoirs, explicitly accounting for a broad range of flow-dependent ecosystem services. In this study, we propose a holistic approach for conducting an ecological economic assessment of a river's flow regime. This integrates recent advances in the conceptualization and classification of ecosystem services (UK NEA, 2011) with the flow regime evaluation technique developed by Korsgaard (2006). This integrated approach allows for a systematic comparison of the economic values of alternative flow regimes, including those that are considered beneficial for aquatic ecosystems. As an illustration, we applied this combined approach to the Lower Zambezi Basin, Mozambique. Empirical analysis shows that even though re-operating dams to create environmentally friendly flow regimes reduces hydropower benefits, the gains to goods derived from the aquatic ecosystem may offset the forgone hydropower benefits, thereby increasing the total economic value of river flow to society. The proposed integrated flow assessment approach can be a useful tool for welfare-improving decision-making in managing river basins.

  1. Advection of surface-derived organic carbon fuels microbial reduction in Bangladesh groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Cheung, Jennifer; Watson, Marlena; Stute, Martin; Freyer, Greg A.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Thomas, James; Layton, Alice C.; Zheng, Yan; Bostick, Benjamin C.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) by drinking shallow groundwater causes widespread disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries. The release of As naturally present in sediment to groundwater has been linked to the reductive dissolution of iron oxides coupled to the microbial respiration of organic carbon (OC). The source of OC driving this microbial reduction—carbon deposited with the sediments or exogenous carbon transported by groundwater—is still debated despite its importance in regulating aquifer redox status and groundwater As levels. Here, we used the radiocarbon (14C) signature of microbial DNA isolated from groundwater samples to determine the relative importance of surface and sediment-derived OC. Three DNA samples collected from the shallow, high-As aquifer and one sample from the underlying, low-As aquifer were consistently younger than the total sediment carbon, by as much as several thousand years. This difference and the dominance of heterotrophic microorganisms implies that younger, surface-derived OC is advected within the aquifer, albeit more slowly than groundwater, and represents a critical pool of OC for aquifer microbial communities. The vertical profile shows that downward transport of dissolved OC is occurring on anthropogenic timescales, but bomb 14C-labeled dissolved OC has not yet accumulated in DNA and is not fueling reduction. These results indicate that advected OC controls aquifer redox status and confirm that As release is a natural process that predates human perturbations to groundwater flow. Anthropogenic perturbations, however, could affect groundwater redox conditions and As levels in the future. PMID:23487743

  2. Simulated ground-water flow for a pond-dominated aquifer system near Great Sandy Bottom Pond, Pembroke, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Lyford, Forest P.

    2005-01-01

    A ground-water flow simulation for a 66.4-square-mile area around Great Sandy Bottom (GSB) Pond (105 acres) near Pembroke, Massachusetts, was developed for use by local and State water managers to assess the yields for public water supply of local ponds and wells for average climatic and drought conditions and the effects of water withdrawals on nearby water levels and streamflows. Wetlands and ponds cover about 30 percent of the study area and the aquifer system is dominated by interactions between ground water and the ponds. The three largest surface-water bodies in the study area are Silver Lake (640 acres), Monponsett Pond (590 acres), and Oldham Pond (236 acres). The study area is drained by tributaries of the Taunton River to the southwest, the South and North Rivers to the northeast, and the Jones River to the southeast. In 2002, 10.8 million gallons per day of water was exported from ponds and 3.5 million gallons per day from wells was used locally for public supply. A transient ground-water-flow model with 69 monthly stress periods spanning the period from January 1998 through September 2003 was calibrated to stage at GSB Pond and nearby Silver Lake and streamflow and water levels collected from September 2002 through September 2003. The calibrated model was used to assess hydrologic responses to a variety of water-use and climatic conditions. Simulation of predevelopment (no pumping or export) average monthly (1949-2002) water-level conditions caused the GSB Pond level to increase by 6.3 feet from the results of a simulation using average 2002 pumping for all wells, withdrawals, and exports. Most of this decline can be attributed to pumping, withdrawals, and exports of water from sites away from GSB Pond. The effects of increasing the export rate from GSB Pond by 1.25 and 1.5 times the 2002 rate were a lowering of pond levels by a maximum of 1.6 and 2.8 feet, respectively. Simulated results for two different drought conditions, one mild drought similar to

  3. A Numerical Model of Armor Development in Flash Flood-Dominated Channels: Sensitivity to Sediment Supply, Hydrograph Shape, and Base Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K.; Johnson, J. P.; Viparelli, E.

    2015-12-01

    Most gravel-transporting rivers with perennial base flow are armored, with bed surface grain size distributions that are coarser than the subsurface. In contrast, ephemerally flowing rivers, which are commonly flash flood-dominated, are typically unarmored. Both high sediment supply and elevated shear stresses have been identified as processes that may prevent armor development. We use a one-dimensional morphodynamic model that conserves mass and momentum, and tracks grain size distributions of bedload, surface, and subsurface to explore the parameter space of the armor ratio (Surface D50 / Subsurface D50) varying sediment supply, flood peak magnitude, flood duration, and base flow magnitude, including ephemeral hydrographs with no base flow. Our base case in terms of sediment supply, grain size distribution, and hydrograph is based on the Nahal Yatir, an ephemerally flowing river in the Negev Desert. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantitatively rank the importance of each input parameter. We found that armor ratio was the most sensitive to changes in base flow magnitude. In perennially flowing rivers, base flows can preferentially transport smaller grain sizes. In ephemerally flowing rivers, the modeling suggests that a large percentage of flow occurs above the threshold of motion for all grain sizes, transporting all grain sizes nearly equally, resulting in minimal armor development. We find that sediment supply rate and hydrograph shape have measurable but smaller influences on armoring.

  4. Effects of demographic stochasticity on population persistence in advective media.

    PubMed

    Kolpas, Allison; Nisbet, Roger M

    2010-07-01

    Many populations live and disperse in advective media. A fundamental question, known as the "drift paradox" in stream ecology, is how a closed population can survive when it is constantly being transported downstream by the flow. Recent population-level models have focused on the role of diffusive movement in balancing the effects of advection, predicting critical conditions for persistence. Here, we formulate an individual-based stochastic analog of the model described in (Lutscher et al., SIAM Rev. 47(4):749-772, 2005) to quantify the effects of demographic stochasticity on persistence. Population dynamics are modeled as a logistic growth process and dispersal as a position-jump process on a finite domain divided into patches. When there is no correlation in the interpatch movement of residents, stochasticity simply smooths the persistence-extinction boundary. However, when individuals disperse in "packets" from one patch to another and the flow field is memoryless on the timescale of packet transport, the probability of persistence is greatly enhanced. The latter transport mechanism may be characteristic of larval dispersal in the coastal ocean or wind-dispersed seed pods.

  5. Positivity-preserving numerical schemes for multidimensional advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Macvean, M. K.; Lock, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the construction of an explicit, single time-step, conservative, finite-volume method for multidimensional advective flow, based on a uniformly third-order polynomial interpolation algorithm (UTOPIA). Particular attention is paid to the problem of flow-to-grid angle-dependent, anisotropic distortion typical of one-dimensional schemes used component-wise. The third-order multidimensional scheme automatically includes certain cross-difference terms that guarantee good isotropy (and stability). However, above first-order, polynomial-based advection schemes do not preserve positivity (the multidimensional analogue of monotonicity). For this reason, a multidimensional generalization of the first author's universal flux-limiter is sought. This is a very challenging problem. A simple flux-limiter can be found; but this introduces strong anisotropic distortion. A more sophisticated technique, limiting part of the flux and then restoring the isotropy-maintaining cross-terms afterwards, gives more satisfactory results. Test cases are confined to two dimensions; three-dimensional extensions are briefly discussed.

  6. Horizontal advection, diffusion and plankton spectra at the sea surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Clayton, S.; Pasquero, C.

    2009-04-01

    Plankton patchiness is ubiquitous in the oceans, and various physical and biological processes have been proposed as its generating mechanisms. However, a coherent statement on the problem is missing, due to both a small number of suitable observations and to an incomplete understanding of the properties of reactive tracers in turbulent media. Abraham (1998) suggested that horizontal advection may be the dominant process behind the observed distributions of phytoplankton and zooplankton, acting to mix tracers with longer reaction times (Rt) down to smaller scales. Conversely, Mahadevan and Campbell (2002) attributed the relative distributions of sea surface temperature and phytoplankton to small scale upwelling, where tracers with longer Rt are able to homogenize more than those with shorter reaction times. Neither of the above mechanisms can explain simultaneously the (relative) spectral slopes of temperature, phytoplankton and zooplankton. Here, with a simple advection model and a large suite of numerical experiments, we concentrate on some of the physical processes influencing the relative distributions of tracers at the ocean surface, and we investigate: 1) the impact of the spatial scale of tracer supply; 2) the role played by coherent eddies on the distribution of tracers with different Rt; 3) the role of diffusion (so far neglected). We show that diffusion determines the distribution of temperature, regardless of the nature of the forcing. We also find that coherent structures together with differential diffusion of tracers with different Rt impact the tracer distributions. This may help in understanding the highly variable nature of observed plankton spectra.

  7. [Characteristics of dominant tree species stem sap flow and their relationships with environmental factors in a mixed conifer-broadleaf forest in Dinghushan, Guangdong Province of South China].

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Wei; Zhang, De-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Yi; Liu, Shi-Zhong; Otieno, Dennis; Li, Yue-Lin

    2012-05-01

    By the method of Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the stem sap flow density of four dominant tree species (Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis chinensis, Schima superba, and Machilus kwangtungensis) in a mixed conifer-broadleaf forest in Dinghushan Reserve of South China was continuously measured in the dry season (November) and wet season (July) in 2010, and the environmental factors including air temperature, relative humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured synchronically, aimed to study the characteristics of the stem sap flow of the tree species in response to environmental factors. During the dry and wet seasons, the diurnal changes of the stem sap flow velocity of the tree species all presented a typical single-peak curve, with high values in the daytime and low values in the nighttime. The average and maximum sap flow velocities and the daily sap flow flux of broad-leaved trees (C. chinensis, S. superba, and M. kwangtungensis) were significantly higher than those of coniferous tree (P. massoniana), and the maximum sap flow velocity of P. massoniana, C. valueschinensis, S. superba, and M. kwangtungensis was 29.48, 38.54, 51.67 and 58.32 g H2O x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. A time lag was observed between the sap flow velocity and the diurnal variations of PAR, vapor pressure deficiency, and air temperature, and there existed significant positive correlations between the sap flow velocity and the three environmental factors. The PAR in wet season and the air temperature in dry season were the leading factors affecting the stem sap flow velocity of the dominant tree species.

  8. Distributed Parallel Particle Advection using Work Requesting

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Cornelius; Camp, David; Hentschel, Bernd; Garth, Christoph

    2013-09-30

    Particle advection is an important vector field visualization technique that is difficult to apply to very large data sets in a distributed setting due to scalability limitations in existing algorithms. In this paper, we report on several experiments using work requesting dynamic scheduling which achieves balanced work distribution on arbitrary problems with minimal communication overhead. We present a corresponding prototype implementation, provide and analyze benchmark results, and compare our results to an existing algorithm.

  9. Transient responses to spatial perturbations in advective systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kurt E; Nisbet, Roger M; McCauley, Edward

    2008-07-01

    We study the transient dynamics, following a spatially-extended perturbation of models describing populations residing in advective media such as streams and rivers. Our analyses emphasize metrics that are independent of initial perturbations-resilience, reactivity, and the amplification envelope-and relate them to component spatial wavelengths of the perturbation using spatial Fourier transforms of the state variables. This approach offers a powerful way of understanding the influence of spatial scale on the initial dynamics of a population following a spatially variable environmental perturbation, an important property in determining the ecological implications of transient dynamics in advective systems. We find that asymptotically stable systems may exhibit transient amplification of perturbations (i.e., have positive reactivity) for some spatial wavelengths and not others. Furthermore, the degree and duration of amplification varies strongly with spatial wavelength. For two single-population models, there is a relationship between transient dynamics and the response length that characterizes the steady state response to spatial perturbations: a long response length implies that peak amplification of perturbations is small and occurs fast. This relationship holds less generally in a specialist consumer-resource model, likely due to the model's tendency for flow-induced instabilities at an alternative characteristic spatial scale.

  10. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 107 cm-3. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  11. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell.

    PubMed

    Stockett, M H; Lawler, J E

    2012-03-01

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10(7) cm(-3). A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  12. Observation of Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Granular Scale Advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhichen; Cao, W.; Ji, H.

    2013-07-01

    We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule, using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size 4‧‧ by 4‧‧) with the 1.6 meter aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrow-band (0.5 Å) Helium I 10830 Å and broad-band (10 Å) TiO 7057 Å. Since He I 10830 Å triplet has very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow ( 2 km/ s) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was cancelled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 Å filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule’s motion.

  13. Observation of Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Granular Scale Advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Haisheng

    2013-06-01

    We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size ~ 4'' × 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 Å) He I 10830 Å and broadband (10 Å) TiO 7057 Å. Since He I 10830 Å triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow (~2 km s-1) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 Å filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.

  14. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-15

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  15. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  16. Ion-exchange reactions on clay minerals coupled with advection/dispersion processes. Application to Na+/Ca2+ exchange on vermiculite: Reactive-transport modeling, batch and stirred flow-through reactor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tertre, E.; Hubert, F.; Bruzac, S.; Pacreau, M.; Ferrage, E.; Prêt, D.

    2013-07-01

    The present study aims at testing the validity of using an Na+/Ca2+ ion-exchange model, derived from batch data to interpret experimental Ca2+-for-Na+ exchange breakthrough curves obtained on vermiculite (a common swelling clay mineral in surface environments). The ion-exchange model was constructed considering the multi-site nature of the vermiculite surface as well as the exchange of all aqueous species (Mg2+ derived from the dissolution of the solid and H+). The proposed ion-exchange model was then coupled with a transport model, and the predicted breakthrough curves were compared with the experimental ones obtained using a well stirred flow-through reactor. For a given solute residence time in the reactor (typically 50 min), our thermodynamic model based on instantaneous equilibrium was found to accurately reproduce several of the experimental breakthrough curves, depending on the Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations of the influents pumped through the reactor. However the model failed to reproduce experimental breakthrough curves obtained at high flow rates and low chemical gradient between the exchanger phase and the solution. An alternative model based on a hybrid equilibrium/kinetic approach was thus used and allowed predicting experimental data. Based on these results, we show that a simple parameter can be used to differentiate between thermodynamic and kinetic control of the exchange reaction with water flow. The results of this study are relevant for natural systems where two aquatic environments having contrasted chemistries interact. Indeed, the question regarding the attainment of a full equilibrium in such a system during the contact time of the aqueous phase with the particle/colloid remains most often open. In this context, we show that when a river (a flow of fresh water) encounters marine colloids, a systematic full equilibrium can be assumed (i.e., the absence of kinetic effects) when the residence time of the solute in 1 m3 of the system is ⩾6200 h.

  17. Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sean C; Cunjak, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    The current paradigm of fish community distribution is one of a downstream increase in species richness by addition, but this concept is based on a small number of streams from the mid-west and southern United States, which are dominated by cyprinids. Further, the measure of species richness traditionally used, without including evenness, may not be providing an accurate reflection of the fish community. We hypothesize that in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids, fish community diversity will be affected by the presence of the anadromous species, and therefore be influenced by those factors affecting the salmonid population. Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada, provides a long-term data set to evaluate fish community diversity upstream and downstream of an obstruction (North American beaver Castor canadensis dam complex), which affects distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The Shannon Weiner diversity index and community evenness were calculated for sample sites distributed throughout the brook and over 15 years. Fish community diversity was greatest upstream of the beaver dams and in the absence of Atlantic salmon. The salmon appear to depress the evenness of the community but do not affect species richness. The community upstream of the beaver dams changes due to replacement of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus by salmon, rather than addition, when access is provided. Within Catamaran Brook, location of beaver dams and autumn streamflow interact to govern adult Atlantic salmon spawner distribution, which then dictates juvenile production and effects on fish community. These communities in an anadromous Atlantic salmon dominated stream do not follow the species richness gradient pattern shown in cyprinid-dominated streams and an alternative model for stream fish community distribution in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids is presented. This alternative model suggests that community distribution may be a function of semipermeable obstructions

  18. Sea breezes and advective effects in southwest James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckendry, Ian; Roulet, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Observations from a transect extending 100 km inland during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) in 1990 show that the sea breeze develops on approximately 25% of days during summer and may penetrate up to 100 km inland on occasions. The sea breeze exhibits a marked diurnal clockwise rotation as a result of the Coriolis effect along the unobstructed coastline. The marine advective effect is shown to depend on gradient wind direction. With northwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to be northeasterly in direction and is associated with decreased temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD). With southwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to have a southeasterly direction and less effect on temperatures and VPD. This is attributed to shorter residence times of air parcels over water. For two cases, Colorado State University mesoscale model simulations show good agreement with surface wind observations and suggest that under northwesterly gradient flow, Bowen ratios are increased in the onshore flow along western James Bay, while during southwesterly gradient flow these effects are negligible. These results have implications for the interpretation of local climate, ecology, and hydrology as well as land-based and airborne turbulent flux measurements made during NOWES.

  19. Solving the advection-diffusion equations in biological contexts using the cellular Potts model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Debasis; Mueller, Chris; Chen, Kun; Glazier, James A.

    2005-10-01

    The cellular Potts model (CPM) is a robust, cell-level methodology for simulation of biological tissues and morphogenesis. Both tissue physiology and morphogenesis depend on diffusion of chemical morphogens in the extra-cellular fluid or matrix (ECM). Standard diffusion solvers applied to the cellular potts model use finite difference methods on the underlying CPM lattice. However, these methods produce a diffusing field tied to the underlying lattice, which is inaccurate in many biological situations in which cell or ECM movement causes advection rapid compared to diffusion. Finite difference schemes suffer numerical instabilities solving the resulting advection-diffusion equations. To circumvent these problems we simulate advection diffusion within the framework of the CPM using off-lattice finite-difference methods. We define a set of generalized fluid particles which detach advection and diffusion from the lattice. Diffusion occurs between neighboring fluid particles by local averaging rules which approximate the Laplacian. Directed spin flips in the CPM handle the advective movement of the fluid particles. A constraint on relative velocities in the fluid explicitly accounts for fluid viscosity. We use the CPM to solve various diffusion examples including multiple instantaneous sources, continuous sources, moving sources, and different boundary geometries and conditions to validate our approximation against analytical and established numerical solutions. We also verify the CPM results for Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Aris dispersion.

  20. MECHANISM OF OUTFLOWS IN ACCRETION SYSTEM: ADVECTIVE COOLING CANNOT BALANCE VISCOUS HEATING?

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei-Min

    2015-01-20

    Based on the no-outflow assumption, we investigate steady-state, axisymmetric, optically thin accretion flows in spherical coordinates. By comparing the vertically integrated advective cooling rate with the viscous heating rate, we find that the former is generally less than 30% of the latter, which indicates that the advective cooling itself cannot balance the viscous heating. As a consequence, for radiatively inefficient flows with low accretion rates such as M-dot ≲10{sup −3} M-dot {sub Edd}, where M-dot {sub Edd} is the Eddington accretion rate, the viscous heating rate will be larger than the sum of the advective cooling rate and the radiative cooling one. Thus, no thermal equilibrium can be established under the no-outflow assumption. We therefore argue that in such cases outflows ought to occur and take away more than 70% of the thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation. Similarly, for optically thick flows with extremely large accretion rates such as M-dot ≳10 M-dot {sub Edd}, outflows should also occur owing to the limited advection and the low efficiency of radiative cooling. Our results may help to understand the mechanism of outflows found in observations and numerical simulations.

  1. Microscale chaotic advection enables robust convective DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Priye, Aashish; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2013-11-05

    The ability of chaotic advection under microscale confinement to direct chemical processes along accelerated kinetic pathways has been recognized for some time. However, practical applications have been slow to emerge because optimal results are often counterintuitively achieved in flows that appear to possess undesirably high disorder. Here we present a 3D time-resolved analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA replication across a broad ensemble of geometric states. The resulting parametric map reveals an unexpectedly wide operating regime where reaction rates remain constant over 2 orders of magnitude of the Rayleigh number, encompassing virtually any realistic PCR condition (temperature, volume, gravitational alignment), a level of robustness previously thought unattainable in the convective format.

  2. How Hydrate Saturation Anomalies are Diffusively Constructed and Advectively Smoothed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, A. W.; Irizarry, J. T.; VanderBeek, B. P.; Handwerger, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    The physical processes that control the bulk characteristics of hydrate reservoirs are captured reasonably well by long-established model formulations that are rooted in laboratory-verified phase equilibrium parameterizations and field-based estimates of in situ conditions. More detailed assessments of hydrate distribution, especially involving the occurrence of high-saturation hydrate anomalies have been more difficult to obtain. Spatial variations in sediment properties are of central importance for modifying the phase behavior and promoting focussed fluid flow. However, quantitative predictions of hydrate anomaly development cannot be made rigorously without also addressing the changes in phase behavior and mechanical balances that accompany changes in hydrate saturation level. We demonstrate how pore-scale geometrical controls on hydrate phase stability can be parameterized for incorporation in simulations of hydrate anomaly development along dipping coarse-grained layers embedded in a more fine-grained background that is less amenable to fluid transport. Model simulations demonstrate how hydrate anomaly growth along coarse-layer boundaries is promoted by diffusive gas transport from the adjacent fine-grained matrix, while advective transport favors more distributed growth within the coarse-grained material and so effectively limits the difference between saturation peaks and background levels. Further analysis demonstrates how sediment contacts are unloaded once hydrate saturation reaches sufficient levels to form a load-bearing skeleton that can evolve to produce segregated nodules and lenses. Decomposition of such growth forms poses a significant geohazard that is expected to be particularly sensitive to perturbations induced by gas extraction. The figure illustrates the predicted evolution of hydrate saturation Sh in a coarse-grained dipping layer showing how prominent bounding hydrate anomalies (spikes) supplied by diffusive gas transport at early times

  3. Autosomal dominant

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether the trait is dominant or recessive. A single abnormal gene on one of the first 22 nonsex ( autosomal ) chromosomes from either parent can cause an autosomal disorder. Dominant inheritance means ...

  4. A computational method for sharp interface advection

    PubMed Central

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists of two parts. First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face–interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional interface advection problems on both structured and unstructured meshes. The results are very satisfactory in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness and efficiency. The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM® extension and is published as open source. PMID:28018619

  5. A novel method for analytically solving a radial advection-dispersion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Keng-Hsin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Sie, Bing-Ruei

    2016-11-01

    An analytical solution for solute transport in a radial flow field has a variety of practical applications in the study of the transport in push-pull/divergent/convergent flow tracer tests, aquifer remediation by pumping and aquifer storage and recovery. However, an analytical solution for radial advective-dispersive transport has been proven very difficult to develop and relatively few in subsurface hydrology have made efforts to do so, because variable coefficients in the governing partial differential equations. Most of the solutions for radial advective-dispersive transport presented in the literature have generally been solved semi-analytically with the final concentration values being obtained with the help of a numerical Laplace inversion. This study presents a novel solution strategy for analytically solving the radial advective-dispersive transport problem. A Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and a generalized integral transform technique with respect to the spatial variable are first performed to convert the transient governing partial differential equations into an algebraic equation. Subsequently, the algebraic equation is solved using simple algebraic manipulations, easily yielding the solution in the transformed domain. The solution in the original domain is ultimately obtained by successive applications of the Laplace and corresponding generalized integral transform inversions. A convergent flow tracer test is used to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method for deriving an exact analytical solution to the radial advective-dispersive transport problem. The developed analytical solution is verified against a semi-analytical solution taken from the literature. The results show perfect agreement between our exact analytical solution and the semi-analytical solution. The solution method presented in this study can be applied to create more comprehensive analytical models for a great variety of radial advective

  6. Pointwise interactions of finite element modeling of advection-diffusion equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.

    1984-07-01

    Pointwise iteration techniques including successive under-relaxation (SUR), Gauss-Seidel (G-S), and successive over-relaxation (SOR) schemes, are applied to advection-diffusion equations to derive the matrix equation with finite element methods. These schemes are tested using two simple examples for which analytical solutions are available so that numerical results can be checked to ensure code consistency. Numerical experiments indicate that the iteration schemes, if convergent, produce almost identical solutions as those obtained by the direct elimination scheme. For diffusion dominant transport, all three iteration schemes generate convergent computations. However, for advection-diffusion equally dominant or advection dominant transport, only SUR and G-S schemes yield convergent calculations, the SOR scheme leads to divergent computations. Pointwise iteration schemes offer substantial savings in central process unit (CPU) memory over the direct elimination scheme, even for the small, two-dimensional verification example, without complicating the programming efforts and, in the meantime, keeps the CPU time comparable. A realistic, hypothetical problem is used to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of pointwise iterations and direct elimination schemes. The saving in CPU memory using the pointwise iterations is more than tenfold that using the direct elimination solution for this hypothetical problem. The saving in CPU time is even better, more than 40 fold.

  7. Relative importance of gas-phase diffusive and advective tichloroethene (TCE) fluxes in the unsaturated zone under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jee-Won; Tillman, Fred D; Smith, James A

    2002-07-15

    It was hypothesized that atmospheric pressure changes can induce gas flow in the unsaturated zone to such an extent that the advective flux of organic vapors in unsaturated-zone soil gas can be significant relative to the gas-phase diffusion flux of these organic vapors. To test this hypothesis, a series of field measurements and computer simulations were conducted to simulate and compare diffusion and advection fluxes at a trichloroethene-contaminated field site at Picatinny Arsenal in north-central New Jersey. Moisture content temperature, and soil-gas pressure were measured at multiple depths (including at land surface) and times for three distinct sampling events in August 1996, October 1996, and August 1998. Gas pressures in the unsaturated zone changed significantly over time and followed changes measured in the atmosphere. Gas permeability of the unsaturated zone was estimated using data from a variety of sources, including laboratory gas permeability measurements made on intact soil cores from the site, a field air pump test, and calibration of a gas-flow model to the transient, one-dimensional gas pressure data. The final gas-flow model reproduced small pressure gradients as observed in the field during the three distinct sampling events. The velocities calculated from the gas-flow model were used in transient, one-dimensional transport simulations to quantify advective and diffusive fluxes of TCE vapor from the subsurface to the atmosphere as a function of time for each sampling event. Effective diffusion coefficients used for these simulations were determined from independent laboratory measurements made on intact soil cores collected from the field site. For two of the three sampling events (August 1996 and August 1998), the TCE gas-phase diffusion flux at land surface was significantly greater than the advection flux over the entire sampling period. For the second sampling event (October 1996), the advection flux was frequently larger than the

  8. Temporal characteristics of electrostatic surface waves in a cold complex plasma containing collision-dominated ion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-03-01

    The influence of electron-ion collision frequency and dust charge on the growth rate of two-stream instability of the electrostatic surface wave propagating at the interface of semi-infinite complex plasma whose constituents are electrons, negatively charged dust, and streaming ions. It is found that the surface wave can be unstable if the multiplication of wave number and ion flow velocity is greater than the total plasma frequency of electrons and dusts. The analytical solution of the growth rate is derived as a function of collision frequency, dust charge, and ion-to-electron density ratio. It is found that the growth rate is inversely proportional to the collision rate, but it is enhanced as the number of electrons residing on the dust grain surface is increased. The growth rate of surface wave is compared to that of the bulk wave.

  9. Contrasting mass-wasting activity in two debris flow-dominated catchments of the Venosta Valley/Vinschgau (Italy): 1945-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, Simone; Brardinoni, Francesco; Draganits, Erich; Cavalli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    combines zones with colluvial transport regimes with areas in which fluvial transport prevails, whereas Plaies is essentially dominated by mass-wasting processes strongly controlled by the dynamics of the overhanging Ortler Glacier. Further, Cengles is a supply-limited system, since there the occurrence of debris flows is strongly controlled by in-channel sediment evacuation and recharge cycles that interact with the overcoming of variable hydrometeorological thresholds. In contrast, Plaies is a transport-limited resulting from the almost unlimited availability of loose, mainly glacigenic material that can be mobilized. The debris-flow activity in Plaies is strongly controlled by a combination of hydrometeorological forcing and glacier dynamics. This work is part of SedAlp (www.sedalp.eu), a project funded through the Alpine Space Programme.

  10. In situ experiment to determine advective-diffusive controls on solute transport in a clay-rich aquitard.

    PubMed

    Barbour, S Lee; Hendry, M Jim; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2012-04-01

    Solute transport in clay-rich aquitards is characterized as molecular diffusion- or advection-dominated based on the Péclet number (P(e)). However, few field-based measurements of the coefficient of molecular diffusion (D(e)) exist, and none with a range of advection- or diffusion-dominated conditions in the same aquitard. In this long-term field experiment, standing water in a recovering well was spiked with deuterium ((2)H), then water-level recovery and δ(2)H values were monitored as the well returned to static conditions over 1054 days. After a second (2)H spike, water levels and δ(2)H values were monitored to day 1644 while under near static conditions. Modeling of the second spike was used to define the D(e) of (2)H as (3-4)× 10(-10)m(2)s(-1) for an accessible porosity of 0.31. Reservoir concentrations from the initial spike were modeled to define the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominated transport. This occurred after 200 days, consistent with a transition in P(e) from <1 to >1 when the length term is taken as the radial extent of the tracer plume (normalized concentration <0.05). This study verifies plume extent as the characteristic length term in the calculation of P(e) and demonstrates the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominated transport as the value of P(e) decreases below unity.

  11. Advective removal of intraparticle uranium from contaminated vadose zone sediments, Hanford, U.S.

    PubMed

    Ilton, Eugene S; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Liu, Chongxuan; Moore, Dean A; Zachara, John M

    2008-03-01

    A column study on U(VI)-contaminated vadose zone sediments from the Hanford Site, WA, was performed to investigate U(VI) release kinetics with water advection and variable geochemical conditions. The sediments were collected from an area adjacent to and below tank BX-102 that was contaminated as a result of a radioactive tank waste overfill event. The primary reservoir for U(VI) in the sediments are micrometer-size precipitates composed of nanocrystallite aggregates of a Na-U-Silicate phase, most likely Na-boltwoodite, that nucleated and grew within microfractures of the plagioclase component of sand-sized granitic clasts. Two sediment samples, with different U(VI) concentrations and intraparticle mass transfer properties, were leached with advective flows of three different solutions. The influent solutions were all calcite-saturated and in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. One solution was prepared from DI water, the second was a synthetic groundwater (SGW) with elevated Na that mimicked groundwater at the Hanford site, and the third was the same SGW but with both elevated Na and Si. The latter two solutions were employed, in part, to test the effect of saturation state on U(VI) release. For both sediments, and all three electrolytes, there was an initial rapid release of U(VI) to the advecting solution followed by slower near steady-state release. U(VI)aq concentrations increased during subsequent stop-flow events. The electrolytes with elevated Na and Si depressed U(VL)aq concentrations in effluent solutions. Effluent U(VI)aq concentrations for both sediments and all three electrolytes were simulated reasonably well by a three domain model (the advecting fluid, fractures, and matrix) that coupled U(VI) dissolution, intraparticle U(VI)aq diffusion, and interparticle advection, where diffusion and dissolution properties were parameterized in a previous batch study.

  12. Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    Information dominance may be defined as superiority in the generation, manipulation, and use of information sufficient to afford its possessors... information dominance at the strategic level: knowing oneself and one’s enemy; and, at best, inducing them to see things as one does.

  13. Scalar variance decay in chaotic advection and Batchelor-regime turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereday, D. R.; Haynes, P. H.; Wonhas, A.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2002-03-01

    The decay of the variance of a diffusive scalar in chaotic advection flow (or equivalently Batchelor-regime turbulence) is analyzed using a model in which the advection is represented by an inhomogeneous baker's map on the unit square. The variance decays exponentially at large times, with a rate that has a finite limit as the diffusivity κ tends to zero and is determined by the action of the inhomogeneous map on the gravest Fourier modes in the scalar field. The decay rate predicted by recent theoretical work that follows scalar evolution in linear flow and then averages over all stretching histories is shown to be incorrect. The exponentially decaying scalar field is shown to have a spatial power spectrum of the form P(k)~k-σ at wave numbers small enough for diffusion to be neglected, with σ<1.

  14. Adaptive Computations for Partial Differential Equations Governing Advective Fluid Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-27

    finite element methods have been studied in [30,34,42,45]. Mixed methods have been coupled with other techniques in multicomponent and multiphase...D. Guerillot and 0. Guillon, eds.), Editors Technip, Paris, 1990, 157-163. 81. M.S. Espedal, R.E. Ewing, and T.F. Russell, Mixed methods , operator...May 1988, 85-91. B. ACCEPTED 84. M.S. Espedal, R.E. Ewing, T.F. Russell, and 0. Saevareid, Reservoir simula- tion using mixed methods , a modified

  15. Using the nonlinear aquifer storage-discharge relationship to simulate the base flow of glacier- and snowmelt-dominated basins in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, R.; Luo, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Base flow is an important component in hydrological modeling. This process is usually modeled by using the linear aquifer storage-discharge relation approach, although the outflow from groundwater aquifers is nonlinear. To identify the accuracy of base flow estimates in rivers dominated by snowmelt and/or glacier melt in arid and cold northwestern China, a nonlinear storage-discharge relationship for use in SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) modeling was developed and applied to the Manas River basin in the Tian Shan Mountains. Linear reservoir models and a digital filter program were used for comparisons. Meanwhile, numerical analysis of recession curves from 78 river gauge stations revealed variation in the parameters of the nonlinear relationship. It was found that the nonlinear reservoir model can improve the streamflow simulation, especially for low-flow period. The higher Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, logarithmic efficiency, and volumetric efficiency, and lower percent bias were obtained when compared to the one-linear reservoir approach. The parameter b of the aquifer storage-discharge function varied mostly between 0.0 and 0.1, which is much smaller than the suggested value of 0.5. The coefficient a of the function is related to catchment properties, primarily the basin and glacier areas.

  16. A Comparative Study of Indoor Radon Contributed by Diffusive and Advective Transport through Intact Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Kumar, Amit

    The present work is aimed that out of diffusive and advective transport which is dominant process for indoor radon entry under normal room conditions. For this purpose the radon diffusion coefficient and permeability of concrete were measured by specially designed experimental set up. The radon diffusion coefficient of concrete was measured by continuous radon monitor. The measured value was (3.78 ± 0.39)×10-8 m2/s and found independent of the radon gas concentration in source chamber. The radon permeability of concrete varied between 1.85×10-17 to 1.36×10-15 m2 for the bulk pressure difference fewer than 20 Pa to 73.3 kPa. From the measured diffusion coefficient and absolute permeability, the radon flux from the concrete surface having concentrations gradient 12-40 kBq/m3 and typical floor thickness 0.1 m was calculated by the application of Fick and Darcy laws. Using the measured flux attributable to diffusive and advective transport, the indoor radon concentration for a typical Indian model room having dimension (5×6×7) m3 was calculated under average room ventilation (0.63 h-1). The results showed that the contribution of diffusive transport through intact concrete is dominant over the advective transport, as expected from the low values of concrete permeability.

  17. Temporal signatures of advective versus diffusive radon transport at a geothermal zone in Central Nepal.

    PubMed

    Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Girault, Frédéric; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2011-02-01

    Temporal variation of radon-222 concentration was studied at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located on the Main Central Thrust zone in Central Nepal. This site is characterized by several carbon dioxide discharges having maximum fluxes larger than 10 kg m(-2) d(-1). Radon concentration was monitored with autonomous Barasol™ probes between January 2008 and November 2009 in two small natural cavities with high CO(2) concentration and at six locations in the soil: four points having a high flux, and two background reference points. At the reference points, dominated by radon diffusion, radon concentration was stable from January to May, with mean values of 22 ± 6.9 and 37 ± 5.5 kBq m(-3), but was affected by a large increase, of about a factor of 2 and 1.6, respectively, during the monsoon season from June to September. At the points dominated by CO(2) advection, by contrast, radon concentration showed higher mean values 39.0 ± 2.6 to 78 ± 1.4 kBq m(-3), remarkably stable throughout the year with small long-term variation, including a possible modulation of period around 6 months. A significant difference between the diffusion dominated reference points and the advection-dominated points also emerged when studying the diurnal S(1) and semi-diurnal S(2) periodic components. At the advection-dominated points, radon concentration did not exhibit S(1) or S(2) components. At the reference points, however, the S(2) component, associated with barometric tide, could be identified during the dry season, but only when the probe was installed at shallow depth. The S(1) component, associated with thermal and possibly barometric diurnal forcing, was systematically observed, especially during monsoon season. The remarkable short-term and long-term temporal stability of the radon concentration at the advection-dominated points, which suggests a strong pressure source at depth, may be an important asset to detect possible temporal variations associated with the

  18. Comparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kehua; Zhan, Hongbin

    2013-02-01

    Diffusive flux is traditionally treated as the dominant mechanism of gas transport in unsaturated zones under natural conditions, and advective flux is usually neglected. However, some researchers have found that pressure-driven and density-driven advective flux may also be significant under certain conditions. This article compares the diffusive, pressure-driven and density-driven advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compound (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under various natural conditions. The presence of a less or more permeable layer at ground surface in a layered unsaturated zone is investigated for its impact on the net contribution of advective and diffusive fluxes. Results show although the transient advective flux can be greater than the diffusive flux, under most of the field conditions the net contribution of the advective flux is one to three orders of magnitude less than the diffusive flux, and the influence of the density-driven flux is undetectable. The advective flux contributes comparably with the diffusive flux only when the gas-filled porosity is less than 0.05. The presence of a less permeable layer at ground surface slightly increases the total flux in the underlying layer, while the presence of a more permeable layer at ground surface significantly increases the total flux in it. When the magnitude of water table fluctuation is less than 1 cm, and the period is greater than 0.5 day, the fluctuation of the water table can be simulated by fixing the water table position and setting a fluctuating moving velocity at the water table.

  19. The distortion of the level set gradient under advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Mario F.; Anumolu, Lakshman; Ryddner, Doug

    2017-04-01

    The practice of periodically reinitializing the level set function is well established in two-phase flow applications as a way of controlling the growth of anomalies and/or numerical errors. In the present work, the underlying roots of this anomalous growth are studied, where it is established that the augmentation of the magnitude of the level set gradient (| ∇ϕ |) is directly connected to the nature of the flow field; hence, it is not necessarily the result of some type of numerical error. More specifically, for a general flow field advecting the level set function, it is shown that the eigenpairs of the strain rate tensor are responsible for the rate of change of | ∇ϕ | along a fluid particle trajectory. This straining action not only affects the magnitude of | ∇ϕ |, but the general character of ϕ, and consequently contributes to the growth in numerical error. These numerical consequences are examined by adopting the Gradient Augmented Level Set method. Specifically, it is shown that the local error for ϕ is directly connected to the size of | ∇ϕ | and to the magnitude of the second and fourth order derivatives of ϕ. These analytical findings are subsequently supported by various examples. The role of reinitialization is discussed, where it is shown that in cases where the zero level set contour has a local radius of curvature that is below the local grid resolution, reinitialization exacerbates rather than diminishes the degree of error. For other cases, where the interface is well resolved, reinitialization helps stabilize the error as intended.

  20. The prediction of sea-surface temperature variations by means of an advective mixed-layer ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An advective mixed layer ocean model was developed by eliminating the assumption of horizontal homogeneity in an already existing mixed layer model, and then superimposing a mean and anomalous wind driven current field. This model is based on the principle of conservation of heat and mechanical energy and utilizes a box grid for the advective part of the calculation. Three phases of experiments were conducted: evaluation of the model's ability to account for climatological sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the cooling and heating seasons, sensitivity tests in which the effect of hypothetical anomalous winds was evaluated, and a thirty-day synoptic calculation using the model. For the case studied, the accuracy of the predictions was improved by the inclusion of advection, although nonadvective effects appear to have dominated.

  1. Authalic parameterization of general surfaces using Lie advection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guangyu; Hu, Jiaxi; Gu, Xianfeng; Hua, Jing

    2011-12-01

    Parameterization of complex surfaces constitutes a major means of visualizing highly convoluted geometric structures as well as other properties associated with the surface. It also enables users with the ability to navigate, orient, and focus on regions of interest within a global view and overcome the occlusions to inner concavities. In this paper, we propose a novel area-preserving surface parameterization method which is rigorous in theory, moderate in computation, yet easily extendable to surfaces of non-disc and closed-boundary topologies. Starting from the distortion induced by an initial parameterization, an area restoring diffeomorphic flow is constructed as a Lie advection of differential 2-forms along the manifold, which yields equality of the area elements between the domain and the original surface at its final state. Existence and uniqueness of result are assured through an analytical derivation. Based upon a triangulated surface representation, we also present an efficient algorithm in line with discrete differential modeling. As an exemplar application, the utilization of this method for the effective visualization of brain cortical imaging modalities is presented. Compared with conformal methods, our method can reveal more subtle surface patterns in a quantitative manner. It, therefore, provides a competitive alternative to the existing parameterization techniques for better surface-based analysis in various scenarios.

  2. Designing for chaos: applications of chaotic advection at the microscale.

    PubMed

    Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, F R; Aref, Hassan

    2004-05-15

    Chaotic advection can play an important role in efficient microfluidic mixers. We discuss a design paradigm that exploits chaotic advection and illustrate by two recent examples, namely enhancing gene expression profiling and constructing an in-line microfluidic mixing channel, how application of this paradigm has led to successful micromixers. We suggest that 'designing for chaos', that is, basing practical mixer design on chaotic advection analysis, is a promising approach to adopt in this developing field which otherwise has little to guide it and is constrained by issues of scale and manufacturability.

  3. Numerical Experiments on Advective Transport in Large Three-Dimensional Discrete Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makedonska, N.; Painter, S. L.; Karra, S.; Gable, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling of flow and solute transport in discrete fracture networks is an important approach for understanding the migration of contaminants in impermeable hard rocks such as granite, where fractures provide dominant flow and transport pathways. The discrete fracture network (DFN) model attempts to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. An integrated DFN meshing [1], flow, and particle tracking [2] simulation capability that enables accurate flow and particle tracking simulation on large DFNs has recently been developed. The new capability has been used in numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs with tens of thousands of fractures and millions of computational cells. The modeling procedure starts from the fracture network generation using a stochastic model derived from site data. A high-quality computational mesh is then generated [1]. Flow is then solved using the highly parallel PFLOTRAN [3] code. PFLOTRAN uses the finite volume approach, which is locally mass conserving and thus eliminates mass balance problems during particle tracking. The flow solver provides the scalar fluxes on each control volume face. From the obtained fluxes the Darcy velocity is reconstructed for each node in the network [4]. Velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest, thus enabling random walk particle tracking. In order to describe the flow field on fractures intersections, the control volume cells on intersections are split into four planar polygons, where each polygon corresponds to a piece of a fracture near the intersection line. Thus

  4. The effects of regional groundwater flow in the thermal regime of a basin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leslie; Chapman, David S.

    1982-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the equations of fluid flow and heat transport are used to quantify the effects of groundwater flow on the subsurface thermal regime. Simulations are carried out for a vertical section through a basin with a distance of 40 km separating the regional topographic high and low. Emphasis is placed on understanding the conditions under which advective effects significantly perturb the thermal field. The transition from conduction-dominated to advection-dominated thermal regimes is sharp and depends primarily on the topographic configuration of the water table, the magnitude and spatial distribution of permeability, hydraulic anisotropy and depth of active flow. Deviations of surface heat flow from the background heat flux are a measurable effect of groundwater flow and depend on the same factors. Our results show that from zero to almost one hundred per cent of the section may have surface heat flow significantly different from background heat flow, depending upon the nature of the hydrogeologic environment. A limited spatial variability in a distributed set of heat flow measurements and/or linear temperature-depth profiles does not ensure that surface heat flow measurements are not disturbed. The results of our simulations suggest that knowledge of the complete environment of a site, including the water table configuration and subsurface flow system, combined with more closely spaced heat flow measurements may be necessary to unravel the true background heat flux in active flow regions.

  5. Advection and the Efficiency of Spectral Energy Transfer in Two-Dimensional Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2016-09-02

    We report measurements of the geometric alignment of the small-scale turbulent stress and the large-scale rate of strain that together lead to the net flux of energy from small scales to large scales in two-dimensional turbulence. We find that the instantaneous alignment between these two tensors is weak and, thus, that the spectral transport of energy is inefficient. We show, however, that the strain rate is much better aligned with the stress at times in the past, suggesting that the differential advection of the two is responsible for the inefficient spectral transfer. We provide evidence for this conjecture by measuring the alignment statistics conditioned on weakly changing stress history. Our results give new insight into the relationship between scale-to-scale energy transfer, geometric alignment, and advection in turbulent flows.

  6. An advection-based model to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series.

    PubMed

    Scarano, Fulvio; Moore, Peter

    A numerical implementation of the advection equation is proposed to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series. The method is based on the principle that velocity fluctuations are transported passively, similar to Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence. In the present work, the advection model is extended to unsteady three-dimensional flows. The main objective of the method is that of lowering the requirement on the PIV repetition rate from the Eulerian frequency toward the Lagrangian one. The local trajectory of the fluid parcel is obtained by forward projection of the instantaneous velocity at the preceding time instant and backward projection from the subsequent time step. The trajectories are approximated by the instantaneous streamlines, which yields accurate results when the amplitude of velocity fluctuations is small with respect to the convective motion. The verification is performed with two experiments conducted at temporal resolutions significantly higher than that dictated by Nyquist criterion. The flow past the trailing edge of a NACA0012 airfoil closely approximates frozen turbulence, where the largest ratio between the Lagrangian and Eulerian temporal scales is expected. An order of magnitude reduction of the needed acquisition frequency is demonstrated by the velocity spectra of super-sampled series. The application to three-dimensional data is made with time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements of a transitional jet. Here, the 3D advection equation is implemented to estimate the fluid trajectories. The reduction in the minimum sampling rate by the use of super-sampling in this case is less, due to the fact that vortices occurring in the jet shear layer are not well approximated by sole advection at large time separation. Both cases reveal that the current requirements for time-resolved PIV experiments can be revised when information is poured from space to time. An additional favorable effect is observed by the analysis in the frequency

  7. Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kraichnan, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.

  8. Overcoming diffusion-limited processes using enhanced advective fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    Many subsurface cleanup activities focus on the remediation of organic contaminants using induced advective fields. Subsurface heterogeneities cause most advective transport to occur in more permeable zones, with transport from the lower permeability units being limited by diffusion to the higher permeable units. While diffusion rates can be enhanced using thermal sources, many of the treatment strategies, including pump and treat, vapor extraction and bioremediation, are limited by mass exchange rates between the higher and lower permeability sand and clay mixtures. Instead of relying on the enhancement of diffusion rates, it is proposed that remediation strategies should focus on the enhancement of induced advective transport rates through the lower permeability units. Injection-extraction strategies using crosshole and huff-and-puff methods are presented for maximizing advective transport through lower permeability units. Optimization of the design can incorporate diffusion-enhancement technologies, bionourishment, capillary confinement in the unsaturated zone, and DNAPL slurping.

  9. Controlling the column spacing in isothermal magnetic advection to enable tunable heat and mass transfer.

    DOE PAGES

    Solis, Kyle Jameson; Martin, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Isothermal magnetic advection is a recently discovered method of inducing highly organized, non-contact flow lattices in suspensions of magnetic particles, using only uniform ac magnetic fields of modest strength. The initiation of these vigorous flows requires neither a thermal gradient nor a gravitational field and so can be used to transfer heat and mass in circumstances where natural convection does not occur. These advection lattices are comprised of a square lattice of antiparallel flow columns. If the column spacing is sufficiently large compared to the column length, and the flow rate within the columns is sufficiently large, then one wouldmore » expect efficient transfer of both heat and mass. Otherwise, the flow lattice could act as a countercurrent heat exchanger and only mass will be efficiently transferred. Although this latter case might be useful for feeding a reaction front without extracting heat, it is likely that most interest will be focused on using IMA for heat transfer. In this paper we explore the various experimental parameters of IMA to determine which of these can be used to control the column spacing. These parameters include the field frequency, strength, and phase relation between the two field components, the liquid viscosity and particle volume fraction. We find that the column spacing can easily be tuned over a wide range, to enable the careful control of heat and mass transfer.« less

  10. Controlling the column spacing in isothermal magnetic advection to enable tunable heat and mass transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, Kyle Jameson; Martin, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Isothermal magnetic advection is a recently discovered method of inducing highly organized, non-contact flow lattices in suspensions of magnetic particles, using only uniform ac magnetic fields of modest strength. The initiation of these vigorous flows requires neither a thermal gradient nor a gravitational field and so can be used to transfer heat and mass in circumstances where natural convection does not occur. These advection lattices are comprised of a square lattice of antiparallel flow columns. If the column spacing is sufficiently large compared to the column length, and the flow rate within the columns is sufficiently large, then one would expect efficient transfer of both heat and mass. Otherwise, the flow lattice could act as a countercurrent heat exchanger and only mass will be efficiently transferred. Although this latter case might be useful for feeding a reaction front without extracting heat, it is likely that most interest will be focused on using IMA for heat transfer. In this paper we explore the various experimental parameters of IMA to determine which of these can be used to control the column spacing. These parameters include the field frequency, strength, and phase relation between the two field components, the liquid viscosity and particle volume fraction. We find that the column spacing can easily be tuned over a wide range, to enable the careful control of heat and mass transfer.

  11. Diel Drift Patterns and Spatio-temporal Distribution of Macroinvertebrates in the Blanco River, Texas: A Groundwater Dominated Stream Subject to Intermittent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, D. R.; Arsuffi, T. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Blanco River is a relatively pristine karst stream in central Texas and designated a conservation target by The Nature Conservancy. It is fed primarily by groundwater in the upper reaches and dominated by runoff and intermittency downstream. The spatial and temporal structure of macroinvertebrates in the Blanco River was assessed with seasonal Hess and d-net samples during 2003-2004 and three diel drift samples from May to October 2004. Our downstream site showed a 47% drop in diversity, but comparable abundances to up- and mid-stream sites. Ephemeropteran and trichopteran taxa (e.g. Tricorythodes and Cheumatopsyche) comprised about 60% of drift and benthic samples alike, however, non-insect taxa were nearly absent from the drift. Some taxa not present in the benthic samples were present in the drift. Post-dusk and pre-dawn peaks in diel drift were discerned. No strong seasonal patterns were detected which may be attributable to an unusually wet year and asynchronous, multivoltinous life cycles associated with mild seasonality in subtropical regions. The Blanco River's historically variable hydrological regime may be further exacerbated by long-term flow alteration associated with increasing anthropogenic development and could alter the composition and distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages.

  12. Anisotropic Turbulent Advection of a Passive Vector Field: Effects of the Finite Correlation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, N. V.; Gulitskiy, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    The turbulent passive advection under the environment (velocity) field with finite correlation time is studied. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior of a vector (e.g., magnetic) field, passively advected by a strongly anisotropic turbulent flow, is investigated by means of the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion. The advecting velocity field is Gaussian, with finite correlation time and prescribed pair correlation function. The inertial-range behavior of the model is described by two regimes (the limits of vanishing or infinite correlation time) that correspond to nontrivial fixed points of the RG equations and depend on the relation between the exponents in the energy energy spectrum ɛ ∝ k⊥1-ξ and the dispersion law ω ∝ k⊥2-η . The corresponding anomalous exponents are associated with the critical dimensions of tensor composite operators built solely of the passive vector field itself. In contrast to the well-known isotropic Kraichnan model, where various correlation functions exhibit anomalous scaling behavior with infinite sets of anomalous exponents, here the dependence on the integral turbulence scale L has a logarithmic behavior: instead of power-like corrections to ordinary scaling, determined by naive (canonical) dimensions, the anomalies manifest themselves as polynomials of logarithms of L. Due to the presence of the anisotropy in the model, all multiloop diagrams are equal to zero, thus this result is exact.

  13. The effect of forcing on the spatial structure and spectra of chaotically advected passive scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Zoltán; Haynes, Peter H.; Picard, Guillemette

    2000-10-01

    The stationary distribution of passive tracers chaotically advected by a two-dimensional large-scale flow is investigated. The value of the tracer is conserved following each fluid element except when the element enters certain localized regions. The tracer value is then instantenously reset to a value associated with the region entered. This resetting acts as a forcing for the tracer field. This problem is mathematically equivalent to advection in open flows and results in a fractal tracer structure. The spectral exponent of the tracer field is different from that for a passive tracer with the usual additive forcing (the so-called Batchelor spectrum) and is related to the fractal dimension of the set of points that have never visited the forcing regions. We illustrate this behavior by considering a time-periodic flow whose effect is equivalent to a simple two-dimensional area-preserving map. We also show that similar structure in the tracer field is found when the flow is aperiodic in time.

  14. Chaotic advection at the pore scale: Mechanisms, upscaling and implications for macroscopic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, D. R.; Trefry, M. G.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-11-01

    The macroscopic spreading and mixing of solute plumes in saturated porous media is ultimately controlled by processes operating at the pore scale. Whilst the conventional picture of pore-scale mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion leading to persistent hydrodynamic dispersion is well accepted, this paradigm is inherently two-dimensional (2D) in nature and neglects important three-dimensional (3D) phenomena. We discuss how the kinematics of steady 3D flow at the pore scale generate chaotic advection-involving exponential stretching and folding of fluid elements-the mechanisms by which it arises and implications of microscopic chaos for macroscopic dispersion and mixing. Prohibited in steady 2D flow due to topological constraints, these phenomena are ubiquitous due to the topological complexity inherent to all 3D porous media. Consequently 3D porous media flows generate profoundly different fluid deformation and mixing processes to those of 2D flow. The interplay of chaotic advection and broad transit time distributions can be incorporated into a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) framework to predict macroscopic solute mixing and spreading. We show how these results may be generalised to real porous architectures via a CTRW model of fluid deformation, leading to stochastic models of macroscopic dispersion and mixing which both honour the pore-scale kinematics and are directly conditioned on the pore-scale architecture.

  15. Assessment of advective porewater movement affecting mass transfer of hydrophobic organic contaminants in marine intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Werner, David; Moffett, Kevan B; Luthy, Richard G

    2010-08-01

    Advective porewater movement and molecular diffusion are important factors affecting the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in marsh and mudflat sediments. This study assessed porewater movement in an intertidal mudflat in South Basin adjacent to Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA, where a pilot-scale test of sorbent amendment assessed the in situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To quantify advective porewater movement within the top 0-60 cm sediment layer, we used temperature as a tracer and conducted heat transport analysis using 14-day data from multidepth sediment temperature logging stations and one-dimensional heat transport simulations. The best-fit conditions gave an average Darcy velocity of 3.8cm/d in the downward vertical direction for sorbent-amended sediment with a plausible range of 0 cm/d to 8 cm/d. In a limiting case with no net advection, the best-fit depth-averaged mechanical dispersion coefficient was 2.2x10(-7) m2/s with a range of 0.9x10(-7) m2/s to 5.6x10(-7) m2/s. The Peclet number for PCB mobilization showed that molecular diffusion would control PCB mass transfer from sediment to sorbent particles for the case of uniform distribution of sorbent. However, the advective flow and mechanical dispersion in the test site would significantly benefit the stabilization effect of heterogeneously distributed sorbent by acting to smooth out the heterogeneities and homogenizing pollutant concentrations across the entire bioactive zone. These measurements and modeling techniques on intertidal sediment porewater transport could be useful for the development of more reliable mass transfer models for the prediction of contaminant release within the sediment bed, the movement of HOCs in the intertidal aquatic environment, and in situ sequestration by sorbent addition.

  16. A new Remesh-Lagrange technique for advecting temperature that minimizes numerical diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenclever, J.; Phipps Morgan, J.; Shi, C.

    2007-12-01

    The proper treatment of heat-advection is a generally underappreciated problem within CFD, yet particularly critical for calculating physically sound erosion in plume-lithosphere interactions and temperature sensitive melting processes. Typically, Eulerian (fixed-mesh) codes have been preferred to solve for fluid flow and they are almost essential for finite-difference-based algorithms. Unfortunately, the Eulerian approach introduces numerical artifacts into the solution of the advection-diffusion heat transport problem that can only be suppressed by adding 'too-diffusive' artificial diffusion to the equations, as for example in the Smolarkiewicz formulation for heat advection. We have developed a 'Remesh-Lagrange' method using a partly deforming finite element mesh and find it to be significantly more accurate than our previous methods. In several test scenarios we show the large improvement in accuracy that can be obtained by using a Lagrangian approach for 10-30 time steps (depending upon the distortion of the finite elements in the deformed Lagrangian mesh) and then regridding to the initial mesh. When an element becomes too distorted the nodes connected to it become fixed and we switch from Lagrange to a Semi-Lagrange formulation for these nodes. Instead of the standard 'linear backward' Semi-Lagrange we are also experimenting with a more accurate interpolation scheme for an unstructured mesh that additionally includes the nodal derivatives of the temperature field when calculating the value at the Semi-Lagrange traceback point. The same bicubic interpolation method for an unstructured grid is used to remesh the 'too-distorted' Lagrange grid back to the initial undistorted mesh. We compare the Remesh-Lagrange technique against the following Eulerian methods in a series of 2-D numerical experiments advecting stripes and Gaussian peaks in steady circulating flow: linear back-interpolation Semi-Lagrange method; bicubic back-interpolation Semi-Lagrange method

  17. Investigation of the influence of groundwater advection on energy extraction rates for sustainable borehole heat exchanger operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A sustainable thermal exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires a precise understanding of all relevant heat transport processes. Currently, planning practice of shallow geothermal systems (especially for systems < 30 kW) focuses on conductive heat transport as the main energy source while the impact of groundwater flow as the driver for advective heat transport is neglected or strongly simplified. The presented study proves that those simplifications of complex geological and hydrogeological subsurface characteristics are insufficient for a precise evaluation of site-specific energy extraction rates. Based on synthetic model scenarios with varying subsurface conditions (groundwater flow velocity and aquifer thickness) the impact of advection on induced long term temperature changes in 5 and 10 m distance of the borehole heat exchanger is presented. Extending known investigations, this study enhances the evaluation of shallow geothermal energy extraction rates by considering conductive and advective heat transport under varying aquifer thicknesses. Further, it evaluates the impact of advection on installation lengths of the borehole heat exchanger to optimize the initial financial investment. Finally, an evaluation approach is presented that classifies relevant heat transport processes according to their Péclet number to enable a first quantitative assessment of the subsurface energy regime and recommend further investigation and planning procedures.

  18. Permafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Jeffery M.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater flow in cold regions containing permafrost accelerates climate-warming-driven thaw and changes thaw patterns. Simulation analyses of groundwater flow and heat transport with freeze/thaw in typical cold-regions terrain with nested flow indicate that early thaw rate is particularly enhanced by flow, the time when adverse environmental impacts of climate-warming-induced permafrost loss may be severest. For the slowest climate-warming rate predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), once significant groundwater flow begins, thick permafrost layers can vanish in several hundred years, but survive over 1,000 years where flow is minimal. Large-scale thaw depends mostly on the balance of heat advection and conduction in the supra-permafrost zone. Surface-water bodies underlain by open taliks allow slow sub-permafrost flow, with lesser influence on regional thaw. Advection dominance over conduction depends on permeability and topography. Groundwater flow around permafrost and flow through permafrost impact thaw differently; the latter enhances early thaw rate. Air-temperature seasonality also increases early thaw. Hydrogeologic heterogeneity and topography strongly affect thaw rates/patterns. Permafrost controls the groundwater/surface-water-geomorphology system; hence, prediction and mitigation of impacts of thaw on ecology, chemical exports and infrastructure require improved hydrogeology/permafrost characterization and understanding

  19. Influence of turbulent advection on a phytoplankton ecosystem with nonuniform carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    McKiver, William J; Neufeld, Zoltán

    2009-06-01

    In this work we study a plankton ecosystem model in a turbulent flow. The plankton model we consider contains logistic growth with a spatially varying background carrying capacity and the flow dynamics are generated using the two-dimensional (2D) Navier-Stokes equations. We characterize the system in terms of a dimensionless parameter, gamma identical with TB/TF, which is the ratio of the ecosystem biological time scales TB and the flow time scales TF. We integrate this system numerically for different values of gamma until the mean plankton reaches a statistically stationary state and examine how the steady-state mean and variance of plankton depends on gamma. Overall we find that advection in the presence of a nonuniform background carrying capacity can lead to very different plankton distributions depending on the time scale ratio gamma. For small gamma the plankton distribution is very similar to the background carrying capacity field and has a mean concentration close to the mean carrying capacity. As gamma increases the plankton concentration is more influenced by the advection processes. In the largest gamma cases there is a homogenization of the plankton concentration and the mean plankton concentration approaches the harmonic mean, <1/K>(-1). We derive asymptotic approximations for the cases of small and large gamma. We also look at the dependence of the power spectra exponent, beta, on gamma where the power spectrum of plankton is proportional to k(-beta). We find that the power spectra exponent closely obeys beta=1+2/gamma as predicted by earlier studies using simple models of chaotic advection.

  20. Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Christoffer P.; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-10-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of salt transport and overlimiting currents in a microchannel during concentration polarization. We have carried out full numerical simulations of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes problem governing the transport and rationalized the behavior of the system. A remarkable outcome of the investigations is the discovery of strong couplings between bulk advection and the surface current; without a surface current, bulk advection is strongly suppressed. The numerical simulations are supplemented by analytical models valid in the long channel limit as well as in the limit of negligible surface charge. By including the effects of diffusion and advection in the diffuse part of the electric double layers, we extend a recently published analytical model of overlimiting current due to surface conduction.

  1. Multigrid techniques for the solution of the passive scalar advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. E.; Schmidt, F. W.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of elliptic passive scalar advection-diffusion equations is required in the analysis of many turbulent flow and convective heat transfer problems. The accuracy of the solution may be affected by the presence of regions containing large gradients of the dependent variables. The multigrid concept of local grid refinement is a method for improving the accuracy of the calculations in these problems. In combination with the multilevel acceleration techniques, an accurate and efficient computational procedure is developed. In addition, a robust implementation of the QUICK finite-difference scheme is described. Calculations of a test problem are presented to quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of the multilevel-multigrid method.

  2. The role of advection and diffusion in waste disposal by sea urchin embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Aaron; Licata, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    We determine the first passage probability for the absorption of waste molecules released from the microvilli of sea urchin embryos. We calculate a perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation for a linear shear profile similar to the fluid environment which the embryos inhabit. Rapid rotation of the embryo results in a concentration boundary layer of comparable thickness to the length of the microvilli. A comparison of the results to the regime of diffusion limited transport indicates that fluid flow is advantageous for efficient waste disposal.

  3. Demonstration of microbial transport into the capillary fringe via advection from below the water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Andrea M.; Silliman, Stephen E.; Dhamwichukorn, Srisuda; Kulpa, Charles F.

    2005-05-01

    A laboratory experiment is used to provide preliminary evidence that microbes can be advected into the capillary fringe from the region below the water table under steady flow conditions. A flow cell was packed so as to contain both a region for which pore-water pressure was greater than atmospheric pressure (termed 'below the water table') and a region, where the pore-water pressure was less than atmospheric with the pores essentially saturated with water (termed the 'capillary fringe'). Steady flow was then established through maintaining a hydraulic gradient across the medium. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) transformed bacteria ( E. coli JM109) were used to visualize migration of bacteria from below the water table into the capillary fringe. These transformed bacteria fluoresce brightly and readily when excited by standard UV light (395 nm) in 100 mL LB medium with 100 μg/mL ampicillin. The concentrations of bacterial inoculum and oxygen were adjusted to ensure GFPuv expression at a large scale. Results demonstrated that microbes can move into the capillary fringe from below the water table under horizontal hydraulic gradients. Motion from the capillary fringe into the region below the water table was also observed as was the absence of advection through regions of entrapped air below the water table.

  4. Application of a Particle Method to the Advection-Diffusion-Reaction Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paster, A.; Bolster, D.; Benson, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    -known phenomena of incomplete mixing (Ovchinnikov-Zeldovich segregation). The numerical results of the particle-tracking simulations are compared to an approximate analytical solution and the late time discrepancy is explained. We also study, for a two dimensional system, how shear flow effects the reaction rate. We do so since shear flow is the simplest form of a spatially variable advection. For the shear flow system, we find that shear flow leads to better mixing of the system on one hand, and a surprising one dimensional segregation at late times, on the other hand. This is in contrast with zero-advection two-dimensional system, where the late time behavior is characterized by the formation of two-dimensional islands. References (Manuscripts in submission): Paster A., D. Bolster and D.A. Benson. Connecting the dots: application of a particle method to the diffusion-reaction equation. Submitted to Advances in Water Resources. Paster A., D. Bolster and D.A. Benson. Particle Tracking and the Diffusion-Reaction Equation. Submitted to Water Resources Research.

  5. Invasions in heterogeneous habitats in the presence of advection.

    PubMed

    Vergni, Davide; Iannaccone, Sandro; Berti, Stefano; Cencini, Massimo

    2012-05-21

    We investigate invasions from a biological reservoir to an initially empty, heterogeneous habitat in the presence of advection. The habitat consists of a periodic alternation of favorable and unfavorable patches. In the latter the population dies at fixed rate. In the former it grows either with the logistic or with an Allee effect type dynamics, where the population has to overcome a threshold to grow. We study the conditions for successful invasions and the speed of the invasion process, which is numerically and analytically investigated in several limits. Generically advection enhances the downstream invasion speed but decreases the population size of the invading species, and can even inhibit the invasion process. Remarkably, however, the rate of population increase, which quantifies the invasion efficiency, is maximized by an optimal advection velocity. In models with Allee effect, differently from the logistic case, above a critical unfavorable patch size the population localizes in a favorable patch, being unable to invade the habitat. However, we show that advection, when intense enough, may activate the invasion process.

  6. In Situ Self Assembly of Nanocomposites: Competition of Chaotic Advection and Interfacial Effects as Observed by X-Ray Diffreaction

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Dilru R.; Mahesha, Chaitra; Zumbrunnen, David A.; Perahia, Dvora

    2015-01-01

    The effects of chaotic advection on the in situ assembly of a hierarchal nanocomposite of Poly Amide 6, (nylon 6 or PA6) and platelet shape nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. The assemblies were formed by chaotic advection, where melts of pristine PA6 and a mixture of PA6 with NPs were segregated into discrete layers and extruded into film in a continuous process. The process assembles the nanocomposite into alternating pristine-polymer and oriented NP/polymer layers. The structure of these hierarchal assemblies was probed by X-rays as a processing parameter, N, was varied. This parameter provides a measure of the extent of in situ structuring by chaotic advection. We found that all assemblies are semi-crystalline at room temperature. Increasing N impacts the ratio of α to γ crystalline forms. The effects of the chaotic advection vary with the concentration of the NPs. For nanocomposites with lower NP concentrations the amount of the γ crystalline form increased with N. However, at higher NP concentrations, interfacial effects of the NP play a significant role in determining the structure, where the NPs oriented along the melt flow direction and the polymer chains oriented perpendicular to the NP surfaces.

  7. Vertical Advection Effects on Hyper-accretion Disks and Potential Link between Gamma-Ray Bursts and Kilonovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Yuan, Feng; Liu, Tong; Mu, Hui-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Recent simulations on super-Eddington accretion flows have shown that, apart from the diffusion process, the vertical advection based on magnetic buoyancy can be a more efficient process to release the trapped photons in the optically thick disk. As a consequence, the radiative luminosity from the accretion disk can be far beyond the Eddington value. Following this spirit, we revisit the structure and radiation of hyper-accretion disks with mass accretion rates in the range of {10}-3∼ 10 {M}ȯ {{{s}}}-1. Our results show that, due to the strong cooling through the vertical advection, the disk temperature becomes lower than that in the classic model without the vertical advection process, and therefore the neutrino luminosity from the disk is lower. On the other hand, the gamma-ray photons released through the vertical advection can be extremely super-Eddington. We argue that the large amount of escaped gamma-ray photons may have more significant contribution to the primordial fireball than the neutrino annihilation, and may hint at a link between gamma-ray bursts and kilonovae in the black hole hyper-accretion scenario.

  8. A Hybrid Advection Scheme for Conserving Angular Momentum on a Refined Cartesian Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byerly, Zachary D.; Adelstein-Lelbach, Bryce; Tohline, Joel E.; Marcello, Dominic C.

    2014-06-01

    We test a new "hybrid" scheme for simulating dynamical fluid flows in which cylindrical components of the momentum are advected across a rotating Cartesian coordinate mesh. This hybrid scheme allows us to conserve angular momentum to machine precision while capitalizing on the advantages offered by a Cartesian mesh, such as a straightforward implementation of mesh refinement. Our test focuses on measuring the real and imaginary parts of the eigenfrequency of unstable nonaxisymmetric modes that naturally arise in massless polytropic tori having a range of different aspect ratios and on quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements. Our measured eigenfrequencies show good agreement with the results obtained from the linear stability analysis of Kojima and from nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations performed on a cylindrical coordinate mesh by Woodward et al. When compared against results conducted with a traditional Cartesian advection scheme, the hybrid scheme achieves qualitative convergence at the same or, in some cases, much lower grid resolutions and conserves angular momentum to a much higher degree of precision. As a result, this hybrid scheme is much better suited for simulating astrophysical fluid flows such as accretion disks and mass-transferring binary systems.

  9. Low-Dissipation Advection Schemes Designed for Large Eddy Simulations of Hypersonic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Jeffrey A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Fisher, Travis C.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Black, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The 2nd-order upwind inviscid flux scheme implemented in the multi-block, structured grid, cell centered, finite volume, high-speed reacting flow code VULCAN has been modified to reduce numerical dissipation. This modification was motivated by the desire to improve the codes ability to perform large eddy simulations. The reduction in dissipation was accomplished through a hybridization of non-dissipative and dissipative discontinuity-capturing advection schemes that reduces numerical dissipation while maintaining the ability to capture shocks. A methodology for constructing hybrid-advection schemes that blends nondissipative fluxes consisting of linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms discretized using 4th-order symmetric operators, with dissipative, 3rd or 4th-order reconstruction based upwind flux schemes was developed and implemented. A series of benchmark problems with increasing spatial and fluid dynamical complexity were utilized to examine the ability of the candidate schemes to resolve and propagate structures typical of turbulent flow, their discontinuity capturing capability and their robustness. A realistic geometry typical of a high-speed propulsion system flowpath was computed using the most promising of the examined schemes and was compared with available experimental data to demonstrate simulation fidelity.

  10. Tidal Mixing and Buoyancy Advection: Joint Influences on Lobster Distribution in Coastal Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Eastern Maine Coastal Current (EMCC) flows southwestward from the mouth of the Bay of Fundy to Penobscot Bay on the central Maine coast. Maximum non-tidal surface speeds reach 20-30 cm/s about 20 km offshore during April-May when the outflow from the Saint John River is strongest. Vigorous tides cause strong vertical and horizontal mixing, so that dispersal of neutral particles is influenced both by advection and tidal mixing. To survive, planktonic lobsters carried southwestward in the surface flow must settle to a nearshore cobble substrate. Larvae hatched near the Bay of Fundy can be advected to the central coast in 2-3 weeks, roughly the time needed to reach settlement stage. Over the same period, transverse tidal mixing is sufficient to raise nearshore larval concentrations to about half that offshore in the axis of the EMCC. Both processes may be necessary to explain the observed lobster distribution, which exhibits a distinct maximum in the central coastal region. The seasonal development of the EMCC is also influenced by winds and the larger circulation of the Gulf of Maine. This work is part of a multidisciplinary synthesis study funded by the NOAA Coastal Ocean Program.

  11. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L. Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  12. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  13. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  14. Rossby Wave Instability in the Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholipour, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The roles of the Rossby wave instability (RWI) have been significantly developed in some important processes, such as planet formation and angular momentum transport through thin accretion disks. However, their development on accretion flows with advection is insignificant. In this paper, we investigate the effect of advection in the occurrence of RWI through accretion flows around black holes (BHs). In the absence of advection, the occurrence of RWI is extremely low because of high viscosity in the accretion flows around BHs. The results of this paper show that there is a significant chance for the occurrence of RWI in some wavelengths if we consider advection even in low amounts. Therefore, the RWI can be a suitable candidate for angular momentum transport in the accretion flows around BHs. Also, the results show that the advection parameter and the ratio of heat capacity, which are special characters of advection flows, play important roles in the occurrence of RWI.

  15. Enhancement of microbial motility due to advection-dependent nutrient absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condat, Carlos A.; di Salvo, Mario E.

    2014-03-01

    In their classical work, Berg and Purcell [Biophys. J. 20, 193 (1977)] concluded that the motion of a small microorganism would not significantly increase its nutrient uptake rate, if the nutrient consisted of high diffusivity particles. As a result, it has been generally assumed that nutrient transport to small microorganisms such as bacteria is dominated by molecular diffusion and that swimming and feeding currents play a negligible role. On the other hand, recent studies have found that flagellar motion may increase advection-mediated uptake. We formulate a model to investigate the hypothesis that fast-moving microbes may enhance their swimming speed by taking advantage of advection to increase nutrient absorption. Surprisingly, using realistic parameter values for bacteria and algae, we find that even modest increases in nutrient absorption may lead to a significant increase of the microbial speed. We also show that, optimally, the rate of effective energy transfer to the microbial propulsion system should be proportional to the speed for slow motion, while it should be proportional to a power of the speed close to two for fast motion. We are grateful to SECyT-UNC and CONICET, Argentina, for financial support.

  16. Modeling breakup and relaxation of Newtonian droplets using the advected phase-field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucourt, J.; Biben, T.; Leyrat, A.; Verdier, C.

    2007-02-01

    The relaxation and breakup of Newtonian droplets is considered using the advected field approach. This method allows one to follow the deformation of interfaces using an order parameter field [Biben , Europhys. Lett. 63, 623 (2003)] based on a Ginzburg-Landau equation. Using this method, it is possible to follow the breakup of droplets and stability curves can be obtained in both two- and three-dimensional shear and elongational flows. Finally, relaxation of a droplet is considered, following the application of an elongational flow. The results are compared with previous experimental data [Ha and Leal, Phys. Fluids 13, 1568 (2001)], and are found to be in satisfactory agreement. The method is general enough to be applied to other non-Newtonian fluids, such as Oldroyd-B fluids or viscoplastic materials.

  17. Mass and Momentum Transport in Microcavities for Diffusion-Dominant Cell Culture Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Pinero, Daniel; Hsieh, Adam H.; Atencia, Javier

    2012-01-01

    For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically-driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the spatial transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs to travel from the microchannel to a given depth into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, physiologically-based culture conditions with low fluid shear stress.

  18. A tracer-based inversion method for diagnosing eddy-induced diffusivity and advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, S. D.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Bryan, F. O.

    2015-02-01

    A diagnosis method is presented which inverts a set of tracer flux statistics into an eddy-induced transport intended to apply for all tracers. The underlying assumption is that a linear flux-gradient relationship describes eddy-induced tracer transport, but a full tensor coefficient is assumed rather than a scalar coefficient which allows for down-gradient and skew transports. Thus, Lagrangian advection and anisotropic diffusion not necessarily aligned with the tracer gradient can be diagnosed. In this method, multiple passive tracers are initialized in an eddy-resolving flow simulation. Their spatially-averaged gradients form a matrix, where the gradient of each tracer is assumed to satisfy an identical flux-gradient relationship. The resulting linear system, which is overdetermined when using more than three tracers, is then solved to obtain an eddy transport tensor R which describes the eddy advection (antisymmetric part of R) and potentially anisotropic diffusion (symmetric part of R) in terms of coarse-grained variables. The mathematical basis for this inversion method is presented here, along with practical guidelines for its implementation. We present recommendations for initialization of the passive tracers, maintaining the required misalignment of the tracer gradients, correcting for nonconservative effects, and quantifying the error in the diagnosed transport tensor. A method is proposed to find unique, tracer-independent, distinct rotational and divergent Lagrangian transport operators, but the results indicate that these operators are not meaningfully relatable to tracer-independent eddy advection or diffusion. With the optimal method of diagnosis, the diagnosed transport tensor is capable of predicting the fluxes of other tracers that are withheld from the diagnosis, including even active tracers such as buoyancy, such that relative errors of 14% or less are found.

  19. Hydrologic and geochemical effects on oxygen uptake in bottom sediments of an effluent-dominated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Tindall, J.A.; Collins, J.A.; Lull, K.J.; Nuttle, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    More than 95% of the water in the South Platte River downstream from the largest wastewater treatment plant serving the metropolitan Denver, Colorado, area consists of treated effluent during some periods of low flow. Fluctuations in effluent-discharge rates caused daily changes in river stage that promoted exchange of water between the river and bottom sediments. Groundwater discharge measurements indicated fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface as high as 18 m3 s−1 km−1. Laboratory experiments indicated that downward movement of surface water through bottom sediments at velocities comparable to those measured in the field (median rate ≈0.005 cm s−1) substantially increased dissolved oxygen uptake rates in bottom sediments (maximum rate 212 ± 10 μmol O2 L−1 h−1) compared with rates obtained when no vertical advective flux was generated (maximum rate 25 ± 8.8 μmol O2 L−1 h−1). Additions of dissolved ammonium to surface waters generally increased dissolved oxygen uptake rates relative to rates measured in experiments without ammonium. However, the magnitude of the advective flux through bottom sediments had a greater effect on dissolved oxygen uptake rates than did the availability of ammonium. Results from this study indicated that efforts to improve dissolved oxygen dynamics in effluent-dominated rivers might include stabilizing daily fluctuations in river stage.

  20. CHEMO-hydrodynamic coupling between forced advection in porous media and self-sustained chemical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atis, S.; Saha, S.; Auradou, H.; Martin, J.; Rakotomalala, N.; Talon, L.; Salin, D.

    2012-09-01

    Autocatalytic reaction fronts between two reacting species in the absence of fluid flow, propagate as solitary waves. The coupling between autocatalytic reaction front and forced simple hydrodynamic flows leads to stationary fronts whose velocity and shape depend on the underlying flow field. We address the issue of the chemico-hydrodynamic coupling between forced advection in porous media and self-sustained chemical waves. Towards that purpose, we perform experiments over a wide range of flow velocities with the well characterized iodate arsenious acid and chlorite-tetrathionate autocatalytic reactions in transparent packed beads porous media. The characteristics of these porous media such as their porosity, tortuosity, and hydrodynamics dispersion are determined. In a pack of beads, the characteristic pore size and the velocity field correlation length are of the order of the bead size. In order to address these two length scales separately, we perform lattice Boltzmann numerical simulations in a stochastic porous medium, which takes into account the log-normal permeability distribution and the spatial correlation of the permeability field. In both experiments and numerical simulations, we observe stationary fronts propagating at a constant velocity with an almost constant front width. Experiments without flow in packed bead porous media with different bead sizes show that the front propagation depends on the tortuous nature of diffusion in the pore space. We observe microscopic effects when the pores are of the size of the chemical front width. We address both supportive co-current and adverse flows with respect to the direction of propagation of the chemical reaction. For supportive flows, experiments and simulations allow observation of two flow regimes. For adverse flow, we observe upstream and downstream front motion as well as static front behaviors over a wide range of flow rates. In order to understand better these observed static state fronts, flow

  1. Phase Segregation of Passive Advective Particles in an Active Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit; Polley, Anirban; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-01

    Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive particles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows a violation of Porod behavior; the growing domains have diffuse interfaces and low interfacial tension. The phase-segregated steady state shows strong macroscopic fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and intermittency, signifying rapid reorganization of macroscopic structures. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface.

  2. Aerosol particles and the formation of advection fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A study of numerical simulation of the effects of concentration, particle size, mass of nuclei, and chemical composition on the dynamics of warm fog formation, particularly the formation of advection fog, is presented. This formation is associated with the aerosol particle characteristics, and both macrophysical and microphysical processes are considered. In the macrophysical model, the evolution of wind components, water vapor content, liquid water content, and potential temperature under the influences of vertical turbulent diffusion, turbulent momentum, and turbulent energy transfers are taken into account. In the microphysical model, the supersaturation effect is incorporated with the surface tension and hygroscopic material solution. It is shown that the aerosol particles with the higher number density, larger size nuclei, the heavier nuclei mass, and the higher ratio of the Van't Hoff factor to the molecular weight favor the formation of the lower visibility advection fogs with stronger vertical energy transfer during the nucleation and condensation time period.

  3. Advective-diffusive contaminant migration in unsaturated sand and gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, R.K.; Badv, K.

    1996-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating the diffusion coefficients for chloride and sodium in unsaturated coarse sand and fine gravel based on parameters obtained from saturated diffusion tests conducted for similar material. The method is tested by comparing the observed and predicted diffusion profiles through unsaturated soil. The method is shown to work well for predicting the advective-diffusive migration of chloride and sodium through a two-layer soil system consisting of a compacted clayey silt underlain by an unsaturated fine gravel. Over the range of conditions examined, it is concluded that existing solute transport theory along with the proposed procedure for estimating the unsaturated diffusion coefficients can adequately predict chloride and sodium diffusion through both unsaturated coarse sand and fine gravel as well as predict advective-diffusive transport through a compacted clayey layer and underlying unsaturated fine gravel.

  4. In situ measurements of advective solute transport in permeable shelf sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Clare E.; Stecher, Hilmar A.; Taghon, Gary L.; Fuller, Charlotte M.; Huettel, Markus; Rusch, Antje; Ryckelynck, Natacha; Wild, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Solute transport rates within the uppermost 2 cm of a rippled continental shelf sand deposit, with a mean grain size of 400-500 μm and permeabilities of 2.0-2.4×10 -11 m 2, have been measured in situ by detecting the breakthrough of a pulse of iodide after its injection into the bottom water. These tracer experiments were conducted on the USA Middle Atlantic Bight shelf at a water depth of ˜13 m using a small tethered tripod that carried a close-up video camera, acoustic current meter, motorized 1.5 liter "syringe", and a microprofiling system for positioning and operating a solid-state voltammetric microelectrode. When triggered on shipboard, the syringe delivered a 0.21 M solution of potassium iodide and red dye through five nozzles positioned around and above the buried tip of the voltammetric sensor for 0.65-5 min. Bottom turbulence rapidly mixed and dispersed the tracer, which then was carried into the bed by interfacial water flows associated with ripple topography. The advective downward transport to the sensor tip was timed by a sequence of repetitive voltammetric scans. The distance-averaged vertical velocity, expressed as the depth of the sensor tip in the sand divided by the time to iodide breakthrough, was found to vary from 6 to 53 cm h -1 and generally to decrease with sediment depth. Because of episodic pumping and dispersion associated with the greatest 5% of wave heights and current speeds recorded, some concentration vs. time responses showed evidence of uneven solute migration. For reasons of mass balance, the advective flow field in the surface layers of permeable beds includes regions of water intrusion, horizontal pore-water flow and upwelling which also may explain some of the observed uneven migration. Pore-water advection was also evident in oxygen profiles measured before and after tracer injection with the voltammetric sensor. These profiles showed irregular distributions and oxygen penetration depths of 4-4.5 cm. Sand cores from the

  5. Spectral Theory of Advective Diffusion in the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-19

    to study this enhancement of sea ice thermal conductivity and better understand temperature data collected during a 2007 Antarctic expedition. 15...conductivity and better understand temperature data collected during a 2007 Antarctic expedition. Activities and Findings: 1. Advection-enhanced...critically on the properties of this Hilbert space. More specifically, it is only on a special subset of this space that the random operator is Hermitian

  6. Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J G; Haygarth, P M; Withers, P J A; Macleod, C J A; Falloon, P D; Beven, K J; Ockenden, M C; Forber, K J; Hollaway, M J; Evans, R; Collins, A L; Hiscock, K M; Wearing, C; Kahana, R; Villamizar Velez, M L

    2016-04-01

    Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β, the fractional order α, and the single relaxation time τ, the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.

  7. The LEM exponential integrator for advection-diffusion-reaction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliari, Marco; Vianello, Marco; Bergamaschi, Luca

    2007-12-01

    We implement a second-order exponential integrator for semidiscretized advection-diffusion-reaction equations, obtained by coupling exponential-like Euler and Midpoint integrators, and computing the relevant matrix exponentials by polynomial interpolation at Leja points. Numerical tests on 2D models discretized in space by finite differences or finite elements, show that the Leja-Euler-Midpoint (LEM) exponential integrator can be up to 5 times faster than a classical second-order implicit solver.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. G.; Haygarth, P. M.; Withers, P. J. A.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Falloon, P. D.; Beven, K. J.; Ockenden, M. C.; Forber, K. J.; Hollaway, M. J.; Evans, R.; Collins, A. L.; Hiscock, K. M.; Wearing, C.; Kahana, R.; Villamizar Velez, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β , the fractional order α , and the single relaxation time τ , the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.

  9. Stability of explicit advection schemes. The balance point location rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2002-02-01

    This paper introduces the balance point location rule, providing specific necessary and sufficient conditions for constructing unconditionally stable explicit advection schemes, in both semi-Lagrangian and flux-form Eulerian formulations. The rule determines how the spatial stencil is placed on the computational grid. It requires the balance point (the center of the stencil in index space) to be located in the same patch as the departure point for semi-Lagrangian schemes or the same cell as the sweep point for Eulerian schemes. Centering the stencil in this way guarantees stability, regardless of the size of the time step. In contrast, the original Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition requiring the stencil merely to include the departure (sweep) point, although necessary, is not sufficient for guaranteeing stability. The CFL condition is of limited practical value, whereas the balance point location rule always gives precise and easily implemented prescriptions for constructing stable algorithms. The rule is also helpful in correcting a number of misconceptions that have arisen concerning explicit advection schemes. In particular, explicit Eulerian schemes are widely believed to be inefficient because of stability constraints on the time step, dictated by a narrow interpretation of the CFL condition requiring the Courant number to be less than or equal to one. However, such constraints apply only to a particular class of advection schemes resulting for centering the stencil on the arrival point, when in fact the sole function of the stencil is to estimate the departure (sweep) point value - the arrival point has no relevance in determining the placement of the stencil. Unconditionally stable explicit Eulerian advection schemes are efficient and accurate, comparable in operation count to semi-Lagrangian schemes of the same order, but because of their flux-based formulation, they have the added advantage of being inherently conservative. Copyright

  10. Selecting MODFLOW cell sizes for accurate flow fields.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, H; Kelson, V; de Lange, W

    2001-01-01

    Contaminant transport models often use a velocity field derived from a MODFLOW flow field. Consequently, the accuracy of MODFLOW in representing a ground water flow field determines in part the accuracy of the transport predictions, particularly when advective transport is dominant. We compared MODFLOW ground water flow rates and MODPATH particle traces (advective transport) for a variety of conceptual models and different grid spacings to exact or approximate analytic solutions. All of our numerical experiments concerned flow in a single confined or semiconfined aquifer. While MODFLOW appeared robust in terms of both local and global water balance, we found that ground water flow rates, particle traces, and associated ground water travel times are accurate only when sufficiently small cells are used. For instance, a minimum of four or five cells are required to accurately model total ground water inflow in tributaries or other narrow surface water bodies that end inside the model domain. Also, about 50 cells are needed to represent zones of differing transmissivities or an incorrect flow field and (locally) inaccurate ground water travel times may result. Finally, to adequately represent leakage through aquitards or through the bottom of surface water bodies it was found that the maximum allowable cell dimensions should not exceed a characteristic leakage length lambda, which is defined as the square root of the aquifer transmissivity times the resistance of the aquitard or stream bottom. In some cases a cell size of one-tenth of lambda is necessary to obtain accurate results.

  11. Pathogen and chemical transport in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer: 2. Chemical retention from diffusion and slow advection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.; Renken, R.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Zygnerski, M.R.; Metge, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    A tracer experiment, using a nonreactive tracer, was conducted as part of an investigation of the potential for chemical and pathogen migration to public supply wells that draw groundwater from the highly transmissive karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida. The tracer was injected into the formation over approximately 1 h, and its recovery was monitored at a pumping well approximately 100 m from the injection well. The first detection of the tracer occurred after approximately 5 h, and the peak concentration occurred at about 8 h after the injection. The tracer was still detected in the production well more than 6 days after injection, and only 42% of the tracer mass was recovered. It is hypothesized that a combination of chemical diffusion and slow advection resulted in significant retention of the tracer in the formation, despite the high transmissivity of the karst limestone. The tail of the breakthrough curve exhibited a straight-line behavior with a slope of -2 on a log-log plot of concentration versus time. The -2 slope is hypothesized to be a function of slow advection, where the velocities of flow paths are hypothesized to range over several orders of magnitude. The flow paths having the slowest velocities result in a response similar to chemical diffusion. Chemical diffusion, due to chemical gradients, is still ongoing during the declining limb of the breakthrough curve, but this process is dwarfed by the magnitude of the mass flux by slow advection.

  12. Effects of local advection on the spatial sensible heat flux variation on a mountain glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Tobias; Galos, Stephan Peter

    2016-11-01

    Distributed mass balance models, which translate micrometeorological conditions into local melt rates, have proven deficient to reflect the energy flux variability on mountain glaciers. This deficiency is predominantly related to shortcomings in the representation of local processes in the forcing data. We found by means of idealized large-eddy simulations that heat advection, associated with local wind systems, causes small-scale sensible heat flux variations by up to 100 Wm-2 during clear sky conditions. Here we show that process understanding at a few observation sites is insufficient to infer the wind and temperature distributions across the glacier. The glacier-wide hourly averaged sensible heat fluxes are both over- and underestimated by up to 16 Wm-2 when using extrapolated temperature and wind fields. The sign and magnitude of the differences depend on the site selection, which is used for extrapolation as well as on the large-scale flow direction. Our results demonstrate how the shortcomings in the local sensible heat flux estimates are related to topographic effects and the insufficient characterization of the temperature advection process.

  13. A high order characteristic discontinuous Galerkin scheme for advection on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Lowrie, R.; Petersen, M.; Ringler, T.; Hecht, M.

    2016-11-01

    A new characteristic discontinuous Galerkin (CDG) advection scheme is presented. In contrast to standard discontinuous Galerkin schemes, the test functions themselves follow characteristics in order to ensure conservation and the edges of each element are also traced backwards along characteristics in order to create a swept region, which is integrated in order to determine the mass flux across the edge. Both the accuracy and performance of the scheme are greatly improved by the use of large Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy numbers for a shear flow test case and the scheme is shown to scale sublinearly with the number of tracers being advected, outperforming a standard flux corrected transport scheme for 10 or more tracers with a linear basis. Moreover the CDG scheme may be run to arbitrarily high order spatial accuracy and on unstructured grids, and is shown to give the correct order of error convergence for piecewise linear and quadratic bases on regular quadrilateral and hexahedral planar grids. Using a modal Taylor series basis, the scheme may be made monotone while preserving conservation with the use of a standard slope limiter, although this reduces the formal accuracy of the scheme to first order. The second order scheme is roughly as accurate as the incremental remap scheme with nonlocal gradient reconstruction at half the horizontal resolution. The scheme is being developed for implementation within the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) Ocean model, an unstructured grid finite volume ocean model.

  14. On the Offshore Advection of Boundary-Layer Structures and the Influence on Offshore Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörenkämper, Martin; Optis, Michael; Monahan, Adam; Steinfeld, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    The coastal discontinuity imposes strong signals to the atmospheric conditions over the sea that are important for wind-energy potential. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the land-sea transition on wind conditions in the Baltic Sea using data from an offshore meteorological tower, data from a wind farm, and mesoscale model simulations. Results show a strong induced stable stratification when warm inland air flows over a colder sea. This stratification demonstrates a strong diurnal pattern and is most pronounced in spring when the land-sea temperature difference is greatest. The strength of the induced stratification is proportional to this parameter and inversely proportional to fetch. Extended periods of stable stratification lead to increased influence of inertial oscillations and increased frequency of low-level jets. Furthermore, heterogeneity in land-surface roughness along the coastline is found to produce pronounced horizontal streaks of reduced wind speeds that under stable stratification are advected several tens of kilometres over the sea. The intensity and length of the streaks dampen as atmospheric stability decreases. Increasing sea surface roughness leads to a deformation of these streaks with increasing fetch. Slight changes in wind direction shift the path of these advective streaks, which when passing through an offshore wind farm are found to produce large fluctuations in wind power. Implications of these coastline effects on the accurate modelling and forecasting of offshore wind conditions, as well as damage risk to the turbine, are discussed.

  15. An adaptive, Courant-number-dependent implicit scheme for vertical advection in oceanic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchepetkin, Alexander F.

    2015-07-01

    An oceanic model with an Eulerian vertical coordinate and an explicit vertical advection scheme is subject to the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) limitation. Depending on the horizontal grid spacing, the horizontal-to-vertical grid resolution ratio and the flow pattern this limitation may easily become the most restrictive factor in choosing model time step, with the general tendency to become more severe as horizontal resolution becomes finer. Using terrain-following coordinate makes local vertical grid spacing depend on topography, ultimately resulting in very fine resolution in shallow areas in comparison with other models, z-coordinate, and isopycnic, which adds another factor in restricting time step. At the same time, terrain-following models are models of choice for the fine-resolution coastal modeling, often including tides interacting with topography resulting in large amplitude baroclinic vertical motions. In this article we examine the possibility of mitigating vertical CFL restriction, while at the same time avoiding numerical inaccuracies associated with standard implicit advection schemes. In doing so we design a combined algorithm which acts like a high-order explicit scheme when Courant numbers are small enough to allow explicit method (which is usually the case throughout the entire modeling domain except just few "hot spots"), while at the same time has the ability to adjust itself toward implicit scheme should it became necessary to avoid stability limitations. This is done in a seamless manner by continuously adjusting weighting between explicit and implicit components.

  16. Impact of Ridge Induced Latent Heat Advection on Sea Ice Global Heat Budget.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudier, E.; Gosselin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The effects of permeability on ice keel induced latent heat fluxes are examined using pressure ridge density statistics computed from SAR images and a prognostic simulation of forced brine advection through the bottom ice layer. Under pressure gradients generated in the wake of an ice keel sea water is pushed into and brine pumped out of the bottom ice layer. This in turn causes a new thermodynamic equilibrium to be reached. At spring when the ice permeability increases, brine export combined with sea water import translates into an advective heat flow that is balanced by the latent heat absorbed by volume melting of brine channel walls. Sea ice within the sheltered areas behind keels is modelled as an anisotropic heteregeneous mushy layer. The non-linear equation system within each cell is implemented on a finite volume grid and include volume melt of the brine channels from which porosity, water density, temperature and salinity are computed. Outputs from these simulations are then combined with ridge distribution statistics to evaluate the global impact of latent heat absorbed due to volume melting in the wake of ridges. As anticipated, results are highly dependent on permeability, nevertheless, they show that pressure ridge induced melting within the ice is a significant component of the heat budget when compared with melting at the ice water interface. This work underlines needs for further researches to improve our understanding of ice permeability changes during the melt season, it also calls for better tools to extract pressure ridge characteristics from satellite images.

  17. North Atlantic Surface Winds Examined as the Source of Warm Advection into Europe in Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J. K.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, Robert; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Wu, M.-L.

    2002-01-01

    When from the southwest, North Atlantic ocean surface winds are known to bring warm and moist airmasses into central Europe in winter. By tracing backward trajectories from western Europe, we establish that these airmasses originate in the southwestern North Atlantic, in the very warm regions of the Gulf Stream. Over the eastern North Atlantic, Lt the gateway to Europe, the ocean-surface winds changed directions in the second half of the XXth century, those from the northwest and from the southeast becoming so infrequent, that the direction from the southwest became even more dominant. For the January-to-March period, the strength of south-westerlies in this region, as well as in the source region, shows in the years 1948-1995 a significant increase, above 0.2 m/sec/ decade. Based on the sensitivity of the surface temperature in Europe, slightly more than 1 C for a 1m/sec increase in the southwesterly wind, found in the previous studies, the trend in the warm advection accounts for a large part of the warming in Europe established for this period in several reports. However, for the most recent years, 1996-2001, the positive trend in the southwesterly advection appears to be is broken, which is consistent with unseasonally cold events reported in Europe in those winters. This study had, some bearing on evaluating the respective roles of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Greenhouse Gas Global warming, GGG, in the strong winter warming observed for about half a century over the northern-latitude continents. Changes in the ocean-surface temperatures induced by GGG may have produced the dominant southwesterly direction of the North Atlantic winds. However, this implies a monotonically (apart from inherent interannual variability) increasing advection, and if the break in the trend which we observe after 1995 persists, this mechanism is counter-indicated. The 1948-1995 trend in the south-westerlies could then be considered to a large degree attributable to the

  18. Enhanced transpiration by riparian buffer trees in response to advection in a humid temperate agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernandez-Santana, V.; Asbjornsen, H.; Sauer, T.; Isenhart, T.; Schilling, K.; Schultz, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Riparian buffers are designed as management practices to increase infiltration and reduce surface runoff and transport of sediment and nonpoint source pollutants from crop fields to adjacent streams. Achieving these ecosystem service goals depends, in part, on their ability to remove water from the soil via transpiration. In these systems, edges between crop fields and trees of the buffer systems can create advection processes, which could influence water use by trees. We conducted a field study in a riparian buffer system established in 1994 under a humid temperate climate, located in the Corn Belt region of the Midwestern U.S. (Iowa). The goals were to estimate stand level transpiration by the riparian buffer, quantify the controls on water use by the buffer system, and determine to what extent advective energy and tree position within the buffer system influence individual tree transpiration rates. We primarily focused on the water use response (determined with the Heat Ratio Method) of one of the dominant species (Acer saccharinum) and a subdominant (Juglans nigra). A few individuals of three additional species (Quercus bicolor, Betula nigra, Platanus occidentalis) were monitored over a shorter time period to assess the generality of responses. Meteorological stations were installed along a transect across the riparian buffer to determine the microclimate conditions. The differences found among individuals were attributed to differences in species sap velocities and sapwood depths, location relative to the forest edge and prevailing winds and canopy exposure and dominance. Sapflow rates for A. saccharinum trees growing at the SE edge (prevailing winds) were 39% greater than SE interior trees and 30% and 69% greater than NW interior and edge trees, respectively. No transpiration enhancement due to edge effect was detected in the subdominant J. nigra. The results were interpreted as indicative of advection effects from the surrounding crops. Further, significant

  19. Passive advection-dispersion in networks of pipes: Effect of connectivity and relationship to permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, Y.; Wang, Y.; Qi, T.; Li, M.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the relationship between passive advection-dispersion and permeability in porous materials presumed to be statistically homogeneous at scales larger than the pore scale but smaller than the reservoir scale. We simulated fluid flow through pipe network realizations with different pipe radius distributions and different levels of connectivity. The flow simulations used periodic boundary conditions, allowing monitoring of the advective motion of solute particles in a large periodic array of identical network realizations. In order to simulate dispersion, we assumed that the solute particles obeyed Taylor dispersion in individual pipes. When a particle entered a pipe, a residence time consistent with local Taylor dispersion was randomly assigned to it. When exiting the pipe, the particle randomly proceeded into one of the pipes connected to the original one according to probabilities proportional to the outgoing volumetric flow in each pipe. For each simulation we tracked the motion of at least 6000 solute particles. The mean fluid velocity was 10-3 ms-1, and the distance traveled was on the order of 10 m. Macroscopic dispersion was quantified using the method of moments. Despite differences arising from using different types of lattices (simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic), a number of general observations were made. Longitudinal dispersion was at least 1 order of magnitude greater than transverse dispersion, and both strongly increased with decreasing pore connectivity and/or pore size variability. In conditions of variable hydraulic radius and fixed pore connectivity and pore size variability, the simulated dispersivities increased as power laws of the hydraulic radius and, consequently, of permeability, in agreement with previously published experimental results. Based on these observations, we were able to resolve some of the complexity of the relationship between dispersivity and permeability.

  20. The role of advection and dispersion in the rock matrix on the transport of leaking CO2-saturated brine along a fractured zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nawaz; Wörman, Anders; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    CO2 that is injected into a geological storage reservoir can leak in dissolved form because of brine displacement from the reservoir, which is caused by large-scale groundwater motion. Simulations of the reactive transport of leaking CO2aq along a conducting fracture in a clay-rich caprock are conducted to analyze the effect of various physical and geochemical processes. Whilst several modeling transport studies along rock fractures have considered diffusion as the only transport process in the surrounding rock matrix (diffusive transport), this study analyzes the combined role of advection and dispersion in the rock matrix in addition to diffusion (advection-dominated transport) on the migration of CO2aq along a leakage pathway and its conversion in geochemical reactions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the effect of fluid velocity and dispersivity. Variations in the porosity and permeability of the medium are found in response to calcite dissolution and precipitation along the leakage pathway. We observe that advection and dispersion in the rock matrix play a significant role in the overall transport process. For the parameters that were used in this study, advection-dominated transport increased the leakage of CO2aq from the reservoir by nearly 305%, caused faster transport and increased the mass conversion of CO2aq in geochemical reactions along the transport pathway by approximately 12.20% compared to diffusive transport.

  1. Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-13

    We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the “measured” relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

  2. Dynamics of Plasma Blobs in a Shear Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podesta, M.; Theiler, C.

    2008-09-12

    The global dynamic of plasma blobs in a shear flow is investigated in a simple magnetized torus using the spatial Fourier harmonics (k-space) framework. Direct experimental evidence of a linear drift in k space of the density fluctuation energy synchronized with blob events is presented. During this drift, an increase of the fluctuation energy and a production of the kinetic energy associated with blobs are observed. The energy source of the blob is analyzed using an advection-dissipation-type equation that includes blob-flow exchange energy, linear drift in k space, nonlinear processes, and viscous dissipations. We show that blobs tap their energy from the dominant ExB vertical background flow during the linear drift stage. The exchange of energy is unidirectional as there is no evidence that blobs return energy to the flow.

  3. Analyzing critical propagation in a reaction-diffusion-advection model using unstable slow waves.

    PubMed

    Kneer, Frederike; Obermayer, Klaus; Dahlem, Markus A

    2015-02-01

    The effect of advection on the propagation and in particular on the critical minimal speed of traveling waves in a reaction-diffusion model is studied. Previous theoretical studies estimated this effect on the velocity of stable fast waves and predicted the existence of a critical advection strength below which propagating waves are not supported anymore. In this paper, an analytical expression for the advection-velocity relation of the unstable slow wave is derived. In addition, the critical advection strength is calculated taking into account the unstable slow wave solution. We also analyze a two-variable reaction-diffusion-advection model numerically in a wide parameter range. Due to the new control parameter (advection) we can find stable wave propagation in the otherwise non-excitable parameter regime, if the advection strength exceeds a critical value. Comparing theoretical predictions to numerical results, we find that they are in good agreement. Theory provides an explanation for the observed behaviour.

  4. THE DISCOVERY OF A NEW INSTABILITY IN A HYPERACCRETION FLOW AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanaka, Norita; Mineshige, Shin; Piran, Tsvi

    2013-11-01

    A hyperaccretion flow around a stellar mass black hole is thought to be the most plausible engine that powers gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The flow efficiently cools via neutrino emission at ∼> 0.003-0.01 M {sub ☉} s{sup –1} (corresponding to a luminosity of ∼10{sup 50} erg s{sup –1}), while neither neutrino nor photon emission is efficient below this rate, so the flow should be advection-dominated. We carefully solve how a transition occurs from the advection-dominated to the neutrino-dominated branches, and find that the slope of the thermal equilibrium curve is negative in the surface density-accretion rate (Σ- M-dot ) plane, a condition for viscous instability, at radii smaller than ∼12 R {sub g} (with R {sub g} being the gravitational radius). We also confirm that the flow is thermally stable. The consequence of this instability is the formation of a clumpy structure in the flow. This is because the larger (respectively smaller) surface density is, the smaller (respectively larger) the mass accretion rate from the region in question becomes, leading to growth of the density contrast. The timescale for clump formation is estimated to be shorter than 0.1 s. The observational implication is discussed in the context of GRBs. We suggest that this might explain the origin of the large variability observed in the prompt emission of GRBs.

  5. Dominant simple-shear deformation during peak metamorphism for the lower portion of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in West Nepal: New implications for hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Dolpo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    I conducted new vorticity and deformation temperatures studies to test competing models of the exhumation of the mid-crustal rocks exposed in the Dolpo region (West Nepal). My results indicate that the Main Central Thrust is located ∼5 km structurally below the previous mapped locations. Deformation temperature increasing up structural section from ∼450 °C to ∼650 °C and overlap with peak metamorphic temperature indicating that penetrative shearing was responsible for the exhumation of the GHS occurred at "close" to peak metamorphic conditions. I interpreted the telescoping and the inversion of the paleo-isotherms at the base of the GHS as produced mainly by a sub-simple shearing (Wm = 0.88-1) pervasively distributed through the lower portion of the GHS. My results are consistent with hybrid channel flow-type models where the boundary between lower and upper portions of the GHS, broadly corresponding to the tectonometamorphic discontinuity recently documented in west Nepal, represents the limit between buried material, affected by dominant simple shearing, and exhumed material affected by a general flow dominates by pure shearing. This interpretation is consistent with the recent models suggesting the simultaneous operation of channel flow- and critical wedge-type processes at different structural depth.

  6. Self-advection of density perturbations on a sloping continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Ping-Tung Shaw; Csanady, G.T.

    1983-05-01

    Bottom water movement on the continental shelf is modeled by the nonlinear interaction between longshore bottom geostrophic flow and the density field. Bottom geostrophic velocity, subject to linear steady momentum equations with linear bottom friction, can be generated by along-isobath density variations over a sloping bottom. At the same time, the density field is slowly advected by the velocity field. Away from boundary layers, the interplay is governed by Burgers' equation, which shows the formation and self-propulsion of strong density gradients along an isobath. The direction of propagation of a dense water blob is to have shallow water on the right- (left-) hand side facing downstream in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. The propagation of a light water blob is opposite to that of a dense water blob.

  7. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for unsteady advection-diffusion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borker, Raunak; Farhat, Charbel; Tezaur, Radek

    2017-03-01

    A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method with Lagrange multipliers is presented for the solution of unsteady advection-diffusion problems in the high Péclet number regime. It operates directly on the second-order form of the governing equation and does not require any stabilization. Its spatial basis functions are chosen among the free-space solutions of the homogeneous form of the partial differential equation obtained after time-discretization. It also features Lagrange multipliers for enforcing a weak continuity of the approximated solution across the element interface boundaries. This leads to a system of differential-algebraic equations which are time-integrated by an implicit family of schemes. The numerical stability of these schemes and the well-posedness of the overall discretization method are supported by a theoretical analysis. The performance of this method is demonstrated for various high Péclet number constant-coefficient model flow problems.

  8. Clustering of randomly advected low-inertia particles using an economical simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaekyoon; Krueger, Steven; Kerstein, Alan

    2007-11-01

    In the EMPM (Explicit Mixing Parcel Model), turbulent advection of fluid is implemented by rearranging the fluid cells. Each permutation represents an individual turbulent eddy, and is called a ``triplet map.'' This implementation of the triplet map captures flow processes as small as the smallest turbulent eddy (Kolmogorov microscale), but the response of small droplets to turbulence has important features at scales as small as the droplet radius. Namely, droplet motion relative to the fluid at scales less than the Kolmogorov microscale induces droplet clustering that is estimated to increase droplet collision rates significantly. We have developed (Kerstein and Krueger 2006), implemented, and tested a 3D triplet map for droplets that captures this clustering effect. There is excellent agreement between our results and DNS (direct numerical simulation) results obtained by Reade and Collins (2000). We are now implementing a collision detection algorithm into the model so that we can simulate collisions and coalescence between finite-inertia particles.

  9. Vortex emission accompanies the advection of optical localized structures.

    PubMed

    Haudin, F; Rojas, R G; Bortolozzo, U; Clerc, M G; Residori, S

    2011-02-11

    We show that the advection of optical localized structures is accompanied by the emission of vortices, with phase singularities appearing in the wake of the drifting structure. Localized structures are obtained in a light-valve experiment and made to drift by a mirror tilt in the feedback loop. Pairs of oppositely charged vortices are detected for small drifts, whereas for large drifts a vortex array develops. Observations are supported by numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of the system equations and are expected to be generic for a large class of translated optical patterns.

  10. A convexity preserving scheme for conservative advection transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Feng; Peng, Xindong

    2004-08-01

    A simple and practical scheme for advection transport equation is presented. The scheme, namely piecewise rational method (PRM), is a variant of the existing piecewise parabolic method (PPM) of Colella and Woodward (1984). Instead of the parabolic function, a rational function is used for the reconstruction. Making use of the convexity preserving nature of the rational function enables us to obtain oscillation-less numerical solutions, but avoids the adjustments of the cell-interface values to enforce the monotonicity in PPM. The PRM is very simple and computationally efficient. Our numerical results show that PRM is competitive to the PPM in many aspects, such as numerical accuracy and shape-preserving property.

  11. A general mechanism for “inexact” phase differences in reaction-diffusion-advection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satnoianu, Razvan A.; Menzinger, Michael

    2002-11-01

    ‘Inexact’ phase differences that may take any value in the range [0, π], between the chemical morphogens diffusing in an embryo, have been proposed [M.A. Russell, Dev. Biol. 108 (1985) 269] to improve the positional information theory [L. Wolpert, J. Theor. Biol. 25 (1969) 1] by encoding this information with higher resolution than that provided by other mechanisms. Reaction-diffusion systems, including Turing systems, show only ‘exact’ phase differences 0 and/or π. We demonstrate here that inexact phase differences arise naturally in reactive flows described by reaction-diffusion-advection equations and illustrate them by the stationary waves in open flows (flow- and diffusion-distributed structures FDS [R.A. Satnoianu, M. Menzinger, Phys. Rev. E 62 (2000) 113; R.A. Satnoianu, P.K. Maini, M. Menzinger, Physica D 160 (2001) 79] and travelling waves in differential-induced flow systems (DIFI) [A.B. Rovinsky, M. Menzinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 (1993) 778; R.A. Satnoianu, J.H. Merkin, S.K. Scott, Physica D 124 (1998) 345]. The ability of cells in a developing organism to read phase differences in addition to morphogen concentrations would endow them with a robust mechanism for producing segmentation patterns that is richer, shows higher spatial resolution and is more stable than Turing's and Wolpert's positional information mechanisms.

  12. Production dynamics and life cycle of dominant chironomids (diptera, chironomidae) in a subtropical stream in China: adaptation to variable flow conditions in summer and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-07-01

    The production dynamics and trophic basis of 7 dominant species of chironomids were investigated in the area of a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, in central China from June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that Tvetenia discoloripes was by far the most abundant chironomid, dominating the overall standing stock of the taxa. In terms of lif ecycle, Chaetocladius sp., Eukiefferiella potthasti and T. discoloripes developed 1 generation a year, whereas Microtendipes sp. and Pagastia sp. developed two, while Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. developed three. T. discoloripes was the most productive chironomid with 120.305 8 g/m2. a, Pentaneura sp. and E. potthasti had relatively high production values of >17 g/m2.a, and the rest were <10 g/m2.a. All the production temporal variation tended to follow biomass patterns. T. discoloripes, Chaetocladius sp. and Pagastia sp. concentrated most of their production in winter, whereas E. potthasti, Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. had relatively higher production throughout the year. Only Microtendipes sp. had a production that peaked in summer. The overlap in temporal distribution of production among the chironomid species was generally high (>0.5), especially for filter-collectors Microtendipes sp., Chaetocladius sp., Chaetocladius sp., T. discoloripes and Pagastia sp. All species except Pentaneura sp. consumed a large portion of amorphous detritus, constituting more than 90% of their diets, and contributing nearly 90% to their secondary production. All the 7 chironomids represent obvious adaptation to local highly variable climate in summer and autumn in life cycle pattern, production dynamics, and food type.

  13. The role of atmospheric forcing versus ocean advection during the extreme warming of the Northeast U.S. continental shelf in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Gawarkiewicz, Glen; Kwon, Young-Oh; Zhang, Weifeng G.

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal ocean off the Northeast U.S., the sea surface temperature (SST) in the first half of 2012 was the highest on the record for the past roughly 150 years of recorded observations. The underlying dynamical processes responsible for this extreme event are examined using a numerical model, and the relative contributions of air-sea heat flux versus lateral ocean advective heat flux are quantified. The model accurately reproduces the observed vertical structure and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the thermohaline condition of the Gulf of Maine and the Middle Atlantic Bight waters during the anomalous warming period. Analysis of the model results show that the warming event was primarily driven by the anomalous air-sea heat flux, while the smaller contribution by the ocean advection worked against this flux by acting to cool the shelf. The anomalous air-sea heat flux exhibited a shelf-wide coherence, consistent with the shelf-wide warming pattern, while the ocean advective heat flux was dominated by localized, relatively smaller-scale processes. The anomalous cooling due to advection primarily resulted from the along-shelf heat flux divergence in the Gulf of Maine, while in the Middle Atlantic Bight the advective contribution from the along-shelf and cross-shelf heat flux divergences was comparable. The modeling results confirm the conclusion of the recent analysis of in situ data by Chen et al. (2014a) that the changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation in the winter of 2011-2012 primarily caused the extreme warm anomaly in the spring of 2012. The effect of along-shelf or cross-shelf ocean advection on the warm anomalies from either the Scotian Shelf or adjacent continental slope was secondary.

  14. A finite analytic method for solving the 2-D time-dependent advection diffusion equation with time-invariant coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Thomas; Li, Shu-Guang

    2005-02-01

    Difficulty in solving the transient advection-diffusion equation (ADE) stems from the relationship between the advection derivatives and the time derivative. For a solution method to be viable, it must account for this relationship by being accurate in both space and time. This research presents a unique method for solving the time-dependent ADE that does not discretize the derivative terms but rather solves the equation analytically in the space-time domain. The method is computationally efficient and numerically accurate and addresses the common limitations of numerical dispersion and spurious oscillations that can be prevalent in other solution methods. The method is based on the improved finite analytic (IFA) solution method [Lowry TS, Li S-G. A characteristic based finite analytic method for solving the two-dimensional steady-state advection-diffusion equation. Water Resour Res 38 (7), 10.1029/2001WR000518] in space coupled with a Laplace transformation in time. In this way, the method has no Courant condition and maintains accuracy in space and time, performing well even at high Peclet numbers. The method is compared to a hybrid method of characteristics, a random walk particle tracking method, and an Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method using various degrees of flow-field heterogeneity across multiple Peclet numbers. Results show the IFALT method to be computationally more efficient while producing similar or better accuracy than the other methods.

  15. Helical turbulent Prandtl number in the A model of passive vector advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatič, M.; Zalom, P.

    2016-11-01

    Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the two-loop approximation, turbulent Prandtl numbers are obtained in the general A model of passive vector advected by fully developed turbulent velocity field with violation of spatial parity introduced via the continuous parameter ρ ranging from ρ =0 (no violation of spatial parity) to |ρ |=1 (maximum violation of spatial parity). Values of A represent a continuously adjustable parameter which governs the interaction structure of the model. In nonhelical environments, we demonstrate that A is restricted to the interval -1.723 ≤A ≤2.800 (rounded to 3 decimal places) in the two-loop order of the field theoretic model. However, when ρ >0.749 (rounded to 3 decimal places), the restrictions may be removed, which means that presence of helicity exerts a stabilizing effect onto the possible stationary regimes of the system. Furthermore, three physically important cases A ∈{-1 ,0 ,1 } are shown to lie deep within the allowed interval of A for all values of ρ . For the model of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations (A =-1 ) up to date unknown helical values of the turbulent Prandtl number have been shown to equal 1 regardless of parity violation. Furthermore, we have shown that interaction parameter A exerts strong influence on advection-diffusion processes in turbulent environments with broken spatial parity. By varying A continuously, we explain high stability of the kinematic MHD model (A =1 ) against helical effects as a result of its proximity to the A =0.912 (rounded to 3 decimal places) case where helical effects are completely suppressed. Contrary, for the physically important A =0 model, we show that it lies deep within the interval of models where helical effects cause the turbulent Prandtl number to decrease with |ρ | . We thus identify internal structure of interactions given by the parameter A , and not the vector character of the admixture itself being the dominant factor influencing

  16. Helical turbulent Prandtl number in the A model of passive vector advection.

    PubMed

    Hnatič, M; Zalom, P

    2016-11-01

    Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the two-loop approximation, turbulent Prandtl numbers are obtained in the general A model of passive vector advected by fully developed turbulent velocity field with violation of spatial parity introduced via the continuous parameter ρ ranging from ρ=0 (no violation of spatial parity) to |ρ|=1 (maximum violation of spatial parity). Values of A represent a continuously adjustable parameter which governs the interaction structure of the model. In nonhelical environments, we demonstrate that A is restricted to the interval -1.723≤A≤2.800 (rounded to 3 decimal places) in the two-loop order of the field theoretic model. However, when ρ>0.749 (rounded to 3 decimal places), the restrictions may be removed, which means that presence of helicity exerts a stabilizing effect onto the possible stationary regimes of the system. Furthermore, three physically important cases A∈{-1,0,1} are shown to lie deep within the allowed interval of A for all values of ρ. For the model of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations (A=-1) up to date unknown helical values of the turbulent Prandtl number have been shown to equal 1 regardless of parity violation. Furthermore, we have shown that interaction parameter A exerts strong influence on advection-diffusion processes in turbulent environments with broken spatial parity. By varying A continuously, we explain high stability of the kinematic MHD model (A=1) against helical effects as a result of its proximity to the A=0.912 (rounded to 3 decimal places) case where helical effects are completely suppressed. Contrary, for the physically important A=0 model, we show that it lies deep within the interval of models where helical effects cause the turbulent Prandtl number to decrease with |ρ|. We thus identify internal structure of interactions given by the parameter A, and not the vector character of the admixture itself being the dominant factor influencing diffusion-advection

  17. Thermo-chemical convection in planetary mantles: advection methods and magma ocean overturn simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Tosi, N.; Hüttig, C.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal and chemical convection in planetary mantles are the most dominant dynamical processes influencing the thermal and geological evolution of a planet. After the planetary formation, convection in the interior is one of the most prominent processes being responsible for the heat transport efficiency, the interior structure, the magnetic field generation and the geological structures at the surface of a planet such as volcanoes, rifts and others. The slow creep of the silicate materials that make up the mantle of terrestrial planets (i.e. Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars) is driven by a combination of thermal and compositional buoyancy. On the one hand, the primordial heat accumulated after accretion and core formation and the heat released by the decay of radiogenic isotopes are transported from the interior to the surface by thermal convection. This process involves the transfer of heat both via diffusion, which occurs mainly across thermal boundary layers, and advection due to fluid motion in the bulk of the mantle. On the other hand, density anomalies of non-thermal origin associated with chemical (i.e. compositional) heterogeneities provide an additional source of buoyancy that actively contributes to the transport of energy and mass. In the present work we discuss the modeling of active compositional fields in the framework of solid-state mantle convection using the 3D spherical/2D cylindrical code Gaia [1, 2]. Numerical methods for the advection of active compositional fields fall in two main categories [3, 4]. They are based either on a fixed computational grid (Eulerian methods) or on evolving grids or moving particles (Lagrangian methods). We compare an Eulerian method based on double-diffusive convection against a Lagrangian, particle-based method. Though straightforward, the first method generally suffers from non-negligible numerical diffusion and demands then the use of grids with a high resolution. Moreover, its accuracy can substantially

  18. Space-fractional advection-diffusion and reflective boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Krepysheva, Natalia; Di Pietro, Liliana; Néel, Marie-Christine

    2006-02-01

    Anomalous diffusive transport arises in a large diversity of disordered media. Stochastic formulations in terms of continuous time random walks (CTRWs) with transition probability densities showing space- and/or time-diverging moments were developed to account for anomalous behaviors. A broad class of CTRWs was shown to correspond, on the macroscopic scale, to advection-diffusion equations involving derivatives of noninteger order. In particular, CTRWs with Lévy distribution of jumps and finite mean waiting time lead to a space-fractional equation that accounts for superdiffusion and involves a nonlocal integral-differential operator. Within this framework, we analyze the evolution of particles performing symmetric Lévy flights with respect to a fluid moving at uniform speed . The particles are restricted to a semi-infinite domain limited by a reflective barrier. We show that the introduction of the boundary condition induces a modification in the kernel of the nonlocal operator. Thus, the macroscopic space-fractional advection-diffusion equation obtained is different from that in an infinite medium.

  19. Advection, pelagic food webs and the biogeography of seabirds in Beringia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Springer, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite its great distance from productive shelf-edge habitat, the inner shelf area of the Bering Sea, from St. Lawrence Island to the Bering Strait, supports a surprisingly large number (>5 million) of seabirds during summer, mostly small plantivorous auklets (65%) and large piscivorous murres (19%) and kittiwakes (5%). This paradox of seabird biogeography is explained by the Anadyr “Green Belt” - a current that advects nutrients and plankton over 1200 km from the outer Bering Sea shelf-edge to the central Chukchi Sea. Turbulent upwelling of this nutrient-rich water at Anadyr and Bering straits further enhances high levels of primary production (360 gC m-2y-1) and helps sustain the enormous biomass of zooplankton entrained in the Anadyr Current. Primary production in adjacent waters of the Chukchi Sea (420 gC m-2y-1) exceeds that observed below Bering Strait, and zooplankton are equally abundant. Auklets account for 49% of total food consumption below Bering Strait (411 mt d-1), whereas piscivores dominate (88% of 179 mt d-1) in the Chukchi Sea. Of 2 million seabirds in the Chukchi region, auklets (6%) are supplanted by planktivorous phalaropes (25%), and piscivorous murres (38%) and kittiwakes (15%). Average carbon flux to seabirds (0.65 mgC m-2d-1) over the whole region is more typical of upwelling than shelf ecosystems. The pelagic distribution of seabirds in the region appears to be a function of advection, productivity and water column stability. Planktivores flourish in areas with high zooplankton concentrations on the edge of productive upwelling and frontal zones along the “Green Belt”, whereas piscivores avoid turbulent, mixed waters and forage in stable, stratified waters along the coast and in the central Chukchi Sea.

  20. Transport and Recruitment of Blue Crab Larvae:a Model with Advection and Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvine, R. W.; Epifanio, C. E.; Epifanio, C. C.; Wong, K.-C.

    1997-07-01

    The present paper develops a mathematical model for the transport and recruitment of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larvae, and applies it to the inner continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight near Delaware Bay, U.S.A. Blue crab larvae develop through seven or eight planktonic zoeal stages to a megalopa stage suitable for recruitment to adult populations of east coast estuaries. The larvae are concentrated near the surface, and the currents are primarily forced by alongshelf winds and river discharge through major estuaries. Model currents are prescribed based on a realistic synthesis of their observed relationship to wind and river discharge. Besides the resulting advection, particle diffusion and biological mortality are added to determine the fate of larvae released from their parent estuary. Groups of particles were released across the source region of the outflowing buoyancy-driven current in the model estuary mouth. Most larvae were swept alongshelf to the south with the buoyancy-driven coastal current, and thus were lost as recruits to the population of their parent estuary. However, some larvae released close to the seaward edge of the emerging coastal current were able to cross the coastal current front and move seaward into inner shelf water during upwelling-favorable (northward) wind events. Some of these, in turn, were suitably placed near the parent estuary mouth so that they could be advected landward as megalopae into the estuary during a subsequent downwelling-favorable (southward) wind event and thus join the adult population. The model results for megalopae returns were computed from consecutive daily release of 1000 particles, and were compared with 4 years of blue crab megalopa settlement data for Delaware Bay. The model results for 1989 and 1990 matched the observed data remarkably well, with both years showing dominance by a single return event of a few days duration. For 1991 and 1992, the observed results showed multiple return events

  1. Identifying glacial influences on sedimentation in tectonically-active, mass flow dominated arc basins with reference to the Neoproterozoic Gaskiers glaciation (c. 580 Ma) of the Avalonian-Cadomian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carto, Shannon L.; Eyles, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Neoproterozoic 'Avalonian-Cadomian' volcanic arc basins once lay peripheral to Gondwana and are now found around the North Atlantic Ocean in New England, Atlantic Canada and northwestern Europe as 'peri-Gondwanan terranes.' Their thick (up to 9 km) marine fills are dominated by turbidites, debrites (diamictites and variably graded conglomerates), slumps and olistostromes recording the dominance of mass flow processes in arc basins oversupplied with volcaniclastic sediment. Several diamictite horizons in these basins were identified as glacial tillites more than one hundred years ago on the basis of poor textural sorting, and the lack of any understanding of mass flow processes. An association with thin-bedded turbidite facies, then interpreted as glaciolacustrine varvites, was seen as evidence for widespread glacial conditions which is still the basis today of a near global 'Gaskiers glaciation' at c. 580 Ma, despite classic sedimentological work which shows that the 'tillites' and 'varvites' of these basins are deep marine sediment gravity flow deposits. Only in two basins (Gaskiers Formation, Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, and the Konnarock Formation of Virginia) is a distal and regionally-restricted glacial influence on marine sedimentation identified from ice-rafted, striated dropstones in turbidites but terrestrial 'ice-contact' facies are absent. As revealed in this study, terrestrial glacial facies may not have survived frequent volcanic activity such as seen today on glaciated active plate margin volcanoes such as Mount Rainier in Washington USA, and Cotopaxi Volcano in Ecuador where primary glacial sediment is frequently reworked by lahars, pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches and outburst floods. The weight of evidence presented in this study indicates that ice covers during the Gaskiers glaciation were not widespread across the Avalonian-Cadomian back arc basins; the deep marine Grenada Basin (Caribbean Sea) filled with turbidites, debrites (lahars

  2. Groundwater flow in a transboundary fault-dominated aquifer and the importance of regional modeling: the case of the city of Querétaro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera-Hernández, J. J.; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Cerca-Martínez, M.; Levresse, G.

    2016-03-01

    The city of Querétaro, located near the political boundary of the Mexican states of Querétaro and Guanajuato, relies on groundwater as it sole water supply. Groundwater extraction in the city increased from 21 × 106 m3/yr in 1970 to 104 × 106 m3/yr in 2010, with an associated drawdown of 100 m in some parts of the aquifer. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater-flow model has been developed that represents the historical evolution of the aquifer's potentiometric levels and is used to simulate the effect of two scenarios: (1) a 40 % reduction in the extraction rate from public water supply wells in early 2011 (thus reducing the extraction to 62 × 106 m3/yr), and (2) a further reduction in 2021 to 1 × 106 m3/yr. The modeling results project a temporary recovery of the potentiometric levels after the 40 % reduction of early 2011, but a return to 2010 levels by 2020. If scenario 2 is implemented in 2021, the aquifer will take nearly 30 years to recover to the simulated levels of 1995. The model also shows that the wells located in the city of Querétaro started to extract water from part of the aquifer beneath the State of Guanajuato in the late 1970s, thus showing that the administrative boundaries used in Mexico to study and develop water resources are inappropriate, and consideration should be given to physical boundaries instead. A regional approach to studying aquifers is needed in order to adequately understand groundwater flow dynamics.

  3. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  4. Hummocky cross-stratification-like structures and combined-flow ripples in the Punta Negra Formation (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera): A turbiditic deep-water or storm-dominated prodelta inner-shelf system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilici, Giorgio; de Luca, Pedro Henrique Vieira; Poiré, Daniel G.

    2012-08-01

    Turbidity-current and storm-induced deposits may exhibit similarities, in particularly when the latter is laid down by a combination of oscillatory and unidirectional flows. Recent progress in facies analysis helps to discriminate the sedimentary effects of oscillatory from unidirectional components of the flow. On the basis of detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, strata geometry, and palaeocurrent data, the present study reinterprets the Punta Negra Formation (PNF) (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera), previously considered as a depositional system of deep-water, as a storm-dominated prodeltaic shelf depositional system. In the sandstone beds of the PNF, planar, low-angle and undulating laminations with weakly asymmetric hummocky and swaley bedforms, combined-flow ripples, accretionary hummocky cross-stratification-like (HCS-like), and anisotropic HCS-like suggest the action of oscillatory currents combined with unidirectional currents in forming the deposits. Different hypotheses on the origin of the oscillatory currents have been examined. The most convincing interpretation is that the oscillatory component of the velocity is attributed to storm-induced waves. The palaeocurrent data indicate offshore current directions, suggesting that the unidirectional flow was a gravity-induced bottom current. Inverse grading at the base and overlying normally graded divisions of the sandstone beds testify to waxing-waning behaviour of the depositional flows; interbedding of sedimentary structures (undulating laminations, low-angle and parallel laminations, and combined-flow ripples) in the lower and intermediate divisions of the beds indicate fluctuations of flow velocity. This organisation of the sedimentary structures permits association of the unidirectional component with hyperpycnal bottom currents. The terrestrial origin of the hyperpycnal flows is suggested by the abundance of terrestrial plant remains, the mineralogical and textural immaturity of the

  5. Tracing the contribution of debris flow-dominated channels to gravel-bed torrential river channel: implementing pit-tags in the upper Guil River (French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoit; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    In the upper, wider reaches of Alpine valleys, shaping of active channels is usually subject to rapid change. It mostly depends upon hydro-climatic variability, runoff concentration and sediment supply, and may result in alternating sequences of fluvial and debris-flow pulses, as recorded in alluvial fans and terraces. Our study, carried in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, focuses on the upper Guil River Valley (Queyras, Southern French Alps) cut into the slaty shale "schistes lustrés". Steep, lower order drains carry a contrasted solid discharge, including predominantly sandy-loam particles mixed with gravels and boulders (sandstone schists, ophiolites). Abundant sediment supply by frost shattering, snow avalanche and landslides is then reworked during snowmelt or summer storm runoff events, and may result in catastrophic, very destructive floods along the main channel, as shown by historical records. Following the RI-30 year 2000 flood, our investigations included sediment budgets, i.e. balance of erosion and deposition, and the mapping of the source, transport and storage of various sediments (talus, colluvium, torrential fans, terraces). To better assess sediment fluxes and sediment delivery into the main channel network, we implemented tracers (pit-tags) in selected sub-catchments, significantly contributing to the sediment yield of the valley bottoms during the floods and/or avalanches: Maloqueste, Combe Morel, Bouchouse and Peyronnelle catchments. The first three are direct tributaries of the Guil River whereas the Peyronnelle is a left bank tributary of the Peynin River, which joins the Guil River via an alluvial cone with high human and material stakes. The Maloqueste and the Combe Morel are two tributaries facing each other in the Guil valley, representing a double lateral constraint for the road during flood events of the Guil River. After pit-tag initialisation in laboratory, we set them up along the four tributaries: Maloqueste (20 pit-tags), Combe

  6. Thermally driven advection for radioxenon transport from an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-05-01

    Barometric pumping is a ubiquitous process resulting in migration of gases in the subsurface that has been studied as the primary mechanism for noble gas transport from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). However, at early times following a UNE, advection driven by explosion residual heat is relevant to noble gas transport. A rigorous measure is needed for demonstrating how, when, and where advection is important. In this paper three physical processes of uncertain magnitude (oscillatory advection, matrix diffusion, and thermally driven advection) are parameterized by using boundary conditions, system properties, and source term strength. Sobol' sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the importance of all physical processes influencing the xenon signals. This study indicates that thermally driven advection plays a more important role in producing xenon signals than oscillatory advection and matrix diffusion at early times following a UNE, and xenon isotopic ratios are observed to have both time and spatial dependence.

  7. On the influence of advection on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebigbo, Anozie; Niederau, Jan; Marquart, Gabriele; Gola, Gianluca; Inversi, Barbara; Scrocca, Davide; Manzella, Adele; Montegrossi, Giordano

    2014-05-01

    Due to local specific-heat-flow maxima of up to 90 mW/m2 and temperatures of about 100 °C at less than 1.7 km depth, a southern Italian (Province of Avelino) carbonate reservoir is being explored as a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource. Hydrocarbon exploration wells and several seismic profiles within the chosen area (with dimensions of 43 x 28 km) provide the basis for a complex, three-dimensional geological model. The reservoir is faulted, anticlinal in structure, and overlain by dense, partly clay-rich sedimentary layers. A hydraulic and thermal characterisation of the geological units is possible through a combination of laboratory measurements, literature sources, and well log data. Under the assumption of purely conductive heat transport, the specific heat flow at the bottom of the reservoir (at 6 km depth) can be estimated using temperature data from several boreholes in the region to 67 mW/m2 . The goal of this study is the investigation of advective flow and the evaluation of its influence on the temperature distribution in the reservoir. First hydrothermal simulation models show a complicated flow structure in the anticlinal reservoir. But an inversion for constant reservoir permeability based on the borehole-temperature observations results in a relatively low value of 0.5 to 1 mD. However, pointwise comparisons between modelled and measured temperatures show large differences. Thus, for an accurate inclusion of regional flow processes and thermal convection, a proper representation of the geometry of the anticlinal Apulian platform and a karstified, highly permeable layer at the interface between the reservoir and its sedimentary cover is necessary. Such a refined model will also lead to a recalibration of the specific basal heat flow.

  8. Removing volatile contaminants from the unsaturated zone by inducing advective air-phase transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Hoag, G.E.; Marley, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Organic liquids inadvertently spilled and then distributed in the unsaturated zone can pose a long-term threat to ground water. Many of these substances have significant volatility, and thereby establish a premise for contaminant removal from the unsaturated zone by inducing advective air-phase transport with wells screened in the unsaturated zone. In order to focus attention on the rates of mass transfer from liquid to vapour phases, sand columns were partially saturated with gasoline and vented under steady air-flow conditions. The ability of an equilibrium-based transport model to predict the hydrocarbon vapor flux from the columns implies an efficient rate of local phase transfer for reasonably high air-phase velocities. Thus the success of venting remediations will depend primarily on the ability to induce an air-flow field in a heterogeneous unsaturated zone that will intersect the distributed contaminant. To analyze this aspect of the technique, a mathematical model was developed to predict radially symmetric air flow induced by venting from a single well. This model allows for in-situ determinations of air-phase permeability, which is the fundamental design parameter, and for the analysis of the limitations of a single well design. A successful application of the technique at a site once contaminated by gasoline supports the optimism derived from the experimental and modeliing phases of this study, and illustrates the well construction and field methods used to document the volatile contaminant recovery. ?? 1989.

  9. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

  10. Groundwater flux characterization using distributed temperature sensing: Separating advection from thermal conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Butler, J. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurement of groundwater flux is difficult to obtain in the field so hydrogeologists often use easily-detectable environmental tracers, such as heat or chemicals, as an indirect way to characterize flux. Previously, we developed a groundwater flux characterization (GFC) probe by using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) to monitor the temperature responses to active heating in a well. The temperature responses were consistent with the hydraulic conductivity profiles determined at the same location, and provided high-resolution information (approx. 1.5 cm) about vertical variations in horizontal flux through the screen. One of the key assumptions in the previous GFC approach was that the vertical variations in the thermal conductivity of the aquifer materials near the well are negligible, so that the temperature differences with depth are primarily a result of groundwater flux instead of thermal conduction. Although this assumption is likely valid for wells constructed with an artificial filter pack, it might become questionable for wells with natural filter packs (such as the wells constructed by direct push where the sediments are allowed to directly collapse onto the well screen). In this work, we develop a new procedure for separating advection from thermal conduction during GFC measurement. In addition to the normal open-screen GFC profiling, an impermeable sleeve was used so that heating tests could be performed without advective flow entering the well. The heating tests under sleeved conditions were primarily controlled by the thermal conduction around the well, and therefore could be used to remove the impact of thermal conduction from the normal GFC results obtained under open-screen conditions. This new procedure was tested in a laboratory sandbox, where a series of open-screen and sleeved GFC tests were performed under different flow rates. Results indicated that for the tested range of rates (Darcy velocity 0 - 0.78 m/d), the relation between

  11. On enforcing maximum principles and achieving element-wise species balance for advection-diffusion-reaction equations under the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust computational framework for advective-diffusive-reactive systems that satisfies maximum principles, the non-negative constraint, and element-wise species balance property. The proposed methodology is valid on general computational grids, can handle heterogeneous anisotropic media, and provides accurate numerical solutions even for very high Péclet numbers. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate advection (which makes the spatial part of the differential operator non-self-adjoint) into the non-negative computational framework, and overcome numerical challenges associated with advection. We employ low-order mixed finite element formulations based on least-squares formalism, and enforce explicit constraints on the discrete problem to meet the desired properties. The resulting constrained discrete problem belongs to convex quadratic programming for which a unique solution exists. Maximum principles and the non-negative constraint give rise to bound constraints while element-wise species balance gives rise to equality constraints. The resulting convex quadratic programming problems are solved using an interior-point algorithm. Several numerical results pertaining to advection-dominated problems are presented to illustrate the robustness, convergence, and the overall performance of the proposed computational framework.

  12. The radial basis function finite collocation approach for capturing sharp fronts in time dependent advection problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, D.; Power, H.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a node-based local meshless method for advective transport problems that is capable of operating on centrally defined stencils and is suitable for shock-capturing purposes. High spatial convergence rates can be achieved; in excess of eighth-order in some cases. Strongly-varying smooth profiles may be captured at infinite Péclet number without instability, and for discontinuous profiles the solution exhibits neutrally stable oscillations that can be damped by introducing a small artificial diffusion parameter, allowing a good approximation to the shock-front to be maintained for long travel times without introducing spurious oscillations. The proposed method is based on local collocation with radial basis functions (RBFs) in a "finite collocation" configuration. In this approach the PDE governing and boundary equations are enforced directly within the local RBF collocation systems, rather than being reconstructed from fixed interpolating functions as is typical of finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. In this way the interpolating basis functions naturally incorporate information from the governing PDE, including the strength and direction of the convective velocity field. By using these PDE-enhanced interpolating functions an "implicit upwinding" effect is achieved, whereby the flow of information naturally respects the specifics of the local convective field. This implicit upwinding effect allows high-convergence solutions to be obtained on centred stencils for advection problems. The method is formulated using a high-convergence implicit timestepping algorithm based on Richardson extrapolation. The spatial and temporal convergence of the proposed approach is demonstrated using smooth functions with large gradients. The capture of discontinuities is then investigated, showing how the addition of a dynamic stabilisation parameter can damp the neutrally stable oscillations with limited smearing of the shock front.

  13. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Jay; Angell, J.; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, D.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2001-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface skin temperature are observed over central Europe: we observe a difference of 9.8 K comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996 for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average Ina for February 1990 was 10.6 in s(exp -1), but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m s(exp -1). A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions result, which we observe in February 1990 at 700 mb. The near-surface moisture rises to higher (and cooler) levels, producing clouds and precipitation. Total preciptable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios can be translated into a virtual irradiating source of 2.6 W m(exp -2) above the February 1990 atmosphere, which, as an order of magnitude estimate, contributes to the warming of the surface by 2.6 K. If we accept this estimate as numerically pertinent, the direct effect stands as 7.2 K (9.8 K - 2.6 K), and therefore its greenhouse-effect reinforcement is by 36%. This constitutes a substantial positive feedback to the direct effect, which is the inflow of warm air to the low troposphere over Europe.

  14. Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.H.; Saiers, J.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Mylon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of particulate matter within wetland surface waters affects nutrient cycling, contaminant mobility, and the evolution of the wetland landscape. Despite the importance of particle transport in influencing wetland form and function, there are few data sets that illuminate, in a quantitative way, the transport behavior of particulate matter within surface waters containing emergent vegetation. We report observations from experiments on the transport of 1 ??m latex microspheres at a wetland field site located in Water Conservation Area 3A of the Florida Everglades. The experiments involved line source injections of particles inside two 4.8-m-long surface water flumes constructed within a transition zone between an Eleocharis slough and Cladium jamaicense ridge and within a Cladium jamaicense ridge. We compared the measurements of particle transport to calculations of two-dimensional advection-dispersion model that accounted for a linear increase in water velocities with elevation above the ground surface. The results of this analysis revealed that particle spreading by longitudinal and vertical dispersion was substantially greater in the ridge than within the transition zone and that particle capture by aquatic vegetation lowered surface water particle concentrations and, at least for the timescale of our experiments, could be represented as an irreversible, first-order kinetics process. We found generally good agreement between our field-based estimates of particle dispersion and water velocity and estimates determined from published theory, suggesting that the advective-dispersive transport of particulate matter within complex wetland environments can be approximated on the basis of measurable properties of the flow and aquatic vegetation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. A mass-conserving advection scheme for offline simulation of scalar transport in coastal ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillibrand, P. A.; Herzfeld, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a flux-form semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) advection scheme designed for offline scalar transport simulation with coastal ocean models using curvilinear horizontal coordinates. The scheme conserves mass, overcoming problems of mass conservation typically experienced with offline transport models, and permits long time steps (relative to the Courant number) to be used by the offline model. These attributes make the method attractive for offline simulation of tracers in biogeochemical or sediment transport models using archived flow fields from hydrodynamic models. We describe the FFSL scheme, and test it on two idealised domains and one real domain, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. For comparison, we also include simulations using a traditional semi-Lagrangian advection scheme for the offline simulations. We compare tracer distributions predicted by the offline FFSL transport scheme with those predicted by the original hydrodynamic model, assess the conservation of mass in all cases and contrast the computational efficiency of the schemes. We find that the FFSL scheme produced very good agreement with the distributions of tracer predicted by the hydrodynamic model, and conserved mass with an error of a fraction of one percent. In terms of computational speed, the FFSL scheme was comparable with the semi-Lagrangian method and an order of magnitude faster than the full hydrodynamic model, even when the latter ran in parallel on multiple cores. The FFSL scheme presented here therefore offers a viable mass-conserving and computationally-efficient alternative to traditional semi-Lagrangian schemes for offline scalar transport simulation in coastal models.

  16. Measurement of large spiral and target waves in chemical reaction-diffusion-advection systems: turbulent diffusion enhances pattern formation.

    PubMed

    von Kameke, A; Huhn, F; Muñuzuri, A P; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V

    2013-02-22

    In the absence of advection, reaction-diffusion systems are able to organize into spatiotemporal patterns, in particular spiral and target waves. Whenever advection is present that can be parametrized in terms of effective or turbulent diffusion D(*), these patterns should be attainable on a much greater, boosted length scale. However, so far, experimental evidence of these boosted patterns in a turbulent flow was lacking. Here, we report the first experimental observation of boosted target and spiral patterns in an excitable chemical reaction in a quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flow. The wave patterns observed are ~50 times larger than in the case of molecular diffusion only. We vary the turbulent diffusion coefficient D(*) of the flow and find that the fundamental Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov equation, v(f) proportional sqrt[D(*)], for the asymptotic speed of a reactive wave remains valid. However, not all measures of the boosted wave scale with D(*) as expected from molecular diffusion, since the wave fronts turn out to be highly filamentous.

  17. Unification of some advection schemes in two dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidilkover, D.; Roe, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between two approaches towards construction of genuinely two-dimensional upwind advection schemes is established. One of these approaches is of the control volume type applicable on structured cartesian meshes. It resulted in the compact high resolution schemes capable of maintaining second order accuracy in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Another one is the fluctuation splitting approach, which is well suited for triangular (and possibly) unstructured meshes. Understanding the relationship between these two approaches allows us to formulate here a new fluctuation splitting high resolution (i.e. possible use of artificial compression, while maintaining positivity property) scheme. This scheme is shown to be linearity preserving in inhomogeneous as well as homogeneous cases.

  18. Mobile scintillometry to study heat advection over heterogeneous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.

    2007-12-01

    Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) receivers measure the structure parameter of the refractive index from intensity fluctuations of the transmitter beam. Due to the spatial averaging over 1-4 km employed by this emerging technique the constraints for long temporal averaging (15-30 min) and associated uncertainties that have to be met by other flux measurement techniques do not apply for LASs. In this paper the constraints for temporal averaging of LASs will be examined as a function of environmental conditions and transect geometry. Moreover, analysis of data from a mobile LAS measurement across a surface gradient from rough and dry to smoother and wet will be presented. In this experiment the LAS was mounted on a pickup truck, allowing for quick redeployment of the transect after meaurement. The potential for the use of LAS to study local advection of heat in riparian or irrigated areas in the semi-arid southwest will be evaluated.

  19. Microbial players and processes involved in phytoplankton bloom utilization in the water column of a fast-flowing, river-dominated estuary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maria W; Herfort, Lydie; Fortunato, Caroline S; Crump, Byron C; Simon, Holly M

    2017-03-20

    interface in the fast-flowing Columbia River estuary.

  20. Examination of the evolution of radiation and advection fogs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Orgill, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A literature study was done on radiation and advection fog evolution. For radiation fog, six stages of fog evolution have been identified -- (1) precursor, (2) sunset, (3) conditioning, (4) mature, (5) sunrise, and (6) dissipation. The evolution of advection fog models has been in parallel with radiation fog models, but no identified stages in the evolution of advection fog have been proposed: (1) precursor, (2) initiation, (3) mature, and (4) dissipation. Radiation and advection fog models will require greater sophistication in order to study fog spatial and temporal variability. Physical aspects that require further study are discussed.

  1. Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) Method for Advection of Active Compositional Fields with Discontinuous Boundaries: Demonstration and Comparison with Other Methods in the Mantle Convection Code ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Billen, M. I.; Puckett, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Flow in the Earth's mantle is driven by thermo-chemical convection in which the properties and geochemical signatures of rocks vary depending on their origin and composition. For example, tectonic plates are composed of compositionally-distinct layers of crust, residual lithosphere and fertile mantle, while in the lower-most mantle there are large compositionally distinct "piles" with thinner lenses of different material. Therefore, tracking of active or passive fields with distinct compositional, geochemical or rheologic properties is important for incorporating physical realism into mantle convection simulations, and for investigating the long term mixing properties of the mantle. The difficulty in numerically advecting fields arises because they are non-diffusive and have sharp boundaries, and therefore require different methods than usually used for temperature. Previous methods for tracking fields include the marker-chain, tracer particle, and field-correction (e.g., the Lenardic Filter) methods: each of these has different advantages or disadvantages, trading off computational speed with accuracy in tracking feature boundaries. Here we present a method for modeling active fields in mantle dynamics simulations using a new solver implemented in the deal.II package that underlies the ASPECT software. The new solver for the advection-diffusion equation uses a Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) algorithm, which combines features of both finite element and finite volume methods, and is particularly suitable for problems with a dominant first-order term and discontinuities. Furthermore, we have applied a post-processing technique to insure that the solution satisfies a global maximum/minimum. One potential drawback for the LDG method is that the total number of degrees of freedom is larger than the finite element method. To demonstrate the capabilities of this new method we present results for two benchmarks used previously: a falling cube with distinct buoyancy and

  2. Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) Method for Advection of Active Compositional Fields with Discontinuous Boundaries: Demonstration and Comparison with Other Methods in the Mantle Convection Code ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S. K.; Armada, L. T.; Yeh, Y. C.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Doo, W. B.; Liang, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Flow in the Earth's mantle is driven by thermo-chemical convection in which the properties and geochemical signatures of rocks vary depending on their origin and composition. For example, tectonic plates are composed of compositionally-distinct layers of crust, residual lithosphere and fertile mantle, while in the lower-most mantle there are large compositionally distinct "piles" with thinner lenses of different material. Therefore, tracking of active or passive fields with distinct compositional, geochemical or rheologic properties is important for incorporating physical realism into mantle convection simulations, and for investigating the long term mixing properties of the mantle. The difficulty in numerically advecting fields arises because they are non-diffusive and have sharp boundaries, and therefore require different methods than usually used for temperature. Previous methods for tracking fields include the marker-chain, tracer particle, and field-correction (e.g., the Lenardic Filter) methods: each of these has different advantages or disadvantages, trading off computational speed with accuracy in tracking feature boundaries. Here we present a method for modeling active fields in mantle dynamics simulations using a new solver implemented in the deal.II package that underlies the ASPECT software. The new solver for the advection-diffusion equation uses a Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) algorithm, which combines features of both finite element and finite volume methods, and is particularly suitable for problems with a dominant first-order term and discontinuities. Furthermore, we have applied a post-processing technique to insure that the solution satisfies a global maximum/minimum. One potential drawback for the LDG method is that the total number of degrees of freedom is larger than the finite element method. To demonstrate the capabilities of this new method we present results for two benchmarks used previously: a falling cube with distinct buoyancy and

  3. Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2014-06-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

  4. Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Waslewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

  5. How long do particles spend in vortical regions in turbulent flows?

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul; Perlekar, Prasad

    2016-11-01

    We obtain the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the time that a Lagrangian tracer or a heavy inertial particle spends in vortical or strain-dominated regions of a turbulent flow, by carrying out direct numerical simulations of such particles advected by statistically steady, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence in the forced, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. We use the two invariants, Q and R, of the velocity-gradient tensor to distinguish between vortical and strain-dominated regions of the flow and partition the Q-R plane into four different regions depending on the topology of the flow; out of these four regions two correspond to vorticity-dominated regions of the flow and two correspond to strain-dominated ones. We obtain Q and R along the trajectories of tracers and heavy inertial particles and find out the time t_{pers} for which they remain in one of the four regions of the Q-R plane. We find that the PDFs of t_{pers} display exponentially decaying tails for all four regions for tracers and heavy inertial particles. From these PDFs we extract characteristic time scales, which help us to quantify the time that such particles spend in vortical or strain-dominated regions of the flow.

  6. Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Kühl, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions.

  7. Advective loss of overwintering Calanus finmarchicus from the Faroe-Shetland Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullyanto, Arief; Jónasdóttir, Sigrún H.; Visser, André W.

    2015-04-01

    The flow of deep water from the Norwegian Sea to the North Atlantic via the Faroe-Shetland Channel is one of the critical bottlenecks in the meridional overturn circulation. It is also a flow that potentially carries with it a large number of the overwintering copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, a regionally important secondary producer. Using a high resolution hydrodynamic model, MIKE 3 FM, we simulate the overflow of deep water and estimate the associated loss rate of C. finmarchicus as a function of the water depth strata within which they reside. We estimate a net advective loss from the Norwegian Sea population of 80±10 kt carbon bound in lipids of C. finmarchicus biomass per year, a number that constitutes about 50% of the total overwintering population. Estimates of water mass characteristics and particle tracking suggest that the fate of individuals transported in the overflowing water is to be entrained into warmer waters of the North Atlantic Basin, a habitat that appears to be unsuitable for successful overwintering.

  8. Winter to Spring Transition in Europe 48-45 degrees N: From Temperature Control by Advection to Control by Insolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

    1999-01-01

    As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe (48-54 deg N; 5-25 deg E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection. Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

  9. On the origin of size-dependent and size-independent crystal growth: Influence of advection and diffusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    Crystal growth experiments were conducted using potassium alum and calcite crystals in aqueous solution under both non-stirred and stirred conditions to elucidate the mechanism for size-dependent (proportionate) and size-independent (constant) crystal growth. Growth by these two laws can be distinguished from each other because the relative size difference among crystals is maintained during proportionate growth, leading to a constant crystal size variance (??2) for a crystal size distribution (CSD) as the mean size increases. The absolute size difference among crystals is maintained during constant growth, resulting in a decrease in size variance. Results of these experiments show that for centimeter-sized alum crystals, proportionate growth occurs in stirred systems, whereas constant growth occurs in non-stirred systems. Accordingly, the mechanism for proportionate growth is hypothesized to be related to the supply of reactants to the crystal surface by advection, whereas constant growth is related to supply by diffusion. Paradoxically, micrometer-sized calcite crystals showed proportionate growth both in stirred and in non-stirred systems. Such growth presumably results from the effects of convection and Brownian motion, which promote an advective environment and hence proportionate growth for minute crystals in non-stirred systems, thereby indicating the importance of solution velocity relative to crystal size. Calcite crystals grown in gels, where fluid motion was minimized, showed evidence for constant, diffusion-controlled growth. Additional investigations of CSDs of naturally occurring crystals indicate that proportionate growth is by far the most common growth law, thereby suggesting that advection, rather than diffusion, is the dominant process for supplying reactants to crystal surfaces.

  10. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations and blood flow of the ovarian structures of the female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) during growth, dominance, spontaneous ovulation, luteinization and regression of the follicular wave.

    PubMed

    Rawy, M S; Derar, R I; El-Sherry, T M; Megahed, G A

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the ovarian follicular waves and their corresponding hormonal changes in she-camels and to elucidate blood perfusion of the ovarian structures. Three reproductively sound, non-pregnant female camels were examined daily using B-mode and color Doppler to detect changes in their ovarian structures and blood vasculature for 22 follicular waves. Blood area (BA) and percentage (BA%) were determined for the ovarian structures. Three phases of follicular development, those of growth, maturation, and regression, were observed during each follicular wave. Deviation occurred on Day 6.1±1.08. Estradiol increased from basal levels of 27.4±0.4pg/ml to peak concentrations of 134.4±47.5pg/ml as the follicle reached a diameter of 13.2mm. Peripheral progesterone concentrations remained low (<0.4ng/ml) throughout the follicular waves. The blood flow to the dominant follicles increased gradually with follicular growth. The BA and BA% reached the maximum values of 18.4±11.6mm(2) and 6.04±2.03%, respectively, when the diameter of the dominant follicle was 17.5±3.4mm. The blood flow to the corpus luteum rose markedly after ovulation to reach a maximum BA% and BA at Days 5 and 7, respectively, post ovulation. In conclusion, the follicular wave pattern in dromedaries consists of individually variable periods of growth, maturation and regression. Deviation occurs 6.1±1.08d from emergence. Transrectal color-Doppler sonography is a useful technique for noninvasive evaluation of follicular vascularity in camels during various stages of the follicular wave. It provides additional information to assess the developmental stage and activity of the ovarian structures.

  11. Analytical solution for the advection-dispersion transport equation in layered media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advection-dispersion transport equation with first-order decay was solved analytically for multi-layered media using the classic integral transform technique (CITT). The solution procedure used an associated non-self-adjoint advection-diffusion eigenvalue problem that had the same form and coef...

  12. Advection in polar and sub-polar environments: Impacts on high latitude marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Arrigo, Kevin; Berge, Jørgen; Daly, Kendra L.; Danielson, Seth; Daase, Malin; Hop, Haakon; Isla, Enrique; Karnovsky, Nina; Laidre, Kristin; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Renaud, Paul E.; Smith, Walker O.; Trathan, Philip; Turner, John; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    We compare and contrast the ecological impacts of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns on polar and sub-polar marine ecosystems. Circulation patterns differ strikingly between the north and south. Meridional circulation in the north provides connections between the sub-Arctic and Arctic despite the presence of encircling continental landmasses, whereas annular circulation patterns in the south tend to isolate Antarctic surface waters from those in the north. These differences influence fundamental aspects of the polar ecosystems from the amount, thickness and duration of sea ice, to the types of organisms, and the ecology of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Meridional flows in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans transport heat, nutrients, and plankton northward into the Chukchi Sea, the Barents Sea, and the seas off the west coast of Greenland. In the North Atlantic, the advected heat warms the waters of the southern Barents Sea and, with advected nutrients and plankton, supports immense biomasses of fish, seabirds and marine mammals. On the Pacific side of the Arctic, cold waters flowing northward across the northern Bering and Chukchi seas during winter and spring limit the ability of boreal fish species to take advantage of high seasonal production there. Southward flow of cold Arctic waters into sub-Arctic regions of the North Atlantic occurs mainly through Fram Strait with less through the Barents Sea and the Canadian Archipelago. In the Pacific, the transport of Arctic waters and plankton southward through Bering Strait is minimal. In the Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its associated fronts are barriers to the southward dispersal of plankton and pelagic fishes from sub-Antarctic waters, with the consequent evolution of Antarctic zooplankton and fish species largely occurring in isolation from those to the north. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current also disperses biota throughout the Southern Ocean

  13. Theoretical model of blood flow measurement by diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Boas, David A.; Carp, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a noninvasive method to quantify tissue perfusion from measurements of the intensity temporal autocorrelation function of diffusely scattered light. However, DCS autocorrelation function measurements in tissue better match theoretical predictions based on the diffusive motion of the scatterers than those based on a model where the advective nature of blood flow dominates the stochastic properties of the scattered light. We have recently shown using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and assuming a simplistic vascular geometry and laminar flow profile that the diffusive nature of the DCS autocorrelation function decay is likely a result of the shear-induced diffusion of the red blood cells. Here, we provide theoretical derivations supporting and generalizing the previous MC results. Based on the theory of diffusing-wave spectroscopy, we derive an expression for the autocorrelation function along the photon path through a vessel that takes into account both diffusive and advective scatterer motion, and we provide the solution for the DCS autocorrelation function in a semi-infinite geometry. We also derive the correlation diffusion and correlation transfer equation, which can be applied for an arbitrary sample geometry. Further, we propose a method to take into account realistic vascular morphology and flow profile.

  14. One-dimensional advection diffusion modeling of upwelled hyporheic stream temperature along Deer Creek, Vina, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.; Tompkins, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange can locally mitigate thermal stress caused by high water temperatures by upwelling water cooler than ambient stream temperatures and thus providing thermal refuge for critical cold water organisms like salmonids. Ten hyporheic exchange locations were identified by dye tracer experiments along a 16 km stretch of Deer Creek near Vina, California. Four months of continuous temperature measurements were made in the late summer of 2005 at each downwelling and upwelling location and revealed upwelled temperatures that were lagged in time and damped in amplitude. Upwelling hyporheic temperatures that could provide thermal refuge were observed in seven of the ten temperature records. This data was modeled by an analytical one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation solution using subsurface water velocity and the hydrodynamic dispersivity fitting parameters. At each location variations in upwelling temperature are explained by changing subsurface water velocities and flow pathways. The lag time in hyporheic heat flow ranged from a few hours to 44 hours over distances of 15 to 76 meters. The daily stream temperature variation was on the order of 10°C, which was reduced to 1 to 8°C in the upwelling hyporheic flow. At four locations, there was evidence that changes in stream flow produced changes in the amplitude and phase of the upwelling hyporheic water temperature by altering both the subsurface water velocity and hydrodynamic dispersivity. At two locations, additional cold water refuge was created by decreases in surface water flow because it reduced the estimated subsurface water velocity increasing the lag time between the peak surface water and subsurface water temperatures. Increases in surface water flow increased the dispersivity at three locations providing more cold water refuge by reducing the amplitude of the upwelling hyporheic temperature. Such changes alter thermal refuge for salmonids placing a new emphasis on managing surface water

  15. Population persistence under advection-diffusion in river networks.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jorge M

    2012-11-01

    An integro-differential equation on a tree graph is used to model the time evolution and spatial distribution of a population of organisms in a river network. Individual organisms become mobile at a constant rate, and disperse according to an advection-diffusion process with coefficients that are constant on the edges of the graph. Appropriate boundary conditions are imposed at the outlet and upstream nodes of the river network. The local rates of population growth/decay and that by which the organisms become mobile, are assumed constant in time and space. Imminent extinction of the population is understood as the situation whereby the zero solution to the integro-differential equation is stable. Lower and upper bounds for the eigenvalues of the dispersion operator, and related Sturm-Liouville problems are found. The analysis yields sufficient conditions for imminent extinction and/or persistence in terms of the values of water velocity, channel length, cross-sectional area and diffusivity throughout the river network.

  16. Time Acceleration Methods for Advection on the Cubed Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Richard K; Evans, Katherine J; White III, James B; Drake, John B

    2009-01-01

    Climate simulation will not grow to the ultrascale without new algorithms to overcome the scalability barriers blocking existing implementations. Until recently, climate simulations concentrated on the question of whether the climate is changing. The emphasis is now shifting to impact assessments, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and regional details. Such studies will require significant increases in spatial resolution and model complexity while maintaining adequate throughput. The barrier to progress is the resulting decrease in time step without increasing single-thread performance. In this paper we demonstrate how to overcome this time barrier for the first standard test defined for the shallow-water equations on a sphere. This paper explains how combining a multiwavelet discontinuous Galerkin method with exact linear part time-evolution schemes can overcome the time barrier for advection equations on a sphere. The discontinuous Galerkin method is a high-order method that is conservative, flexible, and scalable. The addition of multiwavelets to discontinuous Galerkin provides a hierarchical scale structure that can be exploited to improve computational efficiency in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. Exact linear part time-evolution schemes are explicit schemes that remain stable for implicit-size time steps.

  17. Modeling particle transport in downward and upward flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basha, H. A.; Culligan, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Experimental data obtained for particle transport in downward and upward flows in smooth and rough porous media are analyzed at various flow rates. The data analysis and interpretation are aided through an analytical model with linear kinetics that assumes two sites for particle deposition within a medium, namely, reversible and irreversible, together with a dual mode of irreversible deposition. The bimodal particle transport model is obtained using the Green's function method and is capable of fitting, with reasonable accuracy, the observed transport and deposition behavior of particles. Approximations for advection-dominated flows are also obtained that could represent a simplified modeling tool. Expressions of the temporal moments are developed and algebraic equations are derived that express the model parameters in terms of the moments of the measured particle concentration distributions. The transport models helped define the relationship of the modeled parameters to flow velocity and media roughness. The fitting results show that the parameters for rough and smooth media vary in a systematic way with the pore fluid velocity. The results also reveal that flow direction has a significant influence on the mode and magnitude of irreversible particle deposition for the conditions investigated. For the same seepage velocity, the rate of particle deposition is greater for upward flows than for downward flows. Moreover, roughness effects increase the irreversible particle deposition in downward flows but have little effect in upward flows.

  18. Differences between tangential geostrophy and columnar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Hagay; Pais, M. Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Core flows inverted from time-dependent geomagnetic field models image the geodynamo at the top of its generation region, the Earth's outer core. Physical assumptions incorporated in these inversions may affect the resulting flows. Based on rapid rotation dominance, two assumptions similar in form yet different in essence were proposed: Tangential geostrophy (TG, LeMouël, 1984) and columnar flow (CF, Amit and Olson, 2004). We show that CF is theoretically consistent with the quasi-geostrophy (QG) theory for an incompressible fluid with spherical solid boundaries, whereas TG is not. The areas of ambiguous patches at the core surface where invisible TG or CF flows reside are roughly comparable. The spatial distribution of ambiguous patches for both TG and CF is quite asymmetric about the equator, so assuming equatorial symmetry may hypothetically reduce the non-uniqueness significantly. TG flows exhibit a strong Atlantic/Pacific hemispheric dichotomy and a well-defined eccentric gyre, whereas in CF flows the dichotomy between these two hemispheres is weaker and the gyre is less clear, suggesting that the eccentric gyre might not conserve mass. Both TG and CF upwelling/downwelling patterns are strongly localized in the equatorial region. In addition, in both cases upwelling/downwelling is correlated with equatorward/poleward flow respectively, as expected for QG convection. CF upwelling is more intense than TG upwelling but the magnitude ratio is smaller than the factor 2 distinguishing the analytical expressions of the two assumptions due to the dominance of magnetic field advection by toroidal core flow in the geomagnetic secular variation.

  19. Influence of surface clinker on the crustal structures and dynamics of 'a'ā lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegarth, L. J.; James, M. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Pinkerton, H.

    2010-07-01

    Surface structures on 'a'ā and blocky lavas reflect the internal flow dynamics during emplacement and also influence the dynamics of developing flows. To investigate the effects of brittle, clinkery 'a'ā flow crusts on flow dynamics and surface structures, we conducted sand and silicone laboratory experiments that simulated the advance of lava into a preexisting channelized flow with a surface crust. Experiments carried out with relatively thin crusts produced apparently ductile surface deformation structures, while thick crusts behaved dominantly in a brittle manner. Increased crustal thickness led to increased strength under compression but favored more disruption under tension, as the flow core welled up through tensile fractures, entraining crustal material. At lava flow fronts, upwelling and entrainment would increase heat losses by radiation and advection, respectively, resulting in a positive-feedback cooling loop. Fracturing caused heterogeneous crustal distribution near the flow front, which resulted in lobate flow advance, despite the absence of the viscoelastic layer that has previously been inferred as the primary control on flow advance and lobe formation. We therefore conclude that the influence of a purely brittle crust on the dynamics and surface morphologies of lava flows is more significant than often thought. All of the surface structures produced in the experiments have been observed on lavas or glaciers and many also on landslides and debris flows, suggesting the results can assist in the understanding of a range of natural flows.

  20. A relation between velocity-vorticity correlations and skin friction in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the skin friction and the velocity-vorticity correlations in wall-bounded turbulent flows is derived from the mean vorticity equation. A formula for the skin friction coefficient (Cf) is proposed and evaluated with regards to three canonical wall-bounded flows: turbulent boundary layer, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent pipe flow. The skin friction coefficient can be derived from the mean spanwise vorticity at the wall. Double integration with respect to the wall-normal direction (from 0 to y) is needed to derive Cf from the second derivative of the mean spanwise vorticity in the mean spanwise vorticity equation. One more integration is needed to find the contribution of each component to Cf from the wall to the boundary layer edge (from 0 to δ) . The present formula encompasses four terms: advective vorticity transport, vortex stretching, viscous, and inhomogeneous terms. Drag-reduced channel flow with the slip condition is used to test the reliability of the formula. The advective vorticity transport and vortex stretching terms are found to dominate the contributions to the frictional drag. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  1. Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bruce S; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Passeport, Elodie; Sleep, Brent E

    2016-04-15

    Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining "observable" DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C0), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (Dmech/Deff). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C0/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C0/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (<100years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with "typical" well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where Dmech/Deff is larger than 10, DRIF effects will likely not be

  2. Advective-diffusive/dispersive transport of chemically reacting species in hydrothermal systems. Final report, FY83-85

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtner, P.C.; Helgeson, H.C.

    1986-06-20

    A general formulation of multi-phase fluid flow coupled to chemical reactions was developed based on a continuum description of porous media. A preliminary version of the computer code MCCTM was constructed which implemented the general equations for a single phase fluid. The computer code MCCTM incorporates mass transport by advection-diffusion/dispersion in a one-dimensional porous medium coupled to reversible and irreversible, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. These reactions include aqueous complexing, oxidation/reduction reactions, ion exchange, and hydrolysis reactions of stoichiometric minerals. The code MCCTM uses a fully implicit finite difference algorithm. The code was tested against analytical calculations. Applications of the code included investigation of the propagation of sharp chemical reaction fronts, metasomatic alteration of microcline at elevated temperatures and pressures, and ion-exchange in a porous column. Finally numerical calculations describing fluid flow in crystalline rock in the presence of a temperature gradient were compared with experimental results for quartzite.

  3. MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity

  4. Improvement of the semi-Lagrangian advection scheme in the GRAPES model: Theoretical analysis and idealized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Chen, Dehui; Li, Xingliang; Li, Chao

    2014-05-01

    The Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) is the new-generation numerical weather prediction (NWP) system developed by the China Meteorological Administration. It is a fully compressible non-hydrostatical global/regional unified model that uses a traditional semi-Lagrangian advection scheme with cubic Lagrangian interpolation (referred to as the SL_CL scheme). The SL_CL scheme has been used in many operational NWP models, but there are still some deficiencies, such as the damping effects due to the interpolation and the relatively low accuracy. Based on Reich's semi-Lagrangian advection scheme (referred to as the R2007 scheme), the Re_R2007 scheme that uses the low- and high-order B-spline function for interpolation at the departure point, is developed in this paper. One- and two-dimensional idealized tests in the rectangular coordinate system with uniform grid cells were conducted to compare the Re_R2007 scheme and the SL_CL scheme. The numerical results showed that: (1) the damping effects were remarkably reduced with the Re_R2007 scheme; and (2) the normalized errors of the Re_R2007 scheme were about 7.5 and 3 times smaller than those of the SL_CL scheme in one- and two-dimensional tests, respectively, indicating the higher accuracy of the Re_R2007 scheme. Furthermore, two solid-body rotation tests were conducted in the latitude-longitude spherical coordinate system with nonuniform grid cells, which also verified the Re_R2007 scheme's advantages. Finally, in comparison with other global advection schemes, the Re_R2007 scheme was competitive in terms of accuracy and flow independence. An encouraging possibility for the application of the Re_R2007 scheme to the GRAPES model is provided.

  5. Unstable mass-outflows in geometrically thick accretion flows around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Toru; Das, Santabrata

    2015-10-01

    Accretion flows around black holes generally result in mass-outflows that exhibit irregular behaviour quite often. Using 2D time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations, we show that the mass-outflow is unstable in the cases of thick accretion flows such as the low angular momentum accretion flow and the advection-dominated accretion flow. For the low angular momentum flow, the inward accreting matter on the equatorial plane interacts with the outflowing gas along the rotational axis and the centrifugally supported oblique shock is formed at the interface of both the flows, when the viscosity parameter α is as small as α ≤ 10-3. The hot and rarefied blobs, which result in the eruptive mass-outflow, are generated in the inner shocked region and grow up towards the outer boundary. The advection-dominated accretion flow attains finally in the form of a torus disc with the inner edge of the disc at 3Rg ≤ r ≤ 6Rg and the centre at 6Rg ≤ r ≤ 10Rg, and a series of hot blobs is intermittently formed near the inner edge of the torus and grows up along the outer surface of the torus. As a result, the luminosity and the mass-outflow rate are modulated irregularly where the luminosity is enhanced by 10-40 per cent and the mass-outflow rate is increased by a factor of few up to 10. We interpret the unstable nature of the outflow to be due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, examining the Richardson number for the Kelvin-Helmholtz criterion in the inner region of the flow. We propose that the flare phenomena of Sgr A* may be induced by the unstable mass-outflow as is found in this work.

  6. Scalar decay in two-dimensional chaotic advection and Batchelor-regime turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereday, D. R.; Haynes, P. H.

    2004-12-01

    This paper considers the decay in time of an advected passive scalar in a large-scale flow. The relation between the decay predicted by "Lagrangian stretching theories," which consider evolution of the scalar field within a small fluid element and then average over many such elements, and that observed at large times in numerical simulations, associated with emergence of a "strange eigenmode" is discussed. Qualitative arguments are supported by results from numerical simulations of scalar evolution in two-dimensional spatially periodic, time aperiodic flows, which highlight the differences between the actual behavior and that predicted by the Lagrangian stretching theories. In some cases the decay rate of the scalar variance is different from the theoretical prediction and determined globally and in other cases it apparently matches the theoretical prediction. An updated theory for the wavenumber spectrum of the scalar field and a theory for the probability distribution of the scalar concentration are presented. The wavenumber spectrum and the probability density function both depend on the decay rate of the variance, but can otherwise be calculated from the statistics of the Lagrangian stretching history. In cases where the variance decay rate is not determined by the Lagrangian stretching theory, the wavenumber spectrum for scales that are much smaller than the length scale of the flow but much larger than the diffusive scale is argued to vary as k-1+ρ, where k is wavenumber, and ρ is a positive number which depends on the decay rate of the variance γ2 and on the Lagrangian stretching statistics. The probability density function for the scalar concentration is argued to have algebraic tails, with exponent roughly -3 and with a cutoff that is determined by diffusivity κ and scales roughly as κ-1/2 and these predictions are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  7. The impact of fluid advection on gas hydrate stability: Investigations at sites of methane seepage offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Planert, L.; Bialas, J.; Berndt, C.; Papenberg, C.; Hensen, C.; Hornbach, M. J.; Krastel, S.; Brueckmann, W.

    2014-09-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments drives a wide range of processes, from gas hydrate formation and dissociation, to seafloor methane seepage including the development of chemosynthetic ecosystems, and ocean acidification. Here, we present new seismic data that reveal the 3D nature of focused fluid flow beneath two mound structures on the seafloor offshore Costa Rica. These mounds have formed as a result of ongoing seepage of methane-rich fluids. We show the spatial impact of advective heat flow on gas hydrate stability due to the channelled ascent of warm fluids towards the seafloor. The base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) imaged in the seismic data constrains peak heat flow values to ∼60 mW m and ∼70 mW m beneath two separate seep sites known as Mound 11 and Mound 12, respectively. The initiation of pronounced fluid flow towards these structures was likely controlled by fault networks that acted as efficient pathways for warm fluids ascending from depth. Through the gas hydrate stability zone, fluid flow has been focused through vertical conduits that we suggest developed as migrating fluids generated their own secondary permeability by fracturing strata as they forced their way upwards towards the seafloor. We show that Mound 11 and Mound 12 (about 1 km apart on the seafloor) are sustained by independent fluid flow systems through the hydrate system, and that fluid flow rates across the BGHS are probably similar beneath both mounds. 2D seismic data suggest that these two flow systems might merge at approximately 1 km depth, i.e. much deeper than the BGHS. This study provides a new level of detail and understanding of how channelled, anomalously-high fluid flow towards the seafloor influences gas hydrate stability. Thus, gas hydrate systems have good potential for quantifying the upward flow of subduction system fluids to seafloor seep sites, since the fluids have to interact with and leave their mark on the hydrate system before reaching the seafloor.

  8. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Gaining Cyber Dominance Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University NETCOM G3/5/7 TREX January 2015...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaining Cyber Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2014) 4 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University FY15 Initiatives Gaining Cyber Dominance Program • Army topology development

  9. Critical time scales for advection-diffusion-reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Adam J.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.; Baker, Ruth E.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of local accumulation time (LAT) was introduced by Berezhkovskii and co-workers to give a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to approach the steady-state solution [A. M. Berezhkovskii, C. Sample, and S. Y. Shvartsman, Biophys. J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/j.bpj.2010.07.045 99, L59 (2010); A. M. Berezhkovskii, C. Sample, and S. Y. Shvartsman, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.051906 83, 051906 (2011)]. Such a measure is referred to as a critical time. Here, we show that LAT is, in fact, identical to the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was first introduced by McNabb [A. McNabb and G. C. Wake, IMA J. Appl. Math.IJAMDM0272-496010.1093/imamat/47.2.193 47, 193 (1991)]. Although McNabb's initial argument was motivated by considering the mean particle lifetime (MPLT) for a linear death process, he applied the ideas to study diffusion. We extend the work of these authors by deriving expressions for the MAT for a general one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction problem. Using a combination of continuum and discrete approaches, we show that MAT and MPLT are equivalent for certain uniform-to-uniform transitions; these results provide a practical interpretation for MAT by directly linking the stochastic microscopic processes to a meaningful macroscopic time scale. We find that for more general transitions, the equivalence between MAT and MPLT does not hold. Unlike other critical time definitions, we show that it is possible to evaluate the MAT without solving the underlying partial differential equation (pde). This makes MAT a simple and attractive quantity for practical situations. Finally, our work explores the accuracy of certain approximations derived using MAT, showing that useful approximations for nonlinear kinetic processes can be obtained, again without treating the governing pde directly.

  10. The contiguous domains of Arctic Ocean advection: Trails of life and death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, P.; Kosobokova, K. N.; Slagstad, D.; Drinkwater, K. F.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Moore, S. E.; Ellingsen, I.; Nelson, R. J.; Carmack, E.; Popova, E.; Berge, J.

    2015-12-01

    The central Arctic Ocean is not isolated, but tightly connected to the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Advection of nutrient-, detritus- and plankton-rich waters into the Arctic Ocean forms lengthy contiguous domains that connect subarctic with the arctic biota, supporting both primary production and higher trophic level consumers. In turn, the Arctic influences the physical, chemical and biological oceanography of adjacent subarctic waters through southward fluxes. However, exports of biomass out of the Arctic Ocean into both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are thought to be far smaller than the northward influx. Thus, Arctic Ocean ecosystems are net biomass beneficiaries through advection. The biotic impact of Atlantic- and Pacific-origin taxa in arctic waters depends on the total supply of allochthonously-produced biomass, their ability to survive as adults and their (unsuccessful) reproduction in the new environment. Thus, advective transport can be thought of as trails of life and death in the Arctic Ocean. Through direct and indirect (mammal stomachs, models) observations this overview presents information about the advection and fate of zooplankton in the Arctic Ocean, now and in the future. The main zooplankton organisms subjected to advection into and inside the Arctic Ocean are (a) oceanic expatriates of boreal Atlantic and Pacific origin, (b) oceanic Arctic residents and (c) neritic Arctic expatriates. As compared to the Pacific gateway the advective supply of zooplankton biomass through the Atlantic gateways is 2-3 times higher. Advection characterises how the main planktonic organisms interact along the contiguous domains and shows how the subarctic production regimes fuel life in the Arctic Ocean. The main differences in the advective regimes through the Pacific and Atlantic gateways are presented. The Arctic Ocean is, at least in some regions, a net heterotrophic ocean that - during the foreseeable global warming trend - will more and more rely

  11. Bound-preserving discontinuous Galerkin methods for conservative phase space advection in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory D.; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang and Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stability-preserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care is taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is sufficient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergence-free property of the phase space flow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.

  12. The 8th-10 th January 2009 snowfalls: a case of Mediterranean warm advection event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, F.; Ayensa, E.; Barriga, M.; Del Hoyo, J.; Fernández, A.; Garrido, N.; Martín, A.; Martín, F.; Roa, I. Martínez, A.; Pascual, R.

    2009-09-01

    From 8 th to 10 th of January 2009, significant snowfalls were reported in many areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. This relevant event was very important from the meteorological and social impact point of views. The snow affected many zones, especially the regions of Madrid, Castilla & León and Castilla-La Mancha (Spanish central plateau) with the persistence and thickness of solid precipitation. Up to twenty-five centimetres of snow were reported in some places. On 9th of January the snowfalls caused great social and media impact due to the fact that they took place in the early hours in the Madrid metropolitan areas, affecting both air traffic and land transport. The "Madrid-Barajas" airport was closed and the city was collapsed during several hours. A study of this situation appears in the poster. The snowstorm was characterized by the previous irruption of an European continental polar air mass, that subsequently interacted with a wet and warm air mass of Mediterranean origin, all preceded by low level easterly flows. This type of snowfall is called "warm advection". These winter situations are very efficient from precipitation point of view, generating significant snowfalls and affecting a lot of areas.

  13. Self-organization and advective transport in the cell polarity formation for asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Seirin Lee, Sungrim; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-10-07

    Anterior-Posterior (AP) polarity formation of cell membrane proteins plays a crucial role in determining cell asymmetry, which depends not only on the several genetic process but also biochemical and biophysical interactions. The mechanism of AP formation of Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is characterized into the three processes: (i) membrane association and dissociation of posterior and anterior proteins, (ii) diffusion into the membrane and cytosol, and (iii) active cortical and cytoplasmic flows induced by the contraction of the acto-myosin cortex. We explored the mechanism of symmetry breaking and AP polarity formation using self-recruitment model of posterior proteins. We found that the AP polarity pattern is established over wide range in the total mass of polarity proteins and the diffusion ratio in the cytosol to the membrane. We also showed that the advective transport in both membrane and cytosol during the establishment phase affects optimal time interval of establishment and positioning of the posterior domain, and plays a role to increase the robustness in the AP polarity formation by reducing the number of posterior domains for the sensitivity of initial conditions. We also demonstrated that a proper ratio of the total mass to cell size robustly regulate the length scale of the posterior domain.

  14. Numerical simulation of advective-dispersive multisolute transport with sorption, ion exchange and equilibrium chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, F.M.; Voss, C.I.; Rubin, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    A model was developed that can simulate the effect of certain chemical and sorption reactions simultaneously among solutes involved in advective-dispersive transport through porous media. The model is based on a methodology that utilizes physical-chemical relationships in the development of the basic solute mass-balance equations; however, the form of these equations allows their solution to be obtained by methods that do not depend on the chemical processes. The chemical environment is governed by the condition of local chemical equilibrium, and may be defined either by the linear sorption of a single species and two soluble complexation reactions which also involve that species, or binary ion exchange and one complexation reaction involving a common ion. Partial differential equations that describe solute mass balance entirely in the liquid phase are developed for each tenad (a chemical entity whose total mass is independent of the reaction process) in terms of their total dissolved concentration. These equations are solved numerically in two dimensions through the modification of an existing groundwater flow/transport computer code. (Author 's abstract)

  15. A finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method for solution of the advection-dispersion equation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Russell, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    Test results demonstrate that the finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method (FVELLAM) outperforms standard finite-difference methods for solute transport problems that are dominated by advection. FVELLAM systematically conserves mass globally with all types of boundary conditions. Integrated finite differences, instead of finite elements, are used to approximate the governing equation. This approach, in conjunction with a forward tracking scheme, greatly facilitates mass conservation. The mass storage integral is numerically evaluated at the current time level, and quadrature points are then tracked forward in time to the next level. Forward tracking permits straightforward treatment of inflow boundaries, thus avoiding the inherent problem in backtracking of characteristic lines intersecting inflow boundaries. FVELLAM extends previous results by obtaining mass conservation locally on Lagrangian space-time elements. -from Authors

  16. SEBAL-A: A remote sensing ET algorithm that accounts for advection with limited data. Part II: Test for transferability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) tends to underestimate ET under conditions of advection, the model was modified by incorporating an advection component as part of the energy usable for crop evapotranspiration (ET). The modification involved the estimation of advected en...

  17. A discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter for the advection of non-diffusive fields in solid Earth geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying; Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Billen, Magali I.

    2017-02-01

    Mineral composition has a strong effect on the properties of rocks and is an essentially non-diffusive property in the context of large-scale mantle convection. Due to the non-diffusive nature and the origin of compositionally distinct regions in the Earth the boundaries between distinct regions can be nearly discontinuous. While there are different methods for tracking rock composition in numerical simulations of mantle convection, one must consider trade-offs between computational cost, accuracy or ease of implementation when choosing an appropriate method. Existing methods can be computationally expensive, cause over-/undershoots, smear sharp boundaries, or are not easily adapted to tracking multiple compositional fields. Here we present a Discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter (abbreviated as DG-BP) using a second order Runge-Kutta, strong stability-preserving time discretization method for the advection of non-diffusive fields. First, we show that the method is bound-preserving for a point-wise divergence free flow (e.g., a prescribed circular flow in a box). However, using standard adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) there is an over-shoot error (2%) because the cell average is not preserved during mesh coarsening. The effectiveness of the algorithm for convection-dominated flows is demonstrated using the falling box problem. We find that the DG-BP method maintains sharper compositional boundaries (3-5 elements) as compared to an artificial entropy-viscosity method (6-15 elements), although the over-/undershoot errors are similar. When used with AMR the DG-BP method results in fewer degrees of freedom due to smaller regions of mesh refinement in the neighborhood of the discontinuity. However, using Taylor-Hood elements and a uniform mesh there is an over-/undershoot error on the order of 0.0001%, but this error increases to 0.01-0.10% when using AMR. Therefore, for research problems in which a continuous field method is desired the DG

  18. Flow Charts: Visualization of Vector Fields on Arbitrary Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Shi; Tricoche, Xavier; Weiskopf, Daniel; Hansen, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel flow visualization method called Flow Charts, which uses a texture atlas approach for the visualization of flows defined over curved surfaces. In this scheme, the surface and its associated flow are segmented into overlapping patches, which are then parameterized and packed in the texture domain. This scheme allows accurate particle advection across multiple charts in the texture domain, providing a flexible framework that supports various flow visualization techniques. The use of surface parameterization enables flow visualization techniques requiring the global view of the surface over long time spans, such as Unsteady Flow LIC (UFLIC), particle-based Unsteady Flow Advection Convolution (UFAC), or dye advection. It also prevents visual artifacts normally associated with view-dependent methods. Represented as textures, Flow Charts can be naturally integrated into hardware accelerated flow visualization techniques for interactive performance. PMID:18599918

  19. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  20. Horizontal Advection and Mixing of Pollutants in the Urban Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, S. P.; Entekhabi, D.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.; Fernando, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Although urban air quality and its impacts on the public health have long been studied, the increasing urbanization is raising concerns on how to better control and mitigate these health impacts. A necessary element in predicting exposure levels is fundamental understanding of flow and dispersion in urban canyons. The complex topology of building structures and roads requires the resolution of turbulence phenomena within urban canyons. The use of dense and low porosity construction material can lead to rapid heating in response to direct solar exposure due to large thermal mass. Hence thermal and buoyancy effects may be as important as mechanically-forced or shear-induced flows. In this study, the transport of pollutants within the urban environment, as well as the thermal and advection effects, are investigated. The focus is on the horizontal transport or the advection effects within the urban environment. With increased urbanization and larger and more spread cities, concern about how the upstream air quality situation can affect downstream areas. The study also examines the release and the dispersion of hazardous material. Due to the variety and complexity of urban areas around the world, the urban environment is simplified into adjacent two-dimensional urban street canyons. Pollutants are released inside each canyon. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are applied to evaluate and quantify the flow rate out of each canyon and also the exchange of pollutants between the canyons. Imagine a row of ten adjacent urban street canyons of aspect ratio 1 with horizontal flow perpendicular to it as shown in the attached figure. C is the concentration of pollutants. The first digit indicates in what canyon the pollutant is released and the second digit indicates the location of that pollutant. For example, C3,4 is the concentration of pollutant released inside canyon 3 measured in canyon 4. The same amount of pollution is released inside the ten street canyons

  1. Manifolds and front propagation barriers in advection-reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Tom

    2015-03-01

    We present experiments on the propagation of reaction fronts in laminar, vortex-dominated flows. The fronts are produced by the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. The flows studied are driven by magnetohydrodynamic forcing techniques and are composed of a single vortex, chains or arrays of vortices, or spatially-disordered flows. In all of these cases, one-way barriers appear that either inhibit front propagation or, in some cases, pin the reactions fronts. We analyze this behavior with a recent theory of burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) that are a generalization of the theory of invariant manifolds developed in the past to characterize chaotic mixing and transport of passive impurities. We demonstrate that the BIMs are responsible for the reaction barriers observed experimentally, and we discuss the applicability of this BIM formalism to a range of flows: time-independent, time-periodic and time-aperiodic. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1004744, DMR-1361881 and PHY-1156964.

  2. Fractures as Advective Conduits at the Earth Atmosphere Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragila, M. I.; Weisbrod, N.; Nachshon, U.; Kamai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding gas exchange between the Earth's upper crust and the atmosphere is vital and necessary because this phenomenon controls to a large extent many important processes including, the water cycle, agricultural activities, greenhouse gas emissions and more. From a hydrological aspect, water vapor transport is an extremely important process related to Earth-atmosphere gas exchange because it affects above ground water vapor concentration, soil water content and soil salinity. Traditionally, diffusion was considered the main mechanism of gas exchange between the atmosphere and vadose zone, driven by gas concentration gradients. While this assumption may be correct for many porous media, our laboratory and field-scale studies have shown that advective gas transport mechanisms are governing these fluxes in fractured rocks and cracked soils. Convection driven by thermal gradients (free convection) and wind induced (forced convection) were explored and both were found to play a major role in Earth-atmosphere gas exchange. Long-term laboratory experiments using fracture simulators in a customized climate controlled laboratory have shown that thermal convection occurs when nighttime thermal conditions prevail. This convective venting significantly enhances evaporation and subsequently salt precipitation on the fracture walls. Experiment results were used to develop an empirical relationship between temperature gradients, fracture aperture and convective gas flux through the fracture. Theoretical calculations show that thermal convection is indeed likely to play a major role in evaporation from fractures and can explain enhanced salt accumulation observed in surface-exposed fractures. Long-term field measurements, carried out continuously for 5+ years in a single fracture in the Israeli Negev Desert, verified the development of air convection cycles of 10-18 hours duration on a daily basis, with a peak in both convective flux and duration during the winter. During

  3. Rigorous upper bounds for fluid and plasma transport due to passive advection

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.; Kim, C.B.

    1987-07-01

    The formulation of variational principles for transport due to passive advection is described. A detailed account of the work has been published elsewhere. In the present paper, the motivations, philosophy, and implications of the method are briefly discussed. 15 refs.

  4. AN EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many numerical methods use characteristic analysis to accommodate the advective component of transport. Such characteristic methods include Eulerian-Lagrangian methods (ELM), modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and operator splitting methods. A generalization of characteri...

  5. AN EXACT PEAK CAPTURING AND OSCILLATION-FREE SCHEME TO SOLVE ADVECTION-DISPERSION TRANSPORT EQUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exact peak capturing and essentially oscillation-free (EPCOF) algorithm, consisting of advection-dispersion decoupling, backward method of characteristics, forward node tracking, and adaptive local grid refinement, is developed to solve transport equations. This algorithm repr...

  6. The impact of advection on stratification and chlorophyll variability in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2015-06-01

    Previously reported global-scale correlations between interannual variability in upper ocean stratification and chlorophyll a (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass) have been shown to be driven by strong associations between the two properties in the central and western equatorial Pacific. Herein, we present evidence that these correlations are not causal but instead result from the advection of heat, salt, and nutrients in the region. Specifically, we demonstrate that stratification and chlorophyll are simultaneously influenced by shifts in the horizontal advective inputs of cold/saline/nutrient-rich waters from upwelling regions to the east and warm/fresh/nutrient-poor waters to the west. We find that horizontal advection contributes substantially to the annual surface layer nutrient budget and, together with vertical advection, significantly impacts interannual variability in chlorophyll. These results highlight the importance of a three-dimensional framework for examining nutrient supply in the upper ocean—a crucial requirement for assessing future marine ecosystem responses to a changing climate.

  7. Thermal characteristics of time-periodic electroosmotic flow in a circular microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Ali Jabari

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical analysis is performed to explore the thermal characteristics of electroosmotic flow in a circular microchannel under an alternating electric field. An analytical approach is presented to solve energy equation, and then, the exact solution of temperature profiles is obtained by using the Green's function method. This study reveals that the temperature field repeats itself for each half-period. Frequency has a strong influence on the thermal behavior of the flow field. For small values of the dimensionless frequency (small channel size, large kinematic viscosity, or small frequency), the advection mechanism is dominant in the whole domain and the resultant heating (Joule heating and wall heat flux) can be transferred by the complete flow field in the axial direction; while, the middle portion of the flow field at high dimensionless frequencies does not have sufficient time to transfer heat by advection, and the bulk fluid temperature, especially in heating, may consequently become greater than the wall temperature. In a particular instance of cooling mode, a constant surface temperature case is temporarily occurred in which the axial temperature gradient will be zero. For relatively high frequencies, the unsteady bulk fluid temperature in some radial positions at some moments may be equal to the wall temperature; hence instantaneous cylindrical surfaces with zero radial heat flux may occur over a period of time. Depending on the value and sign of the thermal scale ratio, the quasi-steady-state Nusselt number (time-averaged at one period) approaches a specific value as the electrokinetic radius becomes infinity.

  8. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  9. Advection-Induced Spectrotemporal Defects in a Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bielawski, S.; Szwaj, C.; Bruni, C.; Garzella, D.; Orlandi, G.L.; Couprie, M.E.

    2005-07-15

    We evidence numerically and experimentally that advection can induce spectrotemporal defects in a system presenting a localized structure. Those defects in the spectrum are associated with the breakings induced by the drift of the localized solution. The results are based on simulations and experiments performed on the super-ACO free-electron laser. However, we show that this instability can be generalized using a real Ginzburg-Landau equation with (i) advection and (ii) a finite-size supercritical region.

  10. Exploration of POD-Galerkin Techniques for Developing Reduced Order Models of Reaction-Advection Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    downstream boundary (when needed) is obtained by extrapolation, taking into account the hyperbolic character of the equation . By separating the...for Developing Reduced Order Models of Reaction-Advection Equations 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...advection scalar equation is used as a representative equation to investigate the overall approach. Both linear and nonlinear model equations are

  11. Radiative efficiency of hot accretion flow and the radio/X-ray correlation in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Significant progresses have been made since the discovery of hot accretion flow, a theory successfully applied to the low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) and black hole (BH) X-ray binaries (BHBs) in their hard states. Motivated by these updates, we re-investigate the radiative efficiency of hot accretion flow. We find that, the brightest regime of hot accretion flow shows a distinctive property, i.e. it has a constant efficiency independent of accretion rates, similar to the standard thin disk. For less bright regime, the efficiency has a steep positive correlation with the accretion rate, while for faint regime typical of advection-dominated accretion flow, the correlation is shadower. This result can naturally explain the observed two distinctive correlations between radio and X-ray luminosities in black hole X-ray binaries. The key difference in systems with distinctive correlations could be the viscous parameter, which determines the critical luminosity of different accretion modes.

  12. Elliptical Particle Clustering in Cellular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atis, Severine; Sapsis, Themistoklis; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The transport of finite-sized objects by fluid flows is relevant to a wide variety of phenomena, such as debris transport on the ocean surface or bacteria advection in fluid environment. The shape of the advected objects can strongly alter their coupling with the surrounding flow field, and hence, greatly affecting their dispersion by the flow. We present the results of investigations of the behavior of neutrally buoyant, elliptical particles in two-dimensional cellular flows. We find that their trajectories, and overall organization, are markedly different than for spherical particles, with clear clustering for the elliptical particles associated with vortices.

  13. Benchmarking transport solvers for fracture flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in geothermal systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. For example, geothermal energy is primarily transported by the flow of the heated water or steam rather than by the thermal diffusion. The geometry of the fracture network and the distribution of the mean apertures of individual fractures are the key parameters with regard to the fracture network transmissivity. Transport in fractures can occur through the combination of advection and diffusion processes like in the case of dissolved chemical components. The local distribution of the fracture aperture may play an important role for both flow and transport processes. In this work, we benchmark various numerical solvers for flow and transport processes in a single fracture in 2D and 3D. Fracture aperture distributions are generated by a number of synthetic methods. We examine a single-phase flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid in the low Reynolds number limit. Periodic boundary conditions are used and a pressure difference is imposed in the background. The velocity field is primarly found using the Stokes equations. We systematically compare the obtained velocity field to the results obtained by solving the Reynolds equation. This allows us to examine the impact of the aperture distribution on the permeability of the medium and the local velocity distribution for two different mathematical descriptions of the fracture flow. Furthermore, we analyse the impact of aperture distribution on the front characteristics such as the standard deviation and the fractal dimension for systems in 2D and 3D.

  14. Advection and evolution of river basins in mountain ranges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Willett, S.

    2009-04-01

    Simpson (2006) have proposed a mechanism which involves (1) the idea that river networks in the lowland plains are incorporated in the orogen as it widens, and (2) that they do not change after their incorporation, thus "importing" a geometry acquired outside of the range independently of the tectonic and climatic influences acting inside the uplifting zone. This mechanisms implies rather a "static" view of river networks which serves as an alternative to models in which river networks continuously reorganize inside uplifting topography in such a way as to maintain a statistical geometry dictated solely by geomorphic processes. In the present work our approach to this problem is to measure and compare the form of river basins in the lowlands and in the uplands of the Himalayas, New-Zealand, Taiwan, the European Alps, the Pyrenees and the Apennines. We first present the method we employ to measure the shape of river basins and the data used. Second, we analyse and discuss our results which show a correlation between the shape of networks developed in the pro-lowlands of active orogens and their upland counterparts whereas such a correlation does not exist on the retro-side of the considered orogens. Our results thus support (1) the horizontal advection of river basins from the pro-lowlands to the pro-uplands, (2) a certain amount of reorganization by widening of basin boundaries, and (3) the existence of a different mechanism of drainage network evolution in the retro-side of the orogens. Castelltort, S., and Simpson, G., 2006, Basin Research, 18: 267-276. Hallet, B. and Molnar, P., 2001. J. Geophys. Res, 106: 13697-13709. Hovius, N., 1996, Basin Research, 8: 29-44.

  15. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager Wind Dataset: A Source of Quantitative Information for the Ocean-to-Land Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Demaree, G.; Huth, R.; Jaagus, J.; Koslowsky, D.; Przybylak, R.; Wos, A.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It is well recognized that advection from the North Atlantic has a profound effect on the climatic conditions in central Europe. A new dataset of the ocean-surface winds, derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, SSM/1, is now available. This satellite instrument measures the wind speed, but not the direction. However, variational analysis developed at the Data Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, by combining the SSM/I measurements with wind vectors measured from ships, etc., produced global maps of the ocean surface winds suitable for climate analysis. From this SSM/I dataset, a specific index I(sub na) of the North Atlantic surface winds has been developed, which pertinently quantifies the low-level advection into central Europe. For a selected time-period, the index I(sub na) reports the average of the amplitude of the wind, averaging only the speed when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, the contribution counts to the average as zero speed). Strong correlations were found between February I(sub na) and the surface air temperatures in Europe 50-60 deg N. In the present study, we present the correlations between I(sub na) and temperature I(sub s), and also the sensitivity of T(sub s), to an increase in I(sub na), in various seasons and various regions. We specifically analyze the flow of maritime-air from the North Atlantic that produced two extraordinary warm periods: February 1990, and early-winter 2000/2001. The very cold December 2001 was clearly due to a northerly flow. Our conclusion is that the SSM/I dataset is very useful for providing insight to the forcing of climatic fluctuations in Europe.

  16. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  17. Non-Darcian flow in low-permeability media: key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in shale formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2014-05-01

    In clay or other low-permeability media, water flow becomes non-Darcian and characterized by the non-linear relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient. This work is devoted to addressing a number of key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in clay/shale formations. It is demonstrated that water flow velocity in the damaged zone (often considered as a potential preferential advection paths in a repository) surrounding the tunnel is extremely small, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. The finding is also consistent with the often-observed existence of persistent abnormal pressures in shale formations. While relative permeability is the key parameter for modeling the unsaturated flow process, without incorporating non-Darcian flow behavior, significant errors can occur in the determination of relative permeability values from traditional measurement methods. An approach for dealing with temperature impact on non-Darcian flow and a formulation to calculate non-Darcian water flux in an anisotropic medium are presented, taking into consideration that a geological repository is subject to temperature evolution in the near field as a result of heat generated by nuclear waste, and that shale formations are generally anisotropic.

  18. The effect of vertical advection and diffusion on nutrient supply to the euphotic zone: a model study of the Iceland-Faeroes Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Srokosz, M.

    2006-12-01

    This paper examines the effect of vertical advection and vertical diffusion on the supply of nutrients to the euphotic zone. This is done using a high resolution coupled biological-physical model, that has previously been used to reproduce in situ and satellite observations of physical and biological variability at the Iceland Faeroes Front (IFF). Oligotrophic conditions are imposed in the model in order to examine the vertical flux of nutrients.The results show that, while instantaneous vertical advective fluxes of nutrients can be much larger than vertical diffusive ones, over a period of days the latter act consistently to supply nutrients to the euphotic zone. In contrast, the spatially and temporally varying nature of the vertical velocity field means that there is no consistent vertical advective flux of nutrients. This suggests that for real "messy" complex flows, such as the one modelled here, ageostrophic vertical velocities induced by eddies and frontal meanders may not play as important a role in supplying nutrient to the euphotic zone, and in enhancing biological production there, as has previously been thought.

  19. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (< 1 m depth) sediments. This resultant total flow of mixed land-recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  20. Capillary controls on methane hydrate distribution and fracturing in advective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Hugh; Dugan, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    We simulate 1-D, steady, advective flow through a layered porous medium to investigate how capillary controls on solubility including the Gibbs-Thomson effect in fine-grained sediments affect methane hydrate distribution in marine sediments. We compute the increase in pore fluid pressure that results from hydrate occluding the pore space and allow fractures to form if the pore fluid pressure exceeds a fracture criterion. We apply this model to Hydrate Ridge and northern Cascadia, two field sites where hydrates have been observed preferentially filling cm-scale, coarse-grained layers. We find that at Hydrate Ridge, hydrate forms in the coarse-grained layers reaching saturation of 90%, creating fractures through intervening fine-grained layers after 2000 years. At northern Cascadia, hydrate forms preferentially in the coarse-grained layers but 2 × 105 years are required to develop the observed hydrate saturations (˜20%-60%), suggesting that hydrate formation rates may be enhanced by an additional source of methane such as in situ methanogenesis. We develop expressions to determine the combinations of sediment physical properties and methane supply rates that will result in hydrate-filled coarse-grained layers separated by hydrate-filled fine-grained layers, the conditions necessary to fracture the fine-grained layers, and the conditions that will lead to complete inhibition of hydrate formation as pore space is constricted. This work illustrates how sediment physical properties control hydrate distribution at the pore scale and how hydrate distribution affects fracturing behavior in marine sediments.

  1. An approximate calculation of advective gas-phase transport of 14C at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    A quasilinear partial differential equation, which describes gas-phase transport of a 14C kinematic wave through a porous medium, is derived, its sensitivity to system variables is analyzed and it is applied to one possible release scenarion at the porposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada high-level radioactive waste repository. Advection, isotope exchange between CO 2 in a flowing gas phase and HCO 3- in a static aqueous phase, and radioactive decay are incorporated. The governing equation is solved analytically by the method of characteristics. The mass fraction of 14C in the gas phase,X 14g, is controlled by radioactive decay. The relatively long half-line of 14C, about 5720 years, and the relatively shallow proposed burial depth of the radioactive waste, about 350m, requires significant retardation of the 14C wave velocity for significant reduction in X 14g. 14C wave velocity is most sensitive to temperature and pH which control the distribution of total carbon between gas and liquid phase; the greater the partitioning of carbon into the liquid phase, the greater the retardation of the 14C wave velocity and the greater the ultimate reduction in X 14g from initial conditions. Partitioning of total carbon into the liquid phase is greatest at low temperatures, < 100° C, and high pH values, > 8. Increasing water saturation also tends to retard 14C wave velocity but to a lesser extent. The governing equation has been applied using conditions that may possibly occur at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Calculations indicate that the 14C wave takes about 5900 years to reach the surface with a X 14g equal to 25 ppm. Diffusion and dispersion are not of major importance for these conditions. These calculations are approximate due to the number of assumptions involved. Discharge of 14C into the gas before the selected time would accelerate wave arrival and increase the amount of 14C reaching the surface.

  2. A locally conservative non-negative finite element formulation for anisotropic advective-diffusive-reactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Shabouei, M.; Nakshatrala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) equations appear in various areas of life sciences, hydrogeological systems, and contaminant transport. Obtaining stable and accurate numerical solutions can be challenging as the underlying equations are coupled, nonlinear, and non-self-adjoint. Currently, there is neither a robust computational framework available nor a reliable commercial package known that can handle various complex situations. Herein, the objective of this poster presentation is to present a novel locally conservative non-negative finite element formulation that preserves the underlying physical and mathematical properties of a general linear transient anisotropic ADR equation. In continuous setting, governing equations for ADR systems possess various important properties. In general, all these properties are not inherited during finite difference, finite volume, and finite element discretizations. The objective of this poster presentation is two fold: First, we analyze whether the existing numerical formulations (such as SUPG and GLS) and commercial packages provide physically meaningful values for the concentration of the chemical species for various realistic benchmark problems. Furthermore, we also quantify the errors incurred in satisfying the local and global species balance for two popular chemical kinetics schemes: CDIMA (chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid) and BZ (Belousov--Zhabotinsky). Based on these numerical simulations, we show that SUPG and GLS produce unphysical values for concentration of chemical species due to the violation of the non-negative constraint, contain spurious node-to-node oscillations, and have large errors in local and global species balance. Second, we proposed a novel finite element formulation to overcome the above difficulties. The proposed locally conservative non-negative computational framework based on low-order least-squares finite elements is able to preserve these underlying physical and mathematical properties

  3. Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

  4. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  5. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  6. The stability of the iodate-arsenous acid reaction front while advected by Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Robert S.

    The competition between stabilizing and destabilizing effects is a motif that occurs in every aspect of the human experience. The coupling between the dynamics of chemical reactions and fluids offers a fruitful context in which to examine the patterns that arise in the presence of this competition. The upward-propagating iodate-arsenous acid front is an example of a system in constant struggle. As it moves upward, it leaves a reacted solution of lesser density behind (and below) it. The system is thus subjected to a Raleigh-Taylor-like instability. On the other hand, the well understood (experimentally and theoretically) relationship between the front speed and the curvature of the front is such that the higher a section of front peaks, the slower it goes. The lower a valley of the front, the faster it goes. Thus, the front has a stabilizing tendency. So a natural question is, will the front remain stable, or will it suffer the fate of a convective instability? The answer is a resounding "it depends." Previous research has shown that the onset of instability occurs when a driving parameter exceeds some critical value Sc. This driving parameter involves the fractional difference in density between the chemical species, the acceleration due to gravity, the wall separation, the viscosity, and the chemical diffusivity. The only variable that the earthbound experimenter is free to alter is the wall separation, and experiments have agreed very well with the predicted value of Sc. These successful experimental and theoretical developments were for the case of a stationary fluid. The next step is to extend the understanding of this dynamic to the case of a moving fluid. In a fluid moving between two no-slip boundaries, the fluid velocity assumes a parabolic (or Poiseuille) profile. An interesting question to ask is how is the stability of the chemical reaction front affected by the imposed fluid motion? The answer is contained in this text.

  7. Flow visualization using moving textures

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.

    1995-04-01

    An intuitive way to visualize a flow is to watch particles or textures move in the flow. In this paper, the authors show how texture mapping hardware can produce near-real-time texture motion, using a polygon grid, and one fixed texture. However, the authors make no attempt to indicate the flow direction in a still frame. As discussed here, any anisotropic stretching comes from the velocity gradient, not the velocity itself. The basic idea is to advect the texture by the flow field. In a cited paper, they gave an indication of the wind velocity by advecting the 3D texture coordinates on the polygon vertices of a cloudiness contour surface in a climate simulation. This was slow, because the 3D texture was rendered in software, and because advecting the texture was difficult for time-varying flows. In this paper, they replace the 3D textures by 2D texture maps compatible with hardware rendering, and give techniques for handling time-varying flows more efficiently. The next section gives their technique for the case of 2D steady flows, and the following one discusses the problems of texture distortion. Then they discuss the problems with extending method to time-varying flows, and two solutions. Next they develop compositing methods for visualizing 3D flows. The final section gives their results and conclusions.

  8. Are Advecting Processes in the Vadose Zone of the Albuquerque Basin Altering the Conductive Heat Transfer Signal From Surface Temperature Change ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    60m to 120m, the expression representing horizontal advection is a generally preferred fit to the T log. Perhaps horizontal liquid flow through perched water zones, steps in the ground water table elevation caused by normal faulting, horizontal variations in barometric pressure effects at depth, and sub horizontal vapor flow moving around permeability barriers on its way to the surface, promote horizontal advection at the Tome and Mesa del Sol sites.

  9. Modeling of Convective-Stratiform Precipitation Processes: Sensitivity to Partitioning Methods and Numerical Advection Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Steve; Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.; Ferrier, B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Six different convective-stratiform separation techniques, including a new technique that utilizes the ratio of vertical and terminal velocities, are compared and evaluated using two-dimensional numerical simulations of a tropical [Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE)] and midlatitude continental [Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central (PRESTORM)] squall line. The simulations are made using two different numerical advection schemes: 4th order and positive definite advection. Comparisons are made in terms of rainfall, cloud coverage, mass fluxes, apparent heating and moistening, mean hydrometeor profiles, CFADs (Contoured Frequency with Altitude Diagrams), microphysics, and latent heating retrieval. Overall, it was found that the different separation techniques produced results that qualitatively agreed. However, the quantitative differences were significant. Observational comparisons were unable to conclusively evaluate the performance of the techniques. Latent heating retrieval was shown to be sensitive to the use of separation technique mainly due to the stratiform region for methods that found very little stratiform rain. The midlatitude PRESTORM simulation was found to be nearly invariant with respect to advection type for most quantities while for TOGA COARE fourth order advection produced numerous shallow convective cores and positive definite advection fewer cells that were both broader and deeper penetrating above the freezing level.

  10. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuxart, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martínez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius O.; Jiménez, Maria A.; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Hartogensis, Oscar; Dünnermann, Jens; Conangla, Laura; Garai, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB), for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddy-correlation method. The heterogeneities are estimated from satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader, while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection term becomes more important as the scales become finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast, surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values of the advection, which are probably only significant in the first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre scales.

  11. Autosomal dominant genes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. One of the parents will have the disease (since it is dominant) in this mode of inheritance and that person is called the CARRIER. Only one parent must be a carrier in order for the child to inherit the disease.

  12. Iron dominated magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  13. Pattern formation induced by a differential shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucchi, L.; Vasquez, Desiderio A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid flow advecting one substance while others are immobilized can generate an instability in a homogeneous steady state of a reaction-diffusion-advection system. This differential-flow instability leads to the formation of steady spatial patterns in a moving reference frame. We study the effects of shear flow on this instability by considering two layers of fluid moving independently from each other, but allowing the substances to diffuse along and across the layers. We find that shear flow can generate instabilities even if the average flow velocity is zero for both substances. These instabilities are strongly dependent on which substance is advected by the shear flow. We explain these effects using the results of Taylor dispersion, where an effective diffusivity is enhanced by shear flow.

  14. First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion system is discretized by the second-order upwind residual-distribution scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations is solved by Newton's method over every physical time step. The numerical results are presented for linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems, demonstrating solutions and gradients produced to the same order of accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iterations.

  15. Tomography-based monitoring of isothermal snow metamorphism under advective conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2015-07-01

    Time-lapse X-ray microtomography was used to investigate the structural dynamics of isothermal snow metamorphism exposed to an advective airflow. The effect of diffusion and advection across the snow pores on the snow microstructure were analysed in controlled laboratory experiments and possible effects on natural snowpacks discussed. The 3-D digital geometry obtained by tomographic scans was used in direct pore-level numerical simulations to determine the effective permeability. The results showed that isothermal advection with saturated air have no influence on the coarsening rate that is typical for isothermal snow metamorphism. Isothermal snow metamorphism is driven by sublimation deposition caused by the Kelvin effect and is the limiting factor independently of the transport regime in the pores.

  16. Variational optimization analysis of temperature and moisture advection in a severe storm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Horizontal wind components, potential temperature, and mixing ratio fields associated with a severe storm environment in the south central U.S. were analyzed from synoptic upper air observations with a nonhomogeneous, anisotropic weighting function. Each data field was filtered with variational optimization analysis techniques. Variational optimization analysis was also performed on the vertical motion field and was used to produce advective forecasts of the potential temperature and mixing ratio fields. Results show that the dry intrusion is characterized by warm air, the advection of which produces a well-defined upward motion pattern. A corresponding downward motion pattern comprising a deep vertical circulation in the warm air sector of the low pressure system was detected. The axes alignment of maximum dry and warm advection with the axis of the tornado-producing squall line also resulted.

  17. Small-scale particle advection, manipulation and mixing: beyond the hydrodynamic scale.

    PubMed

    Straube, Arthur V

    2011-05-11

    In this paper we discuss the problems of particle advection, manipulation and mixing at small scales. We start by considering reaction-advection-diffusion systems with the focus on mixing. We show how mixing advection affects the processes of reaction-diffusion and discuss mixing-induced instabilities. Further, we consider the problem of particle manipulation and discuss collective effects in systems comprising solid and compressible particles. We particularly discuss mechanisms of particle entrapment, the role of compressibility in the dynamics of bubbly liquids and nonequilibrium colloidal explosion. Finally, we address two issues related to the problem of wetting. First, we study the role of contact line motion for a sessile droplet (or a bubble) on an oscillating substrate. Second, we discuss an instability of a thin film leading to the formation of a fractal structure of droplets.

  18. Advective transport observations with MODPATH-OBS--documentation of the MODPATH observation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Kauffman, L.K.; Hill, M.C.; Dickinson, J.E.; Mehl, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    The MODPATH-OBS computer program described in this report is designed to calculate simulated equivalents for observations related to advective groundwater transport that can be represented in a quantitative way by using simulated particle-tracking data. The simulated equivalents supported by MODPATH-OBS are (1) distance from a source location at a defined time, or proximity to an observed location; (2) time of travel from an initial location to defined locations, areas, or volumes of the simulated system; (3) concentrations used to simulate groundwater age; and (4) percentages of water derived from contributing source areas. Although particle tracking only simulates the advective component of conservative transport, effects of non-conservative processes such as retardation can be approximated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity based on the properties of selected conservative tracers. This program can also account for simple decay or production, but it cannot account for diffusion. Dispersion can be represented through direct simulation of subsurface heterogeneity and the use of many particles. MODPATH-OBS acts as a postprocessor to MODPATH, so that the sequence of model runs generally required is MODFLOW, MODPATH, and MODPATH-OBS. The version of MODFLOW and MODPATH that support the version of MODPATH-OBS presented in this report are MODFLOW-2005 or MODFLOW-LGR, and MODPATH-LGR. MODFLOW-LGR is derived from MODFLOW-2005, MODPATH 5, and MODPATH 6 and supports local grid refinement. MODPATH-LGR is derived from MODPATH 5. It supports the forward and backward tracking of particles through locally refined grids and provides the output needed for MODPATH_OBS. For a single grid and no observations, MODPATH-LGR results are equivalent to MODPATH 5. MODPATH-LGR and MODPATH-OBS simulations can use nearly all of the capabilities of MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-LGR; for example, simulations may be steady-state, transient, or a combination

  19. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total

  20. [Dominant Thalamus and Aphasia].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Akiko; Shimomura, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown that lesions of the dominant thalamus precipitate language disorders in a similar manner to transcortical aphasias, in a phenomenon known as "thalamic aphasia." In some cases, however, aphasia may not occur or may appear transiently following thalamic lesions. Furthermore, dominant thalamic lesions can produce changes in character, as observed in patients with amnesic disorder. Previous work has explored the utility of thalamic aphasia as a discriminative feature for classification of aphasia. Although the thalamus may be involved in the function of the brainstem reticular activating system and play a role in attentional network and in memory of Papez circuit or Yakovlev circuit, the mechanism by which thalamic lesion leads to the emergence of aphasic disorders is unclear. In this review, we we survey historical and recent literature on thalamic aphasia in an attempt to understand the neural processes affected by thalamic lesions.

  1. Large-eddy Advection in Evapotranspiration Estimates from an Array of Eddy Covariance Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Evett, S. R.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Aiken, R.

    2014-12-01

    Evapotranspiration was continuously measured by an array of eddy covariance systems and large weighting lysimeter in a sorghum in Bushland, Texas in 2014. The advective divergence from both horizontal and vertical directions were measured through profile measurements above canopy. All storage terms were integrated from the depth of soil heat flux plate to the height of eddy covariance measurement. Therefore, a comparison between the eddy covariance system and large weighing lysimeter was conducted on hourly and daily basis. The results for the discrepancy between eddy covariance towers and the lysimeter will be discussed in terms of advection and storage contributions in time domain and frequency domain.

  2. The impact of air mass advection on aerosol optical properties over Gotland (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdun, Agnieszka; Rozwadowska, Anna; Kratzer, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper, measurements of aerosol optical properties from the Gotland station of the AERONET network, combined with a two-stage cluster analysis of back trajectories of air masses moving over Gotland, were used to identify the main paths of air mass advection to the Baltic Sea and to relate them to aerosol optical properties, i.e. the aerosol optical thickness at the wavelength λ = 500 nm, AOT (500) and the Ångström exponent for the spectral range from 440 to 870 nm, α(440,870). One- to six-day long back trajectories ending at 300, 500 and 3000 m above the station were computed using the HYSPLIT model. The study shows that in the Gotland region, variability in aerosol optical thickness AOT(500) is more strongly related to advections in the boundary layer than to those in the free troposphere. The observed variability in AOT(500) was best explained by the advection speeds and directions given by clustering of 4-day backward trajectories of air arriving in the boundary layer at 500 m above the station. 17 clusters of 4-day trajectories arriving at altitude 500 m above the Gotland station (sea level) derived using two-stage cluster analysis differ from each other with respect to trajectory length, the speed of air mass movement and the direction of advection. They also show different cluster means of AOT(500) and α(440,870). The cluster mean AOT(500) ranges from 0.342 ± 0.012 for the continental clusters M2 (east-southeast advection with moderate speed) and 0.294 ± 0.025 for S5 (slow south-southeast advection) to 0.064 ± 0.002 and 0.069 ± 0.002 for the respective marine clusters L3 (fast west-northwest advection) and M3 (north-northwest advection with moderate speed). The cluster mean α(440,870) varies from 1.65-1.70 for the short-trajectory clusters to 0.98 ± 0.03 and 1.06 ± 0.03 for the Arctic marine cluster L4 (fast inflow from the north) and marine cluster L5 (fast inflow from the west) respectively.

  3. Kull ALE: I. Unstructured Mesh Advection, Interface Capturing, and Multiphase 2T RHD with Material Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P

    2002-02-11

    Several advection algorithms are presented within the remap framework for unstructured mesh ALE codes. The methods discussed include a generic advection scheme based on a finite volume approach, and three groups of algorithms for the treatment of material boundary interfaces. The interface capturing algorithms belong to the Volume of Fluid (VoF) class of methods to approximate material interfaces from the local fractional volume of fluid distribution in arbitrary unstructured polyhedral meshes appropriate for the Kull code. Also presented are several schemes for extending single material radiation diffusion solvers to account for multi-material interfaces.

  4. Advection of Microphysical Scalars in Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2011-01-01

    The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) is a large eddy scale atmospheric flow model with extensive turbulence and microphysics packages. It has been applied successfully in the past to a diverse set of problems ranging from prediction of severe convective events (Proctor et al. 2002), tracking storms and for simulating weapons effects such as the dispersion and fallout of fission debris (Bacon and Sarma 1991), etc. More recently, TASS has been used for predicting the transport and decay of wake vortices behind aircraft (Proctor 2009). An essential part of the TASS model is its comprehensive microphysics package, which relies on the accurate computation of microphysical scalar transport. This paper describes an evaluation of the Leonard scheme implemented in the TASS model for transporting microphysical scalars. The scheme is validated against benchmark cases with exact solutions and compared with two other schemes - a Monotone Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL)-type scheme after van Leer and LeVeque's high-resolution wave propagation method. Finally, a comparison between the schemes is made against an incident of severe tornadic super-cell convection near Del City, Oklahoma.

  5. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    PubMed

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  6. Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in forced 2-D turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoch, B.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Bos, W.J.T.; Schneider, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A study of the relationship between Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in fluid turbulence is presented. The topology is characterized using the Weiss criterion, which provides a conceptually simple tool to partition the flow into topologically different regions: elliptic (vortex dominated), hyperbolic (deformation dominated), and intermediate (turbulent background). The flow corresponds to forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in doubly periodic and circular bounded domains, the latter with no-slip boundary conditions. In the double periodic domain, the probability density function (pdf) of the Weiss field exhibits a negative skewness consistent with the fact that in periodic domains the flow is dominated by coherent vortex structures. On the other hand, in the circular domain, the elliptic and hyperbolic regions seem to be statistically similar. We follow a Lagrangian approach and obtain the statistics by tracking large ensembles of passively advected tracers. The pdfs of residence time in the topologically different regions are computed introducing the Lagrangian Weiss field, i.e., the Weiss field computed along the particles' trajectories. In elliptic and hyperbolic regions, the pdfs of the residence time have self-similar algebraic decaying tails. In contrast, in the intermediate regions the pdf has exponential decaying tails. The conditional pdfs (with respect to the flow topology) of the Lagrangian velocity exhibit Gaussian-like behavior in the periodic and in the bounded domains. In contrast to the freely decaying turbulence case, the conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian acceleration in forced turbulence show a comparable level of intermittency in both the periodic and the bounded domains. The conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian curvature are characterized, in all cases, by self-similar power-law behavior with a decay exponent of order - 2.

  7. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 1. The equilibrium advection-dispersion equation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and related models are indispensable for predicting or analyzing contaminant transport processes in streams and rivers, as well as in other surface water bodies. Many useful analytical solutions originated in disciplines other than surface-w...

  8. Satellite-advection based solar forecasting: lessons learned and progress towards probabalistic solar forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using satellite observations from GOES-E and GOES-W platforms in concert with GFS-derived cloud-level winds and a standalone radiative transfer model, an advection-derived forecast for surface GHI over the continental United States, with intercomparison between forecasts for four zones over the CONUS and Central Pacific with SURFRAD results. Primary sources for error in advection-based forecasts, primarily driven by false- or mistimed ramp events are discussed, with identification of error sources quantified along with techniques used to improve advection-based forecasts to approximately 10% MAE for designated surface locations. Development of a blended steering wind product utilizing NWP output combined with satellite-derived winds from AMV techniques to improve 0-1 hour advection forecasts will be discussed. Additionally, the use of two years' of solar forecast observations in the development of a prototype probablistic forecast for ramp events will be shown, with the intent of increasing the use of satellite-derived forecasts for grid operators and optimizing integration of renewable resources into the power grid. Elements of the work were developed under the 'Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting' project spearheaded by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  9. An enriched finite element method to fractional advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Shengzhi; Lian, Yanping; Ying, Yuping; Tang, Shaoqiang; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an enriched finite element method with fractional basis [ 1,x^{α }] for spatial fractional partial differential equations is proposed to obtain more stable and accurate numerical solutions. For pure fractional diffusion equation without advection, the enriched Galerkin finite element method formulation is demonstrated to simulate the exact solution successfully without any numerical oscillation, which is advantageous compared to the traditional Galerkin finite element method with integer basis [ 1,x] . For fractional advection-diffusion equation, the oscillatory behavior becomes complex due to the introduction of the advection term which can be characterized by a fractional element Peclet number. For the purpose of addressing the more complex numerical oscillation, an enriched Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is developed by using a dimensionless fractional stabilization parameter, which is formulated through a minimization of the residual of the nodal solution. The effectiveness and accuracy of the enriched finite element method are demonstrated by a series of numerical examples of fractional diffusion equation and fractional advection-diffusion equation, including both one-dimensional and two-dimensional, steady-state and time-dependent cases.

  10. A Study of the Physical Processes of an Advection Fog Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Duan Yang; Yan, Wen Lian; Yang, Jun; Pu, Mei Juan; Niu, Sheng Jie; Li, Zi Hua

    2016-01-01

    A large quantity of advection fog appeared in the Yangtze River delta region between 1 and 2 December 2009. Here, we detail the fog formation and dissipation processes and the background weather conditions. The fog boundary layer and its formation and dissipation mechanisms have also been analyzed using field data recorded in a northern suburb of Nanjing. The results showed the following: (1) This advection fog was generated by interaction between advection of a north-east cold ground layer and a south-east warm upper layer. The double-inversion structure generated by this interaction between the cold and warm advections and steady south-east vapour transport was the main cause of this long-lasting fog. The double-inversion structure provided good thermal conditions for the thick fog, and the south-east vapour transport was not only conducive to maintaining the thickness of the fog but also sustained its long duration. (2) The fog-top altitude was over 600 m for most of the time, and the fog reduced visibility to less than 100 m for approximately 12 h. (3) The low-level jet near the lower inversion layer also played a role in maintaining the thick fog system by promoting heat, momentum and south-east vapour transport.

  11. Temperature-based versus enthalpy-based numerical simulations of non-isothermal subsurface fluid flow in heterogeneous porous or fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, S.; Driesner, T.; Coumou, D.

    2005-12-01

    We compare temperature-based and enthalpy-based numerical schemes for compressible non-isothermal subsurface fluid flow. We formulate a diffusion equation for the fluid pressure, a diffusion equation for heat conduction, and an equation for the advective transport of temperature or enthalpy in the fluid. These equations can readily be solved by a combination of finite element and higher-order finite volume methods, which are capable of preserving steep temperature gradients in advection dominated flows and handling complex two- and three-dimensional geologic structures with orders of magnitude variation in permeability. Since the time-scale of pressure diffusion is slower than the time-scale for advective fluid flow, it is possible to decouple the equations and use implicit finite element methods for the parabolic (diffusion) equations and explicit finite volume methods for the hyperbolic (advection) equations. For single-phase flow, we use the thermal wave speed to compute the advection of the temperature field on the finite volumes. Since the thermal front is advected at a slower rate than the actual fluid flow, a significant (i.e., a factor 10 at liquid and a factor 1000 at vapor conditions) computational speedup can be achieved in comparison to the formulation where enthalpy is advected. The results for temperature-based and enthalpy-based formulations at vapor or liquid conditions, however, are identical and compare extremely well with results obtained from other codes that use fully coupled solution techniques. Our results do not improve if we use Picard iteration to couple the pressure, conduction, and advection equations. For the enthalpy-based transport schemes, we use a Newton iteration to equilibrate the energy in the fluid and rock. This also allows us to use more modern equation of states for complex multi-component systems, that are formulated in terms of pressure p, temperature T, and composition X, and hence cannot use the specific enthalpy h to

  12. Debris-flow observations in the Zermatt Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    related slide and fall processes, increasingly large amounts of loose sediment are delivered into debris-flow systems. Extensive till, scree slopes and rock glaciers represent the principal and extensive sediment sources for debris flows which are commonly triggered at elevations between 2000 and 3000 m asl. Here, high annual and daily thermal ranges favour frost weathering and regolith production delivered to scree slopes. Slope angles in the initiation zones range from 27 to 41° and are dominated by permafrost in all of the catchments. Debris flows are triggered either through the wetting of material continuously delivered by the permafrost body to the channel or due to release at the rock glacier fronts during exceptional water input. The wetting typically occurs during rainstorms, but debris flows at these sites also happen when sediment shear resistance is reduced by the melting of ice particles, by snow melting and/or a combination of both. In the Dorfbach torrent near Randa, WSL operates an automated debris-flow observation station, measuring the typical parameters such as flow heights and velocities since several years. As part of an interdisciplinary project on data acquisition and numerical modelling of debris flows for hazard mapping, we monitor several other debris-flow prone torrents in the valley and combine these data with observations of ongoing processes in the headwater of the catchments. Several debris-flow events in some of the torrents could be observed and measured in the last years. Total volume, discharge per surge, frontal speed, run out length and impact on the inhabited fans varied considerably. Typically one first event cluster is dominated by snow melting controlled conditions starting late May until end of June and a second cluster are the rainstorm dominated events in midsummer. The largest events are expected in late summer or in fall, when long-lasting advective precipitation events over several days prevail.

  13. High-resolution stochastic downscaling of climate models: simulating wind advection, cloud cover and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    A new stochastic approach to generate wind advection, cloud cover and precipitation fields is presented with the aim of formulating a space-time weather generator characterized by fields with high spatial and temporal resolution (e.g., 1 km x 1 km and 5 min). Its use is suitable for stochastic downscaling of climate scenarios in the context of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological applications. The approach is based on concepts from the Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN) presented by Fatichi et al. (2011, Adv. Water Resour.), the Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation model (STREAP) introduced by Paschalis et al. (2013, Water Resour. Res.), and the High-Resolution Synoptically conditioned Weather Generator (HiReS-WG) presented by Peleg and Morin (2014, Water Resour. Res.). Advection fields are generated on the basis of the 500 hPa u and v wind direction variables derived from global or regional climate models. The advection velocity and direction are parameterized using Kappa and von Mises distributions respectively. A random Gaussian fields is generated using a fast Fourier transform to preserve the spatial correlation of advection. The cloud cover area, total precipitation area and mean advection of the field are coupled using a multi-autoregressive model. The approach is relatively parsimonious in terms of computational demand and, in the context of climate change, allows generating many stochastic realizations of current and projected climate in a fast and efficient way. A preliminary test of the approach is presented with reference to a case study in a complex orography terrain in the Swiss Alps.

  14. Quantification of numerical diffusivity due to TVD schemes in the advection equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidadi, Shreyas; Rani, Sarma L.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the numerical diffusivity νnum inherent to the Roe-MUSCL scheme has been quantified for the scalar advection equation. The Roe-MUSCL scheme employed is a combination of: (1) the standard extension of the original Roe's formulation to the advection equation, and (2) van Leer's Monotone Upwind Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) technique that applies a linear variable reconstruction in a cell along with a scaled limiter function. An explicit expression is derived for the numerical diffusivity in terms of the limiter function, the distance between the cell centers on either side of a face, and the face-normal velocity. The numerical diffusivity formulation shows that a scaled limiter function is more appropriate for MUSCL in order to consistently recover the central-differenced flux at the maximum value of the limiter. The significance of the scaling factor is revealed when the Roe-MUSCL scheme, originally developed for 1-D scenarios, is applied to 2-D scalar advection problems. It is seen that without the scaling factor, the MUSCL scheme may not necessarily be monotonic in multi-dimensional scenarios. Numerical diffusivities of the minmod, superbee, van Leer and Barth-Jesperson TVD limiters were quantified for four problems: 1-D advection of a step function profile, and 2-D advection of step, sinusoidal, and double-step profiles. For all the cases, it is shown that the superbee scheme provides the lowest numerical diffusivity that is also most confined to the vicinity of the discontinuity. The minmod scheme is the most diffusive, as well as active in regions away from high gradients. As expected, the grid resolution study demonstrates that the magnitude and the spatial extent of the numerical diffusivity decrease with increasing resolution.

  15. Counterspace Operations for Information Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Counterspace perations for Information Dominance B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet 3/10...Representative for resolution. Counterspace perations for Information Dominance by James G. Lee INTRODUCTION The Problem The launch of the Soviet...information gap between friendly and enemy forces. This positive information gap has been referred to as information dominance . Information Dominance The

  16. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series-Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of metabolism in aquatic ecosystems. Central to this open water or "Odum" method is the assumption that the DO time is not strongly affected by advection and that effects due to advection or mixin...

  17. Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion solute transport equation subject to time-dependent boundary conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion solute transport equation remain useful for a large number of applications in science and engineering. In this paper we extend the Duhamel theorem, originally established for diffusion type problems, to the case of advective-dispersive transport subj...

  18. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  19. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  20. Flow and transport in single fracture with roughness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in geothermal systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. For example, geothermal energy is primarily transported by the flow of the heated water or steam rather than by the thermal diffusion. The geometry of the fracture network and the distribution of the mean apertures of individual fractures are the key parameters with regard to the fracture network transmissivity. Transport in fractures can occur through the combination of advection and diffusion processes like in the case of dissolved chemical components. The local distribution of the fracture aperture may play an important role for both flow and transport processes. In this work, we compare numerical solution for flow and transport processes in a single fracture in 2D and 3D. Fracture aperture distributions are generated by random correlated field method. We examine a single-phase flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid in the low Reynolds number limit. The velocity field is found using the Stokes equations with periodic boundary condition and a gravity force is imposed in the background. We systematically compare the obtained velocity field to the results obtained by solving the Reynolds equation, where pressure difference is imposed in the background. This allows us to examine the impact of the aperture distribution on the permeability of the medium and the local velocity distribution for two different mathematical descriptions of the fracture flow. Furthermore, we analyse the impact of aperture distribution on the front characteristics.

  1. Single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for advection-diffusion problems with large diffusion-coefficient heterogeneities and high-advection transport.

    PubMed

    Perko, Janez; Patel, Ravi A

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents an approach that extends the flexibility of the standard lattice Boltzmann single relaxation time scheme in terms of spatial variation of dissipative terms (e.g., diffusion coefficient) and stability for high Péclet mass transfer problems. Spatial variability of diffusion coefficient in SRT is typically accommodated through the variation of relaxation time during the collision step. This method is effective but cannot deal with large diffusion coefficient variations, which can span over several orders of magnitude in some natural systems. The approach explores an alternative way of dealing with large diffusion coefficient variations in advection-diffusion transport systems by introducing so-called diffusion velocity. The diffusion velocity is essentially an additional convective term that replaces variations in diffusion coefficients vis-à-vis a chosen reference diffusion coefficient which defines the simulation time step. Special attention is paid to the main idea behind the diffusion velocity formulation and its implementation into the lattice Boltzmann framework. Finally, the performance, stability, and accuracy of the diffusion velocity formulation are discussed via several advection-diffusion transport benchmark examples. These examples demonstrate improved stability and flexibility of the proposed scheme with marginal consequences on the numerical performance.

  2. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  3. Particulate export vs lateral advection in the Antarctic Polar Front (Southern Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Ravaioli, M.; Capotondi, L.; Giglio, F.

    2012-04-01

    The overarching goal of our study was to describe and quantify the influence of lateral advection relative to the vertical export in the Antarctic Polar Front (Southern Pacific Ocean). In areas where lateral advection of particulate material is significant, budgets of bioactive elements can be inaccurate if fluxes through the water column and to the seabed are exclusively interpreted as passive sinking of particles. However, detailed information on the influence of lateral advection in the water column in the southern ocean is lacking. With this in mind, our study focused between the twilight zone (i.e. mesopelagic) and the benthic nepheloid layer to understand the relative importance of lateral flux with increasing water depth. Measurements were performed south of the Antarctic Polar Front for 1 year (January 10th 1999-January 3rd 2000) at 900, 1300, 2400, and 3700 m from the sea surface. The study was carried out using a 3.5 km long mooring line instrumented with sediment traps, current meters and sensors of temperature and conductivity. Sediment trap samples were characterized via several parameters including total mass flux, elemental composition (organic carbon, total nitrogen, biogenic silica, and calcium carbonate), concentration of metals (aluminum, iron, barium, and manganese), 210Pb activity, and foraminifera taxonomy. High fluxes of biogenic particles were observed in both summer 1999 and 2000 as a result of seasonal algal blooms associated with sea ice retreat and water column stratification. During no-productive periods, several high energy events occurred and resulted in advecting resuspended biogenic particles from flat-topped summits of the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. Whereas the distance between seabed and uppermost sediment traps was sufficient to avoid lateral advection processes, resuspension was significant in the lowermost sediment traps accounting for ~60 and ~90% of the material caught at 2400 and 3700 m, respectively. Samples collected during

  4. An innovative lattice Boltzmann model for simulating Michaelis-Menten-based diffusion-advection kinetics and its application within a cartilage cell bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moaty Sayed, A A; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2010-04-01

    Lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are rapidly showing their ability to simulate a lot of fluid dynamics problems that previously required very complex approaches. This study presents a LBM for simulating diffusion-advection transport of substrate in a 2-D laminar flow. The model considers the substrate influx into a set of active cells placed inside the flow field. A new innovative method was used to simulate the cells activity using the LBM by means of Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The model is validated with some numerical benchmark problems and proved highly accurate results. After validation the model was used to simulate the transport of oxygen substrates that diffuse in water to feed a set of active cartilage cells inside a new designed bioreactor.

  5. Improving a prediction system for oil spills in the Yellow Sea: effect of tides on subtidal flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Sin; Cho, Yang-Ki; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Jung, Kyung Tae; You, Sung Hyup

    2013-03-15

    A multi-nested prediction system for the Yellow Sea using drifter trajectory simulations was developed to predict the movements of an oil spill after the MV Hebei Spirit accident. The speeds of the oil spill trajectories predicted by the model without tidal forcing were substantially faster than the observations; however, predictions taking into account the tides, including both tidal cycle and subtidal periods, were satisfactorily improved. Subtidal flow in the simulation without tides was stronger than in that with tides because of reduced frictional effects. Friction induced by tidal stress decelerated the southward subtidal flows driven by northwesterly winter winds along the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea. These results strongly suggest that in order to produce accurate predictions of oil spill trajectories, simulations must include tidal effects, such as variations within a tidal cycle and advections over longer time scales in tide-dominated areas.

  6. Differences between tangential geostrophy and columnar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Hagay; Pais, Maria Alexandra

    2013-07-01

    Core flows inverted from time-dependent geomagnetic field models image the geodynamo at the top of its generation region, the Earth's outer core. Physical assumptions incorporated in these inversions affect the resulting flows. Based on rapid rotation dominance, two assumptions similar in form yet different in essence have been proposed: tangential geostrophy (TG, LeMouël 1984) and columnar flow (CF, Amit & Olson 2004). We recall that CF is theoretically consistent with the quasi-geostrophy (QG) theory for an incompressible fluid with spherical solid boundaries whereas TG is not. As such, we highlight the importance of applying the CF assumption when inverting geomagnetic data for interior core (columnar) flows that can be used in kinematic dynamo and thermal convection models in the Boussinesq approximation. Next we evaluate the non-uniqueness associated with CF flows. The areas of ambiguous patches at the core surface where invisible TG or CF flows reside are roughly comparable. The spatial distribution of ambiguous patches for both TG and CF is quite asymmetric about the equator, so assuming equatorial symmetry is expected to reduce the non-uniqueness significantly. In fact, for assumed equatorial symmetry, the only possible non-unique flows will be those along hypothetical ζ-contours in the opposite hemispheres that their equatorial plane projections are parallel. TG flows exhibit a strong Atlantic/Pacific hemispheric dichotomy and a well-defined eccentric gyre whereas in CF flows the dichotomy between these two hemispheres is weaker and the gyre is less clear suggesting that the eccentric gyre might not conserve mass. Both TG and CF upwelling/downwelling patterns are strongly localized in the equatorial region. In addition, in both cases upwelling/downwelling is correlated with equatorward/poleward flow respectively, as expected for QG convection. CF upwelling is more intense than TG upwelling but the magnitude ratio is smaller than the factor 2

  7. Ferrofluid flow for TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Moridis, George

    1998-03-24

    We have developed EOS7M, a ferrofluid flow and transport module for TOUGH2. EOS7M calculates the magnetic forces on ferrofluid caused by an external magnetic field and allows simulation of flow and advective transport of ferrofluid-water mixtures through porous media. Such flow problems are strongly coupled and well suited to the TOUGH2 framework. Preliminary applications of EOS7M to some simple pressure and flow problems for which experiments were carried out in the lab show good qualitative agreement with the laboratory results.

  8. Estimation and correction of advection effects with single and multiple, conventional and Doppler radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, T.

    1981-01-01

    The laws of fluid motion are invariant under a Gallilean transformation. For a perfect observing system, the data analysis should, therefore, also be invariant under a Gallilean transformation. This invariance is often not preserved in practical observing systems. In this connection, it is often advisable to perform mesoscale analysis in a frame moving with respect to the earth's surface. In the present investigation the velocity of such a frame is referred to as an advection velocity. The investigation is concerned with remaining problems regarding the Gallilean transformation. The establishment of a frame of reference for the achievement of maximum coherence is considered, taking into account the case of given nonsimultaneous observations of scalars or Cartesian vectors. It is found that advection speed can be estimated objectively if a scalar or Cartesian vector can be observed directly and if, in addition, the time and position of each observation is approximately known.

  9. The effect of advection on the nutrient reservoir in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Palter, Jaime B; Lozier, M Susan; Barber, Richard T

    2005-09-29

    Though critically important in sustaining the ocean's biological pump, the cycling of nutrients in the subtropical gyres is poorly understood. The supply of nutrients to the sunlit surface layer of the ocean has traditionally been attributed solely to vertical processes. However, horizontal advection may also be important in establishing the availability of nutrients. Here we show that the production and advection of North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water introduces spatial and temporal variability in the subsurface nutrient reservoir beneath the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. As the mode water is formed, its nutrients are depleted by biological utilization. When the depleted water mass is exported to the gyre, it injects a wedge of low-nutrient water into the upper layers of the ocean. Contrary to intuition, cold winters that promote deep convective mixing and vigorous mode water formation may diminish downstream primary productivity by altering the subsurface delivery of nutrients.

  10. Analytic radiative-advective equilibrium as a model for high-latitude climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Timothy W.; Jansen, Malte F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose radiative-advective equilibrium as a basic-state model for the high-latitude atmosphere. Temperature profiles are determined by a competition between stabilization by atmospheric shortwave absorption and advective heat flux convergence, and destabilization by surface shortwave absorption. We derive analytic expressions for temperature profiles, assuming power law atmospheric heating profiles as a function of pressure and two-stream windowed-gray longwave radiative transfer. We discuss example profiles with and without an atmospheric window and show that the sensitivity of surface temperature to forcing depends on the nature of the forcing, with greatest sensitivity to radiative forcing by increased optical thickness and least sensitivity to increased atmospheric heat transport. These differences in sensitivity of surface temperature to forcing can be explained in terms of a forcing-dependent lapse-rate feedback.

  11. Advective-diffusive motion on large scales from small-scale dynamics with an internal symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Raffaele; Aurell, Erik

    2016-06-01

    We consider coupled diffusions in n -dimensional space and on a compact manifold and the resulting effective advective-diffusive motion on large scales in space. The effective drift (advection) and effective diffusion are determined as a solvability conditions in a multiscale analysis. As an example, we consider coupled diffusions in three-dimensional space and on the group manifold SO(3) of proper rotations, generalizing results obtained by H. Brenner [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 80, 548 (1981), 10.1016/0021-9797(81)90214-9]. We show in detail how the analysis can be conveniently carried out using local charts and invariance arguments. As a further example, we consider coupled diffusions in two-dimensional complex space and on the group manifold SU(2). We show that although the local operators may be the same as for SO(3), due to the global nature of the solvability conditions the resulting diffusion will differ and generally be more isotropic.

  12. Comparison of Nonlinear and Linear Stabilization Schemes for Advection-Diffusion Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, R. R.; Heister, T.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately solving advection-diffusion equations that appear in the finite element discretization of a mantle convection simulation is an important computational issue to the computational geoscience community. This is because it allows for users studying mantle convection to create reliable simulations for something as small and simple as a 2D simulation on their personal laptop to something as complex as a massively parallel 3D simulation on their university supercomputer. Standard finite element discretizations of advection-diffusion equations introduce unphysical oscillations around steep gradients. Therefore, stabilization must be added to the discrete formulation to obtain correct solutions. Using the open source scientific library ASPECT, the SUPG and Entropy Viscosity schemes are compared using stationary and non-stationary test equations. Differences in maximum overshoot and undershoot, smear, and convergence orders are compared to see if improvements can be made to the existing numerical method existing in ASPECT.

  13. Two-dimensional atmospheric transport and chemistry model - Numerical experiments with a new advection algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shia, Run-Lie; Ha, Yuk Lung; Wen, Jun-Shan; Yung, Yuk L.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive testing of the advective scheme proposed by Prather (1986) has been carried out in support of the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory two-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere. The original scheme is generalized to include higher-order moments. In addition, it is shown how well the scheme works in the presence of chemistry as well as eddy diffusion. Six types of numerical experiments including simple clock motion and pure advection in two dimensions have been investigated in detail. By comparison with analytic solutions, it is shown that the new algorithm can faithfully preserve concentration profiles, has essentially no numerical diffusion, and is superior to a typical fourth-order finite difference scheme.

  14. Oxygen Advection and Diffusion in a Three Dimensional Vascular Anatomical Network

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qianqian; Sakadžić, Sava; Ruvinskaya, Lana; Devor, Anna; Dale, Anders M.; Boas, David A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for quantitative and computationally affordable models for analyzing tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in microvascular networks. In this work, we develop a hybrid model to solve for the time-varying oxygen advection-diffusion equation in the vessels and tissue. To obtain a three-dimensional temporal evolution of tissue oxygen concentration for realistic complex vessel networks, we used a graph-based advection model combined with a finite-element based diffusion model and an implicit time-advancing scheme. We validated this algorithm for both static and dynamic conditions. We also applied it to a complex vascular network obtained from a rodent somatosensory cortex. Qualitative agreement was found with in-vivo experiments. PMID:18958033

  15. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  16. Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/23/2015 Journal Article Estimating advective near-surface currents from ocean color ...currents from the sequential ocean color imagery provided by multiple newer generations of satellite sensors on hourly scales in the Yellow Sea and the...optical properties are discussed regarding the performances of various color products on the retrieval of currents. Similarities of velocity

  17. A family of compact high order coupled time-space unconditionally stable vertical advection schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarié, Florian; Debreu, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Recent papers by Shchepetkin (2015) and Lemarié et al. (2015) have emphasized that the time-step of an oceanic model with an Eulerian vertical coordinate and an explicit time-stepping scheme is very often restricted by vertical advection in a few hot spots (i.e. most of the grid points are integrated with small Courant numbers, compared to the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, except just few spots where numerical instability of the explicit scheme occurs first). The consequence is that the numerics for vertical advection must have good stability properties while being robust to changes in Courant number in terms of accuracy. An other constraint for oceanic models is the strict control of numerical mixing imposed by the highly adiabatic nature of the oceanic interior (i.e. mixing must be very small in the vertical direction below the boundary layer). We examine in this talk the possibility of mitigating vertical Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction, while avoiding numerical inaccuracies associated with standard implicit advection schemes (i.e. large sensitivity of the solution on Courant number, large phase delay, and possibly excess of numerical damping with unphysical orientation). Most regional oceanic models have been successfully using fourth order compact schemes for vertical advection. In this talk we present a new general framework to derive generic expressions for (one-step) coupled time and space high order compact schemes (see Daru & Tenaud (2004) for a thorough description of coupled time and space schemes). Among other properties, we show that those schemes are unconditionally stable and have very good accuracy properties even for large Courant numbers while having a very reasonable computational cost.

  18. Statistical evaluation of thermal advection and stratification effects in scatterometer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Gad; Tiu, F. S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of thermal advection and atmospheric stratification are statistically evaluated using Seasat scatterometer observations as a data base. The results indicate that, whenever the surface winds or wind stress are related to the atmospheric pressure field, the appropriate stratification and baroclinic corrections should be applied. Without such corrections, errors of 15-25 percent are likely to arise in the surface fluxes computed from model low-level winds or pressure measurements.

  19. Approximate Solution of Time-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation via Fractional Variational Iteration Method

    PubMed Central

    İbiş, Birol

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to obtain the approximate solution of time-fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE) involving Jumarie's modification of Riemann-Liouville derivative by the fractional variational iteration method (FVIM). FVIM provides an analytical approximate solution in the form of a convergent series. Some examples are given and the results indicate that the FVIM is of high accuracy, more efficient, and more convenient for solving time FADEs. PMID:24578662

  20. Noise Prevents Infinite Stretching of the Passive Field in a Stochastic Vector Advection Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandoli, Franco; Maurelli, Mario; Neklyudov, Mikhail

    2014-09-01

    A linear stochastic vector advection equation is considered; the equation may model a passive magnetic field in a random fluid. When the driving velocity field is rough but deterministic, in particular just Hölder continuous and bounded, one can construct examples of infinite stretching of the passive field, arising from smooth initial conditions. The purpose of the paper is to prove that infinite stretching is prevented if the driving velocity field contains in addition a white noise component.

  1. New Solution of Diffusion-Advection Equation for Cosmic-Ray Transport Using Ultradistributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C.; Plastino, A. R.; Plastino, A.; Ferri, G. L.; de Paoli, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we exactly solve the diffusion-advection equation (DAE) for cosmic-ray transport. For such a purpose we use the Theory of Ultradistributions of J. Sebastiao e Silva, to give a general solution for the DAE. From the ensuing solution, we obtain several approximations as limiting cases of various situations of physical and astrophysical interest. One of them involves Solar cosmic-rays' diffusion.

  2. Multiphase Advection and Radiation Diffusion with Material Interfaces on Unstructured Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P

    2002-10-03

    A collection of numerical methods are presented for the advection or remapping of material properties on unstructured and staggered polyhedral meshes in arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian calculations. The methods include several new procedures to track and capture sharp interface boundaries, and to partition radiation energy into multi-material thermal states. The latter is useful for extending and applying consistently single material radiation diffusion solvers to multi-material problems.

  3. Streamwise Oscillation of Airfoils into Reverse Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granlund, Kenneth; Jones, Anya; Ol, Michael

    2015-11-01

    An airfoil in freestream is oscillated in streamwise direction to cyclically enter reverse flow. Measured lift is compared to analytical blade element theories. Advance ratio, reduced frequency and angle of attack is varied within those typical for helicopters. Experimental results reveal that lift does not become negative in the flow reversal part, contradicting one theory and supported by another. Flow visualization reveal the leading edge vortex advecting against the freestream to a point in front of the leading edge.

  4. Dissecting diffusive and advective motion in colloidal sedimentation by multi-speckle Ultra-Small-Angle XPCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Johannes; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    In colloidal suspensions internal or external fields can induce directed motions of particles in addition to Brownian diffusion. Here, gradients in temperature or chemical potential, shear flow as well as gravity can act as an external field. Examples for internal motions can be found in synthetic self-propelling particles and microorganisms, generally coined as active matter. We present multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy measurements in the Ultra-Small-Angle scattering range which probes an expanded length scale comparable to DLS and optical microscopy. To demonstrate the advanced capabilities, we show measurements probing the motions within a settling suspension of sub-micron sized silica particles. A global fitting procedure has been applied to separate the diffusive and advective contributions to the particle dynamics. With this, macroscopic parameters such as the sedimentation velocity can be probed on a microscopic level in highly opaque and concentrated systems, which are in general difficult to access for optical investigations. This procedure may prove its value for investigating various kinds of non-equilibrium systems.

  5. Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive dynamics of CO2 and brine leakage through faults and wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Han, Kyungdoe; Park, Eungyu

    2015-05-01

    Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive transport dynamics of CO2 and brine within a natural analogue in the northern Paradox Basin, Utah, were explored by integrating numerical simulations with soil CO2 flux measurements. Deeply sourced CO2 migrates through steeply dipping fault zones to the shallow aquifers predominantly as an aqueous phase. Dense CO2-rich brine mixes with regional groundwater, enhancing CO2 dissolution. Linear stability analysis reveals that CO2 could be dissolved completely within only ~500 years. Assigning lower permeability to the fault zones induces fault-parallel movement, feeds up-gradient aquifers with more CO2, and impedes down-gradient fluid flow, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The regional fault permeability that best reproduces field spatial CO2 flux variation is estimated 1 × 10-17 ≤ kh < 1 × 10-16 m2 and 5 × 10-16 ≤ kv < 1 × 10-15 m2. The anticlinal trap serves as an essential fluid source for eruption at Crystal Geyser. Geyser-like discharge sensitively responds to varying well permeability, radius, and CO2 recharge rate. The cyclic behavior of wellbore CO2 leakage decreases with time.

  6. Interpreting layer thickness advection in terms of eddy-topography interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanyu; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2014-09-01

    A parameterization for the spatial pattern of the eddy induced thickness advection parameter estimated from a dynamically consistent data assimilation procedure is presented. Values of the thickness advection parameter are predominantly negative (positive) over seamounts, and positive (negative) over the deep ocean in the southern (northern) hemisphere along strong currents; its magnitude is large at high latitudes but low in the tropical regions. Those characteristics motivate a parameterization based on the Coriolis parameter, the bottom depth and an eddy length scale. As a parameterization for an eddy streamfunction, the associated bolus velocities advect density anti-cyclonically (cyclonically) around seamounts (troughs). Although the parameterization has the same form as Holloway’s streamfunction for the Neptune effect, and is also related to eddy-topography interactions, Holloway’s streamfunction is in contrast applied to the momentum equation. The parameterization is independently confirmed by the flux-mean gradient relation from the output of a high resolution model. The effect of the proposed scheme is investigated using a channel model with idealized bottom topographies and a global ocean circulation model with realistic bottom topography. In agreement with the high resolution model, our scheme generates cold (warm) domes and cyclonic circulations over seamounts (troughs), which is consistent with the eddy movement in presence of the topographic β effect. This provides a different mechanism for eddy-topography interaction than the Neptune effect, which generates circulations of opposing sign.

  7. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino; Pérez-Velázquez, Judith

    This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h'(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h'(u) is constant k, (2)  h'(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where k = 0, and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE.

  8. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h′(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h′(u) is constant k, (2)  h′(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where k = 0, and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE. PMID:27689131

  9. Thermal advection and stratification effects on surface winds and the low level meridional mass transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Gad; Tiu, Felice S.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical tests are performed on the Seasat scatterometer observations to examine if and to what degree thermal advection and stratification effects manifest themselves in these remotely sensed measurements of mean wind and wind stress over the ocean. On the basis of a two layer baroclinic boundary layer model which is presented, it is shown that the thermal advection and stratification of the entire boundary layer as well as the geostrophic forcing influence the modeled near surface wind and wind stress profiles. Evidence of diurnal variation in the stratification under barotropic conditions is found in the data, with the daytime marine boundary layer being more convective than its nighttime counterpart. The temporal and spacial sampling pattern of the satellite makes it impossible to recover the full diurnal cycle, however. The observed effects of the thermal advection are shown to be statistically significant during the day (and presumed more convective) hours, causing a systematic increase in the poleward transport of mass and heat. The statistical results are in a qualitative agreement with the model simulations and cannot be reproduced in randomized control tests.

  10. An improved lattice Boltzmann method for simulating advective-diffusive processes in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aursjø, Olav; Jettestuen, Espen; Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Hiorth, Aksel

    2017-03-01

    Lattice Boltzmann methods are widely used to simulate advective-diffusive processes in fluids. Lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook methods presented in the literature mostly just exhibit first order spatial accuracy and introduce errors proportional to the velocity squared. Formulations proposed to alleviate this have only been partly successful and are valid only in certain specific situations. We present and demonstrate here a formulation that produces no such second order errors. This formulation suggests that a subtle, but important, adjustment is all it takes to improve the accuracy of the method. The key to the improved accuracy of this new model is the non-standard definition of the concentration that relates to the distribution function describing the advection-diffusion in lattice Boltzmann. The main advantage of the algorithm comes to view when simulating situations where fluid density variations appear. The present formulation of the advection-diffusion algorithm will, by taking into account these fluid density variations, drastically reduce the errors produced compared to the standard formulations. We also show how a source term is included in this new formulation without it losing its second order spatial accuracy.

  11. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Weimin

    2012-07-10

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above {approx}0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Hoiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  12. A particle-mesh algorithm for advection-reaction-diffusion equations with applications to plankton modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparella, F.; Oliveri, F.

    2009-04-01

    The interplay of advection, reaction and diffusion terms in ADR equations is a rather difficult one to be modeled numerically. The kind of spurious oscillations that is usually harmless for non-reacting scalars is often amplified without bounds by reaction terms. Furthermore, in most biogeochimical applications, such as mesoscale or global-scale plankton modeling, the diffusive fluxes may be smaller than the numerical ones. Inspired by the particle-mesh methods used by cosmologists, we propose to discretize on a grid only the diffusive term of the equation, and solve the advection-reaction terms as ordinary differential equations along the characteristic lines. Diffusion happens by letting the concentration field carried by each particle to relax towards the diffusive field known on the grid, without redistributing the particles. This method, in the limit of vanishing diffusivity and for a fixed mesh size, recovers the advection-reaction solution with no numerical diffusion. We show some example numerical solutions of the ADR equations stemming from a simple predator-prey model.

  13. An advection scheme based on the combination of particle mesh method and pure Lagrangian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenic, Ilija; Mihailovic, Dragutin T.; Kapor, Darko

    2011-11-01

    Possibility of using pure Lagrangian approach in modeling transport phenomena is described in this paper. The application of pure Lagrangian approach in real atmospheric field induces highly irregular spatial distribution of grid points, after only a few time steps. In order to avoid problems caused by that irregularity, a quasi interpolation procedure is proposed. Proposed interpolation procedure is similar to the radial basis functions interpolation and does not impose any demands about spatial distribution of the grid points or about continuity and differentiability of the field that needs to be interpolated. Besides that, proposed procedure is explicitly mass conserving. Combination of particle mesh method and pure Lagrangian approach creates efficient transport scheme that does not produce any new local maxima and minima in advected field. In proposed advection scheme motion of points are performed in Lagrangian manner while spatial derivatives are evaluated on the basis of values interpolated onto regular grid. Applicability of proposed advection scheme in an unambiguous way is proved by performing "standard" numerical tests with (i) the slotted cylinder under solid body rotation, (ii) the test with Doswell's idealized cyclogenesis as well as (iii) integration of shallow water equations.

  14. Dominant optic atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. A