Science.gov

Sample records for advective travel times

  1. Time travel paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S.

    2002-03-01

    We define the time travel paradox in physical terms and prove its existence by constructing an explicit example. We argue further that in theories-such as general relativity-where the spacetime geometry is subject to nothing but differential equations and initial data no paradoxes arise.

  2. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h′(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h′(u) is constant k, (2)  h′(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where k = 0, and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE.

  3. Reactive-Diffusive-Advective Traveling Waves in a Family of Degenerate Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Garduño, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h′(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h′(u) is constant k, (2)  h′(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term. In Case 1, we prove that the task can be reduced to that for the corresponding equation, where k = 0, and then previous results reported from the authors can be extended. For the other two cases, we use both analytical and numerical tools. The analysis we carried out is based on the restatement of searching TWS for the full RDA equation into a two-dimensional dynamical problem. This consists of searching for the conditions on the parameter values for which there exist heteroclinic trajectories of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system in the traveling wave coordinates. Throughout the paper we obtain the dynamics by using tools coming from qualitative theory of ODE. PMID:27689131

  4. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  5. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  6. Solar wind travel time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    A useful rule of thumb in solar terrestrial studies is that the solar wind travels 4 Earth radii (RE) per minute. Long-term studies of solar wind velocity [e.g., Luhmann et al., 1993; 1994] show that the median velocity is about 420 km/s, corresponding to 3.96 RE min-1. The quartiles are about 370 km/s and 495 km/s, corresponding to 3.48 Re min-1 and 4.66 Re min-1 respectively. This number helps estimate the delays expected when observing a discontinuity at a solar wind monitor; one example is ISEE-3 when it was at the forward libration point (about 60 min). It is also helpful for estimating how much time passes before the dayside magnetosphere is compressed as denser solar wind flows by (about 2.5 min).

  7. Sensitivity of ray travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, I. P.; Virovlyansky, A. L.; Zaslavsky, G. M.

    2002-09-01

    Ray in a waveguide can be considered as a trajectory of the corresponding Hamiltonian system, which appears to be chaotic in a nonuniform environment. From the experimental and practical viewpoints, the ray travel time is an important characteristic that, in some way, involves an information about the waveguide condition. It is shown that the ray travel time as a function of the initial momentum and propagation range in the unperturbed waveguide displays a scaling law. Some properties of the ray travel time predicted by this law still persist in periodically nonuniform waveguides with chaotic ray trajectories. As examples we consider few models with special attention to the underwater acoustic waveguide. It is demonstrated for a deep ocean propagation model that even under conditions of ray chaos the ray travel time is determined, to a considerable extent, by the coordinates of the ray endpoints and the number of turning points, i.e., by a topology of the ray path. We show how the closeness of travel times for rays with equal numbers of turning points reveals itself in ray travel time dependencies on the starting momentum and on the depth of the observation point. It has been shown that the same effect is associated with the appearance of the gap between travel times of chaotic and regular rays. The manifestation of the stickiness (the presence of such parts in a chaotic trajectory where the latter exhibits an almost regular behavior) in ray travel times is discussed.

  8. Time Acceleration Methods for Advection on the Cubed Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Richard K; Evans, Katherine J; White III, James B; Drake, John B

    2009-01-01

    Climate simulation will not grow to the ultrascale without new algorithms to overcome the scalability barriers blocking existing implementations. Until recently, climate simulations concentrated on the question of whether the climate is changing. The emphasis is now shifting to impact assessments, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and regional details. Such studies will require significant increases in spatial resolution and model complexity while maintaining adequate throughput. The barrier to progress is the resulting decrease in time step without increasing single-thread performance. In this paper we demonstrate how to overcome this time barrier for the first standard test defined for the shallow-water equations on a sphere. This paper explains how combining a multiwavelet discontinuous Galerkin method with exact linear part time-evolution schemes can overcome the time barrier for advection equations on a sphere. The discontinuous Galerkin method is a high-order method that is conservative, flexible, and scalable. The addition of multiwavelets to discontinuous Galerkin provides a hierarchical scale structure that can be exploited to improve computational efficiency in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. Exact linear part time-evolution schemes are explicit schemes that remain stable for implicit-size time steps.

  9. Time Travel in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  10. Travel-time-based thermal tracer tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter; Brauchler, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    Active thermal tracer testing is a technique to get information about the flow and transport properties of an aquifer. In this paper we propose an innovative methodology using active thermal tracers in a tomographic setup to reconstruct cross-well hydraulic conductivity profiles. This is facilitated by assuming that the propagation of the injected thermal tracer is mainly controlled by advection. To reduce the effects of density and viscosity changes and thermal diffusion, early-time diagnostics are used and specific travel times of the tracer breakthrough curves are extracted. These travel times are inverted with an eikonal solver using the staggered grid method to reduce constraints from the pre-defined grid geometry and to improve the resolution. Finally, non-reliable pixels are removed from the derived hydraulic conductivity tomograms. The method is applied to successfully reconstruct cross-well profiles as well as a 3-D block of a high-resolution fluvio-aeolian aquifer analog data set. Sensitivity analysis reveals a negligible role of the injection temperature, but more attention has to be drawn to other technical parameters such as the injection rate. This is investigated in more detail through model-based testing using diverse hydraulic and thermal conditions in order to delineate the feasible range of applications for the new tomographic approach.

  11. Transition Matrices and Time Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwee Kuan

    It has been proven by Lee [1] that the grandfather paradox and Deutsch's unproven paradox are precluded for twoand three-state graphical models. We prove that both paradoxes are also precluded for a general n-state model. In addition, we present a new time travel paradox in this paper.

  12. Time Travel: Deutsch vs. Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichny, George

    2011-12-01

    The quantum teleportation protocol can be used to probabilistically simulate a quantum circuit with backward-in-time connections. This allows us to analyze some conceptual problems of time travel in the context of physically realizable situations free of paradoxes. As an example one can perform encrypted measurements of future states for which the decryption key becomes available in the future. Likewise, the gauge-like freedom of locally changing the direction of time flow in quantum circuits can lead to conceptual and computational simplifications. I contrast this situation with Deutsch's treatment of quantum mechanics in the presence of closed time-like curves pointing out some of its deficiencies and problems.

  13. Treating time travel quantum mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John-Mark A.

    2014-10-01

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilizing the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their nonlinearity and time-travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"—which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory—is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of alternate theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features—such as time-travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish nonorthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states—that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with nonlinear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  14. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  15. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  16. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  17. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  18. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  19. The radial basis function finite collocation approach for capturing sharp fronts in time dependent advection problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, D.; Power, H.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a node-based local meshless method for advective transport problems that is capable of operating on centrally defined stencils and is suitable for shock-capturing purposes. High spatial convergence rates can be achieved; in excess of eighth-order in some cases. Strongly-varying smooth profiles may be captured at infinite Péclet number without instability, and for discontinuous profiles the solution exhibits neutrally stable oscillations that can be damped by introducing a small artificial diffusion parameter, allowing a good approximation to the shock-front to be maintained for long travel times without introducing spurious oscillations. The proposed method is based on local collocation with radial basis functions (RBFs) in a "finite collocation" configuration. In this approach the PDE governing and boundary equations are enforced directly within the local RBF collocation systems, rather than being reconstructed from fixed interpolating functions as is typical of finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. In this way the interpolating basis functions naturally incorporate information from the governing PDE, including the strength and direction of the convective velocity field. By using these PDE-enhanced interpolating functions an "implicit upwinding" effect is achieved, whereby the flow of information naturally respects the specifics of the local convective field. This implicit upwinding effect allows high-convergence solutions to be obtained on centred stencils for advection problems. The method is formulated using a high-convergence implicit timestepping algorithm based on Richardson extrapolation. The spatial and temporal convergence of the proposed approach is demonstrated using smooth functions with large gradients. The capture of discontinuities is then investigated, showing how the addition of a dynamic stabilisation parameter can damp the neutrally stable oscillations with limited smearing of the shock front.

  20. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time. PMID:24204932

  1. Network structure and travel time perception.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  2. First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion system is discretized by the second-order upwind residual-distribution scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations is solved by Newton's method over every physical time step. The numerical results are presented for linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems, demonstrating solutions and gradients produced to the same order of accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iterations.

  3. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forwardmore » travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.« less

  4. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD, SANFORD; HIPP, JAMES; & BARKER, GLENN

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forward travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.

  5. Nonlinear refraction and reflection travel time tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; ten Brink, U.S.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a rapid nonlinear travel time tomography method that simultaneously inverts refraction and reflection travel times on a regular velocity grid. For travel time and ray path calculations, we apply a wave front method employing graph theory. The first-arrival refraction travel times are calculated on the basis of cell velocities, and the later refraction and reflection travel times are computed using both cell velocities and given interfaces. We solve a regularized nonlinear inverse problem. A Laplacian operator is applied to regularize the model parameters (cell slownesses and reflector geometry) so that the inverse problem is valid for a continuum. The travel times are also regularized such that we invert travel time curves rather than travel time points. A conjugate gradient method is applied to minimize the nonlinear objective function. After obtaining a solution, we perform nonlinear Monte Carlo inversions for uncertainty analysis and compute the posterior model covariance. In numerical experiments, we demonstrate that combining the first arrival refraction travel times with later reflection travel times can better reconstruct the velocity field as well as the reflector geometry. This combination is particularly important for modeling crustal structures where large velocity variations occur in the upper crust. We apply this approach to model the crustal structure of the California Borderland using ocean bottom seismometer and land data collected during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment along two marine survey lines. Details of our image include a high-velocity zone under the Catalina Ridge, but a smooth gradient zone between. Catalina Ridge and San Clemente Ridge. The Moho depth is about 22 km with lateral variations. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Catchment mixing processes and travel time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca

    2012-05-01

    This work focuses on the description and the use of the probability density functions (pdfs) of travel, residence and evapotranspiration times, which are comprehensive descriptors of the fate of rainfall water particles traveling through catchments, and provide key information on hydrologic flowpaths, partitioning of precipitation, circulation and turnover of pollutants. Exploiting some analytical solutions to the transport problem derived by Botter et al. (2011), this paper analyzes the features of travel, residence and evapotranspiration time pdfs resulting from different assumptions on the mixing processes occurring during streamflow formation and plant uptake (namely, complete mixing and translatory flow). The ensuing analytical solutions are analyzed through numerical Monte Carlo simulations of a stochastic model of soil moisture and streamflow dynamics. Travel and residence time pdfs are shown to be time-variant as they mirror the variability of the relevant hydrological fluxes. In particular, the temporal fluctuations of the mean residence time are shown to reflect rainfall dynamics, whereas the variability of the mean travel time is chiefly driven by streamflow dynamics, with lower frequency and higher amplitude fluctuations. Dry climates enhance the effect of the type of mixing on catchment transport features (e.g., mean travel times and seasonal dynamics of stream concentrations). The implications for the interpretation of tracer experiments are also discussed, showing through specific examples that models disregarding nonstationarity may significantly misestimate travel time pdfs.

  7. Ocean acoustic tomography - Travel time biases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesberger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The travel times of acoustic rays traced through a climatological sound-speed profile are compared with travel times computed through the same profile containing an eddy field. The accuracy of linearizing the relations between the travel time difference and the sound-speed deviation at long ranges is assessed using calculations made for two different eddy fields measured in the eastern Atlantic. Significant nonlinearities are found in some cases, and the relationships of the values of these nonlinearities to the range between source and receiver, to the anomaly size associated with the eddies, and to the positions of the eddies are studied. An analytical model of the nonlinearities is discussed.

  8. Five Paradoxes and a General Question on Time Traveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    We present five paradoxes about: traveling to the past, traveling to the future, time traveling of a pregnant woman, traveling in the past before the birth, and traveling in the future after death. And a general question about how long does the time traveling take by itself?

  9. A simple method to assess unsaturated zone time lag in the travel time from ground surface to receptor.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marcelo R; Jones, Jon P; Frind, Emil O; Rudolph, David L

    2013-01-01

    In contaminant travel from ground surface to groundwater receptors, the time taken in travelling through the unsaturated zone is known as the unsaturated zone time lag. Depending on the situation, this time lag may or may not be significant within the context of the overall problem. A method is presented for assessing the importance of the unsaturated zone in the travel time from source to receptor in terms of estimates of both the absolute and the relative advective times. A choice of different techniques for both unsaturated and saturated travel time estimation is provided. This method may be useful for practitioners to decide whether to incorporate unsaturated processes in conceptual and numerical models and can also be used to roughly estimate the total travel time between points near ground surface and a groundwater receptor. This method was applied to a field site located in a glacial aquifer system in Ontario, Canada. Advective travel times were estimated using techniques with different levels of sophistication. The application of the proposed method indicates that the time lag in the unsaturated zone is significant at this field site and should be taken into account. For this case, sophisticated and simplified techniques lead to similar assessments when the same knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity field is assumed. When there is significant uncertainty regarding the hydraulic conductivity, simplified calculations did not lead to a conclusive decision. PMID:23274409

  10. An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse microtomography measurements of snow under advective airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2014-09-01

    An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse microtomography of snow samples to enable in situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4-day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

  11. Approximate Solution of Time-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation via Fractional Variational Iteration Method

    PubMed Central

    İbiş, Birol

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to obtain the approximate solution of time-fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE) involving Jumarie's modification of Riemann-Liouville derivative by the fractional variational iteration method (FVIM). FVIM provides an analytical approximate solution in the form of a convergent series. Some examples are given and the results indicate that the FVIM is of high accuracy, more efficient, and more convenient for solving time FADEs. PMID:24578662

  12. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  13. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  14. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  15. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  16. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  17. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series-Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of metabolism in aquatic ecosystems. Central to this open water or "Odum" method is the assumption that the DO time is not strongly affected by advection and that effects due to advection or mixin...

  18. LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observation of traveling planetary waves and potential vorticity advection in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS Northern Hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.

  19. Derivation of a Multiparameter Gamma Model for Analyzing the Residence-Time Distribution Function for Nonideal Flow Systems as an Alternative to the Advection-Dispersion Equation

    DOE PAGES

    Embry, Irucka; Roland, Victor; Agbaje, Oluropo; Watson, Valetta; Martin, Marquan; Painter, Roger; Byl, Tom; Sharpe, Lonnie

    2013-01-01

    A new residence-time distribution (RTD) function has been developed and applied to quantitative dye studies as an alternative to the traditional advection-dispersion equation (AdDE). The new method is based on a jointly combined four-parameter gamma probability density function (PDF). The gamma residence-time distribution (RTD) function and its first and second moments are derived from the individual two-parameter gamma distributions of randomly distributed variables, tracer travel distance, and linear velocity, which are based on their relationship with time. The gamma RTD function was used on a steady-state, nonideal system modeled as a plug-flow reactor (PFR) in the laboratory to validate themore » effectiveness of the model. The normalized forms of the gamma RTD and the advection-dispersion equation RTD were compared with the normalized tracer RTD. The normalized gamma RTD had a lower mean-absolute deviation (MAD) (0.16) than the normalized form of the advection-dispersion equation (0.26) when compared to the normalized tracer RTD. The gamma RTD function is tied back to the actual physical site due to its randomly distributed variables. The results validate using the gamma RTD as a suitable alternative to the advection-dispersion equation for quantitative tracer studies of non-ideal flow systems.« less

  20. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F.; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  1. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  2. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  3. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  4. Predicting river travel time from hydraulic characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting the effect of a pollutant spill on downstream water quality is primarily dependent on the water velocity, longitudinal mixing, and chemical/physical reactions. Of these, velocity is the most important and difficult to predict. This paper provides guidance on extrapolating travel-time information from one within bank discharge to another. In many cases, a time series of discharge (such as provided by a U.S. Geological Survey stream gauge) will provide an excellent basis for this extrapolation. Otherwise, the accuracy of a travel time extrapolation based on a resistance equation can be greatly improved by assuming the total flow area is composed of two parts, an active and an inactive area. For 60 reaches of 12 rivers with slopes greater than about 0.0002, travel times could be predicted to within about 10% by computing the active flow area using the Manning equation with n = 0.035 and assuming a constant inactive area for each reach. The predicted travel times were not very sensitive to the assumed values of bed slope or channel width.

  5. Self-motion perception compresses time experienced in return travel.

    PubMed

    Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Sunaga

    2011-01-01

    It is often anecdotally reported that time experienced in return travel (back to the start point) seems shorter than time spent in outward travel (travel to a new destination). Here, we report the first experimental results showing that return travel time is experienced as shorter than the actual time. This discrepancy is induced by the existence of self-motion perception.

  6. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  7. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  8. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  9. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  10. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  11. Preconditioned iterative methods for space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi; Jin, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Matthew M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose practical numerical methods for solving a class of initial-boundary value problems of space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations. First, we propose an implicit method based on two-sided Grünwald formulae and discuss its stability and consistency. Then, we develop the preconditioned generalized minimal residual (preconditioned GMRES) method and preconditioned conjugate gradient normal residual (preconditioned CGNR) method with easily constructed preconditioners. Importantly, because resulting systems are Toeplitz-like, fast Fourier transform can be applied to significantly reduce the computational cost. We perform numerical experiments to demonstrate the efficiency of our preconditioners, even in cases with variable coefficients.

  12. Contaminant Travel Times From the Nevada Test Site to Yucca Mountain: Sensitivity to Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, K. F.; Zhu, J.; Chapman, J. B.; Russell, C. E.; Carroll, R. W.; Shafer, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, we investigate the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the YM area by estimating the time frame for advective travel and its uncertainty resulting from porosity value uncertainty for hydrogeologic units (HGUs) in the region. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential HGUs on advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways and advective travel times are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model by the U.S. Geological Survey. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. We base our simulations on two steady state flow scenarios for the purpose of long term prediction and monitoring. The first represents pre-pumping conditions prior to groundwater development in the area in 1912 (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model). The second simulates 1998 pumping (assuming steady state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model). Considering underground tests in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa on the NTS as initial particle positions, we track these particles forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine which flowpaths will intercept the YM area. Out of the 71 tests in the saturated zone, flowpaths of 23 intercept the YM area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, flowpaths from 55 of the 71 tests intercept the YM area. The results illustrate that mean

  13. A finite analytic method for solving the 2-D time-dependent advection diffusion equation with time-invariant coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Thomas; Li, Shu-Guang

    2005-02-01

    Difficulty in solving the transient advection-diffusion equation (ADE) stems from the relationship between the advection derivatives and the time derivative. For a solution method to be viable, it must account for this relationship by being accurate in both space and time. This research presents a unique method for solving the time-dependent ADE that does not discretize the derivative terms but rather solves the equation analytically in the space-time domain. The method is computationally efficient and numerically accurate and addresses the common limitations of numerical dispersion and spurious oscillations that can be prevalent in other solution methods. The method is based on the improved finite analytic (IFA) solution method [Lowry TS, Li S-G. A characteristic based finite analytic method for solving the two-dimensional steady-state advection-diffusion equation. Water Resour Res 38 (7), 10.1029/2001WR000518] in space coupled with a Laplace transformation in time. In this way, the method has no Courant condition and maintains accuracy in space and time, performing well even at high Peclet numbers. The method is compared to a hybrid method of characteristics, a random walk particle tracking method, and an Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method using various degrees of flow-field heterogeneity across multiple Peclet numbers. Results show the IFALT method to be computationally more efficient while producing similar or better accuracy than the other methods.

  14. ABSTRACT: CONTAMINANT TRAVEL TIMES FROM THE NEVADA TEST SITE TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN: SENSITIVITY TO POROSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Karl F. Pohlmann; Jianting Zhu; Jenny B. Chapman; Charles E. Russell; Rosemary W. H. Carroll; David S. Shafer

    2008-09-05

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, we investigate the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the YM area by estimating the timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty resulting from porosity value uncertainty for hydrogeologic units (HGUs) in the region. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential HGUs on advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways and advective travel times are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model by the U.S. Geological Survey. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. We base our simulations on two steady state flow scenarios for the purpose of long term prediction and monitoring. The first represents pre-pumping conditions prior to groundwater development in the area in 1912 (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model). The second simulates 1998 pumping (assuming steady state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model). Considering underground tests in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa on the NTS as initial particle positions, we track these particles forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine which flowpaths will intercept the YM area. Out of the 71 tests in the saturated zone, flowpaths of 23 intercept the YM area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, flowpaths from 55 of the 71 tests intercept the YM area. The results illustrate that mean

  15. Time domain scattering of travelling wave radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Henry; Rand, Robert S.

    2002-12-01

    I present, apparently, a new description of radiative transfer problems in the time domain. It appears that for the first time a simple physical picture emerges of the underlying essence of scattered radiance when dealing with isotropic axially-symmetric scattering in nonconservative linear media as attenuated travelling waves was by analogy. The method used a new differential equation approach. Initially its accuracy in the frequency domain was demonstrated by applying it to a solved problem, where in the literature it is dealt with using the conventional 95-year-old integro-differential equation description. Confidence in the differential equation method was bolstered by showing how this new method produces the same analytical answer. The new technique converts the integro-differential equation formulation of radiative transfer into a "pure" differential equation formulation, consisting here in a mixture of ordinary and partial derivatives, and solves that. This paper analyzes the situation in the time domain using the differential equation description and again yields a travelling wave description. However, this time it is not simply by analogy that such a description is obtained. It is exact. This result of attenuated travelling waves was demonstrated in a prior paper by solving the integro-differential equation for the classic problem of axially-symmetric scalar isotropic scattering in a nonconservative linear medium. In this paper we revisit the problem, this time solving it by the differential equation method and obtain the identical result, once again confirming the method.

  16. Preconditioned time-difference methods for advection-diffusion-reaction equations

    SciTech Connect

    Aro, C.; Rodrigue, G.; Wolitzer, D.

    1994-12-31

    Explicit time differencing methods for solving differential equations are advantageous in that they are easy to implement on a computer and are intrinsically very parallel. The disadvantage of explicit methods is the severe restrictions placed on stepsize due to stability. Stability bounds for explicit time differencing methods on advection-diffusion-reaction problems are generally quite severe and implicit methods are used instead. The linear systems arising from these implicit methods are large and sparse so that iterative methods must be used to solve them. In this paper the authors develop a methodology for increasing the stability bounds of standard explicit finite differencing methods by combining explicit methods, implicit methods, and iterative methods in a novel way to generate new time-difference schemes, called preconditioned time-difference methods.

  17. Single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann scheme for advection-diffusion problems with large diffusion-coefficient heterogeneities and high-advection transport.

    PubMed

    Perko, Janez; Patel, Ravi A

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents an approach that extends the flexibility of the standard lattice Boltzmann single relaxation time scheme in terms of spatial variation of dissipative terms (e.g., diffusion coefficient) and stability for high Péclet mass transfer problems. Spatial variability of diffusion coefficient in SRT is typically accommodated through the variation of relaxation time during the collision step. This method is effective but cannot deal with large diffusion coefficient variations, which can span over several orders of magnitude in some natural systems. The approach explores an alternative way of dealing with large diffusion coefficient variations in advection-diffusion transport systems by introducing so-called diffusion velocity. The diffusion velocity is essentially an additional convective term that replaces variations in diffusion coefficients vis-à-vis a chosen reference diffusion coefficient which defines the simulation time step. Special attention is paid to the main idea behind the diffusion velocity formulation and its implementation into the lattice Boltzmann framework. Finally, the performance, stability, and accuracy of the diffusion velocity formulation are discussed via several advection-diffusion transport benchmark examples. These examples demonstrate improved stability and flexibility of the proposed scheme with marginal consequences on the numerical performance.

  18. Estimating Reaction Rate Coefficients Within a Travel-Time Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Luo, Jian; Wu, Wei-min; Cheng, H.; Criddle, Craig; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

    2011-03-01

    A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.

  19. Estimating reaction rate coefficients within a travel-time modeling framework.

    PubMed

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D; Jardine, P M; Brooks, S C; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Luo, J

    2011-01-01

    A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.

  20. Large time-step stability of explicit one-dimensional advection schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    1993-01-01

    There is a wide-spread belief that most explicit one-dimensional advection schemes need to satisfy the so-called 'CFL condition' - that the Courant number, c = udelta(t)/delta(x), must be less than or equal to one, for stability in the von Neumann sense. This puts severe limitations on the time-step in high-speed, fine-grid calculations and is an impetus for the development of implicit schemes, which often require less restrictive time-step conditions for stability, but are more expensive per time-step. However, it turns out that, at least in one dimension, if explicit schemes are formulated in a consistent flux-based conservative finite-volume form, von Neumann stability analysis does not place any restriction on the allowable Courant number. Any explicit scheme that is stable for c is less than 1, with a complex amplitude ratio, G(c), can be easily extended to arbitrarily large c. The complex amplitude ratio is then given by exp(- (Iota)(Nu)(Theta)) G(delta(c)), where N is the integer part of c, and delta(c) = c - N (less than 1); this is clearly stable. The CFL condition is, in fact, not a stability condition at all, but, rather, a 'range restriction' on the 'pieces' in a piece-wise polynomial interpolation. When a global view is taken of the interpolation, the need for a CFL condition evaporates. A number of well-known explicit advection schemes are considered and thus extended to large delta(t). The analysis also includes a simple interpretation of (large delta(t)) total-variation-diminishing (TVD) constraints.

  1. Continuous monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas M.; Silver, Paul G.; Niu, Fenglin; Majer, Ernest L.

    2006-04-14

    In two separate shallow field experiments, at two distancescales, we have used continuous monitoring to estimate the effect ofbarometric pressure on crosswell travel time and thereby calibrated thestress sensitivity of the rock volume between the wells. In a 3 mexperiment we found a stress sensitivity of 10-6/Pa while in a 30 mexperiment the sensitivity was 5 x 10-8 /Pa. Results from a deeper (1km), 2 month experiment at the San Andreas fault observation boreholeswill be presented if analysis is completed.

  2. 5 CFR 610.123 - Travel on official time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel on official time. 610.123 Section... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.123 Travel on official time. Insofar as practicable travel during nonduty hours shall not be required of an employee. When it is essential that...

  3. 5 CFR 610.123 - Travel on official time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel on official time. 610.123 Section... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.123 Travel on official time. Insofar as practicable travel during nonduty hours shall not be required of an employee. When it is essential that...

  4. 5 CFR 610.123 - Travel on official time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel on official time. 610.123 Section... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.123 Travel on official time. Insofar as practicable travel during nonduty hours shall not be required of an employee. When it is essential that...

  5. 5 CFR 610.123 - Travel on official time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel on official time. 610.123 Section... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.123 Travel on official time. Insofar as practicable travel during nonduty hours shall not be required of an employee. When it is essential that...

  6. 5 CFR 610.123 - Travel on official time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel on official time. 610.123 Section... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.123 Travel on official time. Insofar as practicable travel during nonduty hours shall not be required of an employee. When it is essential that...

  7. Using a numerical model to understand the connection between the ocean and acoustic travel-time measurements.

    PubMed

    Powell, Brian S; Kerry, Colette G; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2013-10-01

    Measurements of acoustic ray travel-times in the ocean provide synoptic integrals of the ocean state between source and receiver. It is known that the ray travel-time is sensitive to variations in the ocean at the transmission time, but the sensitivity of the travel-time to spatial variations in the ocean prior to the acoustic transmission have not been quantified. This study examines the sensitivity of ray travel-time to the temporally and spatially evolving ocean state in the Philippine Sea using the adjoint of a numerical model. A one year series of five day backward integrations of the adjoint model quantify the sensitivity of travel-times to varying dynamics that can alter the travel-time of a 611 km ray by 200 ms. The early evolution of the sensitivities reveals high-mode internal waves that dissipate quickly, leaving the lowest three modes, providing a connection to variations in the internal tide generation prior to the sample time. They are also strongly sensitive to advective effects that alter density along the ray path. These sensitivities reveal how travel-time measurements are affected by both nearby and distant waters. Temporal nonlinearity of the sensitivities suggests that prior knowledge of the ocean state is necessary to exploit the travel-time observations.

  8. A forward-in-time advection scheme and adaptive multilevel flow solver for nearly incompressible atmospheric flow

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.E.; Bretherton, S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a new forward-in-time advection method for nearly incompressible flow, MU, and its application to an adaptive multilevel flow solver for atmospheric flows. MU is a modification of Leonard et al.`s UTOPIA scheme. MU, like UTOPIA, is based on third-order accurate semi-Lagrangian multidimensional upwinding for constant velocity flows. for varying velocity fields, MU is a second-order conservative method. MU has greater stability and accuracy than UTOPIA and naturally decomposes into a monotone low-order method and a higher-order accurate correction for use with flux limiting. Its stability and accuracy make it a computationally efficient alternative to current finite-difference advection methods. We present a fully second-order accurate flow solver for the anelastic equations, a prototypical low Mach number flow. The flow solver is based on MU which is used for both momentum and scalar transport equations. This flow solver can also be implemented with any forward-in-time advection scheme. The multilevel flow solver conserves discrete global integrals of advected quantities and includes adaptive mesh refinements. Its second-order accuracy is verified using a nonlinear energy conservation integral for the anelastic equations. For a typical geophysical problem in which the flow is most rapidly varying in a small part of the domain, the multilevel flow solver achieves global accuracy comparable to uniform-resolution simulation for 10% of the computational cost. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Modelling transport in media with heterogeneous advection properties and mass transfer with a Continuous Time Random Walk approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comolli, Alessandro; Moussey, Charlie; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Transport processes in groundwater systems are strongly affected by the presence of heterogeneity. The heterogeneity leads to non-Fickian features, that manifest themselves in the heavy-tailed breakthrough curves, as well as in the non-linear growth of the mean squared displacement and in the non-Gaussian plumes of solute particles. The causes of non-Fickian transport can be the heterogeneity in the flow fields and the processes of mass exchange between mobile and immobile phases, such as sorption/desorption reactions and diffusive mass transfer. Here, we present a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) model that describes the transport of solutes in d-dimensional systems by taking into account both heterogeneous advection and mobile-immobile mass transfer. In order to account for these processes in the CTRW, the heterogeneities are mapped onto a distribution of transition times, which can be decomposed into advective transition times and trapping times, the latter being treated as a compound Poisson process. While advective transition times are related to the Eulerian flow velocities and, thus, to the conductivity distribution, trapping times depend on the sorption/desorption time scale, in case of reactive problems, or on the distribution of diffusion times in the immobile zones. Since the trapping time scale is typically much larger than the advective time scale, we observe the existence of two temporal regimes. The pre-asymptotic regime is defined by a characteristic time scale at which the properties of transport are fully determined by the heterogeneity of the advective field. On the other hand, in the asymptotic regime both the heterogeneity and the mass exchange processes play a role in conditioning the behaviour of transport. We consider different scenarios to discuss the relative importance of the advective heterogeneity and the mass transfer for the occurrence of non-Fickian transport. For each case we calculate analytically the scalings of the breakthrough

  10. Time Travel: Separating Science Fact from Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that the subject of time travel is the best topic to introduce ideas behind some of the most beautiful and fundamental theories about the nature of space and time. Explains the distinction between the two directions of time travel and how relativity theory forced the abandonment of Newtonian notions about the nature of time. (Author/KHR)

  11. Travel time statistics under radially converging flow in single fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Kekez, Toni; Malenica, Luka

    2015-04-01

    A stochastic methodology based on Adaptive Fup Monte Carlo Method is used to investigate transport of a conservative solute by steady flow to a single pumping well in two-dimensional randomly heterogeneous single fractures. The spatially variable hydraulic transmissivity is modeled as a stationary random function for three different correlation structures (multi-Gaussian, connected and disconnected fields with correlated mean, high and low lnT values, respectively, according to the Zinn and Harvey, 2003) and heterogeneity levels (lnT variance is 1 and 8). Initially, solute particles are injected at outer circle located at 32 correlation lengths from well according to the in flux and resident injection mode. Therefore, breakthrough curve (BTC) statistics in single well due to different spatial structures, heterogeneity levels, injection modes and dispersion influence is considered. For small heterogeneity, all considered effects have small influences on BTC and related moments. As expected in single fractures, high lnT variance is more usual case which considerably changes flow patterns including channelling effect and fact that only few narrow channels carry out most pumping flow rate. Channelling implies significant differences between different injection modes. Resident mode uniformly injects particles implying that most particles pass through "slower" zones that especially increase late arrivals and contribute to the non-Fickian behaviour of transport. Contrary, "in flux" mode drastically reduces first arrivals and mean values, especially for connected correlation fields. The results from two injection modes lie on different sides of homogeneous mean travel time solution and give complementary information for complete representation of conservative transport. For advection transport, correlation structure and especially lnT variance seems to have major influence on BTC characteristics. On the other side, influence of longitudinal and lateral local scale

  12. Advection of passive magnetic field by the Gaussian velocity field with finite correlations in time and spatial parity violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2013-03-01

    Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique the model of passively advected weak magnetic field by an incompressible isotropic helical turbulent flow is investigated up to the second order of the perturbation theory (two-loop approximation) in the framework of an extended Kazantsev-Kraichnan model of kinematic magnetohydrodynamics. Statistical fluctuations of the velocity field are taken in the form of a Gaussian distribution with zero mean and defined noise with finite correlations in time. The two-loop analysis of all possible scaling regimes is done and the influence of helicity on the stability of scaling regimes is discussed and shown in the plane of exponents ɛ - η, where ɛ characterizes the energy spectrum of the velocity field in the inertial range E ∞ k 1 - 2ɛ, and η is related to the correlation time at the wave number k which is scaled as k -2 + η. It is shown that in non-helical case the scaling regimes of the present vector model are completely identical and have also the same properties as those obtained in the corresponding model of passively advected scalar field. Besides, it is also shown that when the turbulent environment under consideration is helical then the properties of the scaling regimes in models of passively advected scalar and vector (magnetic) fields are essentially different. The results demonstrate the importance of the presence of a symmetry breaking in a given turbulent environment for investigation of the influence of an internal tensor structure of the advected field on the inertial range scaling properties of the model under consideration and will be used in the analysis of the influence of helicity on the anomalous scaling of correlation functions of passively advected magnetic field.

  13. An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse micro-tomography measurements of snow under advective airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2014-06-01

    An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse micro-tomography of snow samples to enable in-situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4 day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

  14. The Role of Perspective in Mental Time Travel.

    PubMed

    Ansuini, Caterina; Cavallo, Andrea; Pia, Lorenzo; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen accumulating evidence for the proposition that people process time by mapping it onto a linear spatial representation and automatically "project" themselves on an imagined mental time line. Here, we ask whether people can adopt the temporal perspective of another person when travelling through time. To elucidate similarities and differences between time travelling from one's own perspective or from the perspective of another person, we asked participants to mentally project themselves or someone else (i.e., a coexperimenter) to different time points. Three basic properties of mental time travel were manipulated: temporal location (i.e., where in time the travel originates: past, present, and future), motion direction (either backwards or forwards), and temporal duration (i.e., the distance to travel: one, three, or five years). We found that time travels originating in the present lasted longer in the self- than in the other-perspective. Moreover, for self-perspective, but not for other-perspective, time was differently scaled depending on where in time the travel originated. In contrast, when considering the direction and the duration of time travelling, no dissimilarities between the self- and the other-perspective emerged. These results suggest that self- and other-projection, despite some differences, share important similarities in structure.

  15. The Role of Perspective in Mental Time Travel

    PubMed Central

    Ansuini, Caterina; Cavallo, Andrea; Pia, Lorenzo; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen accumulating evidence for the proposition that people process time by mapping it onto a linear spatial representation and automatically “project” themselves on an imagined mental time line. Here, we ask whether people can adopt the temporal perspective of another person when travelling through time. To elucidate similarities and differences between time travelling from one's own perspective or from the perspective of another person, we asked participants to mentally project themselves or someone else (i.e., a coexperimenter) to different time points. Three basic properties of mental time travel were manipulated: temporal location (i.e., where in time the travel originates: past, present, and future), motion direction (either backwards or forwards), and temporal duration (i.e., the distance to travel: one, three, or five years). We found that time travels originating in the present lasted longer in the self- than in the other-perspective. Moreover, for self-perspective, but not for other-perspective, time was differently scaled depending on where in time the travel originated. In contrast, when considering the direction and the duration of time travelling, no dissimilarities between the self- and the other-perspective emerged. These results suggest that self- and other-projection, despite some differences, share important similarities in structure. PMID:26881103

  16. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore’s unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  17. Validation of Travel-Time based Nonlinear Bioreactive Transport Models under Flow and Transport Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Prat, A.; Lu, C.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Travel-time based models are presented as an alternative to traditional spatially explicit models to solve nonlinear reactive-transport problems. The main advantage of the travel-time approach is that it does not require multi-dimensional characterization of physical and chemical parameters, and transport is one-dimensional. Spatial dimensions are replaced by groundwater travel time, defined as the time required by a water particle to reach an observation point or the outflow boundary, respectively. The fundamental hypothesis is that locations of the same groundwater age exhibit the same reactive-species concentrations. This is true in strictly advective-reactive transport in steady-state flows if the coefficients of reactions are uniform and the concentration is uniform over the inflow boundary. We hypothesize that the assumption still holds when adding some dispersion in coupled flow and transport dynamics. We compare a two-dimensional, spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ by the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. We consider biodegradation of organic matter catalyzed by non-competitive inhibitive microbial populations. The simulated inflow contains oxygen, nitrate, and DOC. The domain contains growing aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, the latter being inhibited by oxygen. This system is computed in 1-D, and in 2-D heterogeneous domains. We conclude that the conceptualization of nonlinear bioreactive transport in complex multi-dimensional domains by quasi 1-D travel-time models is valid for steady-state flow if the reactants are introduced over a wide cross-section, flow is at quasi-steady state, and dispersive

  18. Backus-Gilbert inversion of travel time data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Application of the Backus-Gilbert theory for geophysical inverse problems to the seismic body wave travel-time problem is described. In particular, it is shown how to generate earth models that fit travel-time data to within one standard error and having generated such models how to describe their degree of uniqueness. An example is given to illustrate the process.

  19. The travel-time ellipse: An approximate zone of transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendinger, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    A zone of transport for a well is defined as the area in the horizontal plane bounded by a contour of equal ground-water travel time to the well. For short distances and ground-water travel times near a well, the potentiometric surface may be simulated analytically as that for a fully penetrating well in a uniform flow field. The zone of transport for this configuration is nearly elliptical. A simple method is derived to calculate a travel-time ellipse that approximates the zone of transport for a well in a uniform flow field. The travel-time ellipse was nearly congruent with the exact solution for the theoretical zone of transport for ground-water travel times of at least 10 years and for aquifer property values appropriate for southeastern Minnesota. For distances and travel times approaching infinity, however, the ellipse becomes slightly wider at its midpoint and narrower near its upgradient boundary than the theoretical zone of transport. The travel-time ellipse also may be used to simulate the plume area surrounding an injection well. However, the travel-time ellipse is an approximation that does not account for the effect of dispersion in enlarging the true area of an injection plume or zone of transport; hence, caution is advised in the use and interpretation of this simple construction.

  20. Wandering tales: evolutionary origins of mental time travel and language

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    A central component of mind wandering is mental time travel, the calling to mind of remembered past events and of imagined future ones. Mental time travel may also be critical to the evolution of language, which enables us to communicate about the non-present, sharing memories, plans, and ideas. Mental time travel is indexed in humans by hippocampal activity, and studies also suggest that the hippocampus in rats is active when the animals replay or pre play activity in a spatial environment, such as a maze. Mental time travel may have ancient origins, contrary to the view that it is unique to humans. Since mental time travel is also thought to underlie language, these findings suggest that language evolved gradually from pre-existing cognitive capacities, contrary to the view of Chomsky and others that language and symbolic thought emerged abruptly, in a single step, within the past 100,000 years. PMID:23908641

  1. Wandering tales: evolutionary origins of mental time travel and language.

    PubMed

    Corballis, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    A central component of mind wandering is mental time travel, the calling to mind of remembered past events and of imagined future ones. Mental time travel may also be critical to the evolution of language, which enables us to communicate about the non-present, sharing memories, plans, and ideas. Mental time travel is indexed in humans by hippocampal activity, and studies also suggest that the hippocampus in rats is active when the animals replay or pre play activity in a spatial environment, such as a maze. Mental time travel may have ancient origins, contrary to the view that it is unique to humans. Since mental time travel is also thought to underlie language, these findings suggest that language evolved gradually from pre-existing cognitive capacities, contrary to the view of Chomsky and others that language and symbolic thought emerged abruptly, in a single step, within the past 100,000 years.

  2. Analytical solutions to the fractional advection-diffusion equation with time-dependent pulses on the boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbab, Qammar; Mirza, Itrat Abbas; Qureshi, M. Zubair Akbar

    2016-07-01

    The time-fractional advection-diffusion equation with Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives (fractional derivatives without singular kernel) is considered under the time-dependent emissions on the boundary and the first order chemical reaction. The non-dimensional problem is formulated by using suitable dimensionless variables and the fundamental solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the fractional advection-diffusion equation are determined using the integral transforms technique. The fundamental solutions for the ordinary advection-diffusion equation, fractional and ordinary diffusion equation are obtained as limiting cases of the previous model. Using Duhamel's principle, the analytical solutions to the Dirichlet problem with time-dependent boundary pulses have been obtained. The influence of the fractional parameter and of the drift parameter on the solute concentration in various spatial positions was analyzed by numerical calculations. It is found that the variation of the fractional parameter has a significant effect on the solute concentration, namely, the memory effects lead to the retardation of the mass transport.

  3. Time-Lapse Micro-Tomography Measurements and Determination of Effective Transport Properties of Snow Metamorphism Under Advective Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2014-12-01

    The metamorphism of snow under advective air flow, with and without temperature gradient, was never experimentally investigated. We developed a new sample holder where metamorphism under advective conditions can be observed and measured using time-lapse micro-tomography [1]. Long-term experiments were performed and direct pore-level simulation (DPLS) [2,3] was directly applied on the extracted 3D digital geometry of the snow to calculate the effective transport properties by solving the governing fluid flow equations. The results showed no effect of isothermal advection, compared to rates typical for isothermal metamorphism. Appling a temperature gradient, the results showed increased snow metamorphism compared to rates typical for temperature gradient metamorphism. However, for both cases a change in the isotopic composition in the air as well as in the snow sample could be observed. These measurements could be influential to better understand snow-air exchange processes relevant for atmospheric chemistry and isotopic composition. REFERENCES[1] Ebner P. P., Grimm S., Schneebeli M., and Steinfeld A.: An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse micro-tomography measurements of snow under advective airflow. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems 4(2014), 353-373. [2] Zermatten E., Haussener S., Schneebeli M., and Steinfeld A.: Tomography-based determination of permeability and Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient of characteristic snow samples. Journal of Glaciology 57(2011), 811-816. [3] Zermatten E., Schneebeli M., Arakawa H., and Steinfeld A.: Tomography-based determination of porosity, specific area and permeability of snow and comparison with measurements. Cold Regions Science and Technology 97 (2014), 33-40. Fig. 1: 3-D surface rendering of a refrozen wet snow sample with fluid flow streamline.

  4. Prisms to travel in time: Investigation of time-space association through prismatic adaptation effect on mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Anelli, Filomena; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Arzy, Shahar; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that humans process time and space in similar veins. Humans represent time along a spatial continuum, and perception of temporal durations can be altered through manipulations of spatial attention by prismatic adaptation (PA). Here, we investigated whether PA-induced manipulations of spatial attention can also influence more conceptual aspects of time, such as humans' ability to travel mentally back and forward in time (mental time travel, MTT). Before and after leftward- and rightward-PA, participants projected themselves in the past, present or future time (i.e., self-projection), and, for each condition, determined whether a series of events were located in the past or the future with respect to that specific self-location in time (i.e., self-reference). The results demonstrated that leftward and rightward shifts of spatial attention facilitated recognition of past and future events, respectively. These findings suggest that spatial attention affects the temporal processing of the human self.

  5. Catchment residence and travel time distributions: The master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The probability density functions (pdf's) of travel and residence times are key descriptors of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes to receiving water bodies. In this paper we analyze theoretically such pdf's, whose proper characterization reveals important conceptual and practical differences. A general stochastic framework applicable to arbitrary catchment control volumes is adopted, where time-variable precipitation, evapotranspiration and discharge are assumed to be the major hydrological drivers. The master equation for the residence time pdf is derived and solved analytically, providing expressions for travel and residence time pdf's as a function of input/output fluxes and of the relevant mixing. Our solutions suggest intrinsically time-variant travel and residence time pdf's through a direct dependence on hydrological forcings and soil-vegetation dynamics. The proposed framework integrates age-dating and tracer hydrology techniques, and provides a coherent framework for catchment transport models based on travel times.

  6. Chaotic flow and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent: Competitive autocatalytic reactions in advection-reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in competitive autocatalytic reactions. To study this subject, we use a computationally efficient method for solving advection-reaction-diffusion equations for periodic flows using a mapping method with operator splitting. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, there are two species, B and C, which both react autocatalytically with species A (A +B -->2B and A +C -->2C). If there is initially a small amount of spatially localized B and C and a large amount of A, all three species will be advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that the small scale interactions associated with the chaotic velocity field, specifically the local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs), can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction is complete. The species, B or C, that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If species B and C start in regions having similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. Funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

  7. Predicting travel time and dispersion in rivers and streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, H.E.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of a contaminant being accidentally or intentionally spilled in a river is a constant concern to those using the water. Methods are developed to estimate: (1) the velocity of a contaminant in a river; (2) the rate of attenuation of the peak concentration of a conservative contaminant; and (3) the time required for a contaminant plume to pass a point. The methods are based on data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in almost a hundred different rivers representing a wide range of sizes, slopes, and geomorphic types. Although the accuracy of the predictions can be greatly increased by performing time-of-travel studies, the emphasis of this paper is on providing methods for making estimates where few data are available. It is shown that the unit-peak concentration is well correlated with travel time and that the travel time of the leading edge averages 89% of the travel time of the peak concentration.

  8. A Search on the Internet for Evidence of Time Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Time travel has captured the public imagination for much of the past century, but few searches for evidence of time travel have ever been done. Here three searches on the Internet for evidence of time travel are described, all three seeking a prescient mention of information not available before a given date. The first investigation sought prescient content placed on the Internet, highlighted by a comprehensive search for specific terms in tweets on Twitter. The second investigation sought prescient inquiries submitted to a search engine, highlighted by a comprehensive search for specific search terms submitted to the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) web site. The third investigation involved a request for a direct Internet communication, either by email or tweet, pre-dating to the time of the inquiry. Given practical verifiability concerns, only time travel from the future was investigated. The main terms searched for involved Comet ISON and Pope Francis, as they became popular during our search window -- between 2006 and 2013. No evidence for time travel was discovered. Although these negative results do not disprove time travel, given the great reach of the Internet, this search is perhaps the most comprehensive to date.

  9. Predicting travel time to limit congestion at a highway bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2010-09-01

    A new method is proposed to predict the travel time on a highway route with a bottleneck caused by an on-ramp. The method takes advantage of the slow variation of the bottleneck throughput when congestion exists. The predicted travel time for a vehicle leaving the origin is given by the current number of vehicles on the route divided by the estimated throughput. The latter is an average of N/T recorded as each vehicle reaches the destination where N is the number of vehicles at the start of the trip and T is the time to complete the trip. Drivers divert to an off-ramp when the predicted travel time exceeds a target value. The target could be historical average travel times of alternative routes or chosen to limit the amount of congestion. Simulations employing three-phase traffic theory show that the travel time converges to the target value and remains close to or below it with the proposed prediction strategy. Strong oscillations in travel time obtained when other strategies are used for diversion do not develop with the new method because the inherent delay is effectively removed.

  10. Application of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method to One-Dimensional Advection-Diffusion Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    1999-01-01

    Test problems are used to examine the performance of several one-dimensional numerical schemes based on the space-time conservation and solution element (CE/SE) method. Investigated in this paper are the CE/SE schemes constructed previously for solving the linear unsteady advection-diffusion equation and the schemes derived here for solving the nonlinear viscous and inviscid Burgers equations. In comparison with the numerical solutions obtained using several traditional finite-difference schemes with similar accuracy, the CE/SE solutions display much lower numerical dissipation and dispersion errors.

  11. Passive advection of a vector field: Anisotropy, finite correlation time, exact solution, and logarithmic corrections to ordinary scaling.

    PubMed

    Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M

    2015-10-01

    In this work we study the generalization of the problem considered in [Phys. Rev. E 91, 013002 (2015)] to the case of finite correlation time of the environment (velocity) field. The model describes a vector (e.g., magnetic) field, passively advected by a strongly anisotropic turbulent flow. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion. The advecting velocity field is Gaussian, with finite correlation time and preassigned pair correlation function. Due to the presence of distinguished direction n, all the multiloop diagrams in this model vanish, so that the results obtained are exact. The inertial-range behavior of the model is described by two regimes (the limits of vanishing or infinite correlation time) that correspond to the two nontrivial fixed points of the RG equations. Their stability depends on the relation between the exponents in the energy spectrum E∝k(⊥)(1-ξ) and the dispersion law ω∝k(⊥)(2-η). In contrast to the well-known isotropic Kraichnan's model, where various correlation functions exhibit anomalous scaling behavior with infinite sets of anomalous exponents, here the corrections to ordinary scaling are polynomials of logarithms of the integral turbulence scale L. PMID:26565343

  12. Passive advection of a vector field: Anisotropy, finite correlation time, exact solution, and logarithmic corrections to ordinary scaling.

    PubMed

    Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M

    2015-10-01

    In this work we study the generalization of the problem considered in [Phys. Rev. E 91, 013002 (2015)] to the case of finite correlation time of the environment (velocity) field. The model describes a vector (e.g., magnetic) field, passively advected by a strongly anisotropic turbulent flow. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group and the operator product expansion. The advecting velocity field is Gaussian, with finite correlation time and preassigned pair correlation function. Due to the presence of distinguished direction n, all the multiloop diagrams in this model vanish, so that the results obtained are exact. The inertial-range behavior of the model is described by two regimes (the limits of vanishing or infinite correlation time) that correspond to the two nontrivial fixed points of the RG equations. Their stability depends on the relation between the exponents in the energy spectrum E∝k(⊥)(1-ξ) and the dispersion law ω∝k(⊥)(2-η). In contrast to the well-known isotropic Kraichnan's model, where various correlation functions exhibit anomalous scaling behavior with infinite sets of anomalous exponents, here the corrections to ordinary scaling are polynomials of logarithms of the integral turbulence scale L.

  13. Correlation Networks from Flows. The Case of Forced and Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tupikina, Liubov; Molkenthin, Nora; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Complex network theory provides an elegant and powerful framework to statistically investigate different types of systems such as society, brain or the structure of local and long-range dynamical interrelationships in the climate system. Network links in climate networks typically imply information, mass or energy exchange. However, the specific connection between oceanic or atmospheric flows and the climate network’s structure is still unclear. We propose a theoretical approach for verifying relations between the correlation matrix and the climate network measures, generalizing previous studies and overcoming the restriction to stationary flows. Our methods are developed for correlations of a scalar quantity (temperature, for example) which satisfies an advection-diffusion dynamics in the presence of forcing and dissipation. Our approach reveals that correlation networks are not sensitive to steady sources and sinks and the profound impact of the signal decay rate on the network topology. We illustrate our results with calculations of degree and clustering for a meandering flow resembling a geophysical ocean jet. PMID:27128846

  14. Correlation Networks from Flows. The Case of Forced and Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tupikina, Liubov; Molkenthin, Nora; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Complex network theory provides an elegant and powerful framework to statistically investigate different types of systems such as society, brain or the structure of local and long-range dynamical interrelationships in the climate system. Network links in climate networks typically imply information, mass or energy exchange. However, the specific connection between oceanic or atmospheric flows and the climate network's structure is still unclear. We propose a theoretical approach for verifying relations between the correlation matrix and the climate network measures, generalizing previous studies and overcoming the restriction to stationary flows. Our methods are developed for correlations of a scalar quantity (temperature, for example) which satisfies an advection-diffusion dynamics in the presence of forcing and dissipation. Our approach reveals that correlation networks are not sensitive to steady sources and sinks and the profound impact of the signal decay rate on the network topology. We illustrate our results with calculations of degree and clustering for a meandering flow resembling a geophysical ocean jet.

  15. Modeling highway travel time distribution with conditional probability models

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Han, Lee

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Freight Management and Operations, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has developed performance measures through the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. Under this program, travel speed information is derived from data collected using wireless based global positioning systems. These telemetric data systems are subscribed and used by trucking industry as an operations management tool. More than one telemetric operator submits their data dumps to ATRI on a regular basis. Each data transmission contains truck location, its travel time, and a clock time/date stamp. Data from the FPM program provides a unique opportunity for studying the upstream-downstream speed distributions at different locations, as well as different time of the day and day of the week. This research is focused on the stochastic nature of successive link travel speed data on the continental United States Interstates network. Specifically, a method to estimate route probability distributions of travel time is proposed. This method uses the concepts of convolution of probability distributions and bivariate, link-to-link, conditional probability to estimate the expected distributions for the route travel time. Major contribution of this study is the consideration of speed correlation between upstream and downstream contiguous Interstate segments through conditional probability. The established conditional probability distributions, between successive segments, can be used to provide travel time reliability measures. This study also suggests an adaptive method for calculating and updating route travel time distribution as new data or information is added. This methodology can be useful to estimate performance measures as required by the recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP 21).

  16. Application of the space-time conservation element and solution element method to two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    1995-01-01

    The existing 2-D alpha-mu scheme and alpha-epsilon scheme based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element, which were constructed for solving the linear 2-D unsteady advection-diffusion equation and unsteady advection equation, respectively, are tested. Also, the alpha-epsilon scheme is modified to become the V-E scheme for solving the nonlinear 2-D inviscid Burgers equation. Numerical solutions of six test problems are presented in comparison with their exact solutions or numerical solutions obtained by traditional finite-difference or finite-element methods. It is demonstrated that the 2-D alpha-mu, alpha-epsilon, and nu-epsilon schemes can be used to obtain numerical results which are more accurate than those based on some of the traditional methods but without using any artificial tuning in the computation. Similar to the previous 1-D test problems, the high accuracy and simplicity features of the space-time conservation element and solution element method have been revealed again in the present 2-D test results.

  17. Prisms to travel in time: Investigation of time-space association through prismatic adaptation effect on mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Anelli, Filomena; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Arzy, Shahar; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that humans process time and space in similar veins. Humans represent time along a spatial continuum, and perception of temporal durations can be altered through manipulations of spatial attention by prismatic adaptation (PA). Here, we investigated whether PA-induced manipulations of spatial attention can also influence more conceptual aspects of time, such as humans' ability to travel mentally back and forward in time (mental time travel, MTT). Before and after leftward- and rightward-PA, participants projected themselves in the past, present or future time (i.e., self-projection), and, for each condition, determined whether a series of events were located in the past or the future with respect to that specific self-location in time (i.e., self-reference). The results demonstrated that leftward and rightward shifts of spatial attention facilitated recognition of past and future events, respectively. These findings suggest that spatial attention affects the temporal processing of the human self. PMID:27467891

  18. Texture-based visualization of unsteady 3D flow by real-time advection and volumetric illumination.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Ertl, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive technique for the dense texture-based visualization of unsteady 3D flow, taking into account issues of computational efficiency and visual perception. High efficiency is achieved by a 3D graphics processing unit (GPU)-based texture advection mechanism that implements logical 3D grid structures by physical memory in the form of 2D textures. This approach results in fast read and write access to physical memory, independent of GPU architecture. Slice-based direct volume rendering is used for the final display. We investigate two alternative methods for the volumetric illumination of the result of texture advection: First, gradient-based illumination that employs a real-time computation of gradients, and, second, line-based lighting based on illumination in codimension 2. In addition to the Phong model, perception-guided rendering methods are considered, such as cool/warm shading, halo rendering, or color-based depth cueing. The problems of clutter and occlusion are addressed by supporting a volumetric importance function that enhances features of the flow and reduces visual complexity in less interesting regions. GPU implementation aspects, performance measurements, and a discussion of results are included to demonstrate our visualization approach.

  19. 41 CFR 301-52.14 - What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? 301-52.14 Section 301-52.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... § 301-52.14 What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?...

  20. 41 CFR 301-52.14 - What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? 301-52.14 Section 301-52.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... § 301-52.14 What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?...

  1. 41 CFR 301-52.14 - What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? 301-52.14 Section 301-52.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... § 301-52.14 What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?...

  2. 41 CFR 301-52.14 - What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? 301-52.14 Section 301-52.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... § 301-52.14 What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?...

  3. 41 CFR 301-52.14 - What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim? 301-52.14 Section 301-52.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES... § 301-52.14 What must I do with any travel advance outstanding at the time I submit my travel claim?...

  4. Extended time-travelling objects in Misner space

    SciTech Connect

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2011-02-15

    Misner space is a two-dimensional (2D) locally flat spacetime which elegantly demonstrates the emergence of closed timelike curves from causally well-behaved initial conditions. Here we explore the motion of rigid extended objects in this time-machine spacetime. This kind of 2D time-travel is found to be risky due to inevitable self-collisions (i.e. collisions of the object with itself). However, in a straightforward four-dimensional generalization of Misner space (a physically more relevant spacetime obviously), we find a wide range of safe time-travel orbits free of any self-collisions.

  5. Travel the Globe: Multicultural Story Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Desiree; Corn, Dee Ann; Harrod, Elaine; Norvell, Donna; Shropshire, Sandy

    Designed for Grades PreK-3, the culture-based story times and extension activities provided in this book give educators the opportunity to share the diversity of global neighbors with young learners. The book covers Australia, Brazil, the Caribbean, China, Egypt, Ghana, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, the Commonwealth of Independent States…

  6. Extremal inversion of lunar travel time data. [seismic velocity structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhard, N.; Jackson, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The tau method, developed by Bessonova et al. (1974), of inversion of travel times is applied to lunar P-wave travel time data to find limits on the velocity structure of the moon. Tau is the singular solution to the Clairaut equation. Models with low-velocity zones, with low-velocity zones at differing depths, and without low-velocity zones, were found to be consistent with data and within the determined limits. Models with and without a discontinuity at about 25-km depth have been found which agree with all travel time data to within two standard deviations. In other words, the existence of the discontinuity and its size and location have not been uniquely resolved. Models with low-velocity channels are also possible.

  7. Modelling of Thermal Advective Reactive Flow in Hydrothermal Mineral Systems Using an Implicit Time-stepped Finite Element Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding chemical and thermal processes taking place in hydrothermal mineral deposition systems could well be a key to unlocking new mineral reserves through improved targeting of exploration efforts. To aid in this understanding it is very helpful to be able to model such processes with sufficient fidelity to test process hypotheses. To gain understanding, it is often sufficient to obtain semi-quantitative results that model the broad aspects of the complex set of thermal and chemical effects taking place in hydrothermal systems. For example, it is often sufficient to gain an understanding of where thermal, geometric and chemical factors converge to precipitate gold (say) without being perfectly precise about how much gold is precipitated. The traditional approach is to use incompressible Darcy flow together with the Boussinesq approximation. From the flow field, the heat equation is used to advect-conduct the heat. The flow field is also used to transport solutes by solving an advection-dispersion-diffusion equation. The reactions in the fluid and between fluid and rock act as source terms for these advection-dispersion equations. Many existing modelling systems that are used for simulating such systems use explicit time marching schemes and finite differences. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to work on rectilinear grids and the number of time steps required by the Courant condition in the solute transport step. The second factor can be particularly significant if the chemical system is complex, requiring (at a minimum) an equilibrium calculation at each grid point at each time step. In the approach we describe, we use finite elements rather than finite differences, and the pressure, heat and advection-dispersion equations are solved implicitly. The general idea is to put unconditional numerical stability of the time integration first, and let accuracy assume a secondary role. It is in this sense that the method is semi-quantiative. However

  8. Modeling chloride transport using travel time distributions at Plynlimon, Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, Paolo; Kirchner, James W.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Here we present a theoretical interpretation of high-frequency, high-quality tracer time series from the Hafren catchment at Plynlimon in mid-Wales. We make use of the formulation of transport by travel time distributions to model chloride transport originating from atmospheric deposition and compute catchment-scale travel time distributions. The relevance of the approach lies in the explanatory power of the chosen tools, particularly to highlight hydrologic processes otherwise clouded by the integrated nature of the measured outflux signal. The analysis reveals the key role of residual storages that are poorly visible in the hydrological response, but are shown to strongly affect water quality dynamics. A significant accuracy in reproducing data is shown by our calibrated model. A detailed representation of catchment-scale travel time distributions has been derived, including the time evolution of the overall dispersion processes (which can be expressed in terms of time-varying storage sampling functions). Mean computed travel times span a broad range of values (from 80 to 800 days) depending on the catchment state. Results also suggest that, in the average, discharge waters are younger than storage water. The model proves able to capture high-frequency fluctuations in the measured chloride concentrations, which are broadly explained by the sharp transition between groundwaters and faster flows originating from topsoil layers. This article was corrected on 22 JUN 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  9. Does the self drive mental time travel?

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi; Yao, Xiang; Ceci, Stephen J; Wang, Qi

    2010-11-01

    Research on autobiographical remembering has shown the intertwined relationship between the self and memory. Very little is known about the role of the self in the anticipation of the future. To investigate the association, European American (N=61) and Chinese (N=60) college students each reported two past autobiographical events and anticipated two future events, and described themselves in the past, present, and future. The results from a content analysis found that, regardless of culture, the future self and events were more positive and socially oriented than the past self and events. In general, European Americans provided more positive events and self-descriptions than Chinese. Men showed more personal focus in both experiences and self-descriptions than women at all time epochs. Importantly, independent of culture and gender, the self rather than the past events predicted the valence and personal focus of future events. These findings offer new insights into the dynamic relations between the self and episodic thinking.

  10. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  11. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Pathways and Travel Times From the Nevada Test Site to the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, K. F.; Zhu, J.; Ye, M.; Carroll, R. W.; Chapman, J. B.; Russell, C. E.; Shafer, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada has been recommended as a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If YM is licensed as a repository by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, it will be important to identify the potential for radionuclides to migrate from underground nuclear testing areas located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the hydraulically downgradient repository area to ensure that monitoring does not incorrectly attribute repository failure to radionuclides originating from other sources. In this study, we use the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate potential groundwater migration pathways and associated travel times from the NTS to the proposed YM repository area. Using results from the calibrated DVRFS model and the particle tracking post-processing package MODPATH we modeled three-dimensional groundwater advective pathways in the NTS and YM region. Our study focuses on evaluating the potential for groundwater pathways between the NTS and YM withdrawal area and whether travel times for advective flow along these pathways coincide with the prospective monitoring time frame at the proposed repository. We include uncertainty in effective porosity as this is a critical variable in the determination of time for radionuclides to travel from the NTS region to the YM withdrawal area. Uncertainty in porosity is quantified through evaluation of existing site data and expert judgment and is incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulation. Since porosity information is limited for this region, the uncertainty is quite large and this is reflected in the results as a large range in simulated groundwater travel times.

  13. Analytical solutions of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion solute transport equation subject to time-dependent boundary conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion solute transport equation remain useful for a large number of applications in science and engineering. In this paper we extend the Duhamel theorem, originally established for diffusion type problems, to the case of advective-dispersive transport subj...

  14. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series

    EPA Science Inventory

    In aquatic systems, time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of ecosystem metabolism. Central to this open-water method is the assumption that the DO time series is a Lagrangian specification of the flow field. However, most DO time series are coll...

  15. Evaluation Of Groundwater Pathways And Travel Times From The Nevada Test Site To The Potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    K.F. Pohlman; J. Zhu; M. Ye; J. Chapman; C. Russell; D.S. Shafer

    2006-08-28

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been recommended as a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If YM is licensed as a repository by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, it will be important to identify the potential for radionuclides to migrate from underground nuclear testing areas located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the hydraulically downgradient repository area to ensure that monitoring does not incorrectly attribute repository failure to radionuclides originating from other sources. In this study, we use the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate potential groundwater migration pathways and associated travel times from the NTS to the proposed YM repository area. Using results from the calibrated DVRFS model and the particle tracking post-processing package MODPATH, we modeled three-dimensional groundwater advective pathways in the NTS and YM region. Our study focuses on evaluating the potential for groundwater pathways between the NTS and YM withdrawal area and whether travel times for advective flow along these pathways coincide with the prospective monitoring timeframe at the proposed repository. We include uncertainty in effective porosity, as this is a critical variable in the determination of time for radionuclides to travel from the NTS region to the YM withdrawal area. Uncertainty in porosity is quantified through evaluation of existing site data and expert judgment and is incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulation. Since porosity information is limited for this region, the uncertainty is quite large and this is reflected in the results as a large range in simulated groundwater travel times.

  16. Teleseismic travel times residuals across the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Rami; Dorbath, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    New findings of the structure of the Dead Sea sedimentary basin and its eastern and western bordering regions were obtained by applying P and PKP wave relative travel time residuals of 644 teleseisms, as recorded by the DESIRE portable seismic network in the Dead Sea basin and its outskirts. The Lisan is characterized by relatively small teleseismic travel time residuals of about 0.14 sec, in the latitude range of 31.220-31.370 and longitude of 35.500, slowly degrading towards west. The largest teleseismic travel time residuals are in the southern Dead Sea basin, south of the Lisan in the latitude range of 31.050-31.150 and along longitude 35.450 and continuing southward towards Amatzyahu Fault, reaching values of 0.3 to 0.4 sec. We get small positive residual in the Amatzyahu Fault and small negative residual south of it marking probably the southern end of the Dead Sea basin. East and west of the Dead Sea basin the mean teleseismic travel time residuals are negative having an over whole average of -0.35 sec and -0.45 sec, respectively. Using the teleseismic residuals we estimate the horizontal dimensions of the Lisan salt diapir to be 20 km X 12 km at its widest place and a maximal thickness of about 7.2 km. The thickness of the Mt. Sodom salt diapir is estimated as 6.2 km.

  17. Flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time (GWTT-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Ho, C.K.; McKenna, S.A.; Eaton, R.R.

    1996-09-01

    In 1983, high-level radioactive waste repository performance requirements related to groundwater travel time were defined by NRC subsystem regulation 10 CFR 60.113. Although DOE is not presently attempting to demonstrate compliance with that regulation, understanding of the prevalence of fast paths in the groundwater flow system remains a critical element of any safety analyses for a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Therefore, this analysis was performed to allow comparison of fast-path flow against the criteria set forth in the regulation. Models developed to describe the conditions for initiation, propagation, and sustainability of rapid groundwater movement in both the unsaturated and saturated zones will form part of the technical basis for total- system analyses to assess site viability and site licensability. One of the most significant findings is that the fastest travel times in both unsaturated and saturated zones are in the southern portion of the potential repository, so it is recommended that site characterization studies concentrate on this area. Results support the assumptions regarding the importance of an appropriate conceptual model of groundwater flow and the incorporation of heterogeneous material properties into the analyses. Groundwater travel times are sensitive to variation/uncertainty in hydrologic parameters and in infiltration flux at upper boundary of the problem domain. Simulated travel times are also sensitive to poorly constrained parameters of the interaction between flow in fractures and in the matrix.

  18. Regional Travel-Time Predictions, Uncertainty and Location Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M; Myers, S

    2004-07-15

    We investigate our ability to improve regional travel-time prediction and seismic event location using an a priori three-dimensional (3D) velocity model of Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA 1.0). Three principal results are presented. First, the 3D WENA 1.0 velocity model improves travel-time prediction over the IASPI91 model, as measured by variance reduction, for regional phases recorded at 22 stations throughout the modeled region, including aseismic areas. Second, a distance-dependent uncertainty model is developed and tested for the WENA 1.0 model. Third, relocation using WENA 1.0 and the associated uncertainty model provides an end-to-end validation test. Model validation is based on a comparison of approximately 10,000 Pg, Pn, and P travel-time predictions and empirical observations from ground truth (GT) events. Ray coverage for the validation dataset provides representative, regional-distances sampling across Eurasia and North Africa. The WENA 1.0 model markedly improves travel-time predictions for most stations with an average variance reduction of 14% for all ray paths. We find that improvement is station dependent, with some stations benefiting greatly from WENA predictions (25% at OBN, and 16% at BKR), some stations showing moderate improvement (12% at ARU, and 17% at NIL), and some stations benefiting only slightly (7% at AAE, and 8% at TOL). We further test WENA 1.0 by relocating five calibration events. Again, relocation of these events is dependent on ray paths that evenly sample WENA 1.0 and therefore provide an unbiased assessment of location performance. These results highlight the importance of accurate GT datasets in assessing regional travel-time models and demonstrate that an a priori 3D model can markedly improve our ability to locate small magnitude events in a regional monitoring context.

  19. Catchment travel time distributions and water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Beven, K. J.; Bertuzzo, E.; Nicotina, L.; Davies, J.; Fiori, A.; Russo, D.; Botter, G.

    2011-07-01

    Many details about the flow of water in soils in a hillslope are unknowable given current technologies. One way of learning about the bulk effects of water velocity distributions on hillslopes is through the use of tracers. However, this paper will demonstrate that the interpretation of tracer information needs to become more sophisticated. The paper reviews, and complements with mathematical arguments and specific examples, theory and practice of the distribution(s) of the times water particles injected through rainfall spend traveling through a catchment up to a control section (i.e., "catchment" travel times). The relevance of the work is perceived to lie in the importance of the characterization of travel time distributions as fundamental descriptors of catchment water storage, flow pathway heterogeneity, sources of water in a catchment, and the chemistry of water flows through the control section. The paper aims to correct some common misconceptions used in analyses of travel time distributions. In particular, it stresses the conceptual and practical differences between the travel time distribution conditional on a given injection time (needed for rainfall-runoff transformations) and that conditional on a given sampling time at the outlet (as provided by isotopic dating techniques or tracer measurements), jointly with the differences of both with the residence time distributions of water particles in storage within the catchment at any time. These differences are defined precisely here, either through the results of different models or theoretically by using an extension of a classic theorem of dynamic controls. Specifically, we address different model results to highlight the features of travel times seen from different assumptions, in this case, exact solutions to a lumped model and numerical solutions of the 3-D flow and transport equations in variably saturated, physically heterogeneous catchment domains. Our results stress the individual characters of the

  20. The distribution of "time of flight" in three dimensional stationary chaotic advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Florence; Carrière, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of "time of flight" (time spent by a single fluid particle between two crossings of the Poincaré section) are investigated for five different three dimensional stationary chaotic mixers. Above all, we study the large tails of those distributions and show that mainly two types of behaviors are encountered. In the case of slipping walls, as expected, we obtain an exponential decay, which, however, does not scale with the Lyapunov exponent. Using a simple model, we suggest that this decay is related to the negative eigenvalues of the fixed points of the flow. When no-slip walls are considered, as predicted by the model, the behavior is radically different, with a very large tail following a power law with an exponent close to -3.

  1. The distribution of “time of flight” in three dimensional stationary chaotic advection

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Florence; Carrière, Philippe

    2015-04-15

    The distributions of “time of flight” (time spent by a single fluid particle between two crossings of the Poincaré section) are investigated for five different three dimensional stationary chaotic mixers. Above all, we study the large tails of those distributions and show that mainly two types of behaviors are encountered. In the case of slipping walls, as expected, we obtain an exponential decay, which, however, does not scale with the Lyapunov exponent. Using a simple model, we suggest that this decay is related to the negative eigenvalues of the fixed points of the flow. When no-slip walls are considered, as predicted by the model, the behavior is radically different, with a very large tail following a power law with an exponent close to −3.

  2. Eye movements during mental time travel follow a diagonal line.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Matthias; Martarelli, Corinna S; Mast, Fred W; Stocker, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    Recent research showed that past events are associated with the back and left side, whereas future events are associated with the front and right side of space. These spatial-temporal associations have an impact on our sensorimotor system: thinking about one's past and future leads to subtle body sways in the sagittal dimension of space (Miles, Nind, & Macrae, 2010). In this study we investigated whether mental time travel leads to sensorimotor correlates in the horizontal dimension of space. Participants were asked to mentally displace themselves into the past or future while measuring their spontaneous eye movements on a blank screen. Eye gaze was directed more rightward and upward when thinking about the future than when thinking about the past. Our results provide further insight into the spatial nature of temporal thoughts, and show that not only body, but also eye movements follow a (diagonal) "time line" during mental time travel.

  3. Ray travel times at long ranges in acoustic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Virovlyansky, A L

    2003-05-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism in terms of the action-angle variables is applied to study ray travel times in a waveguide with a smooth sound speed profile perturbed by a weak range-dependent inhomogeneity. A simple approximate formula relating the differences in ray travel times to range variations of action variables is derived. This relation is applied to study range variations of the timefront (representing ray arrivals in the time-depth plane). Widening and bias of timefront segments in the presence of perturbations are considered. Qualitative and quantitative explanations are given to surprising stability of early portions of timefronts observed in both numerical simulations and field experiments. This phenomenon is interpreted from the viewpoint of Fermat's principle. By ray tracing in a realistic deep water environment with an internal-wave-induced perturbation it has been demonstrated that our approach can be used at ranges up to, at least, 3000 km. PMID:12765372

  4. Effects of Horizontal Magnetic Fields on Acoustic Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rekha

    2007-02-01

    Local helioseismology techniques seek to probe the subsurface magnetic fields and flows by observing waves that emerge at the solar surface after passing through these inhomogeneities. Active regions on the surface of the Sun are distinguished by their strong magnetic fields, and techniques such as time-distance helioseismology can provide a useful diagnostic for probing these structures. Above the active regions, the fields fan out to create a horizontal magnetic canopy. We investigate the effect of a uniform horizontal magnetic field on the travel time of acoustic waves by considering vertical velocity in a simple plane-parallel adiabatically stratified polytrope. It is shown that such fields can lower the upper turning point of p-modes and hence influence their travel time. It is found that acoustic waves reflected from magnetically active regions have travel times up to a minute less than for waves similarly reflected in quiet regions. It is also found that sound speeds are increased below the active regions. These findings are consistent with time-distance measurements.

  5. Mental time travel and the shaping of the human mind.

    PubMed

    Suddendorf, Thomas; Addis, Donna Rose; Corballis, Michael C

    2009-05-12

    Episodic memory, enabling conscious recollection of past episodes, can be distinguished from semantic memory, which stores enduring facts about the world. Episodic memory shares a core neural network with the simulation of future episodes, enabling mental time travel into both the past and the future. The notion that there might be something distinctly human about mental time travel has provoked ingenious attempts to demonstrate episodic memory or future simulation in non-human animals, but we argue that they have not yet established a capacity comparable to the human faculty. The evolution of the capacity to simulate possible future events, based on episodic memory, enhanced fitness by enabling action in preparation of different possible scenarios that increased present or future survival and reproduction chances. Human language may have evolved in the first instance for the sharing of past and planned future events, and, indeed, fictional ones, further enhancing fitness in social settings. PMID:19528013

  6. Travel-time sensitivity kernels in long-range propagation.

    PubMed

    Skarsoulis, E K; Cornuelle, B D; Dzieciuch, M A

    2009-11-01

    Wave-theoretic travel-time sensitivity kernels (TSKs) are calculated in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments and their behavior with increasing propagation range is studied and compared to that of ray-theoretic TSKs and corresponding Fresnel-volumes. The differences between the 2D and 3D TSKs average out when horizontal or cross-range marginals are considered, which indicates that they are not important in the case of range-independent sound-speed perturbations or perturbations of large scale compared to the lateral TSK extent. With increasing range, the wave-theoretic TSKs expand in the horizontal cross-range direction, their cross-range extent being comparable to that of the corresponding free-space Fresnel zone, whereas they remain bounded in the vertical. Vertical travel-time sensitivity kernels (VTSKs)-one-dimensional kernels describing the effect of horizontally uniform sound-speed changes on travel-times-are calculated analytically using a perturbation approach, and also numerically, as horizontal marginals of the corresponding TSKs. Good agreement between analytical and numerical VTSKs, as well as between 2D and 3D VTSKs, is found. As an alternative method to obtain wave-theoretic sensitivity kernels, the parabolic approximation is used; the resulting TSKs and VTSKs are in good agreement with normal-mode results. With increasing range, the wave-theoretic VTSKs approach the corresponding ray-theoretic sensitivity kernels.

  7. Experimental Results of Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost

    2011-06-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation matches very well with the objective to reduce cost while maintaining a high safety level. Guided waves are very attractive for permanent monitoring systems because they can travel over large distances and therefore provide the essential large area coverage. Making use of the dispersive behavior of the guided waves, a wall thickness map over a distance of several meters can be made using only two rings of guided wave transducers. Travel time tomography is used to translate transmission travel times into a wall thickness map. This method has been applied in the field for the first time to map the wall thickness under two clearly corroded pipe supports of a 8″ and 10″ gas pipe line. The tomographic inversion results clearly maps the corrosion under the supports. Independent reference measurements confirm the tomographic inversion results.

  8. Travel time and concurrent-schedule choice: retrospective versus prospective control.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, M; Elliffe, D

    2000-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules in which two different travel times between alternatives, 4.5 and 0.5 s, were randomly arranged. In Part 1, the next travel time was signaled while the subjects were responding on each alternative. Generalized matching analyses of performance in the presence of the two travel-time signals showed significantly higher response and time sensitivity when the longer travel time was signaled compared to when the shorter time was signaled. When the data were analyzed as a function of the previous travel time, there were no differences in sensitivity. Dwell times on the alternatives were consistently longer in the presence of the stimulus that signaled the longer travel time than they were in the presence of the stimulus that signaled the shorter travel time. These results are in accord with a recent quantitative account of the effects of travel time. In Part 2, no signals indicating the next travel time were given. When these data were analyzed as a function of the previous travel time, time-allocation sensitivity after the 4.5-s travel time was significantly greater than that after the 0.5-s travel time, but no such difference was found for response allocation. Dwell times were also longer when the previous travel time had been longer. PMID:10682340

  9. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    SciTech Connect

    J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

    2009-09-10

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  10. Characterizing groundwater contribution to lowland streams using Travel Time Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrus Kaandorp, Vincentius; Gerardus Bernardus de Louw, Petrus; Kuijper, Martina Johanna Maria; Broers, Hans Peter

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that European freshwaters will fail to meet the ecological guidelines set for 2015 by the Water Framework Directive. 55 % of European surface water bodies have been reported to have a less than good ecological status, while the goal for 2015 is to have a good status for all water bodies. The deterioration of freshwater aquatic ecosystems is a problem worldwide. The current study, part of the EU FP7 project Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress (MARS), addresses this issue by focusing on the effect of multiple stressors. Freshwater ecosystems are directly linked to the characteristics of catchments and streams they are located in as this determines the habitats present. One of these characteristics, the groundwater contribution to streams, is important for aquatic ecosystems as it influences (1) river discharge, (2) water quality and (3) temperature and (4) the riparian zone. Groundwater provides streams with sufficient base flow, good quality water and a stable temperature. Compared to hilly slope catchments, the lowland catchments of The Netherlands lack much topography and surface runoff, and as such, virtually all stream water originates from groundwater. Current approaches do not sufficiently address the contribution of groundwater to stream flow in lowland catchments, as existing hydrograph separation methods provide little informative value about the groundwater contribution itself. The amount and quality of groundwater input to streams depends on its flow path and travel time. Especially in lowland catchments the groundwater input in streams is composed of a wide range of travel times which vary in time and space and have different quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Thus in order to successfully manage lowland streams, it is critical to specify the input of groundwater in more detail and take in account the temporal and spatial variability in travel times. We will present an

  11. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  12. Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Importance of Travel Times and Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface contamination cases giving rise to groundwater pollutions are extensively found in all industrialized countries. Under this pressure, risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the potential impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) helping and driving decisions of groundwater-resource managers. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvents or nitrates potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. This represents an attractive and extensively used remediation solution but leads often to the production of by-products before to reach a harmless chemical form. This renders mixtures of contaminants a common issue for groundwater resources managers. In this case, the threat posed by these contaminants to human health at a given sensitive location greatly depends on the competition between reactive and advective-dispersive characteristic times. However, hydraulic properties of the aquifer are known to be spatially variable, which can lead to the formation of preferential flow channels and fast contamination pathways. Therefore, the uncertainty on the spatial distribution of the aquifer properties controlling the plume travel time may then play a particular role in the human health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. We investigate here the risk related to a multispecies system in response to different degrees of heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity (K or Y =ln(K)). This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene (PCE) contamination problem followed by the sequential first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Vinyl Chlorine (VC). For this specific case, VC is known to be a highly toxic contaminant. By performing numerical experiments, we evaluate transport through three-dimensional mildly (σY 2=1.0) and highly (σY 2=4.0) heterogeneous aquifers. Uncertainty on the hydraulic

  13. SAPS onset timing during substorms and the westward traveling surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Evgeny, V.

    2016-07-01

    We present multispacecraft observations in the magnetosphere and conjugate ionosphere of the onset time of subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) and tens of keV ring current injections on the duskside in three individual substorms. This is probably the first unequivocal determination of the substorm SAPS onset timing. The time lag between the SAPS and substorm onsets is much shorter than the gradient-curvature drift time of ˜10 keV ions in the plasmasphere. It seemingly depends on the propagation time of substorm-injected plasma from the dipolarization onset region to the plasmasphere, as well as on the SAPS position. These observations suggest that fast onset SAPS and ring current injections are causally related to the two-loop system of the westward traveling surge.

  14. Flow path and travel time dynamics in a lowland catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of time it takes water from the moment of precipitation to reach the catchment outlet is widely used as a characteristic for catchment flow path contributions, catchment vulnerability to pollution spreading and pollutant loads from catchments to downstream waters. However, this distribution tends to vary in time driven by variability in precipitation and evapotranspiration. Catchment scale mixing of water controls how dynamics in rainfall and evapotranspiration are translated into dynamics of travel time distributions. In this presentation we use the concept of StorAge selection (SAS) functions, that quantify catchment scale mixing of water, to describe chloride and nitrate flow. We will show how SAS functions relate to the topography and subsurface and how they are effective in describing nitrate and chloride transport. The presented analyses will combine unique datasets of high-frequency discharge and water quality concentrations with conceptual models of water flow and solute transport. Remarkable findings are the large contrasts in travel times between lowland and sloping catchments and the strong relationship between evapotranspiration and stream water nutrient concentration dynamics.

  15. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2015-04-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  16. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-01-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  17. Valuation of Travel Time Savings in Viewpoint of WTA

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chang-qiao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the issues in measurement of value of travel time savings (VTTS), the willingness-to-accept (WTA) for the private car owner is studied by using surveyed data. It is convincing that trip purpose, trip length, time savings, cost savings, income, and allowance from employee have effects on the WTA. Moreover, influences of these variables are not the same for different trip purposes. For commuting trips, effects of income and allowance from employee are significant while time savings and cost savings are dominated for leisure and shopping trips. It is also found that WTA is much higher than expected which implies that there are a group of drivers who are not prone to switching to other trip modes other than passenger car. PMID:25530751

  18. Nonlinear time-dependent simulation of helix traveling wave tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Zhong-Hai; Hu, Yu-Lu; Li, Jian-Qing; Lu, Qi-Ru; Li, Bin

    2011-07-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes is studied. A generalized electromagnetic field is applied to the expression of the radio frequency field. To simulate the variations of the high frequency structure, such as the pitch taper and the effect of harmonics, the spatial average over a wavelength is substituted by a time average over a wave period in the equation of the radio frequency field. Under this assumption, the space charge field of the electron beam can be treated by a space charge wave model along with the space charge coefficient. The effects of the radio frequency and the space charge fields on the electrons are presented by the equations of the electron energy and the electron phase. The time-dependent simulation is compared with the frequency-domain simulation for a helix TWT, which validates the availability of this theory.

  19. Involuntary (spontaneous) mental time travel into the past and future.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Jacobsen, Anne Staerk

    2008-12-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally project oneself backward in time to relive past experiences and forward in time to pre-live possible future experiences. Previous work has focused on MTT in its voluntary (controlled) form. Here, we introduce the notion of involuntary (spontaneous) MTT. We examined involuntary versus voluntary and past versus future MTT in a diary study. We found that involuntary future event representations-defined as representations of possible personal future events that come to mind with no preceding search attempts-were as common as involuntary autobiographical memories and similar to them regarding cuing and subjective qualities. Future MTT involved more positive and idyllic representations than past MTT. MTT into the distant future/past involved more representations of cultural life script events than MTT into the immediate past/future. The findings are discussed in relation to cultural learning and MTT considered as a higher mental process.

  20. Valuation of travel time savings in viewpoint of WTA.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chang-Qiao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the issues in measurement of value of travel time savings (VTTS), the willingness-to-accept (WTA) for the private car owner is studied by using surveyed data. It is convincing that trip purpose, trip length, time savings, cost savings, income, and allowance from employee have effects on the WTA. Moreover, influences of these variables are not the same for different trip purposes. For commuting trips, effects of income and allowance from employee are significant while time savings and cost savings are dominated for leisure and shopping trips. It is also found that WTA is much higher than expected which implies that there are a group of drivers who are not prone to switching to other trip modes other than passenger car.

  1. Dissociating memory traces and scenario construction in mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen; Werning, Markus; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There has been a persistent debate about how to define episodic memory and whether it is a uniquely human capacity. On the one hand, many animal cognition studies employ content-based criteria, such as the what-where-when criterion, and argue that nonhuman animals possess episodic memory. On the other hand, many human cognition studies emphasize the subjective experience during retrieval as an essential property of episodic memory and the distinctly human foresight it purportedly enables. We propose that both perspectives may examine distinct but complementary aspects of episodic memory by drawing a conceptual distinction between episodic memory traces and mental time travel. Episodic memory traces are sequential mnemonic representations of particular, personally experienced episodes. Mental time travel draws on these traces, but requires other components to construct scenarios and embed them into larger narratives. Various nonhuman animals may store episodic memory traces, and yet it is possible that only humans are able to construct and reflect on narratives of their lives - and flexibly compare alternative scenarios of the remote future.

  2. Geometry of locating sounds from differences in travel time: isodiachrons.

    PubMed

    Spiesberger, John L

    2004-11-01

    Calling animals may be located from measurements of the differences in acoustic travel time at pairs of receivers. For inhomogeneous fields of speed, locations can be made with better accuracy when the location algorithm allows the speed to vary from path to path. A new geometrical shape, called an isodiachron, is described. It is the locus of points corresponding to a constant difference in travel time along straight paths between the animal and two receivers. Its properties allow an interpretation for locations when the speed differs from path to path. An algorithm has been developed for finding the location of calling animals by intersecting isodiachrons from data collected at pairs of receivers. When the sound speed field is spatially homogeneous, isodiachrons become hyperboloids. Unlike a hyperboloid that extends to infinity, an isodiachron is confined to a finite region of space when the speeds differ between the animal and each of two receivers. Its shape is significantly different than a hyperboloid for cases of practical interest. Isodiachrons can be used to better understand locations of calling animals and other sounds in the sea, Earth, and air.

  3. Reflection Full Waveform Inversion in Migration Based Travel Time formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavent, Guy; Gadylshin, Kirill; Tcheverda, Vladimir; Charara, Marwan

    2015-04-01

    Building a smooth velocity model in the depth domain, which is responsible for correct travel-times of wave propagation, is the main challenge in the present technology of seismic data processing in areas with complex geology. Formally it seems be possible to achieve, along with the subsurface structure, by the Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) technique matching the observed and the synthetic seismograms (Tarantola, 1984). To minimize the misfit function and to find the elastic parameters of the subsurface, a variety of non-linear iterative descent methods are usually used. Such approach, proposed originally by Tarantola (1984), has been developed and studied in a great number of publications (Virieux and Operto, 2009, and the references therein). Nevertheless, its straightforward application to the data reconstructs reliably only the reflectivity component of the subsurface but fails to recover a smooth component of a velocity model (propagator). To overcome this hardship G.Chavent with colleagues introduced FWI in Migration Based Travel-Time (MBTT) formulation (2001). The main idea of this approach is to decompose model space into two orthogonal subspaces - smooth propagator and rough reflector with subsequent reformulation of the cost function. We apply this idea to formulate the Reflection FWI algorithm in frequency domain within the concept of MBTT. A series of numerical experiments demonstrates its advantages in reconstruction of macrovelocity using reflected input data with reasonable offsets and frequency ranges.

  4. Spirals in protoplanetary disks from photon travel time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, M.; Pinilla, P.; Heays, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    Spiral structures are a common feature in scattered-light images of protoplanetary disks, and of great interest as possible tracers of the presence of planets. However, other mechanisms have been put forward to explain them, including self-gravity, disk-envelope interactions, and dead zone boundaries. These mechanisms explain many spirals very well, but are unable to easily account for very loosely wound spirals and single spiral arms. We study the effect of light travel time on the shape of a shadow cast by a clump orbiting close (within ~ 1 au) of the central star, where there can be significant orbital motion during the light travel time from the clump to the outer disk and then to the sky plane. This delay in light rays reaching the sky plane gives rise to a variety of spiral- and arc-shaped shadows, which we describe with a general fitting formula for a flared, inclined disk. The three movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  5. NOTE ON TRAVEL TIME SHIFTS DUE TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, R.; Kosovichev, A. G. E-mail: sasha@quake.stanford.ed

    2010-01-10

    Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times have not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry and then filtered by a phase-speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wavelet fitting formula without this effect, we find that there is a shift in the travel times that is introduced by the amplitude modulation. The analytical model presented in this paper can be useful also for interpretation of travel time measurements for the non-uniform distribution of oscillation amplitude due to observational effects.

  6. Travel time distribution in a hillslope: Insight from numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, Aldo; Russo, David

    2008-12-01

    Solute transport in a three-dimensional, heterogeneous hillslope is analyzed through a series of detailed, three-dimensional numerical simulations. The investigation focuses on the transport of a pulse of a passive solute, taking into account realistic features of the relevant flow domain (i.e., the spatial heterogeneity of the soil hydraulic properties and records of the time-dependent meteorological data and evapotranspiration). The scope of the present work is to analyze a few issues regarding the travel time probability density function (pdf) f(τ) of solute, with particular reference to the following: (1) the suitability of the time invariance assumption and the circumstance under which it may represent a valid approximation, (2) the shape of the resulting travel time pdf f(τ), and (3) the difference between f(τ) and the instantaneous unit hydrograph. It is found that in many cases of practical interest the transport of contaminants in catchments can be analyzed by assuming the time-invariant approximation for f(τ), provided that the calendar time is replaced by a flow-corrected time. Here f(τ) is calculated through the analysis of the breakthrough curve represented in terms of flux-averaged concentration versus cumulate discharge. The rescaling of time with respect to the cumulated outflow takes care in an approximate way of the transient processes occurring in the porous medium. The derived f(τ) is weakly dependent on various attributes, like the level of heterogeneity, presence of evaporation or transpiration, and injection period. The main exception regards the cases in which plant transpiration is intense in the vicinity of the channel after relatively long periods of low rain. The impact of the parameters' heterogeneity on f(τ) is generally quite limited, the dispersion being ruled by the distribution of length paths within the hillslope. The derived f(τ) seems compatible with the Gamma distribution, being characterized by both fast and slow

  7. Groundwater travel time computation for two-layer islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    A closed-form analytical computation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) for two-layer oceanic small island aquifers is developed assuming steady-state and sharp-interface conditions. The two-layer geology impacts on the GWTT are investigated using the developed analytical solution to achieve a greater transparency of such conceptualizations. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of geologic layering leads to large changes in the GWTT. Sensitivity analyses, using specified dimensionless parameters, are employed to assess the influences of hydraulic conductivity, recharge rate, upper layer thickness, and seawater/freshwater density difference parameters, which influence the GWTT. These evaluations reveal that the GWTT is mainly influenced by the recharge rate and the upper layer thickness compared to the other influential parameters when the typical parameter ranges are considered.

  8. Numerical evaluation of the PERTH (PERiodic Tracer Hierarchy) method for estimating time-variable travel time distribution in variably saturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Harman, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    -tracking model. HYDRUS-1D was used to solve Richards' equation and the advection-dispersion equation for ideal tracers introduced at different points during an irrigation event in a ';virtual experiment', and the PERTH method was used to extract the time-variable transit time distribution. The 1D particle-tracking model was developed to simulate particle trajectories using the Fokker-Plank-Ito scheme based on the saturation and water flux fields estimated by HYDRUS-1D. The results of the particle-tracking model estimate the ';true' travel time distribution and allow us to validate the result of PERTH. The result reveals that the PERTH method well approximates the simulated time-variable travel time distribution on plot scale. Also, the key assumption of PERTH method was supported in this case. In addition, this research further suggests an optimal way to configure the tracer hierarchy of PERTH in complex flow experiments. The numerical analysis of this study demonstrates that the PERTH method may be a useful method for obtaining experimental observations of time-variable travel time distributions in well-controlled environments where periodic forcing conditions can be set.

  9. Investigating the base of the mantle using differential travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael E.; Valenzuela, Raul W.; Zhu, An-Ning; Bartkó, Lilla

    1995-11-01

    Several techniques using differential seismic travel times to map lateral structure in the lowermost mantle are discussed. Results are shown for recent studies involving the established techniques of core-reflected phases (ScS-S and PcP-P) and diffracted phase profiles (Sdiff), and new techniques involving the differential times of both core-transmitted and core-diffracted phases (PKP-Pdiff and Sdiff-SKS-SKKS) are described. The recent databases of digital seismograms have allowed for a study of D″ velocities in the Eastern Hemisphere using ScS-S and sScS-sS differential times from the many Western Pacific earthquakes. The result is an image at a resolution of a few hundred kilometers of a slow velocity anomaly of 2500 km width beneath Micronesia (-2% relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM)) that is surrounded on three sides by fast D″ rock that is 3% faster than PREM. A study using the differential arrivals of core-diffracted S waves (Sdiff) from digital records is providing information about long-wavelength variations in D″ shear velocities, though the rigorous earthquake-station geometry requirements limit the study to particular regions of the globe. Another study is using over 40 000 PcP-P differential travel times as reported to the International Seismological Centre to map global P velocities at the base of the mantle, and it shows that global coverage of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is very poor. Though there are some regions (Northern Asia, Northern Pacific, Central America) with enough data sampling to allow a quantification of average D″ P velocities (with a total robust range of 4% lateral variation), they cover only a small portion of the total CMB. As a means of increasing our understanding of the long-wavelength variations of seismic velocities, a description is given of two techniques that will take advantage of totally different sets of earthquake-station geometries from the core-reflected phase studies. In the distance

  10. Cognitive mapping in mental time travel and mental space navigation.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion.

  11. Cognitive mapping in mental time travel and mental space navigation.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion. PMID:27239750

  12. Suburb-to-suburb intercity travel: Energy, time and dollar expenditures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fels, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of adding suburb to terminal and terminal to suburb travel is examined. The energy consumed in entire trips was estimated. The total energy costs are compared with total travel times, and dollar costs to the traveler. Trips between origins in seven suburbs of Newark, New Jersey and destinations in two Washington, D. C. suburbs are analyzed.

  13. On the use of mean groundwater age, life expectancy and capture probability for defining aquifer vulnerability and time-of-travel zones for source water protection.

    PubMed

    Molson, J W; Frind, E O

    2012-01-01

    Protection and sustainability of water supply wells requires the assessment of vulnerability to contamination and the delineation of well capture zones. Capture zones, or more generally, time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific contaminant travel times, are most commonly delineated using advective particle tracking. More recently, the capture probability approach has been used in which a probability of capture of P=1 is assigned to the well and the growth of a probability-of-capture plume is tracked backward in time using an advective-dispersive transport model. This approach accounts for uncertainty due to local-scale heterogeneities through the use of macrodispersion. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to capture zone delineation by applying the concept of mean life expectancy E (time remaining before being captured by the well), and we show how life expectancy E is related to capture probability P. Either approach can be used to delineate time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific travel times, as well as the ultimate capture zone. The related concept of mean groundwater age A (time since recharge) can also be applied in the context of defining the vulnerability of a pumped aquifer. In the same way as capture probability, mean life expectancy and groundwater age account for local-scale uncertainty or unresolved heterogeneities through macrodispersion, which standard particle tracking neglects. The approach is tested on 2D and 3D idealized systems, as well as on several watershed-scale well fields within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

  14. Iterative Bayesian Estimation of Travel Times on Urban Arterials: Fusing Loop Detector and Probe Vehicle Data

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Meng-Ying; Cao, Peng; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    On urban arterials, travel time estimation is challenging especially from various data sources. Typically, fusing loop detector data and probe vehicle data to estimate travel time is a troublesome issue while considering the data issue of uncertain, imprecise and even conflicting. In this paper, we propose an improved data fusing methodology for link travel time estimation. Link travel times are simultaneously pre-estimated using loop detector data and probe vehicle data, based on which Bayesian fusion is then applied to fuse the estimated travel times. Next, Iterative Bayesian estimation is proposed to improve Bayesian fusion by incorporating two strategies: 1) substitution strategy which replaces the lower accurate travel time estimation from one sensor with the current fused travel time; and 2) specially-designed conditions for convergence which restrict the estimated travel time in a reasonable range. The estimation results show that, the proposed method outperforms probe vehicle data based method, loop detector based method and single Bayesian fusion, and the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 4.8%. Additionally, iterative Bayesian estimation performs better for lighter traffic flows when the variability of travel time is practically higher than other periods. PMID:27362654

  15. Iterative Bayesian Estimation of Travel Times on Urban Arterials: Fusing Loop Detector and Probe Vehicle Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Meng-Ying; Cao, Peng; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    On urban arterials, travel time estimation is challenging especially from various data sources. Typically, fusing loop detector data and probe vehicle data to estimate travel time is a troublesome issue while considering the data issue of uncertain, imprecise and even conflicting. In this paper, we propose an improved data fusing methodology for link travel time estimation. Link travel times are simultaneously pre-estimated using loop detector data and probe vehicle data, based on which Bayesian fusion is then applied to fuse the estimated travel times. Next, Iterative Bayesian estimation is proposed to improve Bayesian fusion by incorporating two strategies: 1) substitution strategy which replaces the lower accurate travel time estimation from one sensor with the current fused travel time; and 2) specially-designed conditions for convergence which restrict the estimated travel time in a reasonable range. The estimation results show that, the proposed method outperforms probe vehicle data based method, loop detector based method and single Bayesian fusion, and the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 4.8%. Additionally, iterative Bayesian estimation performs better for lighter traffic flows when the variability of travel time is practically higher than other periods. PMID:27362654

  16. Iterative Bayesian Estimation of Travel Times on Urban Arterials: Fusing Loop Detector and Probe Vehicle Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Meng-Ying; Cao, Peng; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    On urban arterials, travel time estimation is challenging especially from various data sources. Typically, fusing loop detector data and probe vehicle data to estimate travel time is a troublesome issue while considering the data issue of uncertain, imprecise and even conflicting. In this paper, we propose an improved data fusing methodology for link travel time estimation. Link travel times are simultaneously pre-estimated using loop detector data and probe vehicle data, based on which Bayesian fusion is then applied to fuse the estimated travel times. Next, Iterative Bayesian estimation is proposed to improve Bayesian fusion by incorporating two strategies: 1) substitution strategy which replaces the lower accurate travel time estimation from one sensor with the current fused travel time; and 2) specially-designed conditions for convergence which restrict the estimated travel time in a reasonable range. The estimation results show that, the proposed method outperforms probe vehicle data based method, loop detector based method and single Bayesian fusion, and the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 4.8%. Additionally, iterative Bayesian estimation performs better for lighter traffic flows when the variability of travel time is practically higher than other periods.

  17. Recent developments in guided wave travel time tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zon, Tim van; Volker, Arno

    2014-02-18

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography had been developed to create a map of the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. It can be used for both monitoring and for inspection of pipe-segments that are difficult to access, for instance at the location of pipe-supports. An important outcome of the tomography is the minimum remaining wall thickness, as this is critical in the scheduling of a replacement of the pipe-segment. In order to improve the sizing accuracy we have improved the tomography scheme. A number of major improvements have been realized allowing to extend the application envelope to pipes with a larger wall thickness and to larger distances between the transducer rings. Simulation results indicate that the sizing accuracy has improved and that is now possible to have a spacing of 8 meter between the source-ring and the receiver-ring. Additionally a reduction of the number of sensors required might be possible as well.

  18. Recent developments in guided wave travel time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zon, Tim; Volker, Arno

    2014-02-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography had been developed to create a map of the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. It can be used for both monitoring and for inspection of pipe-segments that are difficult to access, for instance at the location of pipe-supports. An important outcome of the tomography is the minimum remaining wall thickness, as this is critical in the scheduling of a replacement of the pipe-segment. In order to improve the sizing accuracy we have improved the tomography scheme. A number of major improvements have been realized allowing to extend the application envelope to pipes with a larger wall thickness and to larger distances between the transducer rings. Simulation results indicate that the sizing accuracy has improved and that is now possible to have a spacing of 8 meter between the source-ring and the receiver-ring. Additionally a reduction of the number of sensors required might be possible as well.

  19. Travel Time of Fluids in Porous Media: Bernoulli's Brachistochrone, Isoperimetric Estimates, and Optimal Design in Smart Hydroisolation of Horizontal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimov, A.; Marketz, F.; Pervez, T.; Yakimov, N.

    2007-12-01

    Steady and transient 2,-3- D seepage in a rigid porous medium is studied by the methods of complex analysis and optimal shape design. Euler (1748) dichotomised the inverse-direct approaches. In the former, "surmised" functionals (in our case - travel time of a marked (neutral tracer) particle, seepage discharge, and acting seepage forces) are extremised under isoperimetric constraints, e.g., the "action formalis" (total head along streamlines of flow tubes) of Leibnitz (1860). Following Euler's ideas, the parameters of impervious hydraulic structures (dam, sheetpiling, well packer, seabed buried pipeline, etc.) are optimized. In the Verigin problem, the angle of inclination of a sheetpile providing minimal time along a bounding streamline is found. The maximum of the minimum of the travel time is searched between all streamlines originated in the upper pool. The calculated travel time distributions are also used in minimisation of the total volume of fluid, which arrives from the upper pool to the tailwater during a prescribed time span. In the class of arbitrary structures, time optimisation is carried out explicitly for the bounding streamline with a constraint of the wetted perimeter of a depressed structure. The found optimum (brachistochrone) is a semi-circle and the corresponding time coincides with that of a unidirectional flow between two constant head surfaces. A general theorem is proved that for an arbitrary 3-D flow tube the travel time along an arbitrary streamline is bounded from below by that in a 2-D Voshinin problem (line vortex). Generalisations to heterogeneous media (of varying hydraulic conductivity and porosity) and non-Darcian flows make possible isoperimetric estimates of breakthrough curves (i.e. a composition of marked particles as in Lagrange, 1760) in a purely advective transport of contaminants and advective dispersion with negligible transverse dispersivity. Seepage from one horizontal isobar to another with a tilted fracture

  20. Experiments in Advective and Turbulent Hyporheic Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccluskey, A. H.; Grant, S.; Stewardson, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange (HE) is the mixing of stream and subsurface waters beneath the sediment-water interface (SWI). At the patch and reach scales, HE is dominated by periodic upwelling and downwelling zones, induced by pressure variation and processes within the turbulent boundary layer (TBL). This can be caused by (1) the geometry of the stream, imposing a stationary wave at the SWI or (2) by a travelling wave associated with the propagation of turbulent pressure waves generated from the TBL. Case (1) has generally been the favoured model of hyporheic exchange and has been referred to as hyporheic 'pumping' by Elliott and Brooks, and subsequently others. Case (2) can be termed turbulent pumping, and has been proposed as a mechanism to model the combined effects of turbulent dispersion alongside steady-state advection. While this has been represented numerically and analytically, conjecture remains about the physical representation of these combined processes. We present initial results from experiments undertaken to classify the spatial and temporal characteristics of pressure variation at and beneath the SWI, with a periodic sinusoidal geometry of wavelength 0.28m and height 0.02m. As an initial characterisation, the advective flow profile has been examined using time-lapse photography of dyes released across the span of a periodic downwelling zone. These tracer tests confirmed delineation of isolated upwelling and downwelling cells as noted by previous authors in modelling studies. However, their distribution deviates from the typical pumping pattern with increased discharge and stream gradient. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of high frequency (250Hz) pressure measurements, sampled at an array along the centroid of the flume underneath one wavelength gave further insight into the spatial distribution of turbulent signatures arising from roughness-generated turbulence. A turbulent frequency of 6-10Hz dominates, however the penetration depth appears to

  1. Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Mental Time Travel Ability: Uncovering a Hidden Relationship in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, it was to explore the profiles of student teachers' mental time travel ability; second, it was to examine the relationship between student teachers' mental time travel ability and self-efficacy beliefs; and third, it was to investigate the role of self-efficacy beliefs in relationship between the past…

  2. Making Decisions with the Future in Mind: Developmental and Comparative Identification of Mental Time Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddendorf, T.; Busby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms that produce behavior which increase future survival chances provide an adaptive advantage. The flexibility of human behavior is at least partly the result of one such mechanism, our ability to travel mentally in time and entertain potential future scenarios. We can study mental time travel in children using language. Current results…

  3. Time lag estimates for nitrate travel through the vadose zone in Southland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott; Chanut, Pierre; Ledgard, George; Rissmann, Clint

    2014-05-01

    A regional-scale study was carried out to calculate the travel time of a nitrate particle from the ground surface into shallow groundwater. The aim of the study was to obtain preliminary answers to two questions. Firstly, if leaching limits are set, how long would it take to see an improvement in shallow groundwater quality? Secondly, have groundwater nitrate concentrations reached equilibrium from recent dairy expansion in the region, or could we expect future increases? We applied a methodology that provides a balance between the detail and generalisation that is required for a regional-scale study. Steady-state advective transport through the vadose zone was modelled with water retention curves. These curves enable an estimate of the average volumetric water content of the vadose zone. The percentage saturation can then be used to calculate the vadose zone transit time if effective porosity, depth to the water table and annual average soil drainage are known. A time for mixing in the uppermost part of the aquifer has also been calculated. Two different vadose zone water retention curve models were used for comparison, the Brooks-Corey (1964), and the Van Genuchten (1980) methods. The water retention curves were parameterised by sediment texture via the Rawls and Brakensiek (1985) pedotransfer functions. Hydraulic properties were derived by positioning sediment textural descriptions on the Folk textural triangle, estimates of effective porosity from literature, and hydraulic conductivity values from aquifer tests. Uncertainty of parameter estimates was included by assigning standard deviations and appropriate probability distributions. Vadose zone saturation was modelled at 6,450 sites across the region with a Monte Carlo simulation involving 10,000 realisations. This generated a probability distribution of saturation for each site. Average volumetric water content of the vadose zone ranged from 8.5 to 40.7 % for the Brooks-Corey model and 12.9 to 36.3% for the

  4. Timing light treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Love, Ryan J; Lieberman, Harris; Blazeski, Sofi; Arendt, Josephine

    2009-07-01

    Jet lag degrades performance and operational readiness of recently deployed military personnel and other travelers. The objective of the studies reported here was to determine, using a narrow bandwidth light tower (500 nm), the optimum timing of light treatment to hasten adaptive circadian phase advance and delay. Three counterbalanced treatment order, repeated measures studies were conducted to compare melatonin suppression and phase shift across multiple light treatment timings. In Experiment 1, 14 normal healthy volunteers (8 men/6 women) aged 34.9+/-8.2 yrs (mean+/-SD) underwent light treatment at the following times: A) 06:00 to 07:00 h, B) 05:30 to 07:30 h, and C) 09:00 to 10:00 h (active control). In Experiment 2, 13 normal healthy subjects (7 men/6 women) aged 35.6+/-6.9 yrs, underwent light treatment at each of the following times: A) 06:00 to 07:00 h, B) 07:00 to 08:00 h, C) 08:00 to 09:00 h, and a no-light control session (D) from 07:00 to 08:00 h. In Experiment 3, 10 normal healthy subjects (6 men/4 women) aged 37.0+/-7.7 yrs underwent light treatment at the following times: A) 02:00 to 03:00 h, B) 02:30 to 03:30 h, and C) 03:00 to 04:00 h, with a no-light control (D) from 02:30 to 03:30 h. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was established by two methods: when salivary melatonin levels exceeded a 1.0 pg/ml threshold, and when salivary melatonin levels exceeded three times the 0.9 pg/ml sensitivity of the radioimmunoasssy. Using the 1.0 pg/ml DLMO, significant phase advances were found in Experiment 1 for conditions A (p < .028) and B (p < 0.004). Experiment 2 showed significant phase advances in conditions A (p < 0.018) and B (p < 0.003) but not C (p < 0.23), relative to condition D. In Experiment 3, only condition B (p < 0.035) provided a significant phase delay relative to condition D. Similar but generally smaller phase shifts were found with the 2.7 pg/ml DLMO method. This threshold was used to analyze phase shifts against circadian time of the start

  5. Estimating streambed travel times and respiration rates based on temperature and oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen consumption is a common proxy for aerobic respiration and novel in situ measurement techniques with high spatial resolution enable an accurate determination of the oxygen distribution in the streambed. The oxygen concentration at a certain location in the streambed depends on the input concentration, the respiration rate, temperature, and the travel time of the infiltrating flowpath. While oxygen concentrations and temperature can directly be measured, respiration rate and travel time must be estimated from the data. We investigated the interplay of these factors using a 6 month long, 5-min resolution dataset collected in a 3rdorder gravel-bed stream. Our objective was twofold, to determine transient rates of hyporheic respiration and to estimate travel times in the streambed based solely on oxygen and temperature measurements. Our results show that temperature and travel time explains ~70% of the variation in oxygen concentration in the streambed. Independent travel times were obtained using natural variations in the electrical conductivity (EC) of the stream water as tracer (µ=4.1 h; σ=2.3 h). By combining these travel times with the oxygen consumption, we calculated a first order respiration rate (µ=9.7 d-1; σ=6.1 d-1). Variations in the calculated respiration rate are largely explained by variations in streambed temperature. An empirical relationship between our respiration rate and temperature agrees with the theoretical Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation. With this relationship, a temperature-based respiration rate can be estimated and used to re-estimate subsurface travel times. The resulting travel times distinctively resemble the EC-derived travel times (R20.47; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.32). Both calculations of travel time are correlated to stream water levels and increase during discharge events, enhancing the oxygen consumption for these periods. No other physical factors besides temperature were significantly correlated with the respiration

  6. Non-stationary nonparametric inference of river-to-groundwater travel-time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zijie; Osenbrück, Karsten; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2014-11-01

    The travel-time distribution between rivers and groundwater observation points and the mixing of freshly infiltrated river water with groundwater of other origin is of high relevance in riverbank filtration. These characteristics usually are inferred from the analysis of natural-tracer time series, typically relying on a stationary input-output relationship. However, non-stationarity is a significant feature of the riparian zone causing time-varying river-to-groundwater transfer functions. We present a non-stationary extension of nonparametric deconvolution by performing stationary deconvolution with windowed time series, enforcing smoothness of the determined transfer function in time and travel time. The nonparametric approach facilitates the identification of unconventional features in travel-time distributions, such as broad peaks, and the sliding-window approach is an easy way to accommodate the method to dynamic changes of the system under consideration. By this, we obtain time-varying signal-recovery rates and travel-time distributions, from which we derive the mean travel time and the spread of the distribution as function of time. We apply our method to electric-conductivity data collected at River Thur, Switzerland, and adjacent piezometers. The non-stationary approach reproduces the groundwater observations significantly better than the stationary one, both in terms of overall metrics and in matching individual peaks. We compare characteristics of the transient transfer function to base flow which indicates shorter travel times at higher river stages.

  7. The influence of travel time on breast cancer characteristics, receipt of primary therapy, and surveillance mammography.

    PubMed

    Onega, Tracy; Cook, Andrea; Kirlin, Beth; Shi, Xun; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Tuzzio, Leah; Buist, Diana S M

    2011-08-01

    Travel time has been shown to influence some aspects of cancer characteristics at diagnosis and care for women with breast cancer, but important gaps remain in our understanding of its impact. We examined the influence of travel time to the nearest radiology facility on breast cancer characteristics, treatment, and surveillance for women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. We included 1,012 women with invasive breast cancer (stages I and II) who had access to care within an integrated health care delivery system in western Washington State. The travel times to the nearest radiology facility were calculated for all the U.S. Census blocks within the study area and assigned to women based on residence at diagnosis. We collected cancer characteristics, primary and adjuvant therapies, and surveillance mammography for at least 2.5 years post diagnosis and used multivariable analyses to test the associations of travel time. The majority of women (68.6%) lived within 20 min of the nearest radiology facility, had stage I disease (72.7%), received breast conserving therapy (68.7%), and had annual surveillance mammography the first 2 years after treatment (73.7%). The travel time was not significantly associated with the stage or surveillance mammography after adjusting for covariates. Primary therapy was significantly related to travel time, with greater travel time (>30 min vs. ≤ 10 min) associated with a higher likelihood of mastectomy compared to breast conserving surgery (RR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01). The travel time was not associated with the stage at diagnosis or surveillance mammography receipt. The travel time does seem to influence the type of primary therapy among women with breast cancer, suggesting that women may prefer low frequency services, such as mastectomy, if geographic access to a radiology facility is limited.

  8. Closing the gap between regional and global travel time tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bijwaard, H.; Spakman, W.; Engdahl, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent global travel time tomography studies by Zhou [1996] and van der Hilst et al. [1997] have been performed with cell parameterizations of the order of those frequently used in regional tomography studies (i.e., with cell sizes of 1??-2??). These new global models constitute a considerable improvement over previous results that were obtained with rather coarse parameterizations (5?? cells). The inferred structures are, however, of larger scale than is usually obtained in regional models, and it is not clear where and if individual cells are actually resolved. This study aims at resolving lateral heterogeneity on scales as small as 0.6?? in the upper mantle and 1.2??-3?? in the lower mantle. This allows for the adequate mapping of expected small-scale structures induced by, for example, lithosphere subduction, deep mantle upwellings, and mid-ocean ridges. There are three major contributions that allow for this advancement. First, we employ an irregular grid of nonoverlapping cells adapted to the heterogeneous sampling of the Earth's mantle by seismic waves [Spakman and Bijwaard, 1998]. Second, we exploit the global data set of Engdahl et al. [1998], which is a reprocessed version of the global data set of the International Seismological Centre. Their reprocessing included hypocenter redetermination and phase reidentification. Finally, we combine all data used (P, pP, and pwP phases) into nearly 5 million ray bundles with a limited spatial extent such that averaging over large mantle volumes is prevented while the signal-to-noise ratio is improved. In the approximate solution of the huge inverse problem we obtain a variance reduction of 57.1%. Synthetic sensitivity tests indicate horizontal resolution on the scale of the smallest cells (0.6?? or 1.2??) in the shallow parts of subduction zones decreasing to approximately 2??-3?? resolution in well-sampled regions in the lower mantle. Vertical resolution can be worse (up to several hundreds of kilometers) in

  9. Seismic model of Mars. 2. Free oscillations and travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkova, Tamara; Lognonne, Philippe; Raevskiy, Sergey; Zharkov, Vladimir

    When constructing an interior structure model of a planet, it is common used method to describe the model by a restricted set of parameters: the thickness of the crust, the location of phase transitions, the core radius. The variation of these parameters originates from the uncertainties in temperature profile, composition, elastic and anelastic properties of relevant minerals. Water content should also be considered as a compositional variable in the mantle. Olivine and its high pressure phases, wadsleyite and ringwoodite are particularly important as they constitute about 60 wt% of the Martian mantle and have probably large capacity for water in the Martian mantle (Zharkov and Gudkova, 2014). At present Mars’ internal density distribution is constrained by the recent estimates of the moment of inertia and the Love number k _{2} (Konoplive et al., 2011). Below we use the data from Earth studies and laboratory data (Mao et al., 2010, 2011, 2012,extrapolated for P-T conditions in Mars, and show how the admixture of water in the main Martian minerals influences velocity drops at phase transition boundaries in Martian interiors and study the effects of hydration on the periods of free oscillations and travel times for P, PcP, S, ScS waves , which could serve as additional constraints, if upcoming seismic experiments are successful, as they can potentially constrain mantle composition and make more precise the location of transition zones. It is of importance to determine the depth of the phase transitions in the mantle, as it will fix the temperature profile in Mars. Our analysis is based on a trial seismic model M14_3 from (Zharkov et al., 2009). The crust is 50 km thick (with density of 2.9 g/cm (3) ), the molar ratio Fe/(Fe+Mg) in the mantle is 0.20, the Fe-Ni core contains 70 mol % H in addition to 14 wt % S with radius of 1800 km. The bulk Fe/Si ratio is close to chondritic 1.7. The upper mantle extends down to 1590 km depth. Olivine-wadsleite transition zone

  10. Impact of degrading permafrost on subsurface solute transport pathways and travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-09-01

    Subsurface solute transport under surface warming and degrading permafrost conditions is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in the subsurface water and inert solute pathways and travel times are analyzed for different modeled geological configurations. For all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase nonlinearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The timing of the start of increase in travel time depends on heterogeneity structure, combined with the rate of permafrost degradation that also depends on material thermal and hydrogeological properties. The travel time changes depend on combined warming effects of: i) increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, ii) reduced transport velocities due to a shift from horizontal saturated groundwater flow near the surface to vertical water percolation deeper into the subsurface, and iii) pathway length increase and temporary immobilization caused by cryosuction-induced seasonal freeze cycles.

  11. Factors Associated with Distance and Time Traveled to Cleft and Craniofacial Care

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, Cynthia H.; Krohmer, Anne; Mendez, Dara D.; Lee, Kyung A.; Strauss, Ronald P.; Meyer, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Information on travel distance and time to care for children with birth defects is lacking. We examined factors associated with travel distance and time to cleft care among children with orofacial clefts. METHODS In 2006, a mail/phone survey was administered in English and Spanish to all resident mothers of children with orofacial clefts born 2001 to 2004 and identified by the North Carolina birth defects registry. We analyzed one-way travel distance and time and the extent to which taking a child to care was a problem. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between selected sociodemographic factors and travel distance (≤60 miles and >60 miles) and time (≤60 min and >60 min) to cleft care. RESULTS Of 475 eligible participants, 51.6% (n = 245) responded. Of the respondents, 97.1% (n = 238) were the child’s biological mother. Approximately 83% (n = 204) of respondents were non-Hispanic White; 33.3% (n = 81) were college educated; and 50.0% (n = 115) had private health insurance. One-way mean and median travel distances were 80 and 50 miles, respectively (range, 0–1058 miles). One-way mean and median travel times were 92 and 60 min, respectively (range, 5 min to 8 hr). After adjusting for selected sociodemographics, travel distance varied significantly by maternal education, child’s age, and cleft type. Travel time varied significantly by child’s age. Approximately 67% (n = 162) reported taking their child to receive care was not a problem. CONCLUSION Approximately 48% of respondents traveled > 1 hr to receive cleft care. Increasing access to care may be important for improving health outcomes among this population. PMID:24039055

  12. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  13. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  14. Time of travel of water in the Ohio River, Pittsburgh to Cincinnati

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steacy, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a procedure for estimating the time of travel of water in the Ohio River from Pittsburgh, Pa., to Cincinnati, Ohio, under various river stage conditions. This information is primarily for use by civil defense officials and by others concerned with problems involving travel time of river water. Tables and charts are presented to show, for a particular stage or discharge at Cincinnati, the average time it would take for water to travel through the entire reach from Pittsburgh, or through successive intermediate segments of the reach. For example, when the discharge at Cincinnati is 200,000 cfs, travel time from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati, a distance of 470 miles, averages about 7 days; and for discharges of more than 200,000 cfs, the travel time decreases very slowly with increasing discharge. When the discharge is 30,000 cfs, travel time is about 28 days; and for discharges of less than 30,000 cfs, the travel time increases very rapidly with decreasing discharge. Estimates of travel time at low discharge are subject to large errors. Statistical analysis of the possible variations of upstream discharge for a given discharge at Cincinnati indicates that the shortest probable travel time from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati ranges from 56 percent of that under average conditions when the discharge at Cincinnati is 15,000 cfs to 93 percent of that under average conditions when the discharge at Cincinnati is 894,000 cfs. A chart showing the time distribution of flow at Cincinnati is presented so that the probable travel time of Ohio River water can be determined for any time of the year. This chart provides information which, when applied to the time-of-travel chart, shows that the most probable travel time of water from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati ranges from 160 hours in February to 1,250 hours in September. Also presented is a flow-duration curve that can be used to predict future discharges and, subsequently, times of travel, for use in long-range planning

  15. IYL Blog: Astronomers travel in time and space with light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As an astronomer, I use light to travel through the universe, and to look back in time to when the universe was young. So do you! All of us see things as they were when the light was emitted, not as they are now. The farthest thing you can easily see without a telescope is the Andromeda Nebula, which is a galaxy like the Milky Way, about 2.5 million light years away. You see it as it was 2.5 million years ago, and we really don't know what it looks like today; the disk will have rotated a bit, new stars will have been born, there could have been all kinds of exploding stars, and the black hole in the middle could be lighting up. People may be skeptical of the Big Bang theory, even though we have a TV show named for it, but we (I should say Penzias and Wilson) measured its heat radiation 51 years ago at Bell Telephone Labs in New Jersey. Their discovery marks the beginning of the era of cosmology as a measurement science rather than speculation. Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize in 1978 for their finding, which had been predicted in 1948 by Alpher and Herman. By the way, heat radiation is just another form of light - we call it radiation because we can't see it, but it's exactly the same phenomenon of electromagnetic waves, and the only difference is the wavelength. In the old days of analog television, if you tuned your TV in between channels, about 1% of the snow that you could see came from the Big Bang. So when we look at the heat radiation of the early universe, we really are gazing right at what seems to us a cosmic fireball, which surrounds us completely. It's a bit of an illusion; if you can imagine what astronomers in other galaxies would see, they would also feel surrounded by the fireball, and they would also think they were in the middle. So from a mathematical version of imagination, we conclude that there is no observable center and no edge of our universe, and that the heat of the fireball fills the entire universe uniformly. Astronomers are

  16. APPLICATION OF TRAVEL TIME RELIABILITY FOR PERFORMANCE ORIENTED OPERATIONAL PLANNING OF EXPRESSWAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, Babak; Nakamura, Hideki

    Evaluation of impacts of congestion improvement scheme s on travel time reliability is very significant for road authorities since travel time reliability repr esents operational performance of expressway segments. In this paper, a methodology is presented to estimate travel tim e reliability prior to implementation of congestion relief schemes based on travel time variation modeling as a function of demand, capacity, weather conditions and road accident s. For subject expressway segmen ts, traffic conditions are modeled over a whole year considering demand and capacity as random variables. Patterns of demand and capacity are generated for each five minute interval by appl ying Monte-Carlo simulation technique, and accidents are randomly generated based on a model that links acci dent rate to traffic conditions. A whole year analysis is performed by comparing de mand and available capacity for each scenario and queue length is estimated through shockwave analysis for each time in terval. Travel times are estimated from refined speed-flow relationships developed for intercity expressways and buffer time index is estimated consequently as a measure of travel time reliability. For validation, estimated reliability indices are compared with measured values from empirical data, and it is shown that the proposed method is suitable for operational evaluation and planning purposes.

  17. Time-of-travel data for Nebraska streams, 1968 to 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petri, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of 10 time-of-travel studies, using ' dye-tracer ' methods, conducted on five streams in Nebraska during the period 1968 to 1977. Streams involved in the studies were the North Platte, North Loup, Elkhorn, and Big Blue Rivers and Salt Creek. Rhodamine WT dye in a 20 percent solution was used as the tracer for all 10 time-of-travel studies. Water samples were collected at several points below each injection site. Concentrations of dye in the samples were measured by determining fluorescence of the sample and comparing that value to fluorescence-concentration curves. Stream discharges were measured before and during each study. Results of each time-by-travel study are shown on two tables and on graph. The first table shows water discharge at injection and sampling sites, distance between sites, and time and rate of travel of the dye between sites. The second table provides descriptions of study sites, amounts of dye injected in the streams, actual sampling times, and actual concentrations of dye detected. The graphs for each time-of-travel study provide indications of changing travel rates between sampling sites, information on length of dye clouds, and times for dye passage past given points. (USGS)

  18. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  19. HEMP advection model

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.W. Jr.; Barton, R.T.

    1981-01-21

    A continuous rezoning procedure has been implemented in the computational cycle of a version of the HEMP two-dimensional, Lagrange, fluid dynamics code. The rezoning problem is divided into two steps. The first step requires the solving of ordinary Lagrange equations of motion; the second step consists of adding equipotential grid relaxation along with an advective remapping scheme.

  20. 206/207Pb and Radiocarbon: An Unlikely Pair for Identifying the Source and Delivery Time of Ocean Advection in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, A.; Goodkin, N.; Bolton, A.; Chen, M.; Druffel, E. R. M.; Boyle, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Two independent studies were undertaken to use anthropogenic emissions to investigate natural systems using a massive Porites coral taken from off the coast of Vietnam (12ο12'49.90"N, 109 ο18'17.51"E). Annual uptake of bomb radiocarbon (14CO2) was measured to investigate the impact of coastal upwelling; while Pb/Ca levels and Pb isotopes were measured to investigate oceanic infiltration of anthropogenic Pb. Both records reveal a signal of sub-surface seawater advection from the tropical North Pacific to the South China Sea (SCS) providing independent evidence for the source and delivery time of the upwelled water off the coast of Vietnam. The radiocarbon record, extending from 1900-1986 at ~annual resolution, shows a post-bomb peak lower and broader than those found from other corals in the SCS and Japan, but higher than those found in the Makassar Strait in Indonesia. The Makassar coral experiences three water masses: the South Equatorial Current (SEC), upwelled and SCS water. The SEC has a relatively low radiocarbon content. However, water in the SCS does not mix with SEC water that enters the Indonesia Seas via the Halmahera as the main throughflow is from north to south. Hence, the upwelling signature must be from the North Equatorial Current that enters from the Luzon strait at depth. Leaded gasoline was phased-out between 1997 and 2000 in most Asian countries, however unlike other regional records, the Pb/Ca of the coral continued to increase until 2004 indicating a non-atmospheric source of Pb to the region. Both records indicate the source of upwelled water from the tropical North Pacific at roughly ~100-200 meters with a transport time of >2-5 years. This water is carried westward, via the Luzon Strait and into the South China Sea, where is it upwelled during the summer months. A higher resolution study of this coral combined with other coral records from the region could further narrow the location and timing of the advection and upwelling.

  1. Time-travelling and mind-travelling: examining individual differences in self-projection.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jayne; Buda, Marie; Darby, Gabrielle; Simons, Jon S

    2011-09-01

    It has recently been suggested that memory and theory of mind may share the characteristic of mentally projecting oneself into another time or place to imagine alternative perspectives. This study examines this possible relationship by investigating individual differences in performance on a reality monitoring task and two mentalising tasks: the faux pas task and the reading the mind in the eyes test. Consistent with recent functional neuroimaging studies that have observed activity during reality monitoring tasks in the same region of prefrontal cortex that was activated in previous mentalising studies, a significant positive correlation in performance was observed between memory for agency and faux-pas recognition. No correlation between memory and performance on the reading the mind in the eyes test was observed. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to the suggestion that memory and theory of mind rely on a common set of processes.

  2. Pickup and Delivery Problem with Stochastic Travel Times for Semiconductor Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Mei

    2011-11-01

    As the supply chain has been constructed comprehensively, the pickup and delivery activities between supply-chain members are very complicated. In semiconductor factories, highly capacity utilization and efficiently production scheduling are essential due to the intensive capital investment. Because of travel time uncertainty, requests may fail to arrive within time window and may result in capacity idle and even deferral delivery when ignoring randomness of travel times. Therefore, taking the travel time uncertainty and time windows into account is of great importance when planning vehicle routes and schedules. Furthermore, in the fleet, some vehicles are with special facilities dedicated to carry 8" wafers, some are dedicated for 12" wafers, while other vehicles are open for carrying all products. When assigning requests to vehicles, the product/vehicle compatibility must be taken into account. In this study, we consider the pickup and delivery problem for semiconductor supply chains (PDPSSC), which involves constraints on stochastic travel times, time windows, product/vehicle compatibility, pickup and delivery, and vehicle capacity constraints. We describe the PDPSSC and formulate a chance constrained programming model to minimize total travel distances under two kinds of chance constraints, time windows and driver duration, hold with prescribed probabilities. By the implementation of the proposed model, the vehicle routing problem in semiconductor supply chain can be more integrated and applicable for the real-world applications.

  3. Quantifying groundwater travel time near managed recharge operations using 35S as an intrinsic tracer

    DOE PAGES

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2016-04-23

    By identifying groundwater retention times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for managing water quality, especially for operations that incorporate recycled wastewater. In order to protect public health, California guidelines for Groundwater Replenishment Reuse Projects require a minimum 2–6 month subsurface retention time for recycled water depending on the level of disinfection, which highlights the importance of quantifying groundwater travel times on short time scales. This study developed and evaluated a new intrinsic tracer method using the naturally occurring radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S). The 87.5 day half-life of 35S is ideal for investigating groundwater travel times onmore » the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. Natural concentrations of 35S found in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) were measured in source waters and groundwater at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, CA, and Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County, CA. 35SO4 travel times are comparable to travel times determined by well-established deliberate tracer studies. The study also revealed that 35SO4 in MAR source water can vary seasonally and therefore careful characterization of 35SO4 is needed to accurately quantify groundwater travel time. But, more data is needed to fully assess whether or not this tracer could become a valuable tool for managers.« less

  4. Viruses as groundwater tracers: using ecohydrology to characterize short travel times in aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Bradbury, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are attractive tracers of short (<3 year) travel times in aquifers because they have unique genetic signatures, are detectable in trace quantities, and are mobile in groundwater. Virus "snaphots" result from infection and disappearance in a population over time; therefore, the virus snapshot shed in the fecal wastes of an infected population at a specific point in time can serve as a marker for tracking virus and groundwater movement. The virus tracing approach and an example application are described to illustrate their ability to characterize travel times in high-groundwater velocity settings, and provide insight unavailable from standard hydrogeologic approaches. Although characterization of preferential flowpaths does not usually characterize the majority of other travel times occurring in the groundwater system (e.g., center of plume mass; tail of the breakthrough curve), virus approaches can trace very short times of transport, and thus can fill an important gap in our current hydrogeology toolbox.

  5. Viruses as groundwater tracers: using ecohydrology to characterize short travel times in aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are attractive tracers of short (<3 year) travel times in aquifers because they have unique genetic signatures, are detectable in trace quantities, and are mobile in groundwater. Virus “snaphots” result from infection and disappearance in a population over time; therefore, the virus snapshot shed in the fecal wastes of an infected population at a specific point in time can serve as a marker for tracking virus and groundwater movement. The virus tracing approach and an example application are described to illustrate their ability to characterize travel times in high-groundwater velocity settings, and provide insight unavailable from standard hydrogeologic approaches. Although characterization of preferential flowpaths does not usually characterize the majority of other travel times occurring in the groundwater system (e.g., center of plume mass; tail of the breakthrough curve), virus approaches can trace very short times of transport, and thus can fill an important gap in our current hydrogeology toolbox.

  6. Timing substorm onsets via travel-time magnetoseismology: A case for the outside-in model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Peter; Russell, Christopher; Ohtani, Shin

    The time history of events during substorms is an important, outstanding problem in magnetospheric physics. The sequence has been described either by the "outside-in" model, in which the fast plasma flow ejected by reconnection in the mid-tail moves Earthward, or by the "inside-out" model, in which the onset starts with the cross-tail current sheet collapse at 8 to 12 RE in the tail that later initiates reconnection further downtail. In this study we examined the Pi 2 pulsations observed by ground magnetometers and the observations of auroral brightening to lay out the time history of events during a substorm on July 22, 1998. The arrival time of Pi 2, which refers to the first peak in Pi 2 amplitude, observed by IGPP-LANL and CARISMA magnetometers presents a strong function of latitude. Using the Tamao travel time as the forward model, the inversion from the observed Pi 2 arrival time infers that the onset in the magnetotail started at X = -22 RE at 0653:40 UT, or approximately one minute earlier than the Pi 2 onset time identified in ground data. The CARISMA photometer data at Fort Smith and Gillam show that the auroral brightening started at approximately 0656 UT, or more than two minutes after the estimated onset time in the magnetotail. The comparison between the impulse start time in the tail and the onset time of auroral brightening presents a clear case where the time history of events follows the outside-in model. The model identification is made more confidently by using the magnetoseismic method that can time substorm onsets in the magnetotail.

  7. St. Augustine's Reflections on Memory and Time and the Current Concept of Subjective Time in Mental Time Travel.

    PubMed

    Manning, Liliann; Cassel, Daniel; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Reconstructing the past and anticipating the future, i.e., the ability of travelling in mental time, is thought to be at the heart of consciousness and, by the same token, at the center of human cognition. This extraordinary mental activity is possible thanks to the ability of being aware of 'subjective time'. In the present study, we attempt to trace back the first recorded reflections on the relations between time and memory, to the end of the fourth century's work, the Confessions, by the theologian and philosopher, St. Augustine. We concentrate on Book 11, where he extensively developed a series of articulated and detailed observations on memory and time. On the bases of selected paragraphs, we endeavor to highlight some concepts that may be considered as the product of the first or, at least, very early reflections related to our current notions of subjective time in mental time travel. We also draw a fundamental difference inherent to the frameworks within which the questions were raised. The contribution of St. Augustine on time and memory remains significant, notwithstanding the 16 centuries elapsed since it was made, likely because of the universality of its contents.

  8. HELIOSEISMIC SIGNATURE OF CHROMOSPHERIC DOWNFLOWS IN ACOUSTIC TRAVEL-TIME MEASUREMENTS FROM HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Kaori; Sekii, Takashi; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao Junwei; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2009-04-01

    We report on a signature of chromospheric downflows in two emerging flux regions detected by time-distance helioseismology analysis. We use both chromospheric intensity oscillation data in the Ca II H line and photospheric Dopplergrams in the Fe I 557.6 nm line obtained by Hinode/SOT for our analyses. By cross-correlating the Ca II oscillation signals, we have detected a travel-time anomaly in the plage regions; outward travel times are shorter than inward travel times by 0.5-1 minute. However, such an anomaly is absent in the Fe I data. These results can be interpreted as evidence of downflows in the lower chromosphere. The downflow speed is estimated to be below 10 km s{sup -1}. This result demonstrates a new possibility of studying chromospheric flows by time-distance analysis.

  9. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Schrock, Robin M.

    1994-05-01

    Regression techniques were used to determine the effects of several biotic and abiotic variables on the migration rates of juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Comparisons of the effects of river flow and smoltification, assessed using gill Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity, were of primary interest. Day of the year, water temperature, change in flow, condition factor, and fork length were also considered as independent variables. Groups of fish were sampled to assess smoltification 2-3 times per week during the spring outmigrations during 1989-1992. These groups were assumed to be representative of other fish which were PIT-tagged and released as a part of the Smolt Monitoring Program in the Columbia Basin. River flow, gill ATPase activity, condition factor, water temperature, and change in flow were significant variables in regressions predicting the time for juvenile spring chinook salmon to travel between specific points (travel time), whereas river flow was the only significant contributor to models describing travel times of steelhead. Predicted travel times of wild steelhead were shorter than those of hatchery steelhead. River flow was the only variable common to all regression equations. Based on the characteristic, changes in river flow would be the most logical means to decrease travel times of both juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

  10. The time-variant nature of catchment travel time pdf's: implications for the intepretation of hydro-chemical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, P.; Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Catchments are highly dynamical systems forced by stochastic precipitation, and characterized by time-variable transpiration rates and discharges. Despite this, streamflow hydrochemical signals have been frequently interpreted through stationary convolutions between rainfall concentrations and time-invariant transfer functions, on the basis of which the properties of the travel time pdf were inferred. In this contribution we define the intrinsic dynamical nature of travel and residence time distributions, which explains the variability of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes and pollutants to receiving water bodies. General expressions for travel and residence time pdf's are derived as a function of the underlying rainfall-soil-vegetation dynamics and the mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant uptake. The work highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on key eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and investigates the impact of the time variance in terms of the identification of travel time pdfs and catchment functioning. This is done by means of numerical experiments, and through real-world applications based on the analysis of stream concentrations of chlorides/pesticides in agricultural catchments.

  11. St. Augustine’s Reflections on Memory and Time and the Current Concept of Subjective Time in Mental Time Travel

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Liliann; Cassel, Daniel; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the past and anticipating the future, i.e., the ability of travelling in mental time, is thought to be at the heart of consciousness and, by the same token, at the center of human cognition. This extraordinary mental activity is possible thanks to the ability of being aware of ‘subjective time’. In the present study, we attempt to trace back the first recorded reflections on the relations between time and memory, to the end of the fourth century’s work, the Confessions, by the theologian and philosopher, St. Augustine. We concentrate on Book 11, where he extensively developed a series of articulated and detailed observations on memory and time. On the bases of selected paragraphs, we endeavor to highlight some concepts that may be considered as the product of the first or, at least, very early reflections related to our current notions of subjective time in mental time travel. We also draw a fundamental difference inherent to the frameworks within which the questions were raised. The contribution of St. Augustine on time and memory remains significant, notwithstanding the 16 centuries elapsed since it was made, likely because of the universality of its contents. PMID:25379236

  12. Dye Tracer Tests to Determine Time-of-Travel in Iowa Streams, 1990-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Dye-tracing tests have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey, Iowa Water Science Center to determine the time-of-travel in selected Iowa streams from 1990-2006. Time-of-travel data are tabulated for 309 miles of stream reaches in four Iowa drainage basins: the Des Moines, Raccoon, Cedar, and Turkey Rivers. Time-of-travel was estimated in the Des Moines River, Fourmile Creek, North Raccoon River, Raccoon River, Cedar River, and Roberts Creek. Estimation of time-of-travel is important for environmental studies and in determining fate of agricultural constituents and chemical movement through a waterway. The stream reaches range in length from slightly more than 5 miles on Fourmile Creek, to more than 137 miles on the North Raccoon River. The travel times during the dye-tracer tests ranged from 7.5 hours on Fourmile Creek to as long as 200 hours on Roberts Creek; velocities ranged from less than 4.50 feet per minute on Roberts Creek to more than 113 feet per minute on the Cedar River.

  13. Effective Time Management: Surgery, Research, Service, Travel, Fitness, and Family

    PubMed Central

    Porta, C. Rees; Anderson, Michael R.; Steele, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Over 1,500 years ago, the St. Benedictine Monks used planning and strict schedules to increase their productivity. Since then, surgeons have developed several different strategies to manage our time effectively. Finding a balance among career, family, and hobbies is essential for maintaining satisfaction and optimizing productivity. Several recurring themes throughout the medical literature offer potential solutions to help maximize the little time surgeons possess. In this article, we will explore some of the methods and strategies available to help surgeons minimize waste and make the most of the most precious commodity we have—our time. PMID:24436684

  14. Tomography and Methods of Travel-Time Calculation for Regional Seismic Location

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S; Ballard, S; Rowe, C; Wagoner, G; Antolik, M; Phillips, S; Ramirez, A; Begnaud, M; Pasyanos, M E; Dodge, D A; Flanagan, M P; Hutchenson, K; Barker, G; Dwyer, J; Russell, D

    2007-07-02

    We are developing a laterally variable velocity model of the crust and upper mantle across Eurasia and North Africa to reduce event location error by improving regional travel-time prediction accuracy. The model includes both P and S velocities and we describe methods to compute travel-times for Pn, Sn, Pg, and Lg phases. For crustal phases Pg and Lg we assume that the waves travel laterally at mid-crustal depths, with added ray segments from the event and station to the mid crustal layer. Our work on Pn and Sn travel-times extends the methods described by Zhao and Xie (1993). With consideration for a continent scale model and application to seismic location, we extend the model parameterization of Zhao and Xie (1993) by allowing the upper-mantle velocity gradient to vary laterally. This extension is needed to accommodate the large variation in gradient that is known to exist across Eurasia and North African. Further, we extend the linear travel-time calculation method to mantle-depth events, which is needed for seismic locators that test many epicenters and depths. Using these methods, regional travel times are computed on-the-fly from the velocity model in milliseconds, forming the basis of a flexible travel time facility that may be implemented in an interactive locator. We use a tomographic technique to improve upon a laterally variable starting velocity model that is based on Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratory model compilation efforts. Our tomographic data set consists of approximately 50 million regional arrivals from events that meet the ground truth (GT) criteria of Bondar et al. (2004) and other non-seismic constraints. Each datum is tested to meet strict quality control standards that include comparison with established distance-dependent travel-time residual populations relative to the IASPIE91 model. In addition to bulletin measurements, nearly 50 thousand arrival measurements were made at the national laboratories. The tomographic

  15. Measurement of time of travel and dispersion in streams by dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Martens, L.A.; Wilson, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of fluorescent dyes and tracing techniques provides a means for measuring the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of steady and gradually varied flow in streams. Measurements of the dispersion and concentration of dyes give insight into the behavior of soluble contaminants that may be introduced into a stream. This manual describes methods of measuring time of travel of water and waterborne solutes by dye tracing. The fluorescent dyes, measuring equipment used, and the field and laboratory procedures are also described. Methods of analysis and presentation to illustrate time-oftravel and dispersion characteristics of streams are provided.

  16. Relocation of earthquakes recorded by SIL network (Iceland) using empirical travel-time tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril Lopez, C.; Gudmundsson, O.

    2015-12-01

    Three dimensional empirical travel time tables (ETT) are estimated for each station of the South Iceland Lowlands network (SIL) by interpolating travel-time observations mapped to the hypocenter of each event. ETT are used to relocate SIL database earthquakes using P- and S- arrival times. Results are compared with the initial locations from the SIL database and locations from local sub-networks in Iceland. The SIL database locations are estimated using 5 different 1-D velocity models for different regions. The arrival times were re-referenced to one single model (the SIL model). Minor discrepancies in archived travel-time reduction were identified and removed together with outliers. Travel times are decomposed into 1) the prediction of a 1-D reference velocity model; 2) deterministic variation of residuals from that 1-D model constructed by smoothing over a regional scale; and 3) a smaller-scale, stochastic component. The stochastic component is separated into a spatially incoherent part (noise) and a spatially coherent part assumed to correspond to remaining structural signal. The stochastic structural component is interpolated and summed to the other two travel time components in order to construct the ETTs. Relocation is computed with a non-linear grid-search algorithm. The resulting ETTs are useful for improving earthquake location where 1-D velocity models are frequently used and a fast secondary relocation process is required. Moreover, ETTs are "cleaned" travel times that can be used as input into 3D tomography, where the error estimation (incoherent component of residuals) serves as a useful guideline for data weighting.

  17. Interpretation of Helioseismic Travel Times. Sensitivity to Sound Speed, Pressure, Density, and Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, Raymond; Gizon, Laurent; Birch, Aaron C.

    2015-12-01

    Time-distance helioseismology uses cross-covariances of wave motions on the solar surface to determine the travel times of wave packets moving from one surface location to another. We review the methodology to interpret travel-time measurements in terms of small, localised perturbations to a horizontally homogeneous reference solar model. Using the first Born approximation, we derive and compute 3D travel-time sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels for perturbations in sound-speed, density, pressure, and vector flows. While kernels for sound speed and flows had been computed previously, here we extend the calculation to kernels for density and pressure, hence providing a complete description of the effects of solar dynamics and structure on travel times. We treat three thermodynamic quantities as independent and do not assume hydrostatic equilibrium. We present a convenient approach to computing damped Green's functions using a normal-mode summation. The Green's function must be computed on a wavenumber grid that has sufficient resolution to resolve the longest lived modes. The typical kernel calculations used in this paper are computer intensive and require on the order of 600 CPU hours per kernel. Kernels are validated by computing the travel-time perturbation that results from horizontally-invariant perturbations using two independent approaches. At fixed sound-speed, the density and pressure kernels are approximately related through a negative multiplicative factor, therefore implying that perturbations in density and pressure are difficult to disentangle. Mean travel-times are not only sensitive to sound-speed, density and pressure perturbations, but also to flows, especially vertical flows. Accurate sensitivity kernels are needed to interpret complex flow patterns such as convection.

  18. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W.

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  19. Shallow-water acoustic tomography from angle measurements instead of travel-time measurements.

    PubMed

    Aulanier, Florian; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme I; Roux, Philippe; Brossier, Romain

    2013-10-01

    For shallow-water waveguides and mid-frequency broadband acoustic signals, ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) is based on the multi-path aspect of wave propagation. Using arrays in emission and reception and advanced array processing, every acoustic arrival can be isolated and matched to an eigenray that is defined not only by its travel time but also by its launch and reception angles. Classically, OAT uses travel-time variations to retrieve sound-speed perturbations; this assumes very accurate source-to-receiver clock synchronization. This letter uses numerical simulations to demonstrate that launch-and-reception-angle tomography gives similar results to travel-time tomography without the same requirement for high-precision synchronization.

  20. Travel with a Time Lord: Using Media to Enhance Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrett, Jacqueline; Benjamin, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a UKLA-funded project in which a group of 10 teachers in South Wales were involved. The televised science fiction drama "Doctor Who" was chosen as the theme as it was based on popular culture as well as being of local and national interest. The main character in this television drama is an alien who can fly through time and…

  1. Particle creation for time travel through a wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Won

    1992-09-01

    A time machine can be constructed by the relative motion of one mouth of a wormhole. The model has some remaining problems to be solved. Among the problems, the stability problem arises from the forming of the Cauchy horizon, where rays of early times will accumulate and diverge. This stability problem can be solved at the classical level. For quantum stability, Kim and Thorne recently tried to calculate the vacuum fluctuation of quantized fields by the point-splitting method. It was shown that the vacuum fluctuations produce a renormalized stress-energy tensor that diverges as one approaches the Cauchy horizon, which might be cut off by quantum gravity. However, there is a controversy. Hawking conjectures an observer-independent location for the breakdown in the semiclassical theory. In this paper, we deal with this quantum stability problem using another method: ``particle production by an arbitrary gravitational field.'' When the wormhole forms in the infinite past, the result is finite, while it is divergent near the Cauchy horizon when the wormhole forms at a finite time. If we adopt the Kim-Thorne conjecture, then the divergence might be cut off by quantum gravity; therefore, the total energy cannot prevent the formation of the closed timelike curves when one is within a Planck length.

  2. Viruses as groundwater tracers: using ecohydrology to characterize short travel times in aquifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses are attractive tracers of short (<3 yr) travel times in aquifers because they have unique genetic signatures, are detectable in trace quantities, and are mobile and stable in groundwater. Virus “snaphots” result from infection and disappearance over time as a community develops resistance. T...

  3. Time of travel of water in the Potomac River, Cumberland to Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James K.; Davis, Luther C.

    1961-01-01

    This report introduces a graphical procedure for estimating the time required for water to travel down the Potomac River in the reach extending from Cumberland, Md., to Washington, D.C. The time of travel varies with the flow of the river; so the stage of the river at the lower end of the reach--the gaging station on the Potomac River near Washington, D.C.--is used as an index of flow. To develop the procedure, the reach between Cumberland and Washington was divided into five subreaches, delineated by six gaging stations. The average of the mean velocities of the river at adjacent gaging stations was used as the mean velocity in .the intervening subreach, and a unit mass of water was assumed to travel at a rate equal to the mean velocity of the river. A statistical analysis of possible variations in travel time between Cumberland and Washington indicated that the shortest travel time corresponding to a given stage near Washington would be about 80 percent of the most probable travel time. The report includes a flow-duration curve and a flow-frequency chart for use in estimating discharge at the gaging station near Washington and subsequently the travel time of Potomac River water without knowledge of stage. The flow-duration curve shows the percentage of time during which specified discharges were equaled or exceeded in the past, and it can be used to predict future flow in connection with long-range planning. The flow-frequency chart shows the time distribution of flow by months and can be used to make a more nearly accurate estimate of discharge in any given month than could be made from the flow-duration curve. The method used to develop the time-of-travel charts is described in sufficient detail to make it usable as a guide for similar studies on other rivers, where the velocity of flow is relatively unaffected by dams and pools in the reach being studied.

  4. Computational methods for inverse problems in geophysics: inversion of travel time observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereyra, V.; Keller, H.B.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1980-01-01

    General ways of solving various inverse problems are studied for given travel time observations between sources and receivers. These problems are separated into three components: (a) the representation of the unknown quantities appearing in the model; (b) the nonlinear least-squares problem; (c) the direct, two-point ray-tracing problem used to compute travel time once the model parameters are given. Novel software is described for (b) and (c), and some ideas given on (a). Numerical results obtained with artificial data and an implementation of the algorithm are also presented. ?? 1980.

  5. Black Holes Traveling Exhibition: This Time, It's Personal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, Mary E.; Braswell, E. L.; Sunbury, S.; Wasser, M.; Gould, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    How can you make a topic as abstract as black holes seem relevant to the life of the average museum visitor? In 2009, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics developed a 2500 square foot interactive museum exhibition, "Black Holes: Space Warps & Time Twists,” with funding from the National Science Foundation and NASA. The exhibition has been visited by more than a quarter million museum-goers, and is about to open in its sixth venue at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, California. We have found that encouraging visitors to adopt a custom black hole explorer's identity can help to make the science of black holes more accessible and meaningful. The Black Holes exhibition uses networked exhibit technology that serves to personalize the visitor experience, to support learning over time including beyond the gallery, and to provide a rich quantitative source of embedded evaluation data. Visitors entering the exhibition create their own bar-coded "Black Holes Explorer's Card” which they use throughout the exhibition to collect and record images, movies, their own predictions and conclusions, and other black hole artifacts. This digital database of personal discoveries grows as visitors navigate through the gallery, and an automated web-content authoring system creates a personalized online journal of their experience that they can access once they get home. We report here on new intriguing results gathered from data generated by 112,000 visitors across five different venues. For example, an initial review of the data reveals correlations between visitors’ black hole explorer identity choices and their engagement with the exhibition. We will also discuss correlations between learning gains and personalization.

  6. Development and testing of a new storm runoff routing approach based on time variant spatially distributed travel time method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinkang; Xie, Hua; Hu, Yujun; Xu, Youpeng; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2009-05-01

    SummaryIn this study, a GIS based simple and easily performed runoff routing approach based on travel time was developed to simulate storm runoff response process with consideration of spatial and temporal variability of runoff generation and flow routing through hillslope and river network. The watershed was discretized into grid cells, which were then classified into overland cells and channel cells through river network delineation from the DEM by use of GIS. The overland flow travel time of each overland cell was estimated by combining a steady state kinematic wave approximation with Manning's equation, the channel flow travel time of each channel cell was estimated using Manning's equation and the steady state continuity equation. The travel time from each grid cell to the watershed outlet is the sum of travel times of cells along the flow path. The direct runoff flow was determined by the sum of the volumetric flow rates from all contributing cells at each respective travel time for all time intervals. The approach was calibrated and verified to simulate eight storm runoff processes of Jiaokou Reservoir watershed, a sub-catchment of the Yongjiang River basin in southeast China using available topography, soil and land use data for the catchment. An average efficiency of 0.88 was obtained for the verification storms. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of the area threshold of delineating river networks and parameter K relating channel velocity calculation on the predicted hydrograph at the basin outlet. The effects of different levels of grid size on the results were also studied, which showed that good results could be attained with a grid size of less than 200 m in this study.

  7. Applicability of Travel- and Exposure-Time Concepts to Nonlinear Bioreactive Transport in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arie Cirpka, Olaf; Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Loschko, Matthias; Finkel, Michael; Lu, Chuanhe

    2016-04-01

    Travel-time based concepts of modeling subsurface transport have been established as computationally efficient alternatives to spatially explicit simulation methods. The spatial coordinates are replaced by travel time, resulting in one-dimensional transport with a constant „velocity" of unity. The concept is straight forward in linear transport applications, and under these conditions the results are exact provided that the coefficients of linear transport don't vary in space. In nonlinear transport, mixing can jeopardize the validity of the approach. This holds particularly true for transverse mixing, exchanging solute mass between streamtubes. We have performed systematic analyses of nonlinear bioreactive transport, involving oxygen, nitrate, organic carbon, as well as aerobic and denitrifying bacteria to analyzed under which conditions the errors introduced by travel-time and similar formulations are negligible. In steady-state flows with uniform reactive parameters, an excellent agreement between multi-dimensional reactive transport results, affected by transverse dispersion and flow heterogeneity, and one-dimensional travel-time results could be achieved by mapping the reactive-species concentrations to the multi-dimensional domain according to the local mean groundwater age. Aliasing of local transverse dispersion to macroscopically longitudinal mixing can be addressed by using a distance-dependent longitudinal dispersion coefficient. The approach also works for transient flows as long as the direction of flow remains constant and only the magnitude varies. Under these conditions, the groundwater age for the time-averaged velocity field is an adequate mapping variable, provided that flow transients are accounted for in the one- and multi-dimensional simulations. If the reaction takes place only in specific regions, the time of exposure to the according conditions is a better predictor of reactive transport than the overall travel time. Spatially variable

  8. Wave-equation-based travel-time seismic tomography - Part 1: Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, P.; Zhao, D.; Yang, D.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Liu, Q.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a wave-equation-based travel-time seismic tomography method with a detailed description of its step-by-step process. First, a linear relationship between the travel-time residual Δt = Tobs-Tsyn and the relative velocity perturbation δ c(x)/c(x) connected by a finite-frequency travel-time sensitivity kernel K(x) is theoretically derived using the adjoint method. To accurately calculate the travel-time residual Δt, two automatic arrival-time picking techniques including the envelop energy ratio method and the combined ray and cross-correlation method are then developed to compute the arrival times Tsyn for synthetic seismograms. The arrival times Tobs of observed seismograms are usually determined by manual hand picking in real applications. Travel-time sensitivity kernel K(x) is constructed by convolving a~forward wavefield u(t,x) with an adjoint wavefield q(t,x). The calculations of synthetic seismograms and sensitivity kernels rely on forward modeling. To make it computationally feasible for tomographic problems involving a large number of seismic records, the forward problem is solved in the two-dimensional (2-D) vertical plane passing through the source and the receiver by a high-order central difference method. The final model is parameterized on 3-D regular grid (inversion) nodes with variable spacings, while model values on each 2-D forward modeling node are linearly interpolated by the values at its eight surrounding 3-D inversion grid nodes. Finally, the tomographic inverse problem is formulated as a regularized optimization problem, which can be iteratively solved by either the LSQR solver or a~nonlinear conjugate-gradient method. To provide some insights into future 3-D tomographic inversions, Fréchet kernels for different seismic phases are also demonstrated in this study.

  9. Local algorithm for computing complex travel time based on the complex eikonal equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingguo; Sun, Jianguo; Sun, Zhangqing

    2016-04-01

    The traditional algorithm for computing the complex travel time, e.g., dynamic ray tracing method, is based on the paraxial ray approximation, which exploits the second-order Taylor expansion. Consequently, the computed results are strongly dependent on the width of the ray tube and, in regions with dramatic velocity variations, it is difficult for the method to account for the velocity variations. When solving the complex eikonal equation, the paraxial ray approximation can be avoided and no second-order Taylor expansion is required. However, this process is time consuming. In this case, we may replace the global computation of the whole model with local computation by taking both sides of the ray as curved boundaries of the evanescent wave. For a given ray, the imaginary part of the complex travel time should be zero on the central ray. To satisfy this condition, the central ray should be taken as a curved boundary. We propose a nonuniform grid-based finite difference scheme to solve the curved boundary problem. In addition, we apply the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno technology for obtaining the imaginary slowness used to compute the complex travel time. The numerical experiments show that the proposed method is accurate. We examine the effectiveness of the algorithm for the complex travel time by comparing the results with those from the dynamic ray tracing method and the Gauss-Newton Conjugate Gradient fast marching method.

  10. Dispersion and Travel Time of Dissolved and Floating Tracers in Urban Sewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istók, Balázs; Kristóf, Gergely

    2014-03-01

    Environmental impacts of oil spills affecting urban sewage networks can be eliminated if timely intervention is taken. The design of such actions requires knowledge of the transport of surface pollutants in open channels. In this study we investigated the travel time and dispersion of pollutants by means of tracer experiments in sewage networks and a creek. The travel time of surface tracers has been found to be significantly shorter than that of a bulk flow tracer. The ratio of the travel times of a bulk flow tracer and surface tracers agreed with the known correlations obtained for rivers. An increasing tendency in the ratio of travel times has been observed for increasing bulk flow velocity. A segment-wise dispersion model was implemented in the existing hydraulic model of a sewer system. The simulation results were compared with the experimental observations. The dispersion rate of the bulk flow tracer has been found to obey Taylor's mixing theory for long channels and was more intensive than that of surface tracers in community sewage channels.

  11. Local algorithm for computing complex travel time based on the complex eikonal equation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingguo; Sun, Jianguo; Sun, Zhangqing

    2016-04-01

    The traditional algorithm for computing the complex travel time, e.g., dynamic ray tracing method, is based on the paraxial ray approximation, which exploits the second-order Taylor expansion. Consequently, the computed results are strongly dependent on the width of the ray tube and, in regions with dramatic velocity variations, it is difficult for the method to account for the velocity variations. When solving the complex eikonal equation, the paraxial ray approximation can be avoided and no second-order Taylor expansion is required. However, this process is time consuming. In this case, we may replace the global computation of the whole model with local computation by taking both sides of the ray as curved boundaries of the evanescent wave. For a given ray, the imaginary part of the complex travel time should be zero on the central ray. To satisfy this condition, the central ray should be taken as a curved boundary. We propose a nonuniform grid-based finite difference scheme to solve the curved boundary problem. In addition, we apply the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno technology for obtaining the imaginary slowness used to compute the complex travel time. The numerical experiments show that the proposed method is accurate. We examine the effectiveness of the algorithm for the complex travel time by comparing the results with those from the dynamic ray tracing method and the Gauss-Newton Conjugate Gradient fast marching method. PMID:27176428

  12. Local algorithm for computing complex travel time based on the complex eikonal equation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingguo; Sun, Jianguo; Sun, Zhangqing

    2016-04-01

    The traditional algorithm for computing the complex travel time, e.g., dynamic ray tracing method, is based on the paraxial ray approximation, which exploits the second-order Taylor expansion. Consequently, the computed results are strongly dependent on the width of the ray tube and, in regions with dramatic velocity variations, it is difficult for the method to account for the velocity variations. When solving the complex eikonal equation, the paraxial ray approximation can be avoided and no second-order Taylor expansion is required. However, this process is time consuming. In this case, we may replace the global computation of the whole model with local computation by taking both sides of the ray as curved boundaries of the evanescent wave. For a given ray, the imaginary part of the complex travel time should be zero on the central ray. To satisfy this condition, the central ray should be taken as a curved boundary. We propose a nonuniform grid-based finite difference scheme to solve the curved boundary problem. In addition, we apply the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno technology for obtaining the imaginary slowness used to compute the complex travel time. The numerical experiments show that the proposed method is accurate. We examine the effectiveness of the algorithm for the complex travel time by comparing the results with those from the dynamic ray tracing method and the Gauss-Newton Conjugate Gradient fast marching method.

  13. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  14. Travel time for solutes, upper Sabine River basin, Texas, April 16-30, 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Willard B.

    1972-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sabine River Compact Administration, conducted time-of-travel studies in the Sabine River Basin on April 16-30, 1972. One study was made on the main stem of the Sabine River in four reaches from Lake Tawakoni to Toledo Bend Reservoir, a distance of 219 miles. Two other studies were made on reaches of Lake Fork Creek and Big Sandy Creek. The purpose of these studies was to provide travel-rate data to be used by the Sabine River Authority of Texas in constructing a hydrologic model of the basin.

  15. Involuntary Mental Time Travel and Its Effect on Prospective Teachers' Situational Intrinsic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2010-01-01

    Recent cognitive psychological research has argued that involuntary mental time travel is an important individual difference variable that has the potential to affect an individual's motivation. However, this issue has not been empirically investigated in educational settings such as teacher education. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the…

  16. Backward location and travel time probabilities for a decaying contaminant in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Neupauer, Roseanna M; Wilson, John L

    2003-10-01

    Backward location and travel time probabilities can be used to determine the prior position of contamination in an aquifer. These probabilities, which are related to adjoint states of concentration, can be used to improve characterization of known sources of groundwater contamination, to identify previously unknown contamination sources, and to delineate capture zones. The first contribution of this paper is to extend the adjoint model to the case of a decaying solute (first-order decay), and to describe two different interpretations of backward probabilities. The conventional interpretation accounts for the probability that a contaminant particle could decay before reaching the detection location. The other interpretation is conditioned on the fact that the detected contaminant particle actually reached the detection location, despite this possibility of decay. In either case, travel time probabilities are skewed toward earlier travel times, relative to a conservative solute. The second contribution of this paper is to verify the load term for a monitoring well observation. We provide examples using one-dimensional models and hypothetical aquifers. We employ an infinite domain in order to verify the monitoring well load. This new but simple one-dimensional adjoint solution can also be used to verify higher-dimensional numerical models of backward location and travel time probabilities. We employ a semi-infinite domain to illustrate the effect of decay on backward models of pumping well probabilistic capture zones. Decay causes the capture zones to fall closer to the well.

  17. Compensation for the distortion in satellite laser range predictions due to varying pulse travel times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paunonen, Matti

    1993-01-01

    A method for compensating for the effect of the varying travel time of a transmitted laser pulse to a satellite is described. The 'observed minus predicted' range differences then appear to be linear, which makes data screening or use in range gating more effective.

  18. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  19. Seasonal tracer cycles, mean travel time, and young water in heterogeneous and nonstationary catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James

    2015-04-01

    Many environmental systems are nonstationary and heterogeneous, but we often analyze them using theoretical frameworks that assume stationarity and homogeneity, resulting in aggregation errors that are rarely explored and almost never quantified. Here I explore this general problem in one specific context: the use of seasonal cycles in chemical or isotopic tracers, such as Cl-, δ18O, or δ18H to estimate catchment mean travel times. Seasonal tracer cycles are widely used to quantify time scales of transport and mixing in catchments. Any system that transports and mixes fluids will damp sinusoidal cycles of tracers that those fluids carry. If the system is homogeneous and stationary, one can compare the amplitudes of the input and output cycles, using simple algebraic formulas, to calculate the tracer's (and thus the fluid's) mean travel time. Here I show that these calculations will often be wrong by several hundred percent, when applied to catchments with realistic degrees of heterogeneity and nonstationarity. This aggregation error arises from the strong nonlinearity in the relationship between tracer cycle amplitude and mean travel time. One can show, however, that seasonal tracer cycles reliably estimate the "young water fraction" in stream flow, defined as the fraction of runoff with travel times of less than roughly 0.2 years. Numerical experiments show that this young water fraction (not to be confused with the event-based "new water" in hydrograph separations) is predicted by seasonal tracer cycle amplitudes within a precision of a few percent, across the entire range of mean travel times from nearly zero to near infinity. Most importantly, this relationship is virtually free of aggregation error; that is, the same relationship also holds (again within a few percent) for runoff from highly heterogeneous mixtures of strongly contrasting subcatchments, and for runoff from catchments exhibiting strong nonstationarity. Some implications of these results will

  20. Catchment-scale advection and dispersion as a mechanism for fractal scaling in stream tracer concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James W.; Feng, Xiahong; Neal, Colin

    2001-12-01

    Time series of chemical tracers in rainfall and streamflow can be used to probe the internal workings of catchments. We have recently proposed that catchments act as fractal filters for inert chemical tracers like chloride, converting 'white noise' rainfall chemistry inputs into fractal ' 1/f noise' chemical time series in runoff [Nature 403 (2000) 524]. This implies that catchments have long-tailed travel-time distributions, and thus retain soluble contaminants for unexpectedly long timespans. Here we show that these long-tailed travel-time distributions, and the fractal tracer time series that they imply, can be generated by advection and dispersion of spatially distributed rainfall inputs as they travel toward a channel. Tracer pulses that land close to the stream reach it promptly, with relatively little dispersion. Tracer pulses that land farther upslope must travel farther to reach the stream, and undergo more dispersion. The tracer signal in the stream will be the integral of the contributions from each point along the length of the hillslope, with a peak at short lag times (reflecting tracers landing near the stream) and a long tail (reflecting tracers landing farther from the stream). Here we integrate the advection-dispersion equation for rainfall tracers landing at all points on a simple model hillslope, and show that it yields fractal tracer behavior, as well as a travel-time distribution nearly equivalent to that found empirically [Nature 403 (2000) 524]. However, it does so only when the dispersion length scale approaches the length of the hillslope, implying that subsurface transport is dominated by large conductivity contrasts related to macropores, fracture networks, and similar large-scale heterogeneities in subsurface conductivity. Thus, the 1/ f scaling observed at our study sites indicates that these catchments are dominated by flowpaths that exhibit macro-dispersion over the longest possible length scales.

  1. A crust and upper mantle model of Eurasia and North Africa for Pn travel time calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S; Begnaud, M; Ballard, S; Pasyanos, M; Phillips, W S; Ramirez, A; Antolik, M; Hutchenson, K; Dwyer, J; Rowe, C; Wagner, G

    2009-03-19

    We develop a Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) model and methods to account for the first-order effect of the three-dimensional crust and upper mantle on travel times. The model parameterization is a global tessellation of nodes with a velocity profile at each node. Interpolation of the velocity profiles generates a 3-dimensional crust and laterally variable upper mantle velocity. The upper mantle velocity profile at each node is represented as a linear velocity gradient, which enables travel time computation in approximately 1 millisecond. This computational speed allows the model to be used in routine analyses in operational monitoring systems. We refine the model using a tomographic formulation that adjusts the average crustal velocity, mantle velocity at the Moho, and the mantle velocity gradient at each node. While the RSTT model is inherently global and our ultimate goal is to produce a model that provides accurate travel time predictions over the globe, our first RSTT tomography effort covers Eurasia and North Africa, where we have compiled a data set of approximately 600,000 Pn arrivals that provide path coverage over this vast area. Ten percent of the tomography data are randomly selected and set aside for testing purposes. Travel time residual variance for the validation data is reduced by 32%. Based on a geographically distributed set of validation events with epicenter accuracy of 5 km or better, epicenter error using 16 Pn arrivals is reduced by 46% from 17.3 km (ak135 model) to 9.3 km after tomography. Relative to the ak135 model, the median uncertainty ellipse area is reduced by 68% from 3070 km{sup 2} to 994 km{sup 2}, and the number of ellipses with area less than 1000 km{sup 2}, which is the area allowed for onsite inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, is increased from 0% to 51%.

  2. Analytic solutions for seismic travel time and ray path geometry through simple velocity models.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sanford

    2007-12-01

    The geometry of ray paths through realistic Earth models can be extremely complex due to the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the velocity distribution within the models. Calculation of high fidelity ray paths and travel times through these models generally involves sophisticated algorithms that require significant assumptions and approximations. To test such algorithms it is desirable to have available analytic solutions for the geometry and travel time of rays through simpler velocity distributions against which the more complex algorithms can be compared. Also, in situations where computational performance requirements prohibit implementation of full 3D algorithms, it may be necessary to accept the accuracy limitations of analytic solutions in order to compute solutions that satisfy those requirements. Analytic solutions are described for the geometry and travel time of infinite frequency rays through radially symmetric 1D Earth models characterized by an inner sphere where the velocity distribution is given by the function V (r) = A-Br{sup 2}, optionally surrounded by some number of spherical shells of constant velocity. The mathematical basis of the calculations is described, sample calculations are presented, and results are compared to the Taup Toolkit of Crotwell et al. (1999). These solutions are useful for evaluating the fidelity of sophisticated 3D travel time calculators and in situations where performance requirements preclude the use of more computationally intensive calculators. It should be noted that most of the solutions presented are only quasi-analytic. Exact, closed form equations are derived but computation of solutions to specific problems generally require application of numerical integration or root finding techniques, which, while approximations, can be calculated to very high accuracy. Tolerances are set in the numerical algorithms such that computed travel time accuracies are better than 1 microsecond.

  3. Impulse Travel Time from the Magnetotail to the Aurora Region during substorm: OpenGGCM Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdousi, Banafsheh; Raeder, Jimmy

    2016-07-01

    The onset of substorms is an unsolved problem in Space Physics although there are many models explaining the substorm process. Studying the processes that occur during first 2 minutes of substorm depends critically on the correct timing between different signals in the plasma sheet and the ionosphere. This has been difficult to accomplish with data alone, since signals are sometimes ambiguous, or they have not been observed in the right locations. To investigate signal propagation paths and signal travel times, we use Magnetohydrodynamic global simulations of the Earth magnetosphere: OpenGGCM. The waves are created at different locations in the magnetotail by perturbing plasma pressure in the plasma sheet. Thus, we can study wave path in the magnetotail and determine its travel time to the ionosphere. Contrary to previous studies, we find that wave travel reach the ionosphere from the midtail around 60 seconds. We also find that waves travel faster through the lobes, and the Tamao path is not generally the preferred path for waves originating in the plasma sheet. Furthermore, we find that the impulses that are generated closer to earth lead to dispersed ionosphere signatures, whereas the impulses originated in midtail region lead to more localized signatures.

  4. Advection in geologic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moltyaner, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    In situ sensing technology, used in a series of natural-gradient tracer tests at the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, leads to the introduction of a conceptually new approach to the study of groundwater motion in porous media. As opposed to the conventional approach, based on the consideration of a fictitious fluid continuum with fluid properties distributed over both voids and solids, in the new approach the actual groundwater motion in the void space of a porous medium is considered and described at the local scale by the statistical characterization of the propagation of gamma-radiation energy associated with the moving water as a tracer. The essential feature of the new approach is that the mean free path of a gamma-energy photon instead of the porosity is used as a scaling factor in transferring information associated with pore-scale fluid motion to the local scale. This scaling factor is employed for reintroducing the familiar particle model of fluid motion but at the local scale. It is shown that when the local-scale dispersion is neglected, the evolution of local-scale fluid particles making up the tracer plume can be described by the advection equation; its equation of characteristics describes trajectories of local-scale particles. A simple analytical solution to the advection equation is then used to produce three-dimensional images of the spatial distribution of local-scale particles observed in the Twin Lake test. It is also shown that the spatial averaging procedure with regard to the weighting function for a spherical averaging volume of one mean free path radius may be used to introduce the three-dimensional field of local-scale concentration. The averaging procedure is then used to illustrate that the concept of the three-dimensional field of plume-scale concentration does not make physical sense and only the one-dimensional plume-scale concentration field may be introduced in shallow aquifers.

  5. Delivery and application of precise timing for a traveling wave powerline fault locator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has successfully operated an in-house developed powerline fault locator system since 1986. The BPA fault locator system consists of remotes installed at cardinal power transmission line system nodes and a central master which polls the remotes for traveling wave time-of-arrival data. A power line fault produces a fast rise-time traveling wave which emanates from the fault point and propagates throughout the power grid. The remotes time-tag the traveling wave leading edge as it passes through the power system cardinal substation nodes. A synchronizing pulse transmitted via the BPA analog microwave system on a wideband channel sychronizes the time-tagging counters in the remote units to a different accuracy of better than one microsecond. The remote units correct the raw time tags for synchronizing pulse propagation delay and return these corrected values to the fault locator master. The master then calculates the power system disturbance source using the collected time tags. The system design objective is a fault location accuracy of 300 meters. BPA's fault locator system operation, error producing phenomena, and method of distributing precise timing are described.

  6. Time domain analysis of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with misaligned electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiushi Peng, Shuyuan; Luo, Jirun

    2014-08-15

    This article develops a time-domain theory to study the beam-wave interaction in gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) with a misaligned electron beam. The effects of beam misalignment on the TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWA operating at the fundamental are discussed. Numerical results show that the effect of misalignment is less obvious when the input power is larger, and the influences of misalignment on the stable gain and the stable time are basically opposite.

  7. A matched-peak inversion approach for ocean acoustic travel-time tomography

    PubMed

    Skarsoulis

    2000-03-01

    A new approach for the inversion of travel-time data is proposed, based on the matching between model arrivals and observed peaks. Using the linearized model relations between sound-speed and arrival-time perturbations about a set of background states, arrival times and associated errors are calculated on a fine grid of model states discretizing the sound-speed parameter space. Each model state can explain (identify) a number of observed peaks in a particular reception lying within the uncertainty intervals of the corresponding predicted arrival times. The model states that explain the maximum number of observed peaks are considered as the more likely parametric descriptions of the reception; these model states can be described in terms of mean values and variances providing a statistical answer (matched-peak solution) to the inversion problem. A basic feature of the matched-peak inversion approach is that each reception can be treated independently, i.e., no constraints are posed from previous-reception identification or inversion results. Accordingly, there is no need for initialization of the inversion procedure and, furthermore, discontinuous travel-time data can be treated. The matched-peak inversion method is demonstrated by application to 9-month-long travel-time data from the Thetis-2 tomography experiment in the western Mediterranean sea.

  8. Efficient mass transport by optical advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajorndejnukul, Veerachart; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    2015-10-01

    Advection is critical for efficient mass transport. For instance, bare diffusion cannot explain the spatial and temporal scales of some of the cellular processes. The regulation of intracellular functions is strongly influenced by the transport of mass at low Reynolds numbers where viscous drag dominates inertia. Mimicking the efficacy and specificity of the cellular machinery has been a long time pursuit and, due to inherent flexibility, optical manipulation is of particular interest. However, optical forces are relatively small and cannot significantly modify diffusion properties. Here we show that the effectiveness of microparticle transport can be dramatically enhanced by recycling the optical energy through an effective optical advection process. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that this new advection mechanism permits an efficient control of collective and directional mass transport in colloidal systems. The cooperative long-range interaction between large numbers of particles can be optically manipulated to create complex flow patterns, enabling efficient and tunable transport in microfluidic lab-on-chip platforms.

  9. Time of travel and dispersion in a selected reach of Roberts Creek, Clayton County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Time of travel was determined by dye tracing, using rhodamine WT as the tracer. One dyeinjection site and three sampling sites were used to measure time of travel. Two dye-tracing tests were conducted at discharges having flow-duration values of 48 and 80 percent. The discharges at the time of the two dye-tracing tests approximated medium- and low-flow conditions. The average stream velocity in the study area was 0.23 foot per second during medium-flow conditions, March 20 to 22,1990, and 0.07 foot per second during low-flow conditions, April 30 to May 12, 1990. The injected dye dispersed in a plume that lasted about 18 hours during medium flow and about 64 hours during low flow at the downstream site.

  10. The framing of drivers' route choices when travel time information is provided under varying degrees of cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Katsikopoulos, K V; Duse-Anthony, Y; Fisher, D L; Duffy, S A

    2000-01-01

    In two experiments, participants chose between staying on a main route with a certain travel time and diverting to an alternative route that could take a range of travel times. In the first experiment, travel time information was displayed on a sheet of paper to participants seated at a desk. In the second experiment, the same information was displayed in a virtual environment through which participants drove. Overall, participants were risk-averse when the average travel time along the alternative route was shorter than the certain travel time of the main route but risk-seeking when the average travel time of the alternative route was longer than the certain travel time along the main route. In the second experiment, in which cognitive load was higher, participants simplified their decision-making strategies. A simple probabilistic model describes the risk-taking behavior and the load effects. Actual or potential applications of this research include the development of efficient travel time information systems for drivers.

  11. Advective coalescence in chaotic flows.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Toroczkai, Z; Grebogi, C

    2001-07-16

    We investigate the reaction kinetics of small spherical particles with inertia, obeying coalescence type of reaction, B+B-->B, and being advected by hydrodynamical flows with time-periodic forcing. In contrast to passive tracers, the particle dynamics is governed by the strongly nonlinear Maxey-Riley equations, which typically create chaos in the spatial component of the particle dynamics, appearing as filamental structures in the distribution of the reactants. Defining a stochastic description supported on the natural measure of the attractor, we show that, in the limit of slow reaction, the reaction kinetics assumes a universal behavior exhibiting a t(-1) decay in the amount of reagents, which become distributed on a subset of dimension D2, where D2 is the correlation dimension of the chaotic flow. PMID:11461595

  12. Chaotic advection of immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmayr-Lee, Benjamin; Beller, Daniel; Yasuda, Sohei

    2012-02-01

    We consider a system of two immiscible fluids advected by a chaotic flow field. A nonequilibrium steady state arises from the competition between the coarsening of the immiscible fluids and the domain bursting caused by the chaotic flow. It has been established that the average domain size in this steady state scales as a inverse power of the Lyapunov exponent. We examine the issue of local structure and look for correlations between the local domain size and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. For a variety of chaotic flows, we consistently find the domains to be smallest in regions where the FTLE field is maximal. This raises the possibility of making universal predictions of steady-state characteristics based on Lyapunov analysis of the flow field.

  13. Efficient constraint handling in electromagnetism-like algorithm for traveling salesman problem with time windows.

    PubMed

    Yurtkuran, Alkın; Emel, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms.

  14. Travel-time tomography in shallow water: experimental demonstration at an ultrasonic scale.

    PubMed

    Roux, Philippe; Iturbe, Ion; Nicolas, Barbara; Virieux, Jean; Mars, Jérôme I

    2011-09-01

    Acoustic tomography in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide is demonstrated at the laboratory scale between two source-receiver arrays. At a 1/1,000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. Two coplanar arrays record the transfer matrix in the time domain of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. A time-domain, double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays that projects the multi-reflected acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are characterized by their travel times and their launch and arrival angles. Travel-time differences are measured for each eigenray every 0.1 s when a thermal plume is generated at a given location in the waveguide. Travel-time tomography inversion is then performed using two forward models based either on ray theory or on the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel. The spatially resolved range and depth inversion data confirm the feasibility of acoustic tomography in shallow water. Comparisons are made between inversion results at 1 and 3 MHz with the inversion procedure using ray theory or the finite-frequency approach. The influence of surface fluctuations at the air-water interface is shown and discussed in the framework of shallow-water ocean tomography.

  15. Efficient Constraint Handling in Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows

    PubMed Central

    Yurtkuran, Alkın

    2014-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms. PMID:24723834

  16. Novel S-35 Intrinsic Tracer Method for Determining Groundwater Travel Time near Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urióstegui, S. H.; Bibby, R. K.; Esser, B. K.; Clark, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying groundwater travel times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for protecting public and environmental health. For MAR facilities in California that incorporate tertiary wastewater into their surface-spreading recharge practices, the target subsurface residence time is >9 months to allow for the natural inactivation and degradation of potential contaminants (less time is needed for full advanced treated water). Established intrinsic groundwater tracer techniques such as tritium/helium-3 dating are unable to resolve timescales of <1 year. These limitations provide the motivation for evaluating a novel groundwater tracer method using a naturally occurring radioisotope of sulfur, sulfur-35 (S-35). After its production in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interaction with argon, S-35 enters the hydrologic cycle as dissolved sulfate through precipitation The short half-life of S-35 (3 months) is ideal for investigating recharge and transport of MAR groundwater on the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. The method, however, has not been applied to MAR operations because of the difficulty in measuring S-35 with sufficient sensitivity in high-sulfate waters. We have developed a new method and have applied it at two southern California MAR facilities where groundwater travel times have previously been characterized using deliberate tracers: 1) Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, and 2) Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County. Reasonable S-35 travel times of <1 year were identified at both study sites. This method also identified seasonal patterns in subsurface travel times, which may not be revealed by a deliberate tracer study that is dependent on the hydrologic conditions during the tracer injection period.

  17. Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fatality over the period 2010-2014 from automobile accidents in North Cyprus is 2.75 times greater than the average for the EU. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments will need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. The objective of this study is to provide local estimates of the value of a statistical life and injury along with the value of time savings. These are among the parameter values needed for the evaluation of the change in the expected incidence of automotive accidents and time savings brought about by such projects. In this study we conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of automobile drivers in North Cyprus for improved travel times, travel costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers choose. These estimates were used to assess the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid fatalities and injuries and to save travel time. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of travel time saved. The estimates for the VSL range from €315,293 to €1,117,856 and the estimates of VI from € 5,603 to € 28,186. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries.

  18. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  19. 41 CFR 301-71.306 - Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim? 301-71.306 Section 301-71.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...-71.306 Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel...

  20. 41 CFR 301-71.306 - Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim? 301-71.306 Section 301-71.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...-71.306 Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel...

  1. 41 CFR 301-71.306 - Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim? 301-71.306 Section 301-71.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...-71.306 Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel...

  2. 41 CFR 301-71.306 - Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim? 301-71.306 Section 301-71.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...-71.306 Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel...

  3. 41 CFR 301-71.306 - Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel claim? 301-71.306 Section 301-71.306 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...-71.306 Are there exceptions to collecting an advance at the time the employee files a travel...

  4. Time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries, Houston, Texas, August 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.; Schaer, Jasper D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a time-of-travel study in the Buffalo Bayou watershed during low flow in August 1999. The study was done as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program. The EMPACT program was designed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to work with communities to “make timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information available to millions of people in the largest metropolitan areas across the country.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). Buffalo Bayou, located in Houston, Texas, was chosen as a pilot project because it is a frequently used recreational water source, it has many water-treatment facilities located along its stream segments, and it has a history of water-quality problems (Houston-Galveston Area Council, 2000). One component of the pilot project is to develop a water-quality simulation model that can be used to assess the effects of noncompliance events on Buffalo Bayou. Because accurate estimates of time of travel during low flow are required to develop the model, the time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries was determined using dye tracing methods. The study was conducted during low flow in a 38.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou, a 9.6-mile reach of Whiteoak Bayou, a 5.9-mile reach of Mason Creek, and a 6.6-mile reach of Bear Creek. Efforts to determine the time of travel in a 7.5-mile reach of Horsepen Creek were unsuccessful. This report explains the approach used to conduct the study and presents the results of the study

  5. An empirical method for estimating travel times for wet volcanic mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    Travel times for wet volcanic mass flows (debris avalanches and lahars) can be forecast as a function of distance from source when the approximate flow rate (peak discharge near the source) can be estimated beforehand. The near-source flow rate is primarily a function of initial flow volume, which should be possible to estimate to an order of magnitude on the basis of geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic factors at a particular volcano. Least-squares best fits to plots of flow-front travel time as a function of distance from source provide predictive second-degree polynomial equations with high coefficients of determination for four broad size classes of flow based on near-source flow rate: extremely large flows (>1 000 000 m3/s), very large flows (10 000–1 000 000 m3/s), large flows (1000–10 000 m3/s), and moderate flows (100–1000 m3/s). A strong nonlinear correlation that exists between initial total flow volume and flow rate for "instantaneously" generated debris flows can be used to estimate near-source flow rates in advance. Differences in geomorphic controlling factors among different flows in the data sets have relatively little effect on the strong nonlinear correlations between travel time and distance from source. Differences in flow type may be important, especially for extremely large flows, but this could not be evaluated here. At a given distance away from a volcano, travel times can vary by approximately an order of magnitude depending on flow rate. The method can provide emergency-management officials a means for estimating time windows for evacuation of communities located in hazard zones downstream from potentially hazardous volcanoes.

  6. Adjoint Tomography of Taiwan Region: From Travel-Time Toward Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. H.; Lee, S. J.; Tromp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The complicated tectonic environment such as Taiwan region can modulate the seismic waveform severely and hamper the discrimination and the utilization of later phases. Restricted to the use of only first arrivals of P- and S-wave, the travel-time tomographic models of Taiwan can simulate the seismic waveform barely to a frequency of 0.2 Hz to date. While it has been sufficient for long-period studies, e.g. source inversion, this frequency band is still far from the applications to the community and high-resolution studies. To achieve a higher-frequency simulation, more data and the considerations of off-path and finite-frequency effects are necessary. Based on the spectral-element and the adjoint method recently developed, we prepared 94 MW 3.5-6.0 earthquakes with well-defined location and focal mechanism solutions from Real-Time Moment Tensor Monitoring System (RMT), and preformed an iterative gradient-based inversion employing waveform modeling and finite-frequency measurements of adjoint method. By which the 3-D sensitivity kernels are taken into account realistically and the full waveform information are naturally sought, without a need of any phase pick. A preliminary model m003 using 10-50 sec data was demonstrated and compared with previous travel-time models. The primary difference appears in the mountainous area, where the previous travel-time model may underestimate the S-wave speed in the upper crust, but overestimates in the lower crust.

  7. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Faler, Joyce C.

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program, the Fish Passage Center collects information on the migrational characteristics of juvenile salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus sp.) in the Columbia River basin. This information is collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program, and is used as a tool in the management and evaluation of the Water Budget. The Water Budget is a volume of water used to enhance environmental conditions (flows) to aid in the seaward migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Implicit in the Water Budget concept is that by augmenting flows, travel time of juvenile salmonids will be decreased, thereby increasing survival via reductions in delayed migration and exposure to predators. This study was initiated to (1) provide physiological information about the juvenile salmonids used for these travel time estimates, (2) to analyze the physiological data, and (3) to determine if an ``index`` of smolt condition could be developed to aid in management of the Water Budget.

  8. Time-domain theory of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers operating at grazing incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Zheleznov, I. V.

    2015-01-15

    Time-domain theory of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) operating at grazing incidence has been developed. The theory is based on a description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental results of the observation of subnanosecond pulse amplification in a gyro-TWT consisting of three gain sections separated by severs. The theory developed can also be used successfully for a description of amplification of monochromatic signals.

  9. Planning times during traveling salesman's problem: differences between closed head injury and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Basso, D; Bisiacchi, P S; Cotelli, M; Farinello, C

    2001-01-01

    We studied planning behavior in a group of normal subjects and a group of closed head injury patients (CHI). A computerized version of the traveling salesman's problem was used as a visuospatial planning ability task. The program collected measurements of partial times, number of moves, and number of skipped subgoals. These measures allow us to calculate a "planning index" of subjects' planning ability. Results show that CHI patients present limitations in the planning process due to the lack of ongoing planning.

  10. Automating adjoint wave-equation travel-time tomography using scientific workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Po; Pullammanappallil, Satish

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in commodity high-performance computing technology have dramatically reduced the computational cost for solving the seismic wave equation in complex earth structure models. As a consequence, wave-equation-based seismic tomography techniques are being actively developed and gradually adopted in routine subsurface seismic imaging practices. Wave-equation travel-time tomography is a seismic tomography technique that inverts cross-correlation travel-time misfits using full-wave Fréchet kernels computed by solving the wave equation. This technique can be implemented very efficiently using the adjoint method, in which the misfits are back-propagated from the receivers (i.e., seismometers) to produce the adjoint wave-field and the interaction between the adjoint wave-field and the forward wave-field from the seismic source gives the gradient of the objective function. Once the gradient is available, a gradient-based optimization algorithm can then be adopted to produce an optimal earth structure model that minimizes the objective function. This methodology is conceptually straightforward, but its implementation in practical situations is highly complex, error-prone and computationally demanding. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of automating wave-equation travel-time tomography based on the adjoint method using Kepler, an open-source software package for designing, managing and executing scientific workflows. The workflow technology allows us to abstract away much of the complexity involved in the implementation in a manner that is both robust and scalable. Our automated adjoint wave-equation travel-time tomography package has been successfully applied on a real active-source seismic dataset.

  11. Hyporheic Temperature Dynamics: Predicting Hyporheic Temperatures Based on Travel Time Assuming Instantaneous Water-Sediment Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraseski, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently developed conceptual frameworks and new observations have improved our understanding of hyporheic temperature dynamics and their effects on channel temperatures. However, hyporheic temperature models that are both simple and useful remain elusive. As water moves through hyporheic pathways, it exchanges heat with hyporheic sediment through conduction, and this process dampens the diurnal temperature wave of the water entering from the channel. This study examined the mechanisms underlying this behavior, and utilized those findings to create two simple models that predict temperatures of water reentering the channel after traveling through hyporheic pathways for different lengths of time. First, we developed a laboratory experiment to represent this process and determine conduction rates for various sediment size classes (sand, fine gravel, coarse gravel, and a proportional mix of the three) by observing the time series of temperature changes between sediment and water of different initial temperatures. Results indicated that conductions rates were near-instantaneous, with heat transfer being completed on the scale of seconds to a few minutes of the initial interaction. Heat conduction rates between the sediment and water were therefore much faster than hyporheic flux rates, rendering reasonable an assumption of instantaneous conduction. Then, we developed two simple models to predict time series of hyporheic water based on the initial diurnal temperature wave and hyporheic travel distance. The first model estimates a damping coefficient based on the total water-sediment heat exchange through each diurnal cycle. The second model solves the heat transfer equation assuming instantaneous conduction using a simple finite difference algorithm. Both models demonstrated nearly complete damping of the sine wave over the distance traveled in four days. If hyporheic exchange is substantial and travel times are long, then hyporheic damping may have large effects on

  12. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  13. Time of travel of solutes in the Sabine River basin, Texas, August-November 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Sabine River Authority, did a time-of-travel study in the Sabine River Basin during low flow from August to November 1996. The study was done to provide accurate estimates of the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics for solutes during low flow in a 1.8-mile (mi) reach of Grace Creek, a 23.9-mi reach of the mainstem Sabine River, a 3.4-mi reach of Hawkins Creek, and a 1.9-mi reach of Rocky Creek. This report explains the approach and documents the results of the study. The results of the study will be used by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission in a water-quality model to determine waste-load allocation in Segment 0505 of the Sabine River Basin. The time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics also provide useful information on the probable behavior of soluble contaminants that might be introduced into the streams measured in this study.

  14. Travel-time source-specific station correction improves location accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, Alessandra; Materni, Valerio; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Accurate earthquake locations are crucial for investigating seismogenic processes, as well as for applications like verifying compliance to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Earthquake location accuracy is related to the degree of knowledge about the 3-D structure of seismic wave velocity in the Earth. It is well known that modeling errors of calculated travel times may have the effect of shifting the computed epicenters far from the real locations by a distance even larger than the size of the statistical error ellipses, regardless of the accuracy in picking seismic phase arrivals. The consequences of large mislocations of seismic events in the context of the CTBT verification is particularly critical in order to trigger a possible On Site Inspection (OSI). In fact, the Treaty establishes that an OSI area cannot be larger than 1000 km2, and its larger linear dimension cannot be larger than 50 km. Moreover, depth accuracy is crucial for the application of the depth event screening criterion. In the present study, we develop a method of source-specific travel times corrections based on a set of well located events recorded by dense national seismic networks in seismically active regions. The applications concern seismic sequences recorded in Japan, Iran and Italy. We show that mislocations of the order of 10-20 km affecting the epicenters, as well as larger mislocations in hypocentral depths, calculated from a global seismic network and using the standard IASPEI91 travel times can be effectively removed by applying source-specific station corrections.

  15. [What about the mental time travel and age-related effects?].

    PubMed

    Coste, Cécile; Navarro, Béatrice; Abram, Maria; Duval, Céline; Picard, Laurence; Piolino, Pascale

    2012-03-01

    According to Tulving, episodic memory allows humans to travel mentally through subjective time into either the past or the future, this ability being at the origin of adaptation, organization and planning of future behavior. The main aim of this review is to present a state of art of episodic mental time travel and a lifespan perspective from children to elderly people. We examine the numerous similarities between remembering the past and envisioning the future which have been highlighted in cognitive, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological studies. We also present studies that have given evidence that remembering the past and imagining the future differ somewhat. We focus on demonstrating that hippocampal dysfunction is associated with disturbances in the recall of episodic autobiographical details in past memories, but also in the imagining of episodic detailed future events. More specifically, we discuss that the future seems to involve higher semantic processes mediated by the inferior frontal and lateral temporal gyri. We propose that the study of mental travel in personal time could be undertaken in line with the distinction between the memory of (episodic) experiences and (semantic) personal knowledge of one's life, which constitutes a major part of the self and constraints what we have been, what we are now, and what we might yet become. PMID:22414404

  16. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Wagner, Eric J.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1989-03-01

    Estimates of migration rates and travel times of juvenile salmonids within index reaches of the Columbia River basin are collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program for use by the Fish Passage Center. With increased reliance upon travel time estimates in 1988 by the Fish Passage Center, this study was implemented to monitor the biological attributes of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss used for the travel time estimates. The physiological ability of fish to respond to stress was assessed by measuring levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride before and after a stress-challenge test. The development of smoltification was evaluated by measuring gill Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase, plasma thyroxine, purines, and body morphology. Most groups were similar at the hatcheries but differed as the migration to McNary Dam proceeded. The prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in spring chinook salmon was evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Prevalence of BKD in groups tested using the ELISA method was as high as 99% at some downstream locations. A review of indices is presented as a guide to the development of an index of smolt condition and preliminary data are presented. An index could be used as a tool to synthesize information on fish condition to assist with management and evaluation of the Water Budget.

  17. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP).

  18. Chinese and Australians showed difference in mental time travel in emotion and content but not specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing-Jie; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Wang, Ya; Shum, David H. K.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall episodic past and imagine future events. The present study aimed to investigate cultural differences in mental time travel between Chinese and Australian university students. A total of 231 students (108 Chinese and 123 Australians) participated in the study. Their mental time travel abilities were measured by the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT) and the Sentence Completion for Events in the Future Test (SCEFT). Results showed that there were no cultural differences in the number of specific events generated for the past or future. Significant differences between the Chinese and Australian participants were found mainly in the emotional valence and content of the events generated. Both Chinese and Australian participants generated more specific positive events compared to negative events when thinking about the future and Chinese participants were more positive about their past than Australian participants when recalling specific events. For content, Chinese participants recalled more events about their interpersonal relationships, while Australian participants imagined more about personal future achievements. These findings shed some lights on cultural differences in episodic past and future thinking. PMID:26167154

  19. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  20. Estimation of travel times for seven tributaries of the Mississippi River, St. Cloud to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arntson, A.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Travel times for seven streams tributary to the Mississippi River from St. Cloud to Minneapolis, Minnesota, were estimated for three flow conditions; low, median, and high. Travel times were estimated for Sauk, Elk, Crow, and Rum Rivers, and Elm, Coon, and Rice Creeks. Regression equations based on watershed characteristics of drainage area, river slope, mean annual discharge, and instantaneous discharge at the time of measurement from more than 900 streams across the nation were used to estimate travel times. Travel times were estimated for the leading edge, peak concentration, and trailing edge of tracer-response curves. To test the validity of these equations, a time of travel study, using a luminescent dye, was conducted on the Sauk River, from Rockville, to the confluence with the Mississippi River on June 16, 2003, at a discharge of 457 ft3/s at Rockville. Dye was injected in the Sauk River at Rockville, and time and concentrations were measured at three sampling sections downstream; at County Road 121, Veterans Drive, and County Road 1 near the mouth. The estimated travel times for the leading edge, peak concentration, and trailing edge at County Road 1 were 10.6 hrs, 11.9 hrs, and 14.6 hrs, respectively. The measured travel times for the leading edge, peak concentration, and trailing edge were 13.4 hrs, 15.5 hrs, and 20.5 hrs, respectively for the 15.7 mile reach.

  1. Organic compounds in the environment: Determining travel time and stream mixing using tracers and empirical equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Soenksen, P.J.; Engel, G.B.; Miller, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    Water-supply managers need adequate warning to protect water supplies if a contaminant is spilled in an upgradient tributary. The city of Lincoln draws water from alluvium associated with the Platte River near Ashland, eastern Nebraska. Using constant-rate injection methods and a conservative tracer, travel time and degree of mixing of contaminants in the Elkhorn and Platte Rivers were evaluated in 1995 and 1996. The results indicate that, for flows of 584 to 162 m3/s in the Platte River at Ashland with 13 to 28% of its flow contributed by the Elkhorn River, 8.2 to 13.2 h are required for the leading edge of a chemical plume to travel from the Elkhorn River at Waterloo to the Platte River at Ashland. The peak concentration of a chemical spilled as a slug in the Elkhorn River near Waterloo would pass the well field after 11.3 to 16.1 h. Existing empirical equations for calculation of travel time were shown to apply to reaches of streams studied, but underestimated the leading edge up to 14% and overestimated the plateau concentration up to 11% at Site 5. However, time of travel may be influenced by the relative contribution of a tributary. The plateau concentration of the chemical in the Platte River at Ashland was 45 to 60% of its concentration in the Elkhorn River. The degree of mixing of the tracer in the Platte River at Ashland increased from 53 to 65% as the relative contribution of the Elkhorn River increased.

  2. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c(*) are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c(*).

  3. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c(*) are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c(*). PMID:21572575

  4. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  5. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  6. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  9. Body wave travel times and amplitudes for present-day seismic model of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raevskiy, Sergey; Gudkova, Tamara

    At the moment Martian interior structure models are constrained by the satellite observational data (the mass, the moment of inertia factor, the Love number k _{2}) (Konopliv et al., 2011) and high pressure experimental data (Bertka and Fei, 1997). Seismological observations could provide unparalleled capability for studying Martian interiors. Future missions include seismic experiments on Mars (Lognonné et al., 2012). The main instrument for these seismic experiments is a broadband seismometer (Robert et al., 2012). When seismic measurements are not yet available, physically consistent interior models, characterized by properties of relevant minerals, make possible to study of the seismic response of the planet. \\To estimate travel times for direct P, S, core reflected PcP, ScS and core refracted PKP body waves as a function of epicentral distance and hypocentral depth, as well as their amplitudes at the surface for a given marsquake, software product was developed in MatLab, as it encompasses many plotting routines that plot resulting travel times and ray paths. The computational results have been compared with the program TTBox (Knapmeyer, 2004). The code computes seismic ray paths and travel times for a one-dimentional spherical interior model (density and seismic velocities are functions of a radius only). Calculations of travel times tables for direct P, S, core reflected PcP, ScS and core refracted PKP waves and their amplitudes are carried out for a trial seismic model of Mars M14_3 from (Zharkov et al., 2009): the core radius is 1800 km, the thickness of the crust is 50 km. Direct and core reflected P and S waves are recorded to a maximum epicentral distance equal to about 100(°) , and PKP arrivals can be detected for epicental distances larger than 150(°) . The shadow zone is getting wider in comparison with previous results (Knapmeyer, 2010), as the liquid core radius of the seismic model under consideration is larger. Based on the estimates of

  10. Predicting Flow Breakdown Probability and Duration in Stochastic Network Models: Impact on Travel Time Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jing; Mahmassani, Hani S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to produce random flow breakdown endogenously in a mesoscopic operational model, by capturing breakdown probability and duration. Based on previous research findings that probability of flow breakdown can be represented as a function of flow rate and the duration can be characterized by a hazard model. By generating random flow breakdown at various levels and capturing the traffic characteristics at the onset of the breakdown, the stochastic network simulation model provides a tool for evaluating travel time variability. The proposed model can be used for (1) providing reliability related traveler information; (2) designing ITS (intelligent transportation systems) strategies to improve reliability; and (3) evaluating reliability-related performance measures of the system.

  11. Travel time and attrition from VHA care among women Veterans: How far is too far?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Sarah A.; Frayne, Susan M.; Berg, Eric; Hamilton, Alison B.; Washington, Donna L.; Saechao, Fay; Maisel, Natalya C.; Lin, Julia; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Travel time, an access barrier, may contribute to attrition of women veterans from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. Objective We examined whether travel time influences attrition a) among women veterans overall, b) among new vs. established patients, and c) among rural versus urban patients. Research Design This retrospective cohort study used logistic regression to estimate the association between drive time and attrition, overall and for new/established and rural/urban patients. Subjects 266,301 women veteran VHA outpatients in Fiscal year 2009. Measures An “attriter” did not return for VHA care during the 2nd through 3rd years after her first 2009 visit (T0). Drive time (log minutes) was between the patient’s residence and her regular source of VHA care. “New” patients had no VHA visits within three years before T0. Models included age, service-connected disability, health status and utilization as covariates. Results Overall, longer drive times were associated with higher odds of attrition: drive time Adjusted Odds Ratio=1.11 (99% CI 1.09-1.14). The relationship between drive time and attrition was stronger among new patients but was not modified by rurality. Conclusion Attrition among women veterans is sensitive to longer drive time. Linking new patients to VHA services designed to reduce distance barriers (telemedicine, community-based clinics, mobile clinics) may reduce attrition among women new to VHA. PMID:25767970

  12. On the tensorial nature of advective porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2005-02-01

    Field tracer tests indicate that advective porosity, the quantity relating advective velocity to Darcy flux, may exhibit directional dependence. Hydraulic anisotropy explains some but not all of the reported directional results. The present paper shows mathematically that directional variations in advective porosity may arise simply from incomplete mixing of an inert tracer between directional flow channels within a sampling (or support) volume ω of soil or rock that may be hydraulically isotropic or anisotropic. In the traditional fully homogenized case, our theory yields trivially a scalar advective porosity equal to the interconnected porosity ϕ, thus explaining neither the observed directional effects nor the widely reported experimental finding that advective porosity is generally smaller than ϕ. We consider incomplete mixing under conditions in which the characteristic time tD of longitudinal diffusion along channels across ω is much shorter than the characteristic time tH required for homogenization through transverse diffusion between channels. This may happen where flow takes place preferentially through relatively conductive channels and/or fractures of variable orientation separated by material that forms a partial barrier to diffusive transport. Our solution is valid for arbitrary channel Peclet numbers on a correspondingly wide range of time scales tD ⩽ t ≪ tH. It shows that the tracer center of mass is advected at a macroscopic velocity which is generally not collinear with the macroscopic Darcy flux and exceeds it in magnitude. These two vectors are related through a second-rank symmetric advective dispersivity tensor Φ. If the permeability k of ω is a symmetric positive-definite tensor, so is Φ. However, the principal directions and values of these two tensors are generally not the same; whereas those of k are a fixed property of the medium and the length-scale of ω, those of Φ depend additionally on the direction and magnitude of the

  13. Evaluation of analytical and numerical approaches for the estimation of groundwater travel time distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Nandita B.; Jindal, Priyanka; Schilling, Keith E.; Wolter, Calvin F.; Takle, Eugene S.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIt is critical that stakeholders are aware of the lag time necessary for conservation practices to demonstrate a positive impact on surface water quality. For solutes like nitrate that are transported primarily by the groundwater pathway, the lag time is a function of the groundwater travel time distribution (TTD). We used three models of varying levels of complexity to estimate the steady-state TTD of a shallow, unconfined aquifer in a small Iowa watershed: (a) analytic model, (b) GIS approach, and (c) MODFLOW model. The analytic model was the least input-intensive, whereas the GIS and MODFLOW approach required detailed data for model development. The resulting TTDs displayed an exponential distribution with good agreement among all the three methods (mean travel times ranging from 16.2 years in the analytic model, 19.6 years in GIS model and 20.5 years in MODFLOW model). The greater deviation in the analytic model was attributed to the difficulty in estimation of a representative saturated thickness in an unconfined aquifer. The correspondence between the spatial travel time distributions generated by GIS and MODFLOW was a function of the landscape position, with greater correspondence in uplands compared to floodplains. In the floodplains the land surface slope is a poor approximation of the water table gradient that is captured by the MODFLOW model but not the GIS that uses the land surface as a surrogate for the water table. Study results indicate that except for cases where there are marked differences between water table surface and land surface, simpler approaches (analytic and GIS) can be used to estimate TTDs required for the design and optimal placement of conservation practices and communicating lag times issues to the public.

  14. Modeling velocity in gradient flows with coupled-map lattices with advection.

    PubMed

    Lind, Pedro G; Corte-Real, João; Gallas, Jason A C

    2002-07-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate large scale behavior of gradient flows based on a lattice of coupled maps which, in addition to the usual diffusive term, incorporates advection, as an asymmetry in the coupling between nearest neighbors. This diffusive-advective model predicts traveling patterns to have velocities obeying the same scaling as wind velocities in the atmosphere, regarding the advective parameter as a sort of geostrophic wind. In addition, the velocity and wavelength of traveling wave solutions are studied. In general, due to the presence of advection, two regimes are identified: for strong diffusion the velocity varies linearly with advection, while for weak diffusion a power law is found with a characteristic exponent proportional to the diffusion.

  15. Quality of water and time of travel in Hobolochitto Creek, Pearl River County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, Gene A.

    1980-01-01

    In Mississippi, an intensive study of Hobolochitto Creek, including the lower parts of East and West Hobolochitto Creeks, was conducted on September 12-14, 1978. The quality-of-water data were collected during a period of generally low streamflow and seasonally high air temperatures. These data show that the quality of water in Hobolochitto Creek was generally good. The dissolved-solids concentrations were less than 50 milligrams per liter, and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species were low. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand generally was minimal, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were at levels that could support aquatic life. Several water samples contained high fecal bacteria densities and there was evidence of the presence of wastes of human origin, particularly at the downstream sites on Hobolochitto Creek. It was determined from a time-of-travel study that the rate of solute travel is very slow at low streamflow. A peak dye concentration traveled through a 3.7-mile reach of Hobolochitto Creek in 23.5 hours. (USGS)

  16. Travel time simulation for radionuclide transport at the Korean underground research facility, KURT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, N.; Hwang, Y.; Jeong, J.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    For the research on the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is necessary to understand the underground environment, including the geology and hydrogeology. In Korea, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed in 2006 at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Geological and hydrogeological field data have been obtained from the facility, and the groundwater flow system was simulated. Based on the data observed and analyzed on a groundwater flow system, the transport of potential radionuclides, which were assumed to be released at the supposed position, was then calculated in order to prepare the fundamental data for a safety assessment of a hypothetical underground repository. Several pathways with highly water-conductive features were selected to evaluate the elapsed times of radionuclide transport. The transport times were calculated using a TDRW (Time-Domain Random Walk) method. The matrix diffusion and sorption mechanisms in the host rock, as well as the advection-dispersion processes, were considered under the KURT field conditions. To reflect the radioactive decay, some decay chains were selected. The simulation results indicate that the main factors for the shapes of the mass discharge of the radionuclides were the half-life and distribution coefficient. This shows that the long-lived radionuclides must be treated accurately at the steps of determining radioactive waste source term as well as considering the transport process, and intensified research is required for the sorption between radionuclides and host rocks for making the safety assessment process more reliable and less uncertain.

  17. Travel time of impulsive signals in the magnetosphere: Modeling and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2007-12-01

    The calculation of travel time for impulsive signals has many uses in magneotspheric physics, such as understanding the propagation of sudden impulses, helping identify the causes of substorm onsets, and inferring the global plasma density and temperature from inverting the signal arrival time at multiple locations. Because impulsive signals can propagate rapidly as MHD waves, it is necessary for calculations and observations to have a time resolution of the order of one sec to yield useful results. To avoid time-consuming global simulations at this high cadence, we have developed a numerical model that focuses on wavefront construction to compute the travel time of impulsive signals. Following the Huygens principle, the algorithm allows the user to define the shape of the initial impulse and tracks the first arrival of wavefront in two dimensions. We will demonstrate, in both equatorial and meridian planes, how the wavefront of sudden impulses propagates tailward from the dayside magnetopause and how the wavefront of substorm onsets in the magnetotail evolves as it propagates earthward. We compare our calculations with the magnetic field observations from the armada of satellites, including Polar and THEMIS, in orbit, as well as the data from various ground magnetometer networks such as McMAC, THEMIS-GBO/EPO, and CARISMA.

  18. Non-stationarity of solute travel time distribution observed in a controlled hydrologic transport volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, P.; Bertuzzo, E.; Carraro, L.; Botter, G.; Miglietta, F.; Rao, P. S.; Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental data were collected over a year-long period in a transport experiment carried out within a controlled transport volume (represented by a 2m-deep, 1m-diameter lysimeter fitted with bottom drainage). The soil surface was shielded from natural rainfall, replaced by an artificial injection (Poisson process) at the daily timescale. Bottom drainage out-flows were continuously monitored with leakage tipping bucket and evapotranspiration (prompted by a willow tree growing within the system) was measured trough precision load cells, which also allow an accurate and continuous reading of the total water storage. Five artificial soluble tracers (species of fluorobenzoic acid, FBAs, mutually passive) were selected based on low-reactivity and low-retardation in our specific soil and used to individually mark five rainfall inputs of different amplitudes and occurring at various initial soil moisture conditions. Tracer discharge concentration and hydrologic fluxes measurements provide a direct method for the assessment of the bulk effects of transport on the (backward and forward) travel time distributions in the hydrological setting. The large discrepancies observed in terms of mass recovery in the discharge (supported by ex post FBAs quantification in the soil and in the vegetation) and tracer out-fluxes dynamics emphasized the dependence of the forward travel time on the various injection times and the stages experienced by the system during the migration of the pulse. Rescaling the measured travel time distribution by using the cumulative drainage volume as an independent variable instead of the time elapsed since the injection also fails to yield to stationary distributions, as it was argued by Niemi (1997). Our experimental results support earlier theoretical speculations centered on the key role of non-stationarity on the characterization of the properties of hydrologic flow and transport phenomena. A travel time based model, with all in- and out- hydrological

  19. Time of travel of the Flint River, Utah Dam to highway M-13, Michigan, August 4-8, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T. Ray; Miller, John B.

    1982-01-01

    The tracing of Rhodamine WT dye has provided time-of-travel data for waste-load allocation studies of a 42.8-mile reach of the Flint River at low flow. Dye was injected at two locations in Flint--at Utah Dam and at Grand Traverse Street. From Utah Dam to Grand Traverse Street the mean velocity of flow was 0.1 foot per second; time-of-travel was 35.3 hours. From Grand Traverse Street to Highway M-13, mean velocity was 0.7 foot per second; time-of-travel was 78.8 hours. Time-of-travel for the reach between Utah Dam and Highway M-13 was thus 114 hours. A discharge of equaled or exceeded about 90% of the time was measured at Grand Traverse Street in Flint before dye injection. (USGS)

  20. Time of travel of the Flint River, Utah Dam to highway M-13, Michigan, August 4-8, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T. Ray; Miller, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Tracing of rhodamine WT dye has provided time-of-travel data for waste-load allocation studies of a 42.8-mile reach of the Flint River at low flow. A discharge equaled or exceeded about 90 percent of the time was measured at Grand Traverse Street in Flint before dye injection. Dye was injected at two locations in Flint--at Utah Dam and at Grand Traverse Street, From Utah Dam to Grand Traverse Street, the mean velocity of flow was about 0.1 foot per second; time-of-travel was 35.3 hours. From Grand Traverse Street to Highway M-13, mean velocity was about 0.7 foot per second; time-of-travel was 78.8 hours. Time-of-travel for the reach between Utah Dam and Highway M-13 was thus 114 hours.

  1. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality-an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome-deaths of strangers-by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the "Time Travel" condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a "Repetition" condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of "time travel" provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number.

  2. Comparison of VLBI, TV and traveling clock techniques for time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. H.; Waltman, E. B.; Johnston, K. J.; Santini, N. J.; Klepczynski, W. J.; Matsakis, D. N.; Angerhofer, P. E.; Kaplan, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A three part experiment was conducted to develop and compare time transfer techniques. The experiment consisted of (1) a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), (2) a high precision portable clock time transfer system between the two sites, and (3) a television time transfer. A comparison of the VLBI and traveling clock shows each technique can perform satisfactorily at the five nsec level. There was a systematic offset of 59 nsec between the two methods, which we attributed to a difference in epochs between VLBI formatter and station clock. The VLBI method had an internal random error of one nsec at the three sigma level for a two day period. Thus, the Mark II system performed well, and VLBI shows promise of being an accurate method of time transfer. The TV system, which had technical problems during the experiment, transferred time with a random error of about 50 nsec.

  3. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP). PMID:26829639

  4. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP). PMID:26829639

  5. Time-averages for Plane Travelling Waves—The Effect of Attenuation: I, Adiabatic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, S. N.

    1993-05-01

    The analysis of the effect of attenuation on the time-averages for a plane travelling wave is presented. The barotropic equation of state is considered: i.e., acoustic heating is assumed to be negligible. The problem statement consists of calculating means in a finite region bounded by a transducer surface as well as by a perfectly absorbing surface, respectively. Although the simple wave approximation cannot be used throughout the field it is still valid near the perfect absorber. The result for radiation pressure is different from the conclusions given previously by Beyer and Livett, Emery and Leeman.

  6. Improving Horizontal Resolution of High-frequency Surface-wave Methods Using Travel-time Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, X.; Xia, J.; Sun, S.; Shen, C.

    2015-12-01

    In surface-wave methods, horizontal resolution can be defined as the ability to distinguish anomalous objects that are laterally displaced from each other. And the horizontal length of a recognizable geological anomalous body is measured by the lateral variation of S-wave velocity. Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is an efficient tool to determine near-surface shear-wave velocities. The acquisition of the MASW method involves the same source-receiver configuration moved successively by a fixed distance interval (a few to several stations) along a linear survey line, which is called a roll-along acquisition geometry. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D models, and each inverted 1D S-wave velocity model reflects the vertical S-wave velocity variation at the midpoint of each geophone spread. Although the MASW method can improve the horizontal resolution of S-wave velocity sections to some degree, the amount of fieldwork is increased by the roll-along acquisition geometry. We propose surface-wave tomography method to investigate horizontal resolution of surface-wave exploration. Phase-velocity dispersion curves are calculated by a pair of traces within a multichannel record through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. Then with the utilization of travel-time tomography, we can obtain high resolution pure-path dispersion curves with diverse sizes of grids at different frequencies. Finally, the pseudo-2D S-wave velocity structure is reconstructed by inverting the pure-path dispersion curves. Travel-time tomography of surface waves can extract accurate dispersion curves from a record with a short receiver spacing, and it can effectively enhance the ability of random noise immunity. Synthetic tests and a real-world example have indicated that travel-time tomography has a great potential for improving the horizontal resolution of surface waves. Keywords: Travel-time tomography of surface waves

  7. Prediction of Probabilistic Sleep Distributions Following Travel Across Multiple Time Zones

    PubMed Central

    Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew; Roach, Greg D.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To parameterize and validate a model to estimate average sleep times for long-haul aviation pilots during layovers following travel across multiple time zones. The model equations were based on a weighted distribution of domicile- and local-time sleepers, and included algorithms to account for sleep loss and circadian re-synchronization. Design: Sleep times were collected from participants under normal commercial operating conditions using diaries and wrist activity monitors. Participants: Participants included a total of 306 long-haul pilots (113 captains, 120 first officers, and 73 second officers). Measurement and Results: The model was parameterized based on the average sleep/wake times observed during international flight patterns from Australia to London and Los Angeles (global R2 = 0.72). The parameterized model was validated against the average sleep/wake times observed during flight patterns from Australia to London (r2 = 0.85), Los Angeles (r2 = 0.79), New York (r2 = 0.80), and Johannesburg (r2 = 0.73). Goodness-of-fit was poorer when the parameterized model equations were used to predict the variance across the sleep/wake cycles of individual pilots (R2 = 0.42, 0.35, 0.31, and 0.28 for the validation flight patterns, respectively), in part because of substantial inter-individual variability in sleep timing and duration. Conclusions: It is possible to estimate average sleep times during layovers in international patterns with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Models of this type could form the basis of a stand-alone application to estimate the likelihood that a given duty schedule provides pilots, on average, with an adequate opportunity to sleep. Citation: Darwent D; Dawson D; Roach GD. Prediction of probabilistic sleep distributions following travel across multiple time zones. SLEEP 2010;33(2):185-195. PMID:20175402

  8. Analytical Solutions of a Fractional Diffusion-advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Effenberger, Frederic

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we analytically solve a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.

  9. Analytical solutions of a fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Effenberger, Frederic

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent applications of superdiffusive transport models to shock-accelerated particle distributions in the heliosphere, we analytically solve a one-dimensional fractional diffusion-advection equation for the particle density. We derive an exact Fourier transform solution, simplify it in a weak diffusion approximation, and compare the new solution with previously available analytical results and with a semi-numerical solution based on a Fourier series expansion. We apply the results to the problem of describing the transport of energetic particles, accelerated at a traveling heliospheric shock. Our analysis shows that significant errors may result from assuming an infinite initial distance between the shock and the observer. We argue that the shock travel time should be a parameter of a realistic superdiffusive transport model.

  10. Travel time source-specific station corrections related to lithospheric structures in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Console, R.; Chiappini, S.; Chiappini, M.

    2016-02-01

    We compare the locations obtained from arrival times collected by the International Seismological Centre from a network of regional and teleseismic stations for a cluster of Italian earthquakes with the locations of the same events obtained by the dense national seismic network operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. We find mislocations on the order of 15 km for epicentral coordinates and on the order of 25 km for depths calculated from the regional and teleseismic network and using the standard IASP91 travel times. These mislocations are generally larger than the sizes of the respective error ellipse semi-axes. We then show that systematic shifts of hypocentral coordinates can be substantially reduced by applying source-specific station corrections. Moreover, we find that the size of error ellipses characterizing the teleseismic locations is significantly reduced by the application of such corrections. Our travel time corrections are compared and found fairly consistent with information available in the literature on tomographic studies on the crust and upper mantle in the European-Mediterranean region.

  11. Chloride circulation in a lowland catchment and the formulation of transport by travel time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, Paolo; Velde, Ype; Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca

    2013-08-01

    Travel times are fundamental catchment descriptors that blend key information about storage, geochemistry, flow pathways and sources of water into a coherent mathematical framework. Here we analyze travel time distributions (TTDs) (and related attributes) estimated on the basis of the extensive hydrochemical information available for the Hupsel Brook lowland catchment in the Netherlands. The relevance of the work is perceived to lie in the general importance of characterizing nonstationary TTDs to capture catchment transport properties, here chloride flux concentrations at the basin outlet. The relative roles of evapotranspiration, water storage dynamics, hydrologic pathways and mass sources/sinks are discussed. Different hydrochemical models are tested and ranked, providing compelling examples of the improved process understanding achieved through coupled calibration of flow and transport processes. The ability of the model to reproduce measured flux concentrations is shown to lie mostly in the description of nonstationarities of TTDs at multiple time scales, including short-term fluctuations induced by soil moisture dynamics in the root zone and long-term seasonal dynamics. Our results prove reliable and suggest, for instance, that drastically reducing fertilization loads for one or more years would not result in significant permanent decreases in average solute concentrations in the Hupsel runoff because of the long memory shown by the system. Through comparison of field and theoretical evidence, our results highlight, unambiguously, the basic transport mechanisms operating in the catchment at hand, with a view to general applications.

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  13. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  17. The TimeGeo modeling framework for urban motility without travel surveys.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Yang, Yingxiang; Gupta, Siddharth; Veneziano, Daniele; Athavale, Shounak; González, Marta C

    2016-09-13

    Well-established fine-scale urban mobility models today depend on detailed but cumbersome and expensive travel surveys for their calibration. Not much is known, however, about the set of mechanisms needed to generate complete mobility profiles if only using passive datasets with mostly sparse traces of individuals. In this study, we present a mechanistic modeling framework (TimeGeo) that effectively generates urban mobility patterns with resolution of 10 min and hundreds of meters. It ties together the inference of home and work activity locations from data, with the modeling of flexible activities (e.g., other) in space and time. The temporal choices are captured by only three features: the weekly home-based tour number, the dwell rate, and the burst rate. These combined generate for each individual: (i) stay duration of activities, (ii) number of visited locations per day, and (iii) daily mobility networks. These parameters capture how an individual deviates from the circadian rhythm of the population, and generate the wide spectrum of empirically observed mobility behaviors. The spatial choices of visited locations are modeled by a rank-based exploration and preferential return (r-EPR) mechanism that incorporates space in the EPR model. Finally, we show that a hierarchical multiplicative cascade method can measure the interaction between land use and generation of trips. In this way, urban structure is directly related to the observed distance of travels. This framework allows us to fully embrace the massive amount of individual data generated by information and communication technologies (ICTs) worldwide to comprehensively model urban mobility without travel surveys.

  18. The TimeGeo modeling framework for urban motility without travel surveys.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Yang, Yingxiang; Gupta, Siddharth; Veneziano, Daniele; Athavale, Shounak; González, Marta C

    2016-09-13

    Well-established fine-scale urban mobility models today depend on detailed but cumbersome and expensive travel surveys for their calibration. Not much is known, however, about the set of mechanisms needed to generate complete mobility profiles if only using passive datasets with mostly sparse traces of individuals. In this study, we present a mechanistic modeling framework (TimeGeo) that effectively generates urban mobility patterns with resolution of 10 min and hundreds of meters. It ties together the inference of home and work activity locations from data, with the modeling of flexible activities (e.g., other) in space and time. The temporal choices are captured by only three features: the weekly home-based tour number, the dwell rate, and the burst rate. These combined generate for each individual: (i) stay duration of activities, (ii) number of visited locations per day, and (iii) daily mobility networks. These parameters capture how an individual deviates from the circadian rhythm of the population, and generate the wide spectrum of empirically observed mobility behaviors. The spatial choices of visited locations are modeled by a rank-based exploration and preferential return (r-EPR) mechanism that incorporates space in the EPR model. Finally, we show that a hierarchical multiplicative cascade method can measure the interaction between land use and generation of trips. In this way, urban structure is directly related to the observed distance of travels. This framework allows us to fully embrace the massive amount of individual data generated by information and communication technologies (ICTs) worldwide to comprehensively model urban mobility without travel surveys. PMID:27573826

  19. The DOE Model for Improving Seismic Event Locations Using Travel Time Corrections: Description and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hipp, J.R.; Moore, S.G.; Shepherd, E.; Young, C.J.

    1998-10-20

    The U.S. National Laboratories, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, have been tasked with improv- ing the capability of the United States National Data Center (USNDC) to monitor compliance with the Comprehen- sive Test Ban Trea~ (CTBT). One of the most important services which the USNDC must provide is to locate suspicious events, preferably as accurately as possible to help identify their origin and to insure the success of on-site inspections if they are deemed necessary. The seismic location algorithm used by the USNDC has the capability to generate accurate locations by applying geographically dependent travel time corrections, but to date, none of the means, proposed for generating and representing these corrections has proven to be entirely satisfactory. In this presentation, we detail the complete DOE model for how regional calibration travel time information gathered by the National Labs will be used to improve event locations and provide more realistic location error esti- mates. We begin with residual data and error estimates from ground truth events. Our model consists of three parts: data processing, data storage, and data retrieval. The former two are effectively one-time processes, executed in advance before the system is made operational. The last step is required every time an accurate event location is needed. Data processing involves applying non-stationary Bayesian kriging to the residwd data to densifi them, and iterating to find the optimal tessellation representation for the fast interpolation in the data retrieval task. Both the kriging and the iterative re-tessellation are slow, computationally-expensive processes but this is acceptable because they are performed off-line, before any events are to be located. In the data storage task, the densified data set is stored in a database and spatially indexed. Spatial indexing improves the access efficiency of the geographically-ori- ented data requests associated with event location

  20. Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.

  1. Quantifying uncertainties in travel time tomography using the null space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, R. W.; Trampert, J.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    Due to the underdetermined nature of large tomographic inverse problems, a sizable nullspace exists. It is therefore important to investigate the uncertainty of tomographic models produced by inverse problems with multiple solutions. The nullspace shuttle (Deal and Nolet, 1996) has been designed to exploit components of the nullspace, along with a priori information or a physical model, in order to improve or enhance the original minimum-norm solution. We generalize the null space shuttle technique to quantify uncertainties in a classical study of travel time tomography (Li et al.,2008) and examine a range of models that are consistent with the travel time data. The family of resulting tomographic model is used to quantify the uncertainties in the original tomographic image, a global P-wave speed perturbation mantle model. We further show what is and what is not resolved in the aforementioned tomographic image. With the null space shuttle we are able to alter or remove structures (e.g. slabs, plumes) in the original tomographic image. We suggest that this technique should be routinely applied before physical interpretations of tomographic images are made.

  2. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    PubMed

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources. PMID:26879898

  3. Crustal Structure Beneath Pleasant Valley, Nevada from Local and Regional Earthquake Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, L. B.; Nabelek, J.; Braunmiller, J.

    2011-12-01

    In 1915 the Pleasant Valley fault in the Basin and Range Province of northern Nevada ruptured in a Mw~7 earthquake, one of the largest normal faulting earthquakes in U.S. history. We are currently operating a densely spaced linear array of broadband three-component seismometers across the Pleasant Valley fault to investigate the structure and the geometry of the fault zone. Here, we present a local crustal velocity model derived from P and S wave travel times of local and regional earthquakes recorded by the Pleasant Valley array. Regional events in northern California, eastern Nevada and Utah that occurred in line with the array are well recorded and provide constraints on upper mantle velocities. Many local seismic events were also observed. Only a few of these events were detected by the ANSS network, reflecting the limited detection capability in sparsely instrumented northern Nevada. The local event set includes earthquakes, mining blasts and sonic booms from nearby jet airplane flights. A subset of these events was located using Hypoinverse. Their travel time curves are used to estimate crustal structure and velocity in the Pleasant Valley region. This is an EarthScope FlexArray project.

  4. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Show Reduced Specificity and Less Positive Events in Mental Time Travel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing-jie; Liu, Lu-lu; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; Chen, An-tao; Li, Feng-hua; Wang, Wei-hong; Zheng, Han-feng; Gan, Ming-yuan; Li, Chun-qiu; Shum, David H. K.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall past events and to imagine possible future events. Schizophrenia (SCZ) patients have problems in remembering specific personal experiences in the past and imagining what will happen in the future. This study aimed to examine episodic past and future thinking in SCZ spectrum disorders including SCZ patients and individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proneness who are at risk for developing SCZ. Thirty-two SCZ patients, 30 SPD proneness individuals, and 33 healthy controls participated in the study. The Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT) and the Sentence Completion for Events in the Future Test were used to measure past and future thinking abilities. Results showed that SCZ patients showed significantly reduced specificity in recalling past and imagining future events, they generated less proportion of specific and extended events compared to healthy controls. SPD proneness individuals only generated less extended events compared to healthy controls. The reduced specificity was mainly manifested in imagining future events. Both SCZ patients and SPD proneness individuals generated less positive events than controls. These results suggest that mental time travel impairments in SCZ spectrum disorders and have implications for understanding their cognitive and emotional deficits. PMID:27507958

  5. An acoustic travel time method for continuous velocity monitoring in shallow tidal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Nistor, Ioan; Sharifi, Soroosh

    2013-08-01

    Long-term variations of streamflow in a tidal channel were measured using a Fluvial Acoustic Tomography (FAT) system through one transmission path. FAT is an innovative acoustic technology that utilizes the time-of-travel method to determine velocity between two points from multiple ray paths that traverse the entire cross-section of stream. Due to high spatial variability of flow distribution stationary ADCP measurements were not likely to yield true section-averaged flow velocity and moving-boat ADCP method was therefore used to provide reference data. As such, two short-term moving boat ADCP campaigns were carried out by the authors. In the first campaign, a couple of acoustic stations were added to the FAT system in order to resolve flow angularity in addition to the mean velocity. Comparing the FAT results with corresponding ADCP section-averaged flow direction and velocity indicated remarkable consistency. Second campaign was designed to capture the influence of salt wedge intrusion on the sound propagation pattern. It was found that FAT velocity measurements bias high if acoustic stations lay inside the cooler freshwater layer. Ray-tracing hindcasts suggest that installing acoustic stations inside the salt wedge may significantly improve function of output of the system. Comparing salinities evaluated from long-term FAT travel time records with nodal salinity measurements provided by conductivity-temperature sensors reveals the potential ability of FAT in measuring salt flux.

  6. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Show Reduced Specificity and Less Positive Events in Mental Time Travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-Jie; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Wang, Ya; Chen, An-Tao; Li, Feng-Hua; Wang, Wei-Hong; Zheng, Han-Feng; Gan, Ming-Yuan; Li, Chun-Qiu; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-01

    Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall past events and to imagine possible future events. Schizophrenia (SCZ) patients have problems in remembering specific personal experiences in the past and imagining what will happen in the future. This study aimed to examine episodic past and future thinking in SCZ spectrum disorders including SCZ patients and individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proneness who are at risk for developing SCZ. Thirty-two SCZ patients, 30 SPD proneness individuals, and 33 healthy controls participated in the study. The Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT) and the Sentence Completion for Events in the Future Test were used to measure past and future thinking abilities. Results showed that SCZ patients showed significantly reduced specificity in recalling past and imagining future events, they generated less proportion of specific and extended events compared to healthy controls. SPD proneness individuals only generated less extended events compared to healthy controls. The reduced specificity was mainly manifested in imagining future events. Both SCZ patients and SPD proneness individuals generated less positive events than controls. These results suggest that mental time travel impairments in SCZ spectrum disorders and have implications for understanding their cognitive and emotional deficits. PMID:27507958

  7. Helioseismic Holography of Simulated Sunspots: Magnetic and Thermal Contributions to Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe, T.; Braun, D. C.; Crouch, A. D.; Birch, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    Wave propagation through sunspots involves conversion between waves of acoustic and magnetic character. In addition, the thermal structure of sunspots is very different than that of the quiet Sun. As a consequence, the interpretation of local helioseismic measurements of sunspots has long been a challenge. With the aim of understanding these measurements, we carry out numerical simulations of wave propagation through sunspots. Helioseismic holography measurements made from the resulting simulated wavefields show qualitative agreement with observations of real sunspots. We use additional numerical experiments to determine, separately, the influence of the thermal structure of the sunspot and the direct effect of the sunspot magnetic field. We use the ray approximation to show that the travel-time shifts in the thermal (non-magnetic) sunspot model are primarily produced by changes in the wave path due to the Wilson depression rather than variations in the wave speed. This shows that inversions for the subsurface structure of sunspots must account for local changes in the density. In some ranges of horizontal phase speed and frequency there is agreement (within the noise level in the simulations) between the travel times measured in the full magnetic sunspot model and the thermal model. If this conclusion proves to be robust for a wide range of models, it would suggest a path toward inversions for sunspot structure.

  8. Human travel and time spent at destination: impact on the epidemic invasion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Chiara; Tizzoni, Michele; Colizza, Vittoria

    2012-02-01

    Human mobility has a strong impact on the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Analyses of metapopulation models, that consider the epidemic spreading on a network of populations, show that topological and traffic fluctuations favor the global epidemic invasion. These studies consider markovian mobility (i.e. the memory of the origin of traveling individuals is lost) or non-markovian mobility with homogeneous timescales (i.e. individuals travel to a destination and come back with a homogenous rate). However, the time spent at destination is found to exhibit wide fluctuations. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the mixing among individuals and hence the disease transmission dynamics. In order to explore this aspect, we present a modeling framework that, by using a time-scale separation technique, allows analyzing the behavior of spreading processes on a complex metapopulation network with non-markovian mobility characterized by heterogeneously distributed timescales. Analytical and numerical results show how the degree of heterogeneity of the length of stay is able, alone, to drive a phase transition between local outbreak and global invasion. This highlights the importance of the interplay between mobility and disease timescales in the propagation of an epidemic.

  9. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    PubMed

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources.

  10. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Faler, Joyce C.

    1990-11-01

    The Water Budget is a volume of water used to enhance environmental conditions (flows) in the Columbia and Snake rivers for juvenile salmonids during their seaward migration. To manage the Water Budget, the Fish Passage Center estimates travel times of juvenile salmonids in index reaches of the main-stem rivers, using information on river flows and the migrational characteristics of the juvenile salmonids. This study was initiated to provide physiological information on the juvenile salmonids used for these travel time estimates. The physiological ability to respond to stressors was evaluated by measuring concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chlorides before and after a 30-s handling-stress challenge test. The development of smoltification was assessed by measuring gill Na{sup +}--K{sup +} ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine concentrations. Prevalence of bacterial kidney disease in spring chinook salmon was generally higher than in 1988, ranging from 81--100{percent} using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had more severe infections than those from mid-Columbia hatcheries. 42 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khalidur; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.

  12. Magnetic and Thermal Contributions to Helioseismic Travel times in Simulated Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Douglas; Felipe, Tobias; Birch, Aaron; Crouch, Ashley D.

    2016-05-01

    The interpretation of local helioseismic measurements of sunspots has long been a challenge, since waves propagating through sunspots are potentially affected by both mode conversion and changes in the thermal structure of the spots. We carry out numerical simulations of wave propagation through a variety of models which alternately isolate either the thermal or magnetic structure of the sunspot or include both of these. We find that helioseismic holography measurements made from the resulting simulated wavefields show qualitative agreement with observations of real sunspots. Using insight from ray theory, we find that travel-time shifts in the thermal (non-magnetic) sunspot model are primarily produced by changes in the wave path due to the Wilson depression rather than variations in the wave speed. This shows that inversions for the subsurface structure of sunspots must account for local changes in the density. In some ranges of horizontal phase speed and frequency there is agreement (within the noise level of the measurements) between the travel times measured in the full magnetic sunspot model and the thermal model. If this conclusion proves to be robust for a wide range of models, it suggests a path towards inversions for sunspot structure. This research has been funded by the Spanish MINECO through grant AYA2014-55078-P, by the NASA Heliophysics Division through NNX14AD42G and NNH12CF23C, and the NSF Solar Terrestrial program through AGS-1127327.

  13. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.219 - Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? 302-3.219 Section 302-3.219 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION....219 Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? (a) If...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.219 - Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? 302-3.219 Section 302-3.219 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION....219 Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? (a) If...

  16. 41 CFR 302-3.219 - Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? 302-3.219 Section 302-3.219 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION....219 Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? (a) If...

  17. 41 CFR 302-3.315 - May I be granted an extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel? 302-3.315 Section 302-3.315 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3... be granted an extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel? Yes, your agency...

  18. 41 CFR 302-3.315 - May I be granted an extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel? 302-3.315 Section 302-3.315 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3... be granted an extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel? Yes, your agency...

  19. 41 CFR 302-3.315 - May I be granted an extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel? 302-3.315 Section 302-3.315 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3... be granted an extension to the time limit for beginning my separation travel? Yes, your agency...

  20. 41 CFR 302-3.219 - Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? 302-3.219 Section 302-3.219 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION....219 Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? (a) If...

  1. 41 CFR 302-3.219 - Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? 302-3.219 Section 302-3.219 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION....219 Is there a limit on how many times I may receive reimbursement for tour renewal travel? (a) If...

  2. High-Resolution Mapping of Flows in the Solar Interior: Fully Consistent OLA Inversion of Helioseismic Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, J.; Gizon, L.; Birch, A. C.

    2008-09-01

    To recover the flow information encoded in travel-time data of time distance helioseismology, accurate forward modeling and a robust inversion of the travel times are required. We accomplish this using three-dimensional finite-frequency travel-time sensitivity kernels for flows along with a (2+1)-dimensional (2+1D) optimally localized averaging (OLA) inversion scheme. Travel times are measured by ridge filtering MDI full-disk Doppler data and the corresponding Born sensitivity kernels are computed for these particular travel times. We also utilize the full noise-covariance properties of the travel times, which allow us to accurately estimate the errors for all inversions. The whole procedure is thus fully consistent. Because of ridge filtering, the kernel functions separate in the horizontal and vertical directions, motivating our choice of a 2+1D inversion implementation. The inversion procedure also minimizes cross-talk effects among the three flow components, and the averaging kernels resulting from the inversion show very small amounts of cross-talk. We obtain three-dimensional maps of vector solar flows in the quiet Sun at horizontal spatial resolutions of 7-10 Mm using generally 24 hours of data. For all of the flow maps we provide averaging kernels and the noise estimates. We present examples to test the inferred flows, such as a comparison with Doppler data, in which we find a correlation of 0.9. We also present results for quiet-Sun supergranular flows at different depths in the upper convection zone. Our estimation of the vertical velocity shows good qualitative agreement with the horizontal vector flows. We also show vertical flows measured solely from f-mode travel times. In addition, we demonstrate how to directly invert for the horizontal divergence and flow vorticity. Finally we study inferred flow-map correlations at different depths and find a rapid decrease in this correlation with depth, consistent with other recent local helioseismic analyses.

  3. Travel Times of Later Phases for Transmitting Waves through a Fracturing Westerly Granite Sample under a Triaxial Compressive Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imahori, A.; Kawakata, H.; Hirano, S.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Takahashi, N.

    2015-12-01

    In laboratory, it is well-known that the elastic wave speed varies prior to compression fracture of the rock (e.g., Lockner et al., 1977, JGR). Using an enough number of travel times of elastic wave paths in a sample, we can estimate internal structure of the sample. However, the number of the elastic wave transducers is limited, and only the travel times of the first arrival are available in most experiments. Employing broadband transducers (Yoshimitsu et al., 2014, GRL), later phases become available to be analyzed. In the present study, we conduct a triaxial compressive test at room temperature under a dry condition and a confining pressure of 50 MPa, using a cylindrical Westerly granite sample of 100 mm long by 50 mm in diameter. Eight transducers are attached on the sample surface. One of the transducers is used as a wave source and voltage steps are repeatedly applied to it. The elastic waves passing through the sample are sensed by the other broadband transducers, and recorded at a sampling rate of 20 Msps. P-wave speed is estimated from the travel time of the direct P, and Vp/Vs value is assumed to be the √3 to give S-wave speed. We assume that all wave paths never bend except at the top and bottom surface of the sample. We calculate the travel times of later phases reflected at the top and/or bottom surfaces within 3 times. We collate the calculated travel times with observed waveforms. We can identify the travel time of two phases: single reflection from both top and bottom of the sample. On the other hand, some other observed and calculated phase arrivals do not match with each other. Then, we try to identify some remarkable phases using the calculated travel times of PS and SP converted waves and interfacial waves, taking into consideration of wave speed anisotropy.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of inner core anisotropy from PKP differential travel times and waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.

    2003-12-01

    Discussion with Prof. Don Anderson was one of the most inspiring and stimulating experiences in my science career when we were searching for evidence for inner core anisotropy a little over ten years ago. At the time, the hypothesis of inner core anisotropy was not fully accepted. Now models of 3D inner core anisotropy have been proposed. Recent studies suggest that the uppermost inner core is nearly isotropic and western and eastern hemispheres of the inner core are different in both velocity and anisotropy. Yet differential PKP travel times at near antipodal distances show convincingly that significant anisotropy exists in the bulk of the inner core at both hemispheres. Recently Xinlei Sun and I assemble differential PKP travel-time measurements at distances of 145 to 180o, obtained by us and others over the years, to investigate the 3-D structure of the inner core anisotropy. These differential times reduces the biases from earthquake mislocations and heterogeneous upper mantle. We invert for 3D inner core anisotropy by dividing the inner core into four layers in radius and six sectors in longitudes. The top 100 km of the inner core is assumed to be isotropic. Our inversion suggests that at depth of 100-500 km below the inner core boundary, the quasi-eastern hemisphere (40 to 160oE) is nearly isotropic (less than 1% of anisotropy) while the western hemisphere is strongly anisotropic (3 to 5% anisotropy). However, at depth of 500-900 km, both hemispheres are anisotropic (about 3% anisotropy). At the innermost 300 km of the inner core, the form of anisotropy seems distinctly different. One of the most dramatic manifestations of changes in anisotropy is the observation of seismic triplication of inner core waves; a type of multipathing effect due to heterogeneity that Don challenged to think about even in the early days. The best example is the seismic triplication observed from South Sandwich Islands earthquakes recorded at stations in Canada and Alaska.

  5. Nonlinear teleseismic tomography at Long Valley caldera, using three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, C.M.; Steck, L.K.; Dawson, P.B.

    1995-10-10

    The authors explore the impact of three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing on nonlinear teleseismic inversion. This problem has particular significance when trying to image strongly contrasting low-velocity bodies, such as magma chambers, because strongly refracted/and/or diffracted rays may precede the direct P wave arrival traditionally used in straight-ray seismic tomography. They use a simplex-based ray tracer to compute the three-dimensional, minimum travel time ray paths and employ an interative technique to cope with nonlinearity. Results from synthetic data show that their algorithm results in better model reconstructions compared with traditional straight-ray inversions. The authors reexamine the teleseismic data collected at Long Valley caldera by the U.S. Geological Survey. The most prominent feature of their result is a 25-30% low-velocity zone centered at 11.5 km depth beneath the northwestern quandrant of the caldera. Beneath this at a depth of 24.5 km is a more diffuse 15% low-velocity zone. In general, the low velocities tend to deepen to the south and east. The authors interpret the shallow feature to be the residual Long Valley caldera magma chamber, while the deeper feature may represent basaltic magmas ponded in the midcrust. The deeper position of the prominent low-velocity region in comparison to earlier tomographic images is a result of using three-dimensional rays rather than straight rays in the ray tracing. The magnitude of the low-velocity anomaly is a factor of {approximately}3 times larger than earlier models from linear arrival time inversions and is consistent with models based on observations of ray bending at sites within the caldera. These results imply the presence of anywhere from 7 to 100% partial melt beneath the caldera. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Rapid Adjustment of Circadian Clocks to Simulated Travel to Time Zones across the Globe.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Elizabeth M; Gorman, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Daily rhythms in mammalian physiology and behavior are generated by a central pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the timing of which is set by light from the environment. When the ambient light-dark cycle is shifted, as occurs with travel across time zones, the SCN and its output rhythms must reset or re-entrain their phases to match the new schedule-a sluggish process requiring about 1 day per hour shift. Using a global assay of circadian resetting to 6 equidistant time-zone meridians, we document this characteristically slow and distance-dependent resetting of Syrian hamsters under typical laboratory lighting conditions, which mimic summer day lengths. The circadian pacemaker, however, is additionally entrainable with respect to its waveform (i.e., the shape of the 24-h oscillation) allowing for tracking of seasonally varying day lengths. We here demonstrate an unprecedented, light exposure-based acceleration in phase resetting following 2 manipulations of circadian waveform. Adaptation of circadian waveforms to long winter nights (8 h light, 16 h dark) doubled the shift response in the first 3 days after the shift. Moreover, a bifurcated waveform induced by exposure to a novel 24-h light-dark-light-dark cycle permitted nearly instant resetting to phase shifts from 4 to 12 h in magnitude, representing a 71% reduction in the mismatch between the activity rhythm and the new photocycle. Thus, a marked enhancement of phase shifting can be induced via nonpharmacological, noninvasive manipulation of the circadian pacemaker waveform in a model species for mammalian circadian rhythmicity. Given the evidence of conserved flexibility in the human pacemaker waveform, these findings raise the promise of flexible resetting applicable to circadian disruption in shift workers, frequent time-zone travelers, and any individual forced to adjust to challenging schedules.

  7. Chaotic advection, diffusion, and reactions in open flows

    SciTech Connect

    Tel, Tamas; Karolyi, Gyoergy; Pentek, Aron; Scheuring, Istvan; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Grebogi, Celso; Kadtke, James

    2000-03-01

    We review and generalize recent results on advection of particles in open time-periodic hydrodynamical flows. First, the problem of passive advection is considered, and its fractal and chaotic nature is pointed out. Next, we study the effect of weak molecular diffusion or randomness of the flow. Finally, we investigate the influence of passive advection on chemical or biological activity superimposed on open flows. The nondiffusive approach is shown to carry some features of a weak diffusion, due to the finiteness of the reaction range or reaction velocity. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Groundwater vulnerability assessment for the karst aquifer of Tanour and Rasoun spring using EPIK, COP, and travel time methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Sauter, Martin; Margane, Armin; Ptak, Thomas; Wiegand, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Key words: Karst, groundwater vulnerability, EPIK, COP, travel time, Jordan. Karst aquifers are especially sensitive to short-lived contaminants because of fast water travel times and a low storage capacity in the conduit system. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs located around 75 km northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan represent the main domestic water supply for the surrounding villages. Both springs suffer from pollution events especially during the winter season, either by microbiological contamination due to wastewater leakage from septic tanks or by wastewater discharge from local olive oil presses. To assess the vulnerability of the karst aquifer of Tanour and Rasoun spring and its sensitivity for pollution, two different intrinsic groundwater vulnerability methods were applied: EPIK and COP. In addition, a travel time vulnerability method was applied to determine the time water travels from different points in the catchment to the streams, as a function of land surface gradients and presumed lateral flow within the epikarst. For the application of the COP and EPIK, a detailed geological survey was carried out to determine karst features and the karst network development within the catchment area. In addition, parameters, such as soil data, long term daily precipitation data, land use and topographical data were collected. For the application of the travel time vulnerability method, flow length, hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, and slope gradient was used in order to determining the travel time in days. ArcGIS software was used for map preparation. The results of the combined vulnerability methods (COP, EPIK and travel time) show a high percentage of "very high" to "moderate" vulnerable areas within the catchment area of Tanour and Rasoun karst springs. Therefore, protection of the catchment area of Tanour and Rasoun springs from pollution and proper management of land use types is urgently needed to maintain the quality of drinking water in the

  9. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  10. Estimation of ground-water travel time at the Hanford Site: Description, past work, and future needs

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Graham, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The time for a contaminant to travel from a source to the biosphere is only one component of evaluating the consequences of ground-water contamination in the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site. The three components necessary for evaluating consequences of contamination are the location of contaminant outflow to the biosphere, the time of contaminant arrival at the outflow location, and the quantity of contaminants reaching the outflow location. This report focuses on one component, the contaminant arrival time or travel time, because variations in estimates of this parameter at the Hanford Site have generated considerable interest. 58 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Improved tests for global warming trend extraction in ocean acoustic travel-time data. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bottone, S.; Gray, H.L.; Woodward, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    A possible indication of the existence of global climate warming is the presence of a trend in the travel time of an acoustic signal along several ocean paths over a period of many years. This report describes new, improved tests for testing for linear trend in time series data with correlated residuals. We introduce a bootstrap based procedure to test for trend in this setting which is better adapted to controlling the significance levels. The procedure is applied to acoustic travel time data generated by the MASIG ocean model. It is shown how to generalize the improved method to multivariate, or vector, time series, which, in the ocean acoustics setting, corresponds to travel time data on many ocean paths. An appendix describes the TRENDS software, which enables the user to perform these calculations using a graphical user interface (GUI).

  12. Petri Net Decomposition Approach for Bi-Objective Routing for AGV Systems Minimizing Total Traveling Time and Equalizing Delivery Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Shuhei; Nishi, Tatsushi; Mariyama, Toshisada; Kataoka, Satomi; Shoda, Kazuya; Matsumura, Katsuhiko

    In this paper, we propose Petri net decomposition approach for bi-objective optimization of conflict-free routing for AGV systems. The objective is minimizing total traveling time and equalizing delivery time simultaneously. The dispatching and conflict-free routing problem for AGVs is represented as a bi-objective optimal firing sequence problem for Petri Net. A Petri net decomposition approach is proposed to solve the bi-objective optimization problem efficiently. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is improved reducing search region by the proposed coordination method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is compared with that of a nearest neighborhood dispatching method. Computational results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Travel time analysis for a subsurface drained sub-watershed in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runoff travel time, which is a function of watershed and storm characteristics, is an important parameter affecting the prediction accuracy of hydrologic models. Although, time of concentration (tc) is a most widely used time parameter, it has multiple conceptual and computational definitions. Most ...

  14. Efficient mass transport by optical advection

    PubMed Central

    Kajorndejnukul, Veerachart; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    2015-01-01

    Advection is critical for efficient mass transport. For instance, bare diffusion cannot explain the spatial and temporal scales of some of the cellular processes. The regulation of intracellular functions is strongly influenced by the transport of mass at low Reynolds numbers where viscous drag dominates inertia. Mimicking the efficacy and specificity of the cellular machinery has been a long time pursuit and, due to inherent flexibility, optical manipulation is of particular interest. However, optical forces are relatively small and cannot significantly modify diffusion properties. Here we show that the effectiveness of microparticle transport can be dramatically enhanced by recycling the optical energy through an effective optical advection process. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that this new advection mechanism permits an efficient control of collective and directional mass transport in colloidal systems. The cooperative long-range interaction between large numbers of particles can be optically manipulated to create complex flow patterns, enabling efficient and tunable transport in microfluidic lab-on-chip platforms. PMID:26440069

  15. High Order Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian

    2014-11-01

    In most fluid phenomena, advection plays an important roll. A numerical scheme capable of making quantitative predictions and simulations must compute correctly the advection terms appearing in the equations governing fluid flow. Here we present a high order forward semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme specifically tailored to compute material derivatives. The scheme relies on the geometrical interpretation of material derivatives to compute the time evolution of fields on grids that deform with the material fluid domain, an interpolating procedure of arbitrary order that preserves the moments of the interpolated distributions, and a nonlinear mapping strategy to perform interpolations between undeformed and deformed grids. Additionally, a discontinuity criterion was implemented to deal with discontinuous fields and shocks. Tests of pure advection, shock formation and nonlinear phenomena are presented to show performance and convergence of the scheme. The high computational cost is considerably reduced when implemented on massively parallel architectures found in graphic cards. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).

  16. Crosswell acoustic surveying in gas sands: Travel-time pattern recognition, seismic Q and channel waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, J. N.; Johnson, P. A.

    The application of crosswell acoustic measurements to gas sands research has been explored through surveys conducted in the Mesa Verde formation at the Department of Energy Multi-Well Experiment (MWX) site near Rifle, Colorado. The borehole tools used in the survey are similar in concept to those used in commercial service for sonic logging, but they are especially adapted for the stringent requirements of crosswell shooting in hot gas wells. Important information about the geologic structure between wells can be extracted from crosswell scans without resorting to elaborate processing. A useful representation is a display of the travel time of P-waves in terms of the cylindrical coordinates of the transmitter referenced to the receiver. This is known as a gamma-depth ((GAMMA)-Z) plot. Such a representation may yield distinctive patterns, which can be interpreted based on the successful replication of the pattern through computer simulations.

  17. The time travelling self: comparing self and other in narratives of past and future events.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Prabhakar, Janani; Anglin, Stephanie M; Hudson, Judith A

    2013-09-01

    Mental time travel research emphasizes the connection between past and future thinking, whereas autobiographical memory research emphasizes the interrelationship of self and memory. This study explored the relationship between self and memory when thinking about both past and future events. Participants reported events from the near and distant past and future, for themselves, a close friend, or an acquaintance. Past events were rated higher in phenomenological quality than future events, and near self events were rated higher in quality than those about friends. Although future events were more positive than past events, only valence ratings for self and close friend showed a linear increase in positivity from distant past to future. Content analysis showed that this increase in positivity could not be ascribed to choosing events from the cultural life script. These findings provide evidence for the role of personal goals in imagining the future.

  18. Personality and mental time travel: a differential approach to autonoetic consciousness.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel; Mottet, Caroline

    2008-12-01

    Recent research on autonoetic consciousness indicates that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are closely related. The purpose of the present study was to confirm this proposition by examining whether the relationship observed between personality and episodic memory could be extended to episodic future thinking and, more generally, to investigate the influence of personality traits on self-information processing in the past and in the future. Results show that Neuroticism and Harm Avoidance predict more negative past memories and future projections. Other personality dimensions exhibit a more limited influence on mental time travel (MTT). Therefore, our study provide an additional evidence to the idea that MTT into the past and into the future rely on a common set of processes by which past experiences are used to envision the future. PMID:18508283

  19. A New Non-Hausdorff Spacetime Model for Resolution of the Time Travel Paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharlow, Mark F.

    1998-03-01

    Physicists interested in chronology-violating spacetimes have considered various strategies for avoiding the time travel paradoxes which can arise in those spacetimes. One such strategy is the adoption of a branching (non-Hausdorff) topology for spacetime. Branching spacetime models also arise in other physical contexts, such as the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. A known objection to the idea of branching spacetime stems from the fact that an observer in such a spacetime may have multiple futures or pasts. In this paper I describe a new non-Hausdorff spacetime model in which each observer has a unique history. This model differs topologically from previous non-Hausdorff spacetime models in that is not aT1-space.

  20. Inverting travel times with a triplication. [spline fitting technique applied to lunar seismic data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarosch, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the use of constrained spline fits is used to overcome the difficulties arising when body-wave data in the form of T-delta are reduced to the tau-p form in the presence of cusps. In comparison with unconstrained spline fits, the method proposed here tends to produce much smoother models which lie approximately in the middle of the bounds produced by the extremal method. The method is noniterative and, therefore, computationally efficient. The method is applied to the lunar seismic data, where at least one triplication is presumed to occur in the P-wave travel-time curve. It is shown, however, that because of an insufficient number of data points for events close to the antipode of the center of the lunar network, the present analysis is not accurate enough to resolve the problem of a possible lunar core.

  1. Solute travel time in the vadose zone under RWMC at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, J.C.P.; Tian, J.

    1995-02-27

    Solute transport in the vadose zone under the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is considered. The objective is to assess the relative importance of variables involved in modeling the travel time of a conservative solute from ground surface to water table. The vadose zone under RWMC is composed of several layers of basalt flows interceded with sediment layers. The thickness of the layers varies with location. The hydraulic properties also vary. The extents of the variations are large, with standard deviations exceed mean in some instances. The vadose zone is idealized as composed of horizontal layers. Solute transport starts at the ground surface and moves vertically downwards to the water table. The perceived process is one-dimensional. This study used VS2DT, a computer code developed by the US Geological Survey, for simulating solute transport in variably saturated porous media.

  2. Integrating stochastic time-dependent travel speed in solution methods for the dynamic dial-a-ride problem

    PubMed Central

    Schilde, M.; Doerner, K.F.; Hartl, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In urban areas, logistic transportation operations often run into problems because travel speeds change, depending on the current traffic situation. If not accounted for, time-dependent and stochastic travel speeds frequently lead to missed time windows and thus poorer service. Especially in the case of passenger transportation, it often leads to excessive passenger ride times as well. Therefore, time-dependent and stochastic influences on travel speeds are relevant for finding feasible and reliable solutions. This study considers the effect of exploiting statistical information available about historical accidents, using stochastic solution approaches for the dynamic dial-a-ride problem (dynamic DARP). The authors propose two pairs of metaheuristic solution approaches, each consisting of a deterministic method (average time-dependent travel speeds for planning) and its corresponding stochastic version (exploiting stochastic information while planning). The results, using test instances with up to 762 requests based on a real-world road network, show that in certain conditions, exploiting stochastic information about travel speeds leads to significant improvements over deterministic approaches. PMID:25844013

  3. Spatially Distributed Characterization of Catchment Dynamics Using Travel-Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heße, F.; Zink, M.; Attinger, S.

    2015-12-01

    The description of storage and transport of both water and solved contaminants in catchments is very difficult due to the high heterogeneity of the subsurface properties that govern their fate. This heterogeneity, combined with a generally limited knowledge about the subsurface, results in high degrees of uncertainty. As a result, stochastic methods are increasingly applied, where the relevant processes are modeled as being random. Within these methods, quantities like the catchment travel or residence time of a water parcel are described using probability density functions (PDF). The derivation of these PDF's is typically done by using the water fluxes and states of the catchment. A successful application of such frameworks is therefore contingent on a good quantification of these fluxes and states across the different spatial scales. The objective of this study is to use travel times for the characterization of an ca. 1000 square kilometer, humid catchment in Central Germany. To determine the states and fluxes, we apply the mesoscale Hydrological Model mHM, a spatially distributed hydrological model to the catchment. Using detailed data of precipitation, land cover, morphology and soil type as inputs, mHM is able to determine fluxes like recharge and evapotranspiration and states like soil moisture as outputs. Using these data, we apply the above theoretical framework to our catchment. By virtue of the aforementioned properties of mHM, we are able to describe the storage and release of water with a high spatial resolution. This allows for a comprehensive description of the flow and transport dynamics taking place in the catchment. The spatial distribution of such dynamics is then compared with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and temperature to determine the most predictive factors. In addition, we investigate how non-local data like the age distribution of discharge flows are impacted by, and therefore allow to infer

  4. Spatially Distributed Characterization of Soil Dynamics Using Travel-Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Falk; Zink, Matthias; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The description of storage and transport of both water and solved contaminants in catchments is very difficult due to the high heterogeneity of the subsurface properties that govern their fate. This heterogeneity, combined with a generally limited knowledge about the subsurface, results in high degrees of uncertainty. As a result, stochastic methods are increasingly applied, where the relevant processes are modeled as being random. Within these methods, quantities like the catchment travel or residence time of a water parcel are described using probability density functions (PDF). The derivation of these PDF's is typically done by using the water fluxes and states of the catchment. A successful application of such frameworks is therefore contingent on a good quantification of these fluxes and states across the different spatial scales. The objective of this study is to use travel times for the characterization of an ca. 1000 square kilometer, humid catchment in Central Germany. To determine the states and fluxes, we apply the mesoscale Hydrological Model mHM, a spatially distributed hydrological model to the catchment. Using detailed data of precipitation, land cover, morphology and soil type as inputs, mHM is able to determine fluxes like recharge and evapotranspiration and states like soil moisture as outputs. Using these data, we apply the above theoretical framework to our catchment. By virtue of the aforementioned properties of mHM, we are able to describe the storage and release of water with a high spatial resolution. This allows for a comprehensive description of the flow and transport dynamics taking place in the catchment. The spatial distribution of such dynamics is then compared with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to determine the most predictive factors. In addition, we investigate how non-local data like the age distribution of discharge flows are impacted by, and

  5. Modeling the light-travel-time effect on the far-infrared size of IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the far-infrared emission from the large circumstellar dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216 are used to assess the importance of the light-travel-time effect (LTTE) on the observed size of the source. The central star is a long-period variable with an average period of 644 +/- 17 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of two magnituds, so a large light-travel-time effect is seen at 1 min radius. An attempt is made to use the LTTE to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations of Fazio et al. and Lester et al. regarding the far-infrared source size. This discrepancy is reviewed in light of recent, high-spatial-resolution observations at 11 microns by Danchi et al. We conclude that IRC +10216 has been resolved on the arcminute scale by Fazio et al. Convolution of the model intensity profile at 61 microns with the 60 sec x 90 sec Gaussian beam of Fazio et al. yields an observed source size full width at half maximum (FWHM) that ranges from approximately 67 sec to 75 sec depending on the phase of the star and the assumed distance to the source. Using a simple r(exp -2) dust distribution and the 106 deg phase of the Fazio et al. observations, the LTTE model reaches a peak size of 74.3 sec at a distance of 300 pc. This agrees favorably with the 78 sec x 6 sec size measured by Fazio et al. Finally, a method is outlined for using the LTTE as a distance indicator to IRC +10216 and other stars with extended mass outflows.

  6. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time-distance helioseismology pipeline has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time-distance helioseismology: a Gabor wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, 2004). Using Doppler velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference travel-time perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (1997) and Gizon and Birch (2002). We investigated the relationships among these three travel-time definitions, their sensitivities to fitting parameters, and estimated the random errors they produce

  7. Does Involuntary Mental Time Travel Make Sense in Prospective Teachers' Feelings and Behaviors during Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay; Yesilbursa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of involuntary mental time travel into the past and into the future on prospective teachers' feelings and behaviors during the period of a class hour. A total of 110 prospective teachers participated voluntarily in the study. The results of the present study showed that (a) the involuntary mental time travel…

  8. A Novel View of Space-Time Permitting Faster-Than-Light Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meholic, Gregory

    2000-04-01

    The mathematically symmetrical nature of general relativity suggests that for a given absolute energy state, a particle of real mass must be moving either slower or faster than the speed of light. Relativistic symmetry implies that the sub and superluminal realms can therefore be construed as separate space-times with a common, unattainable boundary condition (the luminal plane), and both can contain particles with real and quantifiable properties. Although mass energy can only exist in one space-time and distort the luminal plane to create gravity, the disturbance can be observed in the other space as an equal gravitational distortion with no associated mass. The postulated characteristics of superluminal space, its resident particles, and their similarity to entities in subluminal space reveal a possible connection between the space-times which lies deep within the quantum-mechanical events observed thus far. Quarks may hold the key to these events and seem capable of existing and jumping between sub and superluminal spaces. If a subluminal mass were converted at the quark-level of matter to exist in superluminal space, traveling faster than light would be possible without violating causality and relativity.

  9. SENSITIVITY OF HELIOSEISMIC TRAVEL TIMES TO THE IMPOSITION OF A LORENTZ FORCE LIMITER IN COMPUTATIONAL HELIOSEISMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Hamed; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-02-20

    The rapid exponential increase in the Alfvén wave speed with height above the solar surface presents a serious challenge to physical modeling of the effects of magnetic fields on solar oscillations, as it introduces a significant Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time-step constraint for explicit numerical codes. A common approach adopted in computational helioseismology, where long simulations in excess of 10 hr (hundreds of wave periods) are often required, is to cap the Alfvén wave speed by artificially modifying the momentum equation when the ratio between the Lorentz and hydrodynamic forces becomes too large. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Alfvén wave speed plays a critical role in the MHD mode conversion process, particularly in determining the reflection height of the upwardly propagating helioseismic fast wave. Using numerical simulations of helioseismic wave propagation in constant inclined (relative to the vertical) magnetic fields we demonstrate that the imposition of such artificial limiters significantly affects time-distance travel times unless the Alfvén wave-speed cap is chosen comfortably in excess of the horizontal phase speeds under investigation.

  10. A field assessment of high resolution aquifer characterization: Coupling of hydraulic travel time and hydraulic attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge about the spatial variations in hydraulic properties plays an important role controlling solute movement in saturated flow systems. Traditional hydrogeological approaches appear to have difficulties providing high resolution parameter estimates. Thus, we have decided to develop an approach coupling hydraulic travel time and attenuation tomography. Hydraulic travel time tomography is based on the transformation of the transient ground water flow equation into the eikonal equation using an asymptotic approach. The eikonal equation can be solved with ray tracing techniques, which allow the calculation of pressure propagation along trajectories. As the travel time of a hydraulic signal depends on the diffusivity of the investigated media, it is difficult to separate it into its components hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. In order to overcome this problem we perform next to the travel time inversion an inversion which is based on the relationship between attenuation of a hydraulic signal travelling between source and receiver, and the specific storage of the investigated media. Both inversion techniques are based on ray tracing, which allows the inversion of large data sets in a short time on a common PC. The attenuation and travel time based inversion approaches are naturally complementary: Hydraulic travel times are determined by the hydraulic diffusivity, a combination of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage, whereas the attenuation is determined solely by specific storage. Thus, combining these two approaches will allow the independent identification of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. The potential of our hydraulic tomographical approach was investigated at a well-characterized sand and gravel aquifer located in the Leine River valley near Goettingen, Germany. The data base for the hydraulic inversion consists of 400 pressure cross-hole slug tests performed between five wells in which the positions of the sources (injection

  11. Advective pathways near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula: Trends, variability and ecosystem implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Angelika H. H.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Heywood, Karen J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Watkins, Jon L.; Meredith, Michael P.

    2012-05-01

    Pathways and rates of ocean flow near the Antarctic Peninsula are strongly affected by frontal features, forcings from the atmosphere and the cryosphere. In the surface mixed layer, the currents advect material from the northwestern Weddell Sea on the eastern side of the Peninsula around the tip of the Peninsula to its western side and into the Scotia Sea, connecting populations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and supporting the ecosystem of the region. Modelling of subsurface drifters using a particle tracking algorithm forced by the velocity fields of a coupled sea ice-ocean model (ORCA025-LIM2) allows analysis of the seasonal and interannual variability of drifter pathways over 43 years. The results show robust and persistent connections from the Weddell Sea both to the west into the Bellingshausen Sea and across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia, reproducing well the observations. The fate of the drifters is sensitive to their deployment location, in addition to other factors. From the shelf of the eastern Antarctic Peninsula, the majority enter the Bransfield Strait and subsequently the Bellingshausen Sea. When originating further offshore over the deeper Weddell Sea, drifters are more likely to cross the South Scotia Ridge and reach South Georgia. However, the wind field east and southeast of Elephant Island, close to the tip of the Peninsula, is crucial for the drifter trajectories and is highly influenced by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Increased advection and short travel times to South Georgia, and reduced advection to the western Antarctic Peninsula can be linked to strong westerlies, a signature of the positive phase of the SAM. The converse is true for the negative phase. Strong westerlies and shifts of ocean fronts near the tip of the Peninsula that are potentially associated with both the SAM and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation restrict the connection from the Weddell Sea to the west, and drifters then predominantly follow the open

  12. Travel Times, Streamflow Velocities, and Dispersion Rates in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is a vital natural resource to the residents of southeastern Montana and is a primary source of water for irrigation and recreation and the primary source of municipal water for several cities. The Yellowstone River valley is the primary east-west transportation corridor through southern Montana. This complex of infrastructure makes the Yellowstone River especially vulnerable to accidental spills from various sources such as tanker cars and trucks. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine instream travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates for the Yellowstone River from Lockwood to Glendive, Montana. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of this study and summarize data collected at each of the measurement sites between Lockwood and Glendive. This report also compares the results of this study to estimated travel times from a transport model developed by the USGS for a previous study. For this study, Rhodamine WT dye was injected at four locations in late September and early October 2008 during reasonably steady streamflow conditions. Streamflows ranged from 3,490 to 3,770 cubic feet per second upstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River and ranged from 6,520 to 7,570 cubic feet per second downstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume for subreaches that were completely laterally mixed ranged from 1.83 to 3.18 ft/s within the study reach from Lockwood Bridge to Glendive Bridge. The mean of the completely mixed centroid velocity for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between Forsyth Bridge and Cartersville Dam, was 2.80 ft/s. Longitudinal

  13. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  14. Simulation of Runoff Hydrograph on Soil Surfaces with Different Microtopography Using a Travel Time Method at the Plot Scale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longshan; Wu, Faqi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple travel time-based runoff model was proposed to simulate a runoff hydrograph on soil surfaces with different microtopographies. Three main parameters, i.e., rainfall intensity (I), mean flow velocity (vm) and ponding time of depression (tp), were inputted into this model. The soil surface was divided into numerous grid cells, and the flow length of each grid cell (li) was then calculated from a digital elevation model (DEM). The flow velocity in each grid cell (vi) was derived from the upstream flow accumulation area using vm. The total flow travel time through each grid cell to the surface outlet was the sum of the sum of flow travel times along the flow path (i.e., the sum of li/vi) and tp. The runoff rate at the slope outlet for each respective travel time was estimated by finding the sum of the rain rate from all contributing cells for all time intervals. The results show positive agreement between the measured and predicted runoff hydrographs.

  15. Simulation of Runoff Hydrograph on Soil Surfaces with Different Microtopography Using a Travel Time Method at the Plot Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Longshan; Wu, Faqi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple travel time-based runoff model was proposed to simulate a runoff hydrograph on soil surfaces with different microtopographies. Three main parameters, i.e., rainfall intensity (I), mean flow velocity (vm) and ponding time of depression (tp), were inputted into this model. The soil surface was divided into numerous grid cells, and the flow length of each grid cell (li) was then calculated from a digital elevation model (DEM). The flow velocity in each grid cell (vi) was derived from the upstream flow accumulation area using vm. The total flow travel time through each grid cell to the surface outlet was the sum of the sum of flow travel times along the flow path (i.e., the sum of li/vi) and tp. The runoff rate at the slope outlet for each respective travel time was estimated by finding the sum of the rain rate from all contributing cells for all time intervals. The results show positive agreement between the measured and predicted runoff hydrographs. PMID:26103635

  16. Mental time travel for self and other in three- and four-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Payne, Grace; Taylor, Rosanne; Hayne, Harlene; Scarf, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Humans possess the unique ability to mentally travel backward in time to re-experience past events (i.e., episodic memory) and forward in time to pre-experience future events (i.e., episodic foresight). Although originally viewed as different cognitive skills, they are now both viewed as components of the episodic memory system. Recently, it has been suggested that the episodic system may allow us to not only pre-experience and predict our own future but also that of another person. In the current study, we investigate this possibility by examining the ability of three- and four-year-old children to plan for their own future and for that of another person. We found that both three- and four-year-old children performed equally, when planning for their own future or when planning for the experimenter's future. These data are consistent with the finding that planning for someone else's future recruits the same neural structures that are used when planning for one's own future.

  17. Intersymbol Interference Investigations Using a 3D Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, a physics based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the TWT (Traveling Wave Tube) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept amplitude and/or swept frequency data. The fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, TWT interaction model using the electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. This model is used to investigate assumptions made in TWT black box models used in communication system level simulations. In addition, digital signal performance, including intersymbol interference (ISI), is compared using direct data input into the MAFIA model and using the system level analysis tool, SPW (Signal Processing Worksystem).

  18. Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model for Intersymbol Interference Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, a computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the traveling wave tube (TWT) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion, gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept-amplitude and/or swept-frequency data. The fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, TWT interaction model using the electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. This model is used to investigate assumptions made in TWT black-box models used in communication system level simulations. In addition, digital signal performance, including intersymbol interference (ISI), is compared using direct data input into the MAFIA model and using the system level analysis tool, SPW.

  19. Intersymbol Interference Investigations Using a 3D Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Tube Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a time-dependent, physics-based computational model has been used to provide a direct description of the effects of the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) on modulated digital signals. The TWT model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversion; gain and phase ripple; drive-induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves. Thus, signal integrity can be investigated in the presence of these sources of potential distortion as a function of the physical geometry and operating characteristics of the high power amplifier and the operational digital signal. This method promises superior predictive fidelity compared to methods using TWT models based on swept- amplitude and/or swept-frequency data. First, the TWT model using the three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic code MAFIA is presented. Then, this comprehensive model is used to investigate approximations made in conventional TWT black-box models used in communication system level simulations. To quantitatively demonstrate the effects these approximations have on digital signal performance predictions, including intersymbol interference (ISI), the MAFIA results are compared to the system level analysis tool, Signal Processing Workstation (SPW), using high order modulation schemes including 16 and 64-QAM.

  20. The inverse problem of refraction travel times, part I: Types of Geophysical Nonuniqueness through Minimization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.; Park, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a set of two papers we study the inverse problem of refraction travel times. The purpose of this work is to use the study as a basis for development of more sophisticated methods for finding more reliable solutions to the inverse problem of refraction travel times, which is known to be nonunique. The first paper, "Types of Geophysical Nonuniqueness through Minimization," emphasizes the existence of different forms of nonuniqueness in the realm of inverse geophysical problems. Each type of nonuniqueness requires a different type and amount of a priori information to acquire a reliable solution. Based on such coupling, a nonuniqueness classification is designed. Therefore, since most inverse geophysical problems are nonunique, each inverse problem must be studied to define what type of nonuniqueness it belongs to and thus determine what type of a priori information is necessary to find a realistic solution. The second paper, "Quantifying Refraction Nonuniqueness Using a Three-layer Model," serves as an example of such an approach. However, its main purpose is to provide a better understanding of the inverse refraction problem by studying the type of nonuniqueness it possesses. An approach for obtaining a realistic solution to the inverse refraction problem is planned to be offered in a third paper that is in preparation. The main goal of this paper is to redefine the existing generalized notion of nonuniqueness and a priori information by offering a classified, discriminate structure. Nonuniqueness is often encountered when trying to solve inverse problems. However, possible nonuniqueness diversity is typically neglected and nonuniqueness is regarded as a whole, as an unpleasant "black box" and is approached in the same manner by applying smoothing constraints, damping constraints with respect to the solution increment and, rarely, damping constraints with respect to some sparse reference information about the true parameters. In practice, when solving geophysical

  1. Active source monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time forstress induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, P.G.; Daley, T.M.; Niu, F.; Majer, E.L.

    2006-11-11

    We have conducted a series of cross-well experiments tocontinuously measure in situ temporal variations in seismic velocity attwo test sites: building 64 (B64) and Richmond Field Station (RFS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. A piezoelectricsource was used to generate highly repeatable signals, and a string of 24hydrophones was used to record the signals. The B64 experiment wasconducted utilizing two boreholes 17 m deep and 3 m apart for 160 h. AtRFS, we collected a 36-day continuous record in a cross-borehole facilityusing two 70-m-deep holes separated by 30 m. With signal enhancementtechniques we were able to achieve a precision of 6.0 nsec and 10 nsec indelay-time estimation from stacking of 1-hr records during the ?7- and?35-day observation periods at the B64 and RFS sites, which correspond to3 and 0.5 ppm of their travel times, respectively. Delay time measured atB64 has a variation of ?2 lsec in the 160-hr period and shows a strongand positive correlation with the barometric pressure change at the site.At RFS, after removal of a linear trend, we find a delay-time variationof 2.5 lsec, which exhibits a significant negative correlation withbarometric pressure. We attribute the observed correlations to stresssensitivity of seismic velocity known from laboratory studies. Thepositive and negative sign observed in the correlation is likely relatedto the expected near- and far-field effects of this stress dependence ina poroelastic medium. The stress sensitivity is estimated to be 10 6/Paand 10 7/Pa at the B64 and RFS site, respectively.

  2. Improvements of Travel-time Tomography Models from Joint Inversion of Multi-channel and Wide-angle Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begović, Slaven; Ranero, César; Sallarès, Valentí; Meléndez, Adrià; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Commonly multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and wide-angle seismic (WAS) data are modeled and interpreted with different approaches. Conventional travel-time tomography models using solely WAS data lack the resolution to define the model properties and, particularly, the geometry of geologic boundaries (reflectors) with the required accuracy, specially in the shallow complex upper geological layers. We plan to mitigate this issue by combining these two different data sets, specifically taking advantage of the high redundancy of multichannel seismic (MCS) data, integrated with wide-angle seismic (WAS) data into a common inversion scheme to obtain higher-resolution velocity models (Vp), decrease Vp uncertainty and improve the geometry of reflectors. To do so, we have adapted the tomo2d and tomo3d joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography codes (Korenaga et al, 2000; Meléndez et al, 2015) to deal with streamer data and MCS acquisition geometries. The scheme results in a joint travel-time tomographic inversion based on integrated travel-time information from refracted and reflected phases from WAS data and reflected identified in the MCS common depth point (CDP) or shot gathers. To illustrate the advantages of a common inversion approach we have compared the modeling results for synthetic data sets using two different travel-time inversion strategies: We have produced seismic velocity models and reflector geometries following typical refraction and reflection travel-time tomographic strategy modeling just WAS data with a typical acquisition geometry (one OBS each 10 km). Second, we performed joint inversion of two types of seismic data sets, integrating two coincident data sets consisting of MCS data collected with a 8 km-long streamer and the WAS data into a common inversion scheme. Our synthetic results of the joint inversion indicate a 5-10 times smaller ray travel-time misfit in the deeper parts of the model, compared to models obtained using just

  3. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Solar Dynamics Observatory-Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler-velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time - distance helioseismology pipeline (Zhao et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2010) has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross-covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time - distance helioseismology: a Gabor-wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004). Using Doppler-velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument onboard SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference traveltime perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet-Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997) and Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002). We investigated the relationships among

  4. Where the ocean influences the impulse response and its effect on synchronous changes of acoustic travel time.

    PubMed

    Spiesberger, John L

    2011-12-01

    In 1983, sounds at 133 Hz, 0.06 s resolution were transmitted in the Pacific for five days at 2 min intervals over 3709 km between bottom-mounted instruments maintained with atomic clocks. In 1989, a technique was developed to measure changes in acoustic travel time with an accuracy of 135 microseconds at 2 min intervals for selected windows of travel time within the impulse response. The data have short-lived 1 to 10 ms oscillations of travel time with periods less than a few days. Excluding tidal effects, different windows exhibited significant synchronized changes in travel time for periods shorter than 10 h. In the 1980s, this phenomenon was not understood because internal waves have correlation lengths of a few kilometers which are smaller than the way sound was thought to sample the ocean along well-separated and distinct rays corresponding to different windows. The paradox's resolution comes from modern theories that replace the ray-picture with finite wavelength representations that predict sound can be influenced in the upper ocean over horizontal scales such as 20 km or more. Thus, different windows are influenced by the same short-scale fluctuations of sound speed. This conclusion is supported by the data and numerical simulations of the impulse response.

  5. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  6. Travel-time correction surface generation for the DOE Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    Hipp, J.; Young, C.; Keyser, R.

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Knowledge Base data storage and access model consists of three parts: raw data processing, intermediate surface generation, and final output surface interpolation. The paper concentrates on the second step, surface generation, specifically applied to travel-time correction data. The surface generation for the intermediate step is accomplished using a modified kriging solution that provides robust error estimates for each for each interpolated point and satisfies many important physical requirements including differing quality data points, user-definable range of influence for each point, blend to background values for both interpolated values and error estimates beyond the ranges, and the ability to account for the effects of geologic region boundaries. These requirements are outlined and discussed and are linked to requirements specified for the final output model in the DOE Knowledge Base. Future work will focus on testing the entire Knowledge Base model using the regional calibration data sets which are being gathered by researchers at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories.

  7. Data-driven aggregative schemes for multisource estimation fusion: a road travel time application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin

    2004-04-01

    The principal motivation for combining estimators has been to avoid the a priori choice of which estimation method to use, by attempting to aggregate all the information which each estimation model embodies. In selecting the "best" model, one is often discarding useful independent evidence in those models which are rejected. This paper deals with estimation fusion; that is, data fusion for the purpose of estimation. More specifically, estimation fusion is studied under heterogeneous data source configurations. Two estimation fusion schemes could be considered: projective and aggregative. An unified linear model and general framework for later schemes are established. Explicit optimal fusion strategies in the sense of the best linear estimation and weighted least squares are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed schemes was conducted on the traffic application, namely, travel time estimation in a given path of a road network. In this problem, data comes from sensors and other sources of information geographically distributed where communication limitations and other considerations often eliminate the possibility of transmitting the observations into a central node processing where computation is performed.

  8. Causes of intraplate seismicity in central Brazil from travel time seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Azevedo, Paulo Araújo de; Marotta, Giuliano Sant'Anna; Schimmel, Martin; Fuck, Reinhardt

    2016-06-01

    New results of travel time seismic tomography in central Brazil provide evidence that the relatively high seismicity in this region is related to the thinner lithosphere at the limit between the Amazonian and São Francisco paleocontinents. The transition between these paleocontinents is marked by low velocity anomalies, spatially well correlated with the high seismicity region, which are interpreted as related to the lithospheric thinning and consequent rise of the asthenosphere, which have increased the temperature in this region. The low-velocity anomalies suggest a weakness region, favorable to the build-up of stress. The effective elastic thickness and the strain/stress regime for the study area are in agreement with tomographic results. A high-velocity trend is observed beneath the Parnaíba Basin, where low seismicity is observed, indicating the presence of a cratonic core. Our results support the idea that the intraplate seismicity in central Brazil is related to the thin lithosphere underlying parts of the Tocantins Province between the neighboring large cratonic blocks.

  9. Pinsker estimators for local helioseismology: inversion of travel times for mass-conserving flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Damien; Gizon, Laurent; Holzke, Martin; Hohage, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    A major goal of helioseismology is the three-dimensional reconstruction of the three velocity components of convective flows in the solar interior from sets of wave travel-time measurements. For small amplitude flows, the forward problem is described in good approximation by a large system of convolution equations. The input observations are highly noisy random vectors with a known dense covariance matrix. This leads to a large statistical linear inverse problem. Whereas for deterministic linear inverse problems several computationally efficient minimax optimal regularization methods exist, only one minimax-optimal linear estimator exists for statistical linear inverse problems: the Pinsker estimator. However, it is often computationally inefficient because it requires a singular value decomposition of the forward operator or it is not applicable because of an unknown noise covariance matrix, so it is rarely used for real-world problems. These limitations do not apply in helioseismology. We present a simplified proof of the optimality properties of the Pinsker estimator and show that it yields significantly better reconstructions than traditional inversion methods used in helioseismology, i.e. regularized least squares (Tikhonov regularization) and SOLA (approximate inverse) methods. Moreover, we discuss the incorporation of the mass conservation constraint in the Pinsker scheme using staggered grids. With this improvement we can reconstruct not only horizontal, but also vertical velocity components that are much smaller in amplitude.

  10. A model of episodic memory: mental time travel along encoded trajectories using grid cells.

    PubMed

    Hasselmo, Michael E

    2009-11-01

    The definition of episodic memory includes the concept of mental time travel: the ability to re-experience a previously experienced trajectory through continuous dimensions of space and time, and to recall specific events or stimuli along this trajectory. Lesions of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex impair human episodic memory function and impair rat performance in tasks that could be solved by retrieval of trajectories. Recent physiological data suggests a novel model for encoding and retrieval of trajectories, and for associating specific stimuli with specific positions along the trajectory. During encoding in the model, external input drives the activity of head direction cells. Entorhinal grid cells integrate the head direction input to update an internal representation of location, and drive hippocampal place cells. Trajectories are encoded by Hebbian modification of excitatory synaptic connections between hippocampal place cells and head direction cells driven by external action. Associations are also formed between hippocampal cells and sensory stimuli. During retrieval, a sensory input cue activates hippocampal cells that drive head direction activity via previously modified synapses. Persistent spiking of head direction cells maintains the direction and speed of the action, updating the activity of entorhinal grid cells that thereby further update place cell activity. Additional cells, termed arc length cells, provide coding of trajectory segments based on the one-dimensional arc length from the context of prior actions or states, overcoming ambiguity where the overlap of trajectory segments causes multiple head directions to be associated with one place. These mechanisms allow retrieval of complex, self-crossing trajectories as continuous curves through space and time. PMID:19615456

  11. A model of episodic memory: mental time travel along encoded trajectories using grid cells.

    PubMed

    Hasselmo, Michael E

    2009-11-01

    The definition of episodic memory includes the concept of mental time travel: the ability to re-experience a previously experienced trajectory through continuous dimensions of space and time, and to recall specific events or stimuli along this trajectory. Lesions of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex impair human episodic memory function and impair rat performance in tasks that could be solved by retrieval of trajectories. Recent physiological data suggests a novel model for encoding and retrieval of trajectories, and for associating specific stimuli with specific positions along the trajectory. During encoding in the model, external input drives the activity of head direction cells. Entorhinal grid cells integrate the head direction input to update an internal representation of location, and drive hippocampal place cells. Trajectories are encoded by Hebbian modification of excitatory synaptic connections between hippocampal place cells and head direction cells driven by external action. Associations are also formed between hippocampal cells and sensory stimuli. During retrieval, a sensory input cue activates hippocampal cells that drive head direction activity via previously modified synapses. Persistent spiking of head direction cells maintains the direction and speed of the action, updating the activity of entorhinal grid cells that thereby further update place cell activity. Additional cells, termed arc length cells, provide coding of trajectory segments based on the one-dimensional arc length from the context of prior actions or states, overcoming ambiguity where the overlap of trajectory segments causes multiple head directions to be associated with one place. These mechanisms allow retrieval of complex, self-crossing trajectories as continuous curves through space and time.

  12. Global teleseismic earthquake relocation with improved travel times and procedures for depth determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robert, Engdah E.; Van Hilst, R. D.; Buland, Raymond P.

    1998-01-01

    We relocate nearly 100, 000 events that occurred during the period 1964 to 1995 and are well-constrained teleseismically by arrival-time data reported to the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and to the U. S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC). Hypocenter determination is significantly improved by using, in addition to regional and teleseismic P and S phases, the arrival times of PKiKP, PKPdf, and the teleseismic depth phases pP, pwP, and sP in the relocation procedure. A global probability model developed for later-arriving phases is used to independently identify the depth phases. The relocations are compared to hypocenters reported in the ISC and NEIC catalogs and by other sources. Differences in our epicenters with respect to ISC and NEIC estimates are generally small and regionally systematic due to the combined effects of the observing station network and plate geometry regionally, differences in upper mantle travel times between the reference earth models used, and the use of later-arriving phases. Focal depths are improved substantially over most other independent estimates, demonstrating (for example) how regional structures such as downgoing slabs can severely bias depth estimation when only regional and teleseismic P arrivals are used to determine the hypocenter. The new data base, which is complete to about Mw 5. 2 and includes all events for which moment-tensor solutions are available, has immediate application to high-resolution definition of Wadati-Benioff Zones (WBZs) worldwide, regional and global tomographic imaging, and other studies of earth structure.

  13. Measurement and Interpretation of Travel-Time Shifts in the context of Time-Distance Helioseismic Detection of Meridional Flows in the Solar Convection Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Hanasoge, S.; Hartlep, T.; Larson, T. P.; Kholikov, S.

    2014-12-01

    The role of meridional flow in maintaining the solar dynamo and differential rotation in the solar convection zone is not well understood and is currently under scrutiny. The traditional flux-transport dynamo models have posited the well known single-cell meridional flow with poleward flow at the photosphere and equatorward flow near the base of the convection zone. However, recent investigations seem to be revealing a different picture of meridional flow which is double celled in the radial direction with poleward flow at the photosphere and equatorward flow at a much shallower level in the convection zone. In this work time-distance helioseismology is used to probe the solar convection zone to accurately determine the structure of meridional circulation. Helioseismology uses the photospherically visible aspect of (acoustic, surface-gravity) waves, that propagate and interfere throughout the Sun to form standing oscillation modes, as probes to make inferences about the structure and flows on the solar surface and interior. Time-distance helioseismology is based on measuring the travel-times of wave-packets moving between distinct points on the solar surface. Travel-time shifts obtained by calculating the difference in the travel-times of counter-propagating waves between the same points on the solar surface yield information about flows throughout the solar convection zone. In this work time-distance techniques are applied on artificial and solar Doppler velocity images to detect travel-time shifts due to meridional flow. Modifications are suggested to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of travel-time shift measurements. The artificial data is constructed by embedding various meridional flow models in 3D acoustic simulators, which is then used to discuss the interpretation of travel-time shifts, so that in the future an inversion procedure may be designed to calculate meridional flow velocities with greater accuracy. The solar data is obtained from the Helioseismic

  14. Advection and diffusion in shoreline change prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.; Frazer, L. N.

    2010-12-01

    We added longshore advection and diffusion to the simple cross-shore rate calculation method, as used widely by the USGS and others, to model historic shorelines and to predict future shoreline positions; and applied this to Hawaiian Island beach data. Aerial photographs, sporadically taken throughout the past century, yield usable, albeit limited, historic shoreline data. These photographs provide excellent spatial coverage, but poor temporal resolution, of the shoreline. Due to the sparse historic shoreline data, and the many natural and anthropogenic events influencing coastlines, we constructed a simplistic shoreline change model that can identify long-term behavior of a beach. Our new, two-dimensional model combines the simple rate method to accommodate for cross-shore sediment transport with the classic Pelnard-Considère model for diffusion, as well as a longshore advection speed term. Inverse methods identify cross-shore rate, longshore advection speed, and longshore diffusivity down a sandy coastline. A spatial averaging technique then identifies shoreline segments where one parameter can reasonably account for the cross-shore and longshore transport rates in that area. This produces model results with spatial resolution more appropriate to the temporal spacing of the data. Because changes in historic data can be accounted for by varying degrees of cross-shore and longshore sediment transport - for example, beach erosion can equally be explained by sand moving either off-shore or laterally - we tested several different model scenarios on the data: allowing only cross-shore sediment movement, only longshore movement, and a combination of the two. We used statistical information criteria to determine both the optimal spatial resolution and best-fitting scenario. Finally, we employed a voting method predicting the relaxed shoreline position over time.

  15. Acoustic travel time gauges for in-situ determination of pressure and temperature in multi-anvil apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Qi, Xintong; Zou, Yongtao; Liebermann, Robert C.; Li, Baosheng; Kung, Jennifer; Yu, Tony; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-08-14

    In this study, we developed a new method for in-situ pressure determination in multi-anvil, high-pressure apparatus using an acoustic travel time approach within the framework of acoustoelasticity. The ultrasonic travel times of polycrystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calibrated against NaCl pressure scale up to 15 GPa and 900 °C in a Kawai-type double-stage multi-anvil apparatus in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation, thereby providing a convenient and reliable gauge for pressure determination at ambient and high temperatures. The pressures derived from this new travel time method are in excellent agreement with those from the fixed-point methods. Application of this new pressure gauge in an offline experiment revealed a remarkable agreement of the densities of coesite with those from the previous single crystal compression studies under hydrostatic conditions, thus providing strong validation for the current travel time pressure scale. The travel time approach not only can be used for continuous in-situ pressure determination at room temperature, high temperatures, during compression and decompression, but also bears a unique capability that none of the previous scales can deliver, i.e., simultaneous pressure and temperature determination with a high accuracy (±0.16 GPa in pressure and ±17 °C in temperature). Therefore, the new in-situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pressure gauge is expected to enable new and expanded opportunities for offline laboratory studies of solid and liquid materials under high pressure and high temperature in multi-anvil apparatus.

  16. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality—an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome—deaths of strangers—by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the “Time Travel” condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a “Repetition” condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of “time travel” provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number. PMID:25228889

  17. Spatial gradients of protein-level time delays set the pace of the traveling segmentation clock waves

    PubMed Central

    Ay, Ahmet; Holland, Jack; Sperlea, Adriana; Devakanmalai, Gnanapackiam Sheela; Knierer, Stephan; Sangervasi, Sebastian; Stevenson, Angel; Özbudak, Ertuğrul M.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate segmentation clock is a gene expression oscillator controlling rhythmic segmentation of the vertebral column during embryonic development. The period of oscillations becomes longer as cells are displaced along the posterior to anterior axis, which results in traveling waves of clock gene expression sweeping in the unsegmented tissue. Although various hypotheses necessitating the inclusion of additional regulatory genes into the core clock network at different spatial locations have been proposed, the mechanism underlying traveling waves has remained elusive. Here, we combined molecular-level computational modeling and quantitative experimentation to solve this puzzle. Our model predicts the existence of an increasing gradient of gene expression time delays along the posterior to anterior direction to recapitulate spatiotemporal profiles of the traveling segmentation clock waves in different genetic backgrounds in zebrafish. We validated this prediction by measuring an increased time delay of oscillatory Her1 protein production along the unsegmented tissue. Our results refuted the need for spatial expansion of the core feedback loop to explain the occurrence of traveling waves. Spatial regulation of gene expression time delays is a novel way of creating dynamic patterns; this is the first report demonstrating such a control mechanism in any tissue and future investigations will explore the presence of analogous examples in other biological systems. PMID:25336742

  18. Spatial gradients of protein-level time delays set the pace of the traveling segmentation clock waves.

    PubMed

    Ay, Ahmet; Holland, Jack; Sperlea, Adriana; Devakanmalai, Gnanapackiam Sheela; Knierer, Stephan; Sangervasi, Sebastian; Stevenson, Angel; Ozbudak, Ertuğrul M

    2014-11-01

    The vertebrate segmentation clock is a gene expression oscillator controlling rhythmic segmentation of the vertebral column during embryonic development. The period of oscillations becomes longer as cells are displaced along the posterior to anterior axis, which results in traveling waves of clock gene expression sweeping in the unsegmented tissue. Although various hypotheses necessitating the inclusion of additional regulatory genes into the core clock network at different spatial locations have been proposed, the mechanism underlying traveling waves has remained elusive. Here, we combined molecular-level computational modeling and quantitative experimentation to solve this puzzle. Our model predicts the existence of an increasing gradient of gene expression time delays along the posterior to anterior direction to recapitulate spatiotemporal profiles of the traveling segmentation clock waves in different genetic backgrounds in zebrafish. We validated this prediction by measuring an increased time delay of oscillatory Her1 protein production along the unsegmented tissue. Our results refuted the need for spatial expansion of the core feedback loop to explain the occurrence of traveling waves. Spatial regulation of gene expression time delays is a novel way of creating dynamic patterns; this is the first report demonstrating such a control mechanism in any tissue and future investigations will explore the presence of analogous examples in other biological systems.

  19. 20 CFR 404.1008 - Agent-driver or commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. 404.1008 Section 404.1008... commission-driver, full-time life insurance salesman, home worker, or traveling or city salesman. (a) General...) Full-time life insurance salesman. A full-time life insurance salesman's main activity is selling...

  20. The first study of the light-travel time effect in massive LMC eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Pilarčík, L.; Juryšek, J.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: New CCD observations for semidetached and detached eclipsing binaries from the Large Magellanic Cloud were carried out using the Danish 1.54-m telescope located at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The selected systems were monitored for their times of minima, which were required to be able to study the period changes taking place in them. In addition, many new times of minima were derived from the photometric surveys OGLE-II, OGLE-III, and MACHO. Methods: The O-C diagrams of minima timings were analysed using the hypothesis of the light-travel time effect, i.e. assuming the orbital motion around a common barycenter with the distant component. Moreover, the light curves of these systems were also analysed using the program PHOEBE, which provided the physical parameters of the stars. Results: For the first time, in this study we derived the relatively short periods of modulation in these systems, which relates to third bodies. The orbital periods resulted from 3.6 to 11.3 yr and the eccentricities were found to be up to 0.64. This is the first time that this kind of analysis for the set of extragalactic sources has been performed. The Wolf-Rayet system OGLE-LMC-ECL-08823 is the most mysterious one, owing to the resultant high mass function. Another system, OGLE-LMC-ECL-19996, was found to contain a third body with a very high mass (M3,min = 26M⊙). One system (OGLE-LMC-ECL-09971) is suspicious because of its eccentricity, and another one (OGLE-LMC-ECL-20162) shows some light curve variability, with a possible flare-like or microlensing-like event. Conclusions: All of these results came only from the photometric observations of the systems and can be considered as a good starting point for future dedicated observations. Based on data collected with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. Path-Dependent Travel Time Prediction Variance and Covariance for a Global Tomographic P- and S-Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipp, J. R.; Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently our combined SNL-LANL research team has succeeded in developing a global, seamless 3D tomographic P- and S-velocity model (SALSA3D) that provides superior first P and first S travel time predictions at both regional and teleseismic distances. However, given the variable data quality and uneven data sampling associated with this type of model, it is essential that there be a means to calculate high-quality estimates of the path-dependent variance and covariance associated with the predicted travel times of ray paths through the model. In this paper, we describe a methodology for accomplishing this by exploiting the full model covariance matrix and show examples of path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainty computed from our latest tomographic model. Typical global 3D SALSA3D models have on the order of 1/2 million nodes, so the challenge in calculating the covariance matrix is formidable: 0.9 TB storage for 1/2 of a symmetric matrix, necessitating an Out-Of-Core (OOC) blocked matrix solution technique. With our approach the tomography matrix (G which includes a prior model covariance constraint) is multiplied by its transpose (GTG) and written in a blocked sub-matrix fashion. We employ a distributed parallel solution paradigm that solves for (GTG)-1 by assigning blocks to individual processing nodes for matrix decomposition update and scaling operations. We first find the Cholesky decomposition of GTG which is subsequently inverted. Next, we employ OOC matrix multiplication methods to calculate the model covariance matrix from (GTG)-1 and an assumed data covariance matrix. Given the model covariance matrix, we solve for the travel-time covariance associated with arbitrary ray-paths by summing the model covariance along both ray paths. Setting the paths equal and taking the square root yields the travel prediction uncertainty for the single path.

  2. Thermally driven advection for radioxenon transport from an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-05-01

    Barometric pumping is a ubiquitous process resulting in migration of gases in the subsurface that has been studied as the primary mechanism for noble gas transport from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). However, at early times following a UNE, advection driven by explosion residual heat is relevant to noble gas transport. A rigorous measure is needed for demonstrating how, when, and where advection is important. In this paper three physical processes of uncertain magnitude (oscillatory advection, matrix diffusion, and thermally driven advection) are parameterized by using boundary conditions, system properties, and source term strength. Sobol' sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the importance of all physical processes influencing the xenon signals. This study indicates that thermally driven advection plays a more important role in producing xenon signals than oscillatory advection and matrix diffusion at early times following a UNE, and xenon isotopic ratios are observed to have both time and spatial dependence.

  3. A computer program for estimating instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is very important in a variety of ways to the residents of southeastern Montana; however, it is especially vulnerable to spilled contaminants. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a study to develop a computer program to rapidly estimate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River using regression equations developed in 1999 by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to describe these equations and their limitations, describe the development of a computer program to apply the equations to the Yellowstone River, and provide detailed instructions on how to use the program. This program is available online at [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2006-5057/includes/ytot.xls]. The regression equations provide estimates of instream travel times and concentrations in rivers where little or no contaminant-transport data are available. Equations were developed and presented for the most probable flow velocity and the maximum probable flow velocity. These velocity estimates can then be used to calculate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant. The computer program was developed so estimation equations for instream travel times and concentrations can be solved quickly for sites along the Yellowstone River between Corwin Springs and Sidney, Montana. The basic types of data needed to run the program are spill data, streamflow data, and data for locations of interest along the Yellowstone River. Data output from the program includes spill location, river mileage at specified locations, instantaneous discharge, mean-annual discharge, drainage area, and channel slope. Travel times and concentrations are provided for estimates of the most probable velocity of the peak concentration and the maximum probable velocity of the peak concentration. Verification of estimates of instream travel times and

  4. Sensitivity of advective transfer times across the North Atlantic Ocean to the temporal and spatial resolution of model velocity data: Implication for European eel larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Bruno; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Grima, Nicolas; Drillet, Yann

    2012-05-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) larvae achieve one of the longest larval migrations of the marine realm, i.e., more than 6000 km from their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea to European continental shelves. The duration of this migration remains debated, between 7 months and 3 years. This information is, however, crucial since it determines the period over which larvae are affected by environmental conditions and hence the subsequent recruitment success. We investigate the pathways and duration of trans-Atlantic connections using 3 years of high-resolution (daily, 1/12°) velocity fields available from a Mercator-Océan model configuration without data assimilation. We study specifically the effect of spatial and temporal resolutions on our estimates by applying various filters in time (from daily to 12-day averages) and space (from 1/12° to 1° gridcell aggregation) to the nominal model outputs. Numerical particles are released in the presumed European eel spawning area and considered as passive tracers at three specific depths (around 0, 50, and 200 m). We diagnose particularly the intensity of the water transfer between suitable control sections that encompass the eel larva distribution. Transit ages are also investigated, with a particular focus on the pathways that minimize the connection times between the western and eastern North Atlantic. We show that small-scale structures (eddies and filaments) contribute to faster connections though they also correspond to additional complexity in trajectories. The shortest pathways mostly follow the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift, whereas interior connections require longer transfers that prove less compatible with biological observations.

  5. Crosswell acoustic surveying in gas sands: travel-time pattern recognition, seismic Q and channel waves

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.N.; Johnson, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The application of crosswell acoustic measurements to gas sands research has been explored through surveys conducted in the Mesa Verde formation at the Department of Energy Multi-Well Experiment (MWX) site near Rifle, Colorado. The borehole tools used in the survey are similar in concept to those used in commercial service for sonic logging, but they are especially adapted for the stringent requirements of crosswell shooting in hot gas wells. Important information about the geologic structure between wells can be extracted from crosswell scans without resorting to elaborate processing. A useful representation is a display of the travel time of P-waves in terms of the cylindrical coordinates of the transmitter referenced to the receiver. This is known as a gamma-depth (..gamma..-Z) plot. Such a representation may yield distinctive patterns, which can be interpreted based on the successful replication of the pattern through computer simulations. The apparent seismic Q of P-waves transmitted through the sands at the MWX site is derived using two methods. The first applies to crosswell surveys in which signals can be acquired over a significant range of source-receiver distances. A Q of 15 between well pair MWX 1/2 is derived in this manner. The second method makes use of signals transmitted between wells in a three-well complex and provides an estimate of seismic Q for the rocks bounded by each well pair. Q estimates derived from this technique are 18, 30, and 28 for well bores MWX-1/2, MWX-2/3 and MWX-3/1, respectively. Channel waves propagate through the MWX coals. Evidence suggests that tube waves launched in the transmitter well give rise, under appropriate conditions, to channel waves, which in turn excite tube waves in nearby wells that penetrate the same channel. Although the sequence of conversions is weak, the resulting waveforms are coherent enough to resolve the channel waves through stacking. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Non Linear Travel Time Tomography With The Use of Sobolev Norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, R.; de Franco, R.

    We present a method for the determination of 3-D velocity crustal structure and in- terface geometry, by inversion of seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection trav- eltimes. To minimize the deviation between the synthetic and exact wavefields we consider the minimization of a nonlinear objective function which considers: 1. the Euclidean norm of the misfit between observed and calculated data; 2. the L_2 norm of the misfit between the value of the parameter in the model been sought and the value of the parameter in the "a priori" mean model; 3. the minimization of the inaccuracies and costs of ray tracing in complex models, expressed in terms of the Sobolev norms of the relative parameters. In particular two Sobolev norms are relevant to ray tracing: as the complicated behaviour of rays depends on the second velocity derivatives, it may be restricted by minimizing the Sobolev norm of the velocity function in the H^2 space; as the second order travel-time perturbations depend on the perturbation of the first velocity derivatives, it may be useful to limit the velocity model updates, within individual iterations of the linearized inversion, by means of the minimization of the Sobolev norm in the H^1 space (Klimes, "PAGEOPH", 2002). Through the use of 3-D synthetic tests recovered from real models, we show that including the minimization of Sobolev norm is necessary, when modelling with ray methods. The initial model to be inverted is chosen in order to satisfy mathematical stability and, in analysing final solution reliability, estimate of the misfit or chi squared and "a posteriori" model covariance is given. Calculations were performed with the use of programs developed by the Consortium for Seismic Waves in Complex 3-D Structures (CW3D) at Charles University in Prague. Application of the method to field data collected in the framework of TOMOVES (TOMOgraphy of Mt.VESuvius) experiment is a check on the validity of the inversion scheme.

  7. Testing & Validating: 3D Seismic Travel Time Tomography (Detailed Shallow Subsurface Imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, David; Marzan, Ignacio; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina; Carbonell, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    A detailed full 3 dimensional P wave seismic velocity model was constrained by a high-resolution seismic tomography experiment. A regular and dense grid of shots and receivers was use to image a 500x500x200 m volume of the shallow subsurface. 10 GEODE's resulting in a 240 channels recording system and a 250 kg weight drop were used for the acquisition. The recording geometry consisted in 10x20m geophone grid spacing, and a 20x20 m stagered source spacing. A total of 1200 receivers and 676 source points. The study area is located within the Iberian Meseta, in Villar de Cañas (Cuenca, Spain). The lithological/geological target consisted in a Neogen sedimentary sequence formed from bottom to top by a transition from gyspum to silstones. The main objectives consisted in resolving the underground structure: contacts/discontinuities; constrain the 3D geometry of the lithology (possible cavities, faults/fractures). These targets were achieved by mapping the 3D distribution of the physical properties (P-wave velocity). The regularly space dense acquisition grid forced to acquire the survey in different stages and with a variety of weather conditions. Therefore, a careful quality control was required. More than a half million first arrivals were inverted to provide a 3D Vp velocity model that reached depths of 120 m in the areas with the highest ray coverage. An extended borehole campaign, that included borehole geophysical measurements in some wells provided unique tight constraints on the lithology an a validation scheme for the tomographic results. The final image reveals a laterally variable structure consisting of four different lithological units. In this methodological validation test travel-time tomography features a high capacity of imaging in detail the lithological contrasts for complex structures located at very shallow depths.

  8. Applying petrophysical models to radar travel time and electrical resistivity tomograms: Resolution-dependent limitations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.; Binley, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical imaging has traditionally provided qualitative information about geologic structure; however, there is increasing interest in using petrophysical models to convert tomograms to quantitative estimates of hydrogeologic, mechanical, or geochemical parameters of interest (e.g., permeability, porosity, water content, and salinity). Unfortunately, petrophysical estimation based on tomograms is complicated by limited and variable image resolution, which depends on (1) measurement physics (e.g., electrical conduction or electromagnetic wave propagation), (2) parameterization and regularization, (3) measurement error, and (4) spatial variability. We present a framework to predict how core-scale relations between geophysical properties and hydrologic parameters are altered by the inversion, which produces smoothly varying pixel-scale estimates. We refer to this loss of information as "correlation loss." Our approach upscales the core-scale relation to the pixel scale using the model resolution matrix from the inversion, random field averaging, and spatial statistics of the geophysical property. Synthetic examples evaluate the utility of radar travel time tomography (RTT) and electrical-resistivity tomography (ERT) for estimating water content. This work provides (1) a framework to assess tomograms for geologic parameter estimation and (2) insights into the different patterns of correlation loss for ERT and RTT. Whereas ERT generally performs better near boreholes, RTT performs better in the interwell region. Application of petrophysical models to the tomograms in our examples would yield misleading estimates of water content. Although the examples presented illustrate the problem of correlation loss in the context of near-surface geophysical imaging, our results have clear implications for quantitative analysis of tomograms for diverse geoscience applications. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Linear stability analysis for travelling waves of second order in time PDE's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavova, Milena; Stefanov, Atanas

    2012-09-01

    We study travelling waves φc of second order in time PDE's u_{tt}+{ L} u+N(u)=0 . The linear stability analysis for these models is reduced to the question of the stability of quadratic pencils in the form \\lambda^2Id+2c\\lambda \\partial_x+{ H}_c , where { H}_c=c^2 \\partial_{xx}+{ L}+N'(\\varphi_c) . If { H}_c is a self-adjoint operator, with a simple negative eigenvalue and a simple eigenvalue at zero, then we completely characterize the linear stability of φc. More precisely, we introduce an explicitly computable index \\omega^*({ H}_c)\\in (0, \\infty] , so that the wave φc is stable if and only if |c|\\geq \\omega^*({ H}_c) . The results are applicable both in the periodic case and in the whole line case. The method of proof involves a delicate analysis of a function { G} , associated with { H} , whose positive zeros are exactly the positive (unstable) eigenvalues of the pencil \\lambda^2Id+2c\\lambda \\partial_x+{ H} . We would like to emphasize that the function { G} is not the Evans function for the problem, but rather a new object that we define herein, which fits the situation rather well. As an application, we consider three classical models—the ‘good’ Boussinesq equation, the Klein-Gordon-Zakharov (KGZ) system and the fourth order beam equation. In the whole line case, for the Boussinesq case and the KGZ system (and as a direct application of the main results), we compute explicitly the set of speeds which give rise to linearly stable travelling waves (and for all powers of p in the case of Boussinesq). This result is new for the KGZ system, while it generalizes the results of Alexander et al (2012, personal communication) and Alexander and Sachs (1995 Nonlinear World 2 471-507), which apply to the case p = 2. For the beam equation, we provide an implicit formula (depending only on the function \\|\\varphi_c'\\|_{L^2}) , which works for all p and for both the periodic and the whole line cases. Our results complement (and exactly match

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.314 - Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-3.314 Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? Yes, all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? 302-3.314 Section 302-3.314...

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.314 - Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-3.314 Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? Yes, all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? 302-3.314 Section 302-3.314...

  12. 41 CFR 302-3.314 - Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-3.314 Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? Yes, all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? 302-3.314 Section 302-3.314...

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.314 - Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-3.314 Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? Yes, all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? 302-3.314 Section 302-3.314...

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.314 - Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-3.314 Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? Yes, all... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Is there a time limit when I must begin my travel and transportation upon separation? 302-3.314 Section 302-3.314...

  15. Marginal Groups in Marginal Times: Gypsy and Traveller Parents and Home Education in England, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of home education for Gypsy and Traveller groups in England, UK. We argue that home education is perceived in a particular historical "moment" characterised in the media and more generally throughout society by "risk". Against this backdrop this article considers Gypsy and Traveller…

  16. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  17. The Eclipsing System V404 LYR: Light-travel Times and γ Doradus Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim

    2014-08-01

    We present the physical properties of V404 Lyr exhibiting eclipse timing variations and multiperiodic pulsations from all historical data including the Kepler and SuperWASP observations. Detailed analyses of 2922 minimum epochs showed that the orbital period has varied through a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two sinusoidal variations, with periods of P 3 = 649 days and P 4 = 2154 days and semi-amplitudes of K 3 = 193 s and K 4 = 49 s, respectively. The secular period increase at a rate of +1.41 × 10-7 days yr-1 could be interpreted as a combination of the secondary to primary mass transfer and angular momentum loss. The most reasonable explanation for both sinusoids is a pair of light-travel-time effects due to two circumbinary objects with projected masses of M 3 = 0.47 M ⊙ and M 4 = 0.047 M ⊙. The third-body parameters are consistent with those calculated using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. For the orbital inclinations i 4 >~ 43°, the fourth component has a mass within the hydrogen-burning limit of ~0.07 M ⊙, which implies that it is a brown dwarf. A satisfactory model for the Kepler light curves was obtained by applying a cool spot to the secondary component. The results demonstrate that the close eclipsing pair is in a semi-detached, but near-contact, configuration; the primary fills approximately 93% of its limiting lobe and is larger than the lobe-filling secondary. Multiple frequency analyses were applied to the light residuals after subtracting the synthetic eclipsing curve from the Kepler data. This revealed that the primary component of V404 Lyr is a γ Dor type pulsating star, exhibiting seven pulsation frequencies in the range of 1.85-2.11 day-1 with amplitudes of 1.38-5.72 mmag and pulsation constants of 0.24-0.27 days. The seven frequencies were clearly identified as high-order low-degree gravity-mode oscillations which might be excited through tidal interaction. Only eight eclipsing binaries have been known to contain

  18. The eclipsing system V404 Lyr: Light-travel times and γ Doradus pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim E-mail: slkim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2014-08-01

    We present the physical properties of V404 Lyr exhibiting eclipse timing variations and multiperiodic pulsations from all historical data including the Kepler and SuperWASP observations. Detailed analyses of 2922 minimum epochs showed that the orbital period has varied through a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two sinusoidal variations, with periods of P {sub 3} = 649 days and P {sub 4} = 2154 days and semi-amplitudes of K {sub 3} = 193 s and K {sub 4} = 49 s, respectively. The secular period increase at a rate of +1.41 × 10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1} could be interpreted as a combination of the secondary to primary mass transfer and angular momentum loss. The most reasonable explanation for both sinusoids is a pair of light-travel-time effects due to two circumbinary objects with projected masses of M {sub 3} = 0.47 M {sub ☉} and M {sub 4} = 0.047 M {sub ☉}. The third-body parameters are consistent with those calculated using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. For the orbital inclinations i {sub 4} ≳ 43°, the fourth component has a mass within the hydrogen-burning limit of ∼0.07 M {sub ☉}, which implies that it is a brown dwarf. A satisfactory model for the Kepler light curves was obtained by applying a cool spot to the secondary component. The results demonstrate that the close eclipsing pair is in a semi-detached, but near-contact, configuration; the primary fills approximately 93% of its limiting lobe and is larger than the lobe-filling secondary. Multiple frequency analyses were applied to the light residuals after subtracting the synthetic eclipsing curve from the Kepler data. This revealed that the primary component of V404 Lyr is a γ Dor type pulsating star, exhibiting seven pulsation frequencies in the range of 1.85-2.11 day{sup –1} with amplitudes of 1.38-5.72 mmag and pulsation constants of 0.24-0.27 days. The seven frequencies were clearly identified as high-order low-degree gravity-mode oscillations which might be excited

  19. From time-to space-traveller -tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Notostraca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierold, Thorid

    The Notostraca is a small ancient crustacean order dating back to the Carboniferous and possibly up to the Devonian period. In fact, there are Upper Triassic Triops fossils from Germany which are almost indistinguishable from the present Triops cancriformis and thus Triops is considered to be one of the best examples of evolutionary stasis or `living fossil'. Fossil records have shown that the occurrence of Triops is linked to strata resulting from inland freshwater bodies with alternating phases of flooding and drying out. Still today Notostraca species are known from ephemeral ponds and puddles throughout the world. Several Large Branchiopod species such as the European T. cancriformis present adaptations to desiccation, the main one being the production of thick-walled resting cysts. A high number of resting cysts is laid during the flooded period into the pond sediment or is fixed on plants during the adulthood. The drought resistant portion of cysts undergoes an extreme form of diapause. During this resting time the embryo is protected by different (cement)-layers against desiccation, UV-radiation and pressure. Thus their life cycle is perfectly adapted to extreme environments which resulted in the survival of more than 200 Million years. Among the Notostraca a wide range of reproductive modes are present including bisexual -the putatively ancestral state -, androdioecious and hermaphrodite populations. As hermaphroditism and androdioecy confer a colonisation advantage, Triops are suitable for populating experiments whatsoever. Triops is an ideal model organism due to their easy culture and breeding in the lab. Without any impact on the hatching success the resting cysts can easily be extracted from the soil and prepared for controlled experiments. Furthermore their biology has been studied in depth and optimal breeding conditions are known. The ancient group "travelled" successfully through time and is now ready for experiments in the outer space. At the

  20. Joint 3D seismic travel time and full channel electrical resistivity inversion with cross gradient structure constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Near surface geophysical exploration for the purpose of engineering design or construction For this reason, geophysical imaging demands a higher resolution and a better quantitative interpretation. Seismic travel time tomography and direct current resistivity tomography are two main methods for the near surface survey. Because of the limited coverage of observation system and the complex physical relationship between physical parameters and observations, individual geophysical method suffers issues of non-uniqueness and resolution limitation to some degree. We have developed a joint inversion method to combine seismic travel time tomography and full channel resistivity tomography. For the full channel resistivity survey, it uses two electrodes for power supply and all the other electrodes for recording. Compared with the traditional resistivity method, it collects more data and has a better model converge. Our joint inversion strategy relies on the structure constraint enforced through minimizing cross gradients between seismic velocity and resistivity models (Gallardo, 2003). For resistivity tomography, sensitivity kernels are obtained through the adjoint method by solving the electrostatic field equation with the finite-difference method. For seismic travel time tomography, ray paths and travel times are calculated using the fast marching method. We have tested our joint inversion method for a 2D cross-hole problem where two small zones with high and low velocity/resistivity anomalies. Seismic/electrical sources/receivers are installed in two boreholes. For separate seismic inversion, the smearing effect is evident and two anomaly zones are distorted and misplaced. For separate electric resistivity inversion, although two anomaly zones are positioned correctly their values are not accurate. By joint inversion, two velocity anomaly zones are clearly imaged and the smearing effect is greatly reduced. In comparison, for the resistivity model, the two anomaly zones

  1. Spark-Timing Control Based on Correlation of Maximum-Economy Spark Timing, Flame-front Travel, and Cylinder-Pressure Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Harvey A; Heinicke, Orville H; Haynie, William H

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a full-scale air-cooled cylinder in order to establish an effective means of maintaining maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. Variable fuel-air-ratio runs were conducted in which relations were determined between the spark travel, and cylinder-pressure rise. An instrument for controlling spark timing was developed that automatically maintained maximum-economy spark timing with varying engine operating conditions. The instrument also indicated the occurrence of preignition.

  2. Verification of the helioseismology travel-time measurement technique and the inversion procedure for sound speed using artificial data

    SciTech Connect

    Parchevsky, K. V.; Zhao, J.; Hartlep, T.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-04-10

    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar surface acoustic wave field for the quiet Sun and for three models with different localized sound-speed perturbations in the interior with deep, shallow, and two-layer structures. We used the simulated data generated by two solar acoustics codes that employ the same standard solar model as a background model, but utilize different integration techniques and different models of stochastic wave excitation. Acoustic travel times were measured using a time-distance helioseismology technique, and compared with predictions from ray theory frequently used for helioseismic travel-time inversions. It is found that the measured travel-time shifts agree well with the helioseismic theory for sound-speed perturbations, and for the measurement procedure with and without phase-speed filtering of the oscillation signals. This testing verifies the whole measuring-filtering-inversion procedure for static sound-speed anomalies with small amplitude inside the Sun outside regions of strong magnetic field. It is shown that the phase-speed filtering, frequently used to extract specific wave packets and improve the signal-to-noise ratio, does not introduce significant systematic errors. Results of the sound-speed inversion procedure show good agreement with the perturbation models in all cases. Due to its smoothing nature, the inversion procedure may overestimate sound-speed variations in regions with sharp gradients of the sound-speed profile.

  3. Refinement and Pattern Formation in Neural Circuits by the Interaction of Traveling Waves with Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James E M; Bair, Wyeth

    2015-08-01

    Traveling waves in the developing brain are a prominent source of highly correlated spiking activity that may instruct the refinement of neural circuits. A candidate mechanism for mediating such refinement is spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), which translates correlated activity patterns into changes in synaptic strength. To assess the potential of these phenomena to build useful structure in developing neural circuits, we examined the interaction of wave activity with STDP rules in simple, biologically plausible models of spiking neurons. We derive an expression for the synaptic strength dynamics showing that, by mapping the time dependence of STDP into spatial interactions, traveling waves can build periodic synaptic connectivity patterns into feedforward circuits with a broad class of experimentally observed STDP rules. The spatial scale of the connectivity patterns increases with wave speed and STDP time constants. We verify these results with simulations and demonstrate their robustness to likely sources of noise. We show how this pattern formation ability, which is analogous to solutions of reaction-diffusion systems that have been widely applied to biological pattern formation, can be harnessed to instruct the refinement of postsynaptic receptive fields. Our results hold for rich, complex wave patterns in two dimensions and over several orders of magnitude in wave speeds and STDP time constants, and they provide predictions that can be tested under existing experimental paradigms. Our model generalizes across brain areas and STDP rules, allowing broad application to the ubiquitous occurrence of traveling waves and to wave-like activity patterns induced by moving stimuli. PMID:26308406

  4. Refinement and Pattern Formation in Neural Circuits by the Interaction of Traveling Waves with Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E. M.; Bair, Wyeth

    2015-01-01

    Traveling waves in the developing brain are a prominent source of highly correlated spiking activity that may instruct the refinement of neural circuits. A candidate mechanism for mediating such refinement is spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), which translates correlated activity patterns into changes in synaptic strength. To assess the potential of these phenomena to build useful structure in developing neural circuits, we examined the interaction of wave activity with STDP rules in simple, biologically plausible models of spiking neurons. We derive an expression for the synaptic strength dynamics showing that, by mapping the time dependence of STDP into spatial interactions, traveling waves can build periodic synaptic connectivity patterns into feedforward circuits with a broad class of experimentally observed STDP rules. The spatial scale of the connectivity patterns increases with wave speed and STDP time constants. We verify these results with simulations and demonstrate their robustness to likely sources of noise. We show how this pattern formation ability, which is analogous to solutions of reaction-diffusion systems that have been widely applied to biological pattern formation, can be harnessed to instruct the refinement of postsynaptic receptive fields. Our results hold for rich, complex wave patterns in two dimensions and over several orders of magnitude in wave speeds and STDP time constants, and they provide predictions that can be tested under existing experimental paradigms. Our model generalizes across brain areas and STDP rules, allowing broad application to the ubiquitous occurrence of traveling waves and to wave-like activity patterns induced by moving stimuli. PMID:26308406

  5. Juvenile Passage Program : A Plan for Estimating Smolt Travel Time and Survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1993-10-01

    A plan for developing a program to evaluate juvenile salmon passage is presented that encompasses the Snake (Lower Granite to McNary Dams), Mid-Columbia (Wells to McNary Dams), and Lower Columbia (McNary to Bonneville Dams) segments of the Snake/Columbia River system. This plan focuses on the use of PIT-tag technology to routinely estimate travel times and reach survival of outmigrating yearling and subyearling Chinook, sockeye, and steelhead during spring and summer months. The proposed program outlines tagging studies that could be implemented in (a) 1992, (b) near term (1993--94), and (c) long term (1995 to the next decade). The evolution of this program over time parallels plans to establish additional PIT-tag detector and slide-gate systems at Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. The eventual ability to concurrently estimate travel time and survival of release groups will permit evaluation of travel time-survival-flow relationships and identify possible mortality {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} for remediation.

  6. Increased reliability of mean travel time predictions of river-groundwater exchange fluxes using optimal design techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhling, Thomas; Gosses, Moritz; Osenbrück, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we follow up on previous work at the Steinlach test site (Osenbrück et al, 2013) near Tübingen, Germany, to investigate hyporheic exchange fluxes in a shallow riparian aquifer. A steady-state MODFLOW model has been developed for the site and calibrated using an existing network of 14 observation wells. Due to a relatively steep hydraulic gradient (0.012 m/m) between the upstream and downstream flow stages of the river bend, water infiltrates from the river into the shallow aquifer along the upstream section of the river and is forced to re-enter the river at the downstream end. The passage through the aquifer potentially allows for mitigation and transformation of river water-bound pollutants. One important factor to estimate attenuation potentials are travel (and exposure) times through (parts of) the aquifer. In our approach we used forward particle tracking (MODPATH) and a flux-weighting scheme to estimate travel time distributions for the river-groundwater exchange fluxes in the study domain. Travel times vary significantly within the domain, however, estimates of mean travel times derived from deconvolution of EC and δ18O-H2O data at selected wells exhibit a consistent pattern with modelled travel times. The flux-weighted mean travel time of all river water that passed the riparian aquifer was calculated to 26.1 days. The uncertainty of the flux-weighted mean travel time was calculated using the prediction error variance approach by Moore and Doherty (2005) which resulted in a post-calibration uncertainty of ±93.5 d (1σ), i.e. about 350% of the actual prediction. We further analysed the worth of potential new observations to reduce the large uncertainty of this model prediction. In our optimization framework, we extend the method by Moore and Doherty (2005) to simultaneously optimize multiple observations using a modified Genetic Algorithm (GA) that can also sample from past states for higher efficiency. The observations considered are

  7. Use of acoustic wave travel-time measurements to probe the near-surface layers of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, S. M.; Osaki, Y.; Shibahashi, H.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.; Pomerantz, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The variation of solar p-mode travel times with cyclic frequency nu is shown to provide information on both the radial variation of the acoustic potential and the depth of the effective source of the oscillations. Observed travel-time data for waves with frequency lower than the acoustic cutoff frequency for the solar atmosphere (approximately equals 5.5 mHz) are inverted to yield the local acoustic cutoff frequency nu(sub c) as a function of depth in the outer convection zone and lower atmosphere of the Sun. The data for waves with nu greater than 5.5 mHz are used to show that the source of the p-mode oscillations lies approximately 100 km beneath the base of the photosphere. This depth is deeper than that determined using a standard mixing-length calculation.

  8. Model Resolution, Model Covariance, and Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty for a Global Tomographic P-Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A.; Chang, M.; Begnaud, M. L.; Phillips, W. S.; Anderson, D.

    2011-12-01

    Global 3D models of the compression wave speed in the Earth can provide superior travel time predictions at both regional and teleseismic distances. However, given the variable data quality and highly uneven data sampling associated with this type of model, the uncertainty of predicted travel times computed through these models will vary significantly with position in the Earth. Seismic event location codes require good estimates of the prediction uncertainty in order to apply appropriate weights to the various observations used to compute the locations and to calculate reliable estimates of the uncertainty of the resulting locations. The approach that we are adopting is to calculate prediction uncertainties from the tomographic matrices. Quantities that are computed along the way include the model resolution matrix, the model covariance matrix and, finally, the travel time uncertainties. We have found it necessary to include a previously ignored term in the determination of the model covariance matrix that we call the 'a priory covariance of the change in slowness', which we will describe in detail. We will also show results of all of these quantities obtained by applying the calculations to our SALSA3D model, a global P-velocity model of the Earth's mantle. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  10. Advecting Procedural Textures for 2D Flow Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of specially generated 3D procedural textures for visualizing steady state 2D flow fields. We use the flow field to advect and animate the texture over time. However, using standard texture advection techniques and arbitrary textures will introduce some undesirable effects such as: (a) expanding texture from a critical source point, (b) streaking pattern from the boundary of the flowfield, (c) crowding of advected textures near an attracting spiral or sink, and (d) absent or lack of textures in some regions of the flow. This paper proposes a number of strategies to solve these problems. We demonstrate how the technique works using both synthetic data and computational fluid dynamics data.

  11. Time resolved flow velocity and concentration measurements using a travelling thermal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontag, H.; Tam, A. C.

    1985-06-01

    The travelling thermal lens technique is a new all optical method for probing concentration and velocity patterns in flowing media. A thermal lens created by absorption of a short laser pulse moves with the flow and can be probed by a CW laser beam further downstream as a deflection signal. This technique enables optical measurements of the flow velocity component perpendicular to the probe laser at high spatial resolution. Its application requires no seeding with particulates as needed in most other optical techniques.

  12. A positive finite-difference advection scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Hundsdorfer, W.; Koren, B.; Loon, M. van

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines a class of explicit finite-difference advection schemes derived along the method of lines. An important application field is large-scale atmospheric transport. The paper therefore focuses on the demand of positivity. For the spatial discretization, attention is confined to conservative schemes using five points per direction. The fourth-order central scheme and the family of {kappa}-schemes, comprising the second-order central, the second-order upwind, and the third-order upwind biased, are studied. Positivity is enforced through flux limiting. It is concluded that the limited third-order upwind discretization is the best candidate from the four examined. For the time integration attention is confined to a number of explicit Runge-Kutta methods of orders two to four. With regard to the demand of positivity, these integration methods turn out to behave almost equally and no best method could be identified. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  14. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  15. Numerical experiments for advection equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen-Yih )

    1993-10-01

    We propose to combine the Crowley fourth-order scheme and the Gadd scheme for solving the linear advection equation. Two new schemes will be presented: the first is to integrate the Crowley scheme and the Gadd scheme alternately (referred to as New1); the second is to integrate the Crowley scheme twice before we apply the Gadd scheme once (referred to as New2). The new schemes are designed such that no additional restriction is placed on the CFL criterion in an integration. The performance of the new schemes is better than that of the original Crowley or Gadd schemes. It is noted that the amplitude obtained from New2 is more accurate than that from New1 for long waves, but less accurate for short waves. The phase speed calculated from New2 is very close to the real phase speed in most cases tested here, but the phase speed of New 1 is faster than the real phase speed. Hence, New2 is a better choice, especially for a model that includes horizontal smoothing to dampen the short waves. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Non-stationarity in experimental travel time measured in a lysimeter: theoretical and modeling lessons from a simplified hydrological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, Pierre; Carraro, Luca; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Botter, Gianluca; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data have been collected over a year-long period in a large weighing lysimeter. Natural climatic forcing occurs, except for rainfall which is artificially generated as a given Poisson process at a daily timescale. A constant water table is maintained and excess infiltrated water is discharged through the outlet at the bottom of the lysimeter. Soil water storage and evapotranspiration fluxes (accentuated by a willow tree planted in the lysimeter) were monitored throughout the experiment, so that accurate time series of all in- and out-fluxes are available. Five rainfall inputs were marked with individually traceable passive solutes (fluorobenzoic acids) at various initial soil moisture conditions during the first month of the experiment. Tracer concentrations were measured in the soil water and in the discharge at high temporal resolution. We aim here at directly measuring solute travel times, a proxy of hydrological transport with the main advantage to blend the bulk effects of water velocity distributions. The drivers of water displacement in this hydrological setting - and in any other realistic case - have intrinsically a non-stationary nature (e.g. random rainfall occurrence, seasonal evapotranspiration cycles and moisture-related soil connectivity), but the integration of these processes over a larger time scale (i.e. typically the time scale of the mean travel time) often lead to the stationary assumption thus considerably simplifying the data interpretation. Results clearly show that even in such a hydrological system with reduced complexity, experimental travel time distributions are non-stationary and are strongly influenced by the states encountered by the system during the transport phase. The measurements help at identifying the relevant key features influencing the experimental bulk transport. Modeling efforts have demonstrated the inability of a plug-flow reactor (old-water first reservoir) to reproduce the solute outfluxes dynamics. On

  17. A GIS-based groundwater travel time model to evaluate stream nitrate concentration reductions from land use change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) loss from agricultural watersheds is an environmental concern. A common conservation practice to improve stream water quality is to retire vulnerable row croplands to grass. In this paper, a groundwater travel time model based on a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of readily available soil and topographic variables was used to evaluate the time needed to observe stream nitrate concentration reductions from conversion of row crop land to native prairie in Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa. Average linear groundwater velocity in 5-m cells was estimated by overlaying GIS layers of soil permeability, land slope (surrogates for hydraulic conductivity and gradient, respectively) and porosity. Cells were summed backwards from the stream network to watershed divide to develop a travel time distribution map. Results suggested that groundwater from half of the land planted in prairie has reached the stream network during the 10 years of ongoing water quality monitoring. The mean travel time for the watershed was estimated to be 10.1 years, consistent with results from a simple analytical model. The proportion of land in the watershed and subbasins with prairie groundwater reaching the stream (10-22%) was similar to the measured reduction of stream nitrate (11-36%). Results provide encouragement that additional nitrate reductions in Walnut Creek are probable in the future as reduced nitrate groundwater from distal locations discharges to the stream network in the coming years. The high spatial resolution of the model (5-m cells) and its simplicity may make it potentially applicable for land managers interested in communicating lag time issues to the public, particularly related to nitrate concentration reductions over time. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  19. Ground observation and AMIE-TIEGCM modeling of a storm-time traveling ionospheric disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Lu, G.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Nishitani, N.; Sato, N.

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the first comparison between comprehensive observations of equatorward moving traveling ionospheric disturbance at midlatitudes and thermospheric general circulation model with high-latitude energy input based on data assimilation. A prominent traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was observed during the major magnetic storm of 31 March 2001. The TID propagated from north to south over Japan with phase speeds of 370-640 m/s. The assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) technique was used as input to the thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIEGCM) to investigate generation and propagation of the observed TID. In the model, two Joule heating enhancements in the high-latitude dayside sector produced two distinct traveling atmospheric waves (TADs), which propagated to Japan in the midnight sector as enhancements in thermospheric temperature and southward wind speed. The phase speed of the TADs was much faster (˜1100 m/s) in the model, probably due to the overestimation of Joule heating in the model. The second TAD corresponds to the observed prominent TID, while signatures of the first TAD were also seen in the observed ionosonde data. The observed TID was characterized by a decrease in southward wind speed, causing a significant F-layer height decrease and a temporal enhancement of F-layer peak density. These characteristics were reproduced by the model as a rarefaction of the second TAD. The temporal enhancement of F-layer peak density was because of the vertical shear of meridional wind. The absolute value of F-layer electron density in the model was several factors smaller than that observed, probably because of the underestimation of the supply of O+ ions from the plasmasphere.

  20. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  1. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  2. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  3. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  4. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  5. Global paths of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation connecting arbitrary traveling waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-12-11

    We classify all bifurcations from traveling waves to non-trivial time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are predicted by linearization. We use a spectrally accurate numerical continuation method to study several paths of non-trivial solutions beyond the realm of linear theory. These paths are found to either re-connect with a different traveling wave or to blow up. In the latter case, as the bifurcation parameter approaches a critical value, the amplitude of the initial condition grows without bound and the period approaches zero. We propose a conjecture that gives the mapping from one bifurcation to its counterpart on the other side of the path of non-trivial solutions. By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the form of the exact solutions on the path connecting two traveling waves, which represents the Fourier coefficients of the solution as power sums of a finite number of particle positions whose elementary symmetric functions execute simple orbits in the complex plane (circles or epicycles). We then solve a system of algebraic equations to express the unknown constants in the new representation in terms of the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase, four integers (enumerating the bifurcation at each end of the path) and one additional bifurcation parameter. We also find examples of interior bifurcations from these paths of already non-trivial solutions, but we do not attempt to analyze their algebraic structure.

  6. Factors influencing modes of transport and travel time for obstetric care: a mixed methods study in Zambia and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Emma; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Kruk, Margaret E; Grépin, Karen A

    2016-04-01

    Transportation is an important barrier to accessing obstetric care for many pregnant and postpartum women in low-resource settings, particularly in rural areas. However, little is known about how pregnant women travel to health facilities in these settings. We conducted 1633 exit surveys with women who had a recent facility delivery and 48 focus group discussions with women who had either a home or a facility birth in the past year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. Quantitative data were analysed using univariate statistics, and qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis techniques. On average, women spent 62-68 min travelling to a clinic for delivery. Very different patterns in modes of transport were observed in the two countries: 91% of Ugandan women employed motorized forms of transportation, while only 57% of women in Zambia did. Motorcycle taxis were the most commonly used in Uganda, while cars, trucks and taxis were the most commonly used mode of transportation in Zambia. Lower-income women were less likely to use motorized modes of transportation: in Zambia, women in the poorest quintile took 94 min to travel to a health facility, compared with 34 for the wealthiest quintile; this difference between quintiles was ∼50 min in Uganda. Focus group discussions confirmed that transport is a major challenge due to a number of factors we categorized as the 'three A's:' affordability, accessibility and adequacy of transport options. Women reported that all of these factors had influenced their decision not to deliver in a health facility. The two countries had markedly different patterns of transportation for obstetric care, and modes of transport and travel times varied dramatically by wealth quintile, which policymakers need to take into account when designing obstetric transport interventions. PMID:26135364

  7. Subduction of Young Lithosphere at Critical Thermal Ages (10-20 Ma): Incites From Thermal Models and the Trans-Mexican Subduction System with Emphasis on the Importance of Slab Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a system where the age range of subducting plates is typically thought of as critical in their relation to lithospheric thermal structure (~10-20 Ma). I refer to this age range as "critical" because it is in this range where thermal lithospheres begin to rapidly decrease their correlative influence on the thermal state of the subduction system above the crust/mantle wedge interface for most systems. After ~20 Ma the cool upper portion of downgoing lithosphere becomes sufficiently thick so that crustal reheating and corresponding heat flow in the time between trench subduction and the zone of melt generation, due to the accumulation of conductive and frictional heating, behaves somewhat similarly with little regard to age. Typical slab travel times are on the order of 1.5-2.5 My. However, low dip angles and flat-slab behavior in the Eastern end of the TMVB facilitates anomalously long travel times exceeding 6.5 My! Here I show that while the influence of plate age is clearly significant in determining the holistic thermal geodynamics of subduction systems, the influence can be dampened or enhanced by auxiliary factors. I present thermal modeling cases using a solution for the conduction of heat into an evolving semi-infinite half-space with variable boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that extraordinary slab travel times and flat-slab behavior, mantle wedge advection regimes, and plate age thermally enhance and dampen each other. Geochemically, the TMVB shows consistent along-arc changes in light element abundance systematics (B/Be, Li/Yb, Be/Zr). Moderately elevated B/Be (Easterly increases from ~4 to ~12 ppm B/Be) observed in the eastern shallow subduction region is thought to correlate with subduction of an older, cooler portion of the slab. However, greater slab travel times in the Eastern TVMB should simultaneously act to warm the slab and depreciate these values which may partly explain the minimal

  8. Community variations in population exposure to near-field tsunami hazards as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize population exposure to near-field tsunami threats typically focus on quantifying the number and type of people in tsunami-hazard zones. To develop and prioritize effective risk-reduction strategies, emergency managers also need information on the potential for successful evacuations and how this evacuation potential varies among communities. To improve efforts to properly characterize and differentiate near-field tsunami threats among multiple communities, we assess community variations in population exposure to tsunamis as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety. We focus our efforts on the multiple coastal communities in Grays Harbor and Pacific Counties (State of Washington, USA), where a substantial resident and visitor population is threatened by near-field tsunamis related to a potential Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Anisotropic, path-distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety and results are merged with various population data, including residents, employees, public venues, and dependent-care facilities. Results suggest that there is substantial variability among communities in the number of people that may have insufficient time to evacuate. Successful evacuations may be possible in some communities assuming slow-walking speeds, are plausible in others if travel speeds are increased, and are unlikely in another set of communities given the large distances and short time horizon. Emergency managers can use these results to prioritize the location and determine the most appropriate type of tsunami risk-reduction strategies, such as education and training in areas where evacuations are plausible and vertical-evacuation structures in areas where they are not.

  9. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Key words: karst aquifers, stable isotopes, water travel time, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs are located about 75 kilometers northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan. The aquifer is composed of Upper Cretaceous limestone that exhibits a moderate to high degree of karstification. The two springs represent the main drinking water resources for the surrounding villages. The yearly water production is about 1,135,000 m3/yr for Tanour spring and 125,350 m3/yr for Rasoun spring (MWI 2015). Due to contamination from microbiological pollution (leakage of wastewater from septic tanks) or infiltration of wastewater from local olive presses, drinking water supply from the two springs is frequently interrupted. From November 2014 through March 2015, spring water samples were collected from Tanour and Rasoun spring for the analysis of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to investigate spring response to precipitation and snowmelt events. Both Tanour and Rasoun spring show a fast response to precipitation and snowmelt events, implying short water travel times. Based on the variation of δ 18O and δ 2H in spring discharge, the average maximum water travel time is in the order of 8 days for Tanour spring and 6 days for Rasoun spring. Due to fast water travel times, Tanour and Rasoun spring can be considered as highly vulnerable to pollutants. δ 18O and δ 2H values of Tanour and Rasoun springs parallel other monitored parameter like water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity and spring discharge. In addition, a high turbidity peak was monitored in Tanour spring during a pollution event from olive mills wastewater (Hamdan et al., 2016; Hamdan, in prep.). The fast response in both Tanour and Rasoun springs to precipitation events requires monitoring potential sources of pollution within the catchment area. References: MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation) (2015) Monthly Production values for Tanour and Rasoun Springs for the time period between 1996 and 2014

  10. Utilizing Kernelized Advection Schemes in Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadeh, N.; Balaji, V.

    2008-12-01

    There has been a recent effort in the ocean model community to use a set of generic FORTRAN library routines for advection of scalar tracers in the ocean. In a collaborative project called Hybrid Ocean Model Environement (HOME), vastly different advection schemes (space-differencing schemes for advection equation) become available to modelers in the form of subroutine calls (kernels). In this talk we explore the possibility of utilizing ESMF data structures in wrapping these kernels so that they can be readily used in ESMF gridded components.

  11. Emergency obstetrical complications in a rural African setting (Kayes, Mali): the link between travel time and in-hospital maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Pirkle, Catherine McLean; Fournier, Pierre; Tourigny, Caroline; Sangaré, Karim; Haddad, Slim

    2011-10-01

    The West African country of Mali implemented referral systems to increase spatial access to emergency obstetrical care and lower maternal mortality. We test the hypothesis that spatial access- proxied by travel time during the rainy and dry seasons- is associated with in-hospital maternal mortality. Effect modification by caesarean section is explored. All women treated for emergency obstetrical complications at the referral hospital in Kayes, Mali were considered eligible for study. First, we conducted descriptive analyses of all emergency obstetrical complications treated at the referral hospital between 2005 and 2007. We calculated case fatality rates by obstetric diagnosis and travel time. Key informant interviews provided travel times. Medical registers provided clinical and demographic data. Second, a matched case-control study assessed the independent effect of travel time on maternal mortality. Stratification was used to explore effect modification by caesarean section. Case fatality rates increased with increasing travel time to the hospital. After controlling for age, diagnosis, and date of arrival, a travel time of four or more hours was significantly associated with in-hospital maternal mortality (OR: 3.83; CI: 1.31-11.27). Travel times between 2 and 4 h were associated with increased odds of maternal mortality (OR 1.88), but the relationship was not significant. The effect of travel time on maternal mortality appears to be modified by caesarean section. Poor spatial access contributes to maternal mortality even in women who reach a health facility. Improving spatial access will help women arrive at the hospital in time to be treated effectively.

  12. Data collection for a time-of-travel and dispersion study on the Coosa River near Childersburg, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 2,300 dye-tracer samples were collected and analyzed during a 5-day time-of-travel study on a 23-mile reach of the Coosa River between Logan Martin and Lay dams near Childersburg, Alabama, October 27 to 31, 1984. Rhodamine WT was used as the tracer-dye. Unsteady flow conditions prevailed in the study reach. The rate of movement of the dye cloud between sampling cross sections ranged from 0.15 to 1.36 feet per second. The average rate of movement of the dye cloud between the injection cross section and the downstream sampling cross section was 0.42 foot per second. (USGS)

  13. Comparison of electronarcosis and carbon dioxide sedation effects on travel time in adult Chinook and Coho Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keep, Shane G; Allen, M. Brady; Zendt, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    The immobilization of fish during handling is crucial in avoiding injury to fish and is thought to reduce handling stress. Chemical sedatives have been a primary choice for fish immobilization. However, most chemical sedatives accumulate in tissues, and often food fishes must be held until accumulations degrade to levels safe for human consumption. Historically, there have been few options for nonchemical sedation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used for decades as a sedative, and while it does not require a degradation period, it does have drawbacks. The use of electronarcosis is another nonchemical option that does not require degradation time. However, little is known about the latent and delayed effects on migration rates of adult salmonids that have been immobilized with electricity. We compared the travel times of adult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch through a fishway at river kilometer (rkm) 4, and to rkm 16 and rkm 32 after being immobilized with either CO2 or electronarcosis. Travel times of fish treated with either CO2 or electronarcosis were similar within species. Because of the nearly instantaneous induction of and recovery from electronarcosis, we recommend it as an alternative to CO2 for handling large adult salmonids.

  14. Coupling hydro-chemical models and water quality datasets: signatures of mixing patterns and non-stationary travel time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, P.; Botter, G.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality data in rivers represent an integrated measure of catchment transport processes, and their importance can hardly be overestimated. Recently, coupled hydrologic and geochemical models have provided new insight on catchment function and the dominant transport processes. The signals of hidden processes are thus being increasingly understood like e.g. those related to the presence of residual storages that are poorly visible in the hydrological response but strongly affect water quality dynamics. The increased availability of hydrochemical data, jointly with the related improved measurement accuracy, requires parallel improvements in the theoretical tools used to interpret such data. The newly available datasets, for instance, challenge simplistic modeling of long-term transport features, putting the focus on transient dynamics and fluctuations taking place at multiple time-scales, from single storm events to inter-annual timescales. The general formulation of transport by travel time distributions, being intrinsically robust owing to its integrated nature, is suitable to the above scopes in that it may account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity, say of chemical sources, flow fields and hydrologic forcings. Large-scale specification mixing processes is unavoidable, however, jointly with behavioral shifts occurring during floods and droughts. Here, we provide an assessment of recent theoretical results that involve the use of environmental tracers to identify emergent mixing patterns at catchment scale, and the related impacts on travel time distributions. Emphasis is placed on the improved process understanding achieved by coupling hydro-chemical models with highly resolved water quality datasets.

  15. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  16. Method paper--distance and travel time to casualty clinics in Norway based on crowdsourced postcode coordinates: a comparison with other methods.

    PubMed

    Raknes, Guttorm; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method that uses crowdsourced postcode coordinates and Google maps to estimate average distance and travel time for inhabitants of a municipality to a casualty clinic in Norway. The new method was compared with methods based on population centroids, median distance and town hall location, and we used it to examine how distance affects the utilisation of out-of-hours primary care services. At short distances our method showed good correlation with mean travel time and distance. The utilisation of out-of-hours services correlated with postcode based distances similar to previous research. The results show that our method is a reliable and useful tool for estimating average travel distances and travel times.

  17. Analysis of regional travel time data from the November 1999 dead sea explosions observed in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Abdullah, M S; Ar-Rajehi, A; Al-Khalifah, T; Al-Amri, M S; Al-Haddad, M S; Al-Arifi, N

    2000-04-19

    Two large chemical explosions were detonated in the Dead Sea in order to calibrate seismic travel times and improve location accuracy for the International Monitoring System (IMS) to monitor a Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These explosions provided calibration data for regional seismic networks in the Middle East. In this paper we report analysis of seismic data from these shots as recorded by two seismic networks run by King Saud University (KSU) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia. The shots were well observed in the distance range 180-480 km mostly to the south of the Dead Sea in the Gulf of Aqaba region of northwestern Saudi Arabia. An average one-dimensional velocity model for the paths was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases Pn, Pg and Sg. Short-period Sn phases were not observed. The velocity model features a thin crust (crustal thickness 26-30 km) and low velocities (average P-wave velocity 5.8-6.0 km/s), consistent with the extensional tectonics of the region and previous studies.

  18. Discharge and travel-time determinations in the Royal Spring groundwater basin, Kentucky. Research report July 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkill, J.; Gouzie, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Groundwater flow in many karst regions, including the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky in which the study area was located, is unlike groundwater flow in granular aquifers. At least the major flows are turbulent and often with a free surface in large conduits, and applying concepts based on Darcy's Law to describe and model these flows is inappropriate. Parameters such as linear velocity, channel geometry, and conveyance used to describe surface stream flows are more applicable, and the primary objective of the project was to estimate these in a groundwater basin using the travel time of dye slugs and discharges obtained by dye dilution. These data were also needed to determine the travel time-discharge relationship required to manage contaminant spills and evaluate methods of enhancing low flows in the basin, the second and third objective of the project. These latter two objectives are of importance because the flow in the Royal Spring groundwater basin that was investigated is used as a municipal water supply.

  19. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    PubMed

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic. PMID:26979587

  20. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    PubMed

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic.

  1. Quality of water and time of travel in Little Copiah Creek near Crystal Springs, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive quality of water study was conducted on Little Copiah Creek in the vicinity of Crystal Springs, Miss., from August 19 to August 21, 1980. The quality of water in Little Copiah Creek improved 7 miles downstream of a source of wastewater inflow. The mean total nitrogen concentration decreased from 17 to 1.1 milligrams per liter and the mean total phosphorus concentrations decreased from 5.8 to 0.39 milligrams per liter. The maximum five-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 14 to 1.4 milligrams per liter while the dissolved-oxygen concentration increased from 2.0 to 6.9 milligrams per liter. The maximum fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities at the upstream sampling site were 2,200 and 6,700 colonies per 100 milliliter, respectively, and were observed to decrease downstream to 160 and 1,500 colonies per 100 milliliters. The mean stream temperatures decreased downstream only slightly from 26.5 to 25.0 Celsius and the pH of the water ranged from 7.2 to 7.4 units upstream and 6.5 to 7.0 units at the downstream site. The average rate of dye travel through the upstream 2.3 mile reach was 0.08 miles per hour during the study. (USGS)

  2. Advection, diffusion, and delivery over a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Luke L. M.; López, Eduardo; Maini, Philip K.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-08-01

    Many biological, geophysical, and technological systems involve the transport of a resource over a network. In this paper, we present an efficient method for calculating the exact quantity of the resource in each part of an arbitrary network, where the resource is lost or delivered out of the network at a given rate, while being subject to advection and diffusion. The key conceptual step is to partition the resource into material that does or does not reach a node over a given time step. As an example application, we consider resource allocation within fungal networks, and analyze the spatial distribution of the resource that emerges as such networks grow over time. Fungal growth involves the expansion of fluid filled vessels, and such growth necessarily involves the movement of fluid. We develop a model of delivery in growing fungal networks, and find good empirical agreement between our model and experimental data gathered using radio-labeled tracers. Our results lead us to suggest that in foraging fungi, growth-induced mass flow is sufficient to account for long-distance transport, if the system is well insulated. We conclude that active transport mechanisms may only be required at the very end of the transport pathway, near the growing tips.

  3. Quality of water and time of travel in Goodwater and Okatoma creeks near Magee, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks near Magee, Miss. During the August 12-14, 1980, study, the mean specific conductance of the water at all sites was less than 59 micromhos per centimeter; the dissolved-oxygen concentrations were greater than 5.0 milligrams per liter: pH values ranged from 6.0 to 6.8, and the mean water temperature ranged from 23.0 to 27.0 Celsius. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations at the downstream sampling sites were higher in Goodwater Creek than in Okatoma Creek. The maximum 5-day biochemical oxygen demand was 2.7 milligrams per liter in Goodwater Creek and 1.5 milligrams per liter in Okatoma Creek. The mean concentration of total nitrogen was 1.0 and 0.71 milligrams per liter and the mean total phosphorus concentration was 0.26 and 0.10 milligrams per liter at the downstream sites on Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks, respectively. Fecal coliform densities generally were high at all sites, exceeding 4,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in both Goodwater and Okatoma Creeks. Objectionable concentrations of total cadmium, mercury, iron, and phenol were present in a sample of water. Dieldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, and DDT were present in a sample of bottom material collected at the downstream site of Okatoma Creek. The peak concentration of dye injected into Goodwater Creek traveled through a 1.7-mile reach at a rate of 0.3 mile per hour. (USGS)

  4. pySeismicFMM: Python based travel time calculation in regular 2D and 3D grids in Cartesian and geographic coordinates using Fast Marching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  5. Using stable isotopes to resolve transit times and travel routes of river water: a case study from southern Finland.

    PubMed

    Niinikoski, Paula I A; Hendriksson, Nina M; Karhu, Juha A

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of two rivers, the Vantaanjoki River and the Kokemäenjoki River, in southern and southwestern Finland was studied to resolve the transit times and travel routes of the river water in the two different catchments. The Kokemäenjoki River is dominated by great lake basins whereas the Vantaanjoki River has been reported having a significant groundwater component. The mean residence time of the young surface flow component could be resolved by sine function fitting onto the annual fluctuations of the isotopic signal, and the amount of base flow was estimated by using the isotopic composition of the river and groundwater. In this study, we found that the methods work for simple two component catchments. In more complex cases with three different components mixing, the solution becomes increasingly difficult and requires more study. PMID:26745444

  6. Field Evaluation of Travel Times and Flow Mechanisms in the Mississippi Delta Vadose Zone Using Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Coupe, R. H.; Rose, C. E.; Manning, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    In the Bogue Phalia basin in the Delta region of Mississippi, as in many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals has led to their detection in surface and ground water; however, contributing unsaturated zone processes are not well understood. The fine textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during extended dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into irrigation ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional ground- water models predict only 5 percent or less of precipitation recharges the heavily-used alluvial aquifer. In this study we assessed transport within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field with a 2-m ring infiltration test including tracers and subsurface instrumentation for sampling and for measuring water content and matric potential. Seven months after tracer application, we collected 47 continuous cores for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement. Water movement was rapid below the pond, traveling up to 0.21 cm/s, indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non uniform, reaching 10 m from the pond within 3 months. Within 2 months, the wetting front reached a textural boundary between the silty soil and sandy alluvium at 5 m. The aquifer was historically confined by the silty material prior to extensive irrigation pumping that has lowered the water table from about 2 m to 12 m. Preliminary results indicate that after 7 months any water breaking through the soil-alluvium boundary, which now acts as a capillary barrier within the vadose zone, likely does so as unstable finger flow (fine-over-coarse layering has been observed in lab studies to initiate fingering) which is difficult to detect with point measurements

  7. Surfzone alongshore advective accelerations: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

    2014-12-01

    The sources, magnitudes, and impacts of non-linear advective accelerations on alongshore surfzone currents are investigated with observations and a numerical model. Previous numerical modeling results have indicated that advective accelerations are an important contribution to the alongshore force balance, and are required to understand spatial variations in alongshore currents (which may result in spatially variable morphological change). However, most prior observational studies have neglected advective accelerations in the alongshore force balance. Using a numerical model (Delft3D) to predict optimal sensor locations, a dense array of 26 colocated current meters and pressure sensors was deployed between the shoreline and 3-m water depth over a 200 by 115 m region near Duck, NC in fall 2013. The array included 7 cross- and 3 alongshore transects. Here, observational and numerical estimates of the dominant forcing terms in the alongshore balance (pressure and radiation-stress gradients) and the advective acceleration terms will be compared with each other. In addition, the numerical model will be used to examine the force balance, including sources of velocity gradients, at a higher spatial resolution than possible with the instrument array. Preliminary numerical results indicate that at O(10-100 m) alongshore scales, bathymetric variations and the ensuing alongshore variations in the wave field and subsequent forcing are the dominant sources of the modeled velocity gradients and advective accelerations. Additional simulations and analysis of the observations will be presented. Funded by NSF and ASDR&E.

  8. The PKP travel time anomaly of the South Sandwich Island earthquakes in the context of inner core anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, J.; Tkalcic, H.

    2015-12-01

    Using both PKP differential travel times and normal modes, the inner core (IC) has long been modeled by simple cylindrical anisotropy with fast axis parallel or quasi-parallel to the Earth's rotation axis. Such a model is popular because it can explain, to some extent, both of these data sets. However in recent years it has become clear that this simplistic model cannot explain all observed PKP differential travel times; in particular, the cluster of earthquakes from the South Sandwich Islands (SSI) recorded in Alaska, which show consistent deviation of 2-4 seconds above predicated arrival times in PKPbc-df data. Due to the sparsity of paths sampling the IC in a polar direction, these residuals form the basis of models of IC anisotropy, but their origins are not well understood. We have created a new hand picked South Sandwich Island dataset of 500 PKPbc-df and 216 PKPab-df measurements from 36 events using a cross correlation method. In addition, we adopt two complimentary measurement techniques that have not so far been utilised on PKP waveforms, to add a measurement of uncertainty and statistical significance to existing measurements and to make sure these residual values are not a result of systematic error in picking of the core phases. The new data set and methods suggest that these anomalous residuals are likely not due to the miss picking of core phases. Given that almost all high residual values are recorded on paths with azimuths towards Alaska and, given their scatter, a velocity anomaly due to subduction geometry at the source or receiver side is a possible cause when we consider a non-inner core origin. Here we explore whether the western hemisphere SSI residuals can be modeled using subduction geometry and velocity contrasts at the SSI subduction zone. Such a model could have significant implications for inner core anisotropy.

  9. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  10. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The XMM data on black-hole X-ray novae are only now becoming available and they have so far not been included in any publications. This work is part of a larger project that makes use of both XMM and Chandra data. Our first publication on the Chandra results is the following: "New Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons from Chandra" by M.R. Garcia, J.E. McClintock, R. Narayan, P. Callanan, D. Barret and S. Murray (2001, ApJ, 553, L47). Therein we present the luminosities of the two black-hole X-ray novae, GRO J0422+22 and 4U1 543-47, which were observed by Chandra. These results are combined with the luminosities of four additional black-hole X-ray novae, which were observed as part of a Chandra GTO program (PI: S. Murray). The very low, but nonzero, quiescent X-ray luminosities of these black hole binaries is very difficult to understand in the context of standard viscous accretion disk theory. The principal result of this work is that X-ray novae that contain black hole primaries are about 100 times fainter that X-ray novae that contain neutron star primaries. This result had been suggested in earlier work, but the present work very firmly establishes this large luminosity difference. The result is remarkable because the black-hole and the neutron-star systems are believed to be similar in many respects. Most importantly, the mass transfer rate from the secondary star is believed to be very comparable for the two kinds of systems for similar orbital periods. The advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model provides a natural framework for understanding the extraordinarily low luminosities of the black hole systems and the hundred-fold greater luminosities of the neutron star systems. The chief feature of an ADAF is that the heat energy in the accreting gas is trapped in the gas and travels with it, rather than being radiated promptly. Thus the accreting gas reaches the central object with a huge amount of thermal energy. If the accretor is a black hole, the

  11. Systematic Center-To-Limb Variation in Measured Helioseismic Travel Times and Its Effect on Inferences of Solar Interior Meridional Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Junwei; Nagashima, Kaori; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, Alexander; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a systematic center-to-limb variation in measured helioseismic travel times, which must be taken into account for an accurate determination of solar interior meridional flows. The systematic variation, found in time-distance helioseismology analysis using SDO/HMI and SDO/AIA observations, is different in both travel-time magnitude and variation trend for different observables. It is not clear what causes this systematic effect. Subtracting the longitude-dependent east-west travel times, obtained along the equatorial area, from the latitude-dependent north-south travel times, obtained along the central meridian area, gives remarkably similar results for different observables. We suggest this as an effective procedure for removing the systematic center-to-limb variation. The subsurface meridional flows obtained from inversion of the corrected travel times are approximately 10 m s-1 slower than those obtained without removing the systematic effect. The detected center-to-limb variation may have important implications in the derivation of meridional flows in the deep interior and needs to be better understood.

  12. SYSTEMATIC CENTER-TO-LIMB VARIATION IN MEASURED HELIOSEISMIC TRAVEL TIMES AND ITS EFFECT ON INFERENCES OF SOLAR INTERIOR MERIDIONAL FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Junwei; Nagashima, Kaori; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, T. L. Jr.

    2012-04-10

    We report on a systematic center-to-limb variation in measured helioseismic travel times, which must be taken into account for an accurate determination of solar interior meridional flows. The systematic variation, found in time-distance helioseismology analysis using SDO/HMI and SDO/AIA observations, is different in both travel-time magnitude and variation trend for different observables. It is not clear what causes this systematic effect. Subtracting the longitude-dependent east-west travel times, obtained along the equatorial area, from the latitude-dependent north-south travel times, obtained along the central meridian area, gives remarkably similar results for different observables. We suggest this as an effective procedure for removing the systematic center-to-limb variation. The subsurface meridional flows obtained from inversion of the corrected travel times are approximately 10 m s{sup -1} slower than those obtained without removing the systematic effect. The detected center-to-limb variation may have important implications in the derivation of meridional flows in the deep interior and needs to be better understood.

  13. Passive advection-dispersion in networks of pipes: Effect of connectivity and relationship to permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, Y.; Wang, Y.; Qi, T.; Li, M.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the relationship between passive advection-dispersion and permeability in porous materials presumed to be statistically homogeneous at scales larger than the pore scale but smaller than the reservoir scale. We simulated fluid flow through pipe network realizations with different pipe radius distributions and different levels of connectivity. The flow simulations used periodic boundary conditions, allowing monitoring of the advective motion of solute particles in a large periodic array of identical network realizations. In order to simulate dispersion, we assumed that the solute particles obeyed Taylor dispersion in individual pipes. When a particle entered a pipe, a residence time consistent with local Taylor dispersion was randomly assigned to it. When exiting the pipe, the particle randomly proceeded into one of the pipes connected to the original one according to probabilities proportional to the outgoing volumetric flow in each pipe. For each simulation we tracked the motion of at least 6000 solute particles. The mean fluid velocity was 10-3 ms-1, and the distance traveled was on the order of 10 m. Macroscopic dispersion was quantified using the method of moments. Despite differences arising from using different types of lattices (simple cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic), a number of general observations were made. Longitudinal dispersion was at least 1 order of magnitude greater than transverse dispersion, and both strongly increased with decreasing pore connectivity and/or pore size variability. In conditions of variable hydraulic radius and fixed pore connectivity and pore size variability, the simulated dispersivities increased as power laws of the hydraulic radius and, consequently, of permeability, in agreement with previously published experimental results. Based on these observations, we were able to resolve some of the complexity of the relationship between dispersivity and permeability.

  14. A three-dimensional time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes in beam-wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Hu, Yu-Lu; Yang, Zhong-Hai; Li, Jian-Qing; Lu, Qi-Ru; Li, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear theory of helix traveling wave tubes for beam-wave interaction. The radio frequency electromagnetic fields are represented as the superposition of azimuthally symmetric waves in a vacuum sheath helix. Coupling impedance is introduced to the electromagnetic field equations' stimulating sources, which makes the theory easier and more flexible to realize. The space charge fields are calculated by electron beam space-charge waves expressed as the superposition solutions of Helmholtz equations. The focusing forces due to either a solenoidal field or a periodic permanent magnetic field is also included. The dynamical equations of electrons are Lorentz equations associating with electromagnetic fields, focusing fields and space-charge fields. The numerically simulated results of a tube are presented.

  15. A planning model with a solution algorithm for ready mixed concrete production and truck dispatching under stochastic travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Lin, H. C.; Jiang, X. Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study the authors employ network flow techniques to construct a systematic model that helps ready mixed concrete carriers effectively plan production and truck dispatching schedules under stochastic travel times. The model is formulated as a mixed integer network flow problem with side constraints. Problem decomposition and relaxation techniques, coupled with the CPLEX mathematical programming solver, are employed to develop an algorithm that is capable of efficiently solving the problems. A simulation-based evaluation method is also proposed to evaluate the model, coupled with a deterministic model, and the method currently used in actual operations. Finally, a case study is performed using real operating data from a Taiwan RMC firm. The test results show that the system operating cost obtained using the stochastic model is a significant improvement over that obtained using the deterministic model or the manual approach. Consequently, the model and the solution algorithm could be useful for actual operations.

  16. LLNL-G3Dv3: Global P-wave tomography model for improved regional and teleseismic travel time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Nathan A.; Myers, Steve C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Matzel, Eric

    2013-04-01

    We develop a global-scale P-wave velocity model (LLNL-G3Dv3) designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The model provides a new image of Earth's interior, but the underlying practical purpose of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. The LLNL-G3Dv3 model is based on ~2.8 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multiple-event locator called Bayesloc. We construct LLNL-G3Dv3 within a spherical tessellation based framework, allowing for explicit representation of undulating and discontinuous layers including the crust and transition zone layers. Using a multi-scale inversion technique, regional trends as well as fine details are captured where the data allow. LLNL-G3Dv3 exhibits large-scale structures including cratons and superplumes as well numerous complex details in the upper mantle including within the transition zone. Particularly, the model reveals new details of a vast network of subducted slabs trapped within the transition beneath much of Eurasia, including beneath the Tibetan Plateau. We demonstrate the impact of Bayesloc multiple-event location on the resulting tomographic images through comparison with images produced without the benefit of multiple-event constraints (single-event locations). We find that the multiple-event locations allow for better reconciliation of the large set of direct P phases recorded at 0-97° distance and yield a smoother and more continuous image relative to the single-event locations. Travel times predicted from a 3-D model are also found to be strongly influenced by the initial locations of the input data, even when an iterative inversion/relocation technique is employed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-559093

  17. Basement configuration of on-land Kutch basin from seismic refraction studies and modeling of first arrival travel time skips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, B. Rajendra; Venkateswarlu, N.; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murthy, A. S. N.; Sateesh, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Kutch basin is one of the three (Narmada, Cambay and Kutch) major marginal rift basins that are close to each other in mid-western part of the Indian subcontinent. The seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data were acquired and a first order velocity structure of the Kutch sedimentary basin along Jakhau-Mandvi, Mandvi-Mundra, Mundra-Adesar and Hamirpur-Halvad profiles is derived. The travel time skip phenomenon has been noticed in the travel time plots and record sections indicating presence of low velocity sediments. Derived two-dimensional velocity-depth models revealed a Mesozoic sedimentary sequence sandwiched between Trap and Limestone layers, in some of the profiles. Two thick low velocity layers (that corresponds early to late Mesozoic era) have been identified. These are dipping towards Mandvi along Jakhau-Mandvi profile. The early Mesozoic layer that is thinning towards southeast is completely missing in Mandvi-Mundra profile. It is also noticed that the early Mesozoic Bhuj formation exists in the northern parts of the Mundra-Adesar and Hamirpur-Halvad profiles, where it directly overlies the granitic basement. The derived velocity-depth model suggests that the basement is about 3 km deep near Jakhau and reaches a depth of about 6 km near Mandvi. The layered structure may correspond to the Tertiary, Trap, Late Mesozoic sediments and Mesozoic limestone. The velocity-depth model obtained in Kutch is very similar to earlier derived model for Jamnagar and Dwarka sub-basins of northwestern Saurashtra peninsula suggesting probable continuity/linkage between southern on-land Kutch and, across the Gulf of Kutch to Saurashtra peninunsula. We also conclude that the evolution of Kutch basin, as a peri-cratonic rift basin, is essentially controlled by the four (F1-F4) faults inferred from obvious abrupt changes in layer thickness/velocity along the seismic refraction profiles.

  18. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Olympics Freqently Asked Questions Find a ... Travelers Zika infographic: Enjoy Your Vacation Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Pack smart to prevent Zika Prevent ...

  19. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus or travel to the Olympics ? Destinations Who are ...

  20. Travel trends and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, T.M.; Harvey, M.E.

    1980-04-01

    Available data sources are utilized to construct scenarios of adjustment patterns in vacation/recreation travel as affected by both past and prospective fuel price and availability developments. The increases in gasoline prices coupled with supply uncertainties that occurred during the 1970's have strained the traditional vacation patterns of many U.S. households. New travel patterns will prompt changes in the location of outdoor recreation centers/ such centers will be located closer to major population centers to shorten travel time.

  1. Armchair Travels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1994-01-01

    Includes ideas and activities for school library media specialists relating to vacationing and traveling, including the use of maps, travel brochures, travel diaries, postcards, videos, slides, and guest speakers. An annotated bibliography of 75 pertinent sources of information, including picture books, intermediate level, nonfiction,…

  2. Effects of travel across time zones (jet-lag) on exercise capacity and performance.

    PubMed

    Wright, J E; Vogel, J A; Sampson, J B; Knapik, J J; Patton, J F; Daniels, W L

    1983-02-01

    Eighty-one healthy male soldiers, aged 18-34, were studied for 5 d before and 5 d after an eastward deployment across six time zones to determine the effects of translocation on exercise capacity and performance. Fatigue, weakness, headache, sleepiness, irritability, and other commonly reported symptoms occurred in the majority of subjects. Most, but not all, of the symptoms were diminished or absent by the fifth day following the translocation. Cardiorespiratory function and perception of effort during both submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise were unaffected. Isometric strength of the upper torso, legs, and trunk extensor muscles also was not changed. Dynamic strength and endurance of elbow flexors declined significantly. Dynamic knee extensor strength and endurance scores exhibited a progressive decrement prior to translocation and were inconsistent suggesting that the stress of repetitive testing outweighed any jet-lag effects on performance capacity. Performance times for a 270 m sprint were increased for the first 4 d following translocation as were times for a 2.8 km run on the second and third days and for a 110 m lift and carry on the third day after deployment. Times for a 6.5 m rope climb did not change. These findings indicate that certain symptoms and physiological capacities are affected as a result of multiple time zone translocation. However, the specific mechanisms involved, the factors influencing the magnitude of any physiological alterations, and the ultimate impact of these capacity changes on actual physical performance remain to be clarified.

  3. Time travel paradoxes, path integrals, and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Allen

    2004-06-01

    We consider two approaches to evading paradoxes in quantum mechanics with closed timelike curves. In a model similar to Politzer’s, assuming pure states and using path integrals, we show that the problems of paradoxes and of unitarity violation are related; preserving unitarity avoids paradoxes by modifying the time evolution so that improbable events become certain. Deutsch has argued, using the density matrix, that paradoxes do not occur in the “many worlds interpretation.” We find that in this approach account must be taken of the resolution time of the device that detects objects emerging from a wormhole or other time machine. When this is done one finds that this approach is viable only if macroscopic objects traversing a wormhole interact with it so strongly that they are broken into microscopic fragments.

  4. Estimating travel and service times for automated route planning and service certification in municipal waste management.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Guerrieri, Antonio; Manni, Andrea; Manni, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, route planning algorithms are commonly used to generate detailed work schedules for solid waste collection vehicles. However, the reliability of such schedules relies heavily on the accuracy of a number of parameters, such as the actual service time at each collection location and the traversal times of the streets (which depend on the specific day of the week and the time of day). In this paper, we propose an automated classification and estimation algorithm that, based on Global Positioning System data collected by the fleet, estimates such parameters in a timely and accurate fashion. In particular, our approach is able to classify automatically events like stops due to traffic jams, stops at traffic lights and stops at collection sites. The system can also be used for automated fleet supervision and in order to notify on a web site whether certain services have been actually provided on a certain day, thus making waste management more accountable to citizens. An experimentation carried out in an Italian municipality shows the advantages of our approach. PMID:26421482

  5. Tomography-based monitoring of isothermal snow metamorphism under advective conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, P. P.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2015-02-01

    Time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography was used to investigate the structural dynamics of isothermal snow metamorphism exposed to an advective airflow. Diffusion and advection across the snow pores were analysed in controlled laboratory experiments. The 3-D digital geometry obtained by tomographic scans was used in direct pore-level numerical simulations to determine the effective transport properties. The results showed that isothermal advection with saturated air have no influence on the coarsening rate that is typical for isothermal snow metamorphism. Diffusion originating in the Kelvin effect between snow structures dominates and is the main transport process in isothermal snow packs.

  6. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  7. New theory on the reverberation of rooms. [considering sound wave travel time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujolle, J.

    1974-01-01

    The inadequacy of the various theories which have been proposed for finding the reverberation time of rooms can be explained by an attempt to examine what might occur at a listening point when image sources of determined acoustic power are added to the actual source. The number and locations of the image sources are stipulated. The intensity of sound at the listening point can be calculated by means of approximations whose conditions for validity are given. This leads to the proposal of a new expression for the reverberation time, yielding results which fall between those obtained through use of the Eyring and Millington formulae; these results are made to depend on the shape of the room by means of a new definition of the mean free path.

  8. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  9. Electrohydrodynamically Driven Chaotic Advection in Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Thomas; Homsy, G. M.

    2002-11-01

    When a liquid drop of given dielectric constant, resistivity and viscosity is translating in a liquid of different dielectric constant, resistivity and viscosity under Stokes flow conditions in the presence of an electric field, the resulting internal circulation is a superposition of the Hadamard-Rybcynski circulation and the circulation first described theoretically by G. I. Taylor. For sufficiently strong electric field strengths, the quadrapole structure of the Taylor circulation can cause an internal stagnation disk to occur. Our interest is in the situation where a modulation of the electric field causes the stagnation disk to modulate its position, potentially leading to chaotic flows within the drop. The dimensionless electric field strength is characterized by W = 4V(1+lambda)/U where V is the maximum interfacial velocity of the Taylor circulation, U the translational velocity, and lambda the viscosity ratio. The streamfunction for the flow is: 1) psi = (r4-r2) sin2)(theta + W(t) (r3 - r5) sin2 (theta) cos(theta) 2) W(t) = W1 + W2 cos ((epsilon)t) where epsilon is the dimensionless frequency, and W1, W2 are the amplitudes of the DC and AC components, respectively. We have found it useful to replace these parameters by a secondary set, epsilon, Wmax and delta = (1 / W1 - 1 / W2) - (1 / W1 + 1 / W2). As shown in Figure 1a, delta is the dimensionless distance the stagnation disk moves over one period of modulation. The advection equations corresponding to the flow were integrated by standard techniques, and it was found that the trajectories were chaotic over a wide range of parameters. Experiments were conducted to test the predictions of rapid mixing on convective time scales. Drops of silicon oil were suspended in a small 60 mm x 120 mm x 120 mm test cell filled with castor oil, and subject to time-modulated axial electric fields with a wave form corresponding to eq(2). The drops were typically 5 mm in diameter and settled with typical speeds of O(10-1 mm

  10. Travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates in the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, Aroscott

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine travel times, streamflow velocities, and longitudinal dispersion rates for the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake. For this study, rhodamine WT (RWT) dye was injected at two locations, Missouri River Headwaters State Park in early September and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam) in late August 2010. Dye concentrations were measured at three sites downstream from each dye-injection location. The study area was a 41.2-mile reach of the Missouri River from Trident, Montana, at the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers (Missouri River Headwaters) at river mile 2,319.40 downstream to the U.S. Route 12 Bridge (Townsend Bridge), river mile 2,278.23, near Townsend, Montana. Streamflows were reasonably steady and ranged from 3,070 to 3,700 cubic feet per second. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration of the dye plume. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume ranged from 0.80 to 3.02 feet per second within the study reach from Missouri River Headwaters to Townsend Bridge, near Townsend. The mean velocity of the dye plume for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between the abandoned Milwaukee Railroad bridge at Lombard, Montana (Milwaukee Bridge) and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam), was 2.87 feet per second. The velocity of the centroid of the dye plume for the subreach between Milwaukee Bridge and Broadwater Dam (Toston Reservoir) was 0.80 feet per second. The residence time for Toston Reservoir was 8.2 hours during this study. Estimated longitudinal dispersion rates of the dye plume for this study ranged from 0.72 feet per second for the subreach from Milwaukee Bridge to Broadwater Dam to 2.26 feet per second for

  11. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  12. Observations of traveling ionospheric disturbances with a satellite-beacon radio interferometer: Seasonal and local time behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.R.; Carlos, R.C.; Massey, R.S.; Wui, Guanghui

    1995-02-01

    The authors have operated a very long baseline interferometer array at a northern midlatitude site, illuminated by VHF radio beacons from two geosynchronous satellites, quasi-continuously for over a year. The array can detect and measure the trace velocity of traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) via their signatures in the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC). The system noise level is of the order of 10{sup 13} m{sup {minus}2} in the TEC, so that even very weak perturbations can be studied. They have used the year-long TID detection/velocimetry data set to describe local time and seasonal dependences of the wave parameters. The most striking finding is that the preferred azimuths of TIDs in the data set tend to belong to either of two modes: The first mode, strongest at midday and in the early afternoon, particularly around winter equinox, propagates southward. The second mode, strongest in the evening, especially during summer solstice through autumn equinox, propagates west-northwestward. The two modes are disposed in local time such as to suggest the agency of clockwise rotation of the TID preferred azimuths versus time, as expected by wind filtering in the thermospheric diurnal tide. However, there is a gap between the two modes` azimuth bands. Moreover, the two modes exist in all trace-speed quartiles of the data set TIDs, a finding which is at variance with the hypothesis of wind filtering being the primary explanation of these modes. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Accuracy of Perceived Estimated Travel Time by EMS to a Trauma Center in San Bernardino County, California

    PubMed Central

    Neeki, Michael M.; MacNeil, Colin; Toy, Jake; Dong, Fanglong; Vara, Richard; Powell, Joe; Pennington, Troy; Kwong, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    day to be associated with variability in the difference between the median of the estimated and actual arrival time (p=0.0082 and p=0.0005 for month and time of the day, respectively). Conclusion EMS personnel underestimate their travel time by a median of nine minutes, which may cause the trauma team to abandon other important activities in order to respond to the emergency department prematurely. The discrepancy between ETA and TOA is unpredictable, varying by month and time of day. As such, a better method of estimating patient arrival time is needed. PMID:27429692

  14. Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J G; Haygarth, P M; Withers, P J A; Macleod, C J A; Falloon, P D; Beven, K J; Ockenden, M C; Forber, K J; Hollaway, M J; Evans, R; Collins, A L; Hiscock, K M; Wearing, C; Kahana, R; Villamizar Velez, M L

    2016-04-01

    Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β, the fractional order α, and the single relaxation time τ, the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. G.; Haygarth, P. M.; Withers, P. J. A.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Falloon, P. D.; Beven, K. J.; Ockenden, M. C.; Forber, K. J.; Hollaway, M. J.; Evans, R.; Collins, A. L.; Hiscock, K. M.; Wearing, C.; Kahana, R.; Villamizar Velez, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β , the fractional order α , and the single relaxation time τ , the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering.

  16. Lattice Boltzmann method for the fractional advection-diffusion equation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J G; Haygarth, P M; Withers, P J A; Macleod, C J A; Falloon, P D; Beven, K J; Ockenden, M C; Forber, K J; Hollaway, M J; Evans, R; Collins, A L; Hiscock, K M; Wearing, C; Kahana, R; Villamizar Velez, M L

    2016-04-01

    Mass transport, such as movement of phosphorus in soils and solutes in rivers, is a natural phenomenon and its study plays an important role in science and engineering. It is found that there are numerous practical diffusion phenomena that do not obey the classical advection-diffusion equation (ADE). Such diffusion is called abnormal or superdiffusion, and it is well described using a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE). The FADE finds a wide range of applications in various areas with great potential for studying complex mass transport in real hydrological systems. However, solution to the FADE is difficult, and the existing numerical methods are complicated and inefficient. In this study, a fresh lattice Boltzmann method is developed for solving the fractional advection-diffusion equation (LabFADE). The FADE is transformed into an equation similar to an advection-diffusion equation and solved using the lattice Boltzmann method. The LabFADE has all the advantages of the conventional lattice Boltzmann method and avoids a complex solution procedure, unlike other existing numerical methods. The method has been validated through simulations of several benchmark tests: a point-source diffusion, a boundary-value problem of steady diffusion, and an initial-boundary-value problem of unsteady diffusion with the coexistence of source and sink terms. In addition, by including the effects of the skewness β, the fractional order α, and the single relaxation time τ, the accuracy and convergence of the method have been assessed. The numerical predictions are compared with the analytical solutions, and they indicate that the method is second-order accurate. The method presented will allow the FADE to be more widely applied to complex mass transport problems in science and engineering. PMID:27176431

  17. Growth cone travel in space and time: the cellular ensemble of cytoskeleton, adhesion, and membrane

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Eric A; Zheng, James Q

    2012-01-01

    Growth cones, found at the tip of axonal projections, are the sensory and motile organelles of developing neurons that enable axon pathfinding and target recognition for precise wiring of neural circuitry. To date, many families of conserved guidance molecules and their corresponding receptors have been identified that work in space and time to ensure billions of axons to their targets. Research in the past two decades has also gained significant insight into the mechanisms by which growth cones translate extracellular signals into directional migration. This review aims to examine new progress towards understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying directional motility of the growth cone and to discuss questions that remain to be addressed. Specifically we will focus on the cellular ensemble of cytoskeleton, adhesion, and membrane and examine how the intricate interplay between these processes orchestrates the directed movement of growth cones. PMID:22445336

  18. Growth cone travel in space and time: the cellular ensemble of cytoskeleton, adhesion, and membrane.

    PubMed

    Vitriol, Eric A; Zheng, James Q

    2012-03-22

    Growth cones, found at the tip of axonal projections, are the sensory and motile organelles of developing neurons that enable axon pathfinding and target recognition for precise wiring of the neural circuitry. To date, many families of conserved guidance molecules and their corresponding receptors have been identified that work in space and time to ensure billions of axons to reach their targets. Research in the past two decades has also gained significant insight into the ways in which growth cones translate extracellular signals into directional migration. This review aims to examine new progress toward understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying directional motility of the growth cone and to discuss questions that remain to be addressed. Specifically, we will focus on the cellular ensemble of cytoskeleton, adhesion, and membrane and examine how the intricate interplay between these processes orchestrates the directed movement of growth cones.

  19. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  20. The contiguous domains of Arctic Ocean advection: Trails of life and death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, P.; Kosobokova, K. N.; Slagstad, D.; Drinkwater, K. F.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Moore, S. E.; Ellingsen, I.; Nelson, R. J.; Carmack, E.; Popova, E.; Berge, J.

    2015-12-01

    The central Arctic Ocean is not isolated, but tightly connected to the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Advection of nutrient-, detritus- and plankton-rich waters into the Arctic Ocean forms lengthy contiguous domains that connect subarctic with the arctic biota, supporting both primary production and higher trophic level consumers. In turn, the Arctic influences the physical, chemical and biological oceanography of adjacent subarctic waters through southward fluxes. However, exports of biomass out of the Arctic Ocean into both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are thought to be far smaller than the northward influx. Thus, Arctic Ocean ecosystems are net biomass beneficiaries through advection. The biotic impact of Atlantic- and Pacific-origin taxa in arctic waters depends on the total supply of allochthonously-produced biomass, their ability to survive as adults and their (unsuccessful) reproduction in the new environment. Thus, advective transport can be thought of as trails of life and death in the Arctic Ocean. Through direct and indirect (mammal stomachs, models) observations this overview presents information about the advection and fate of zooplankton in the Arctic Ocean, now and in the future. The main zooplankton organisms subjected to advection into and inside the Arctic Ocean are (a) oceanic expatriates of boreal Atlantic and Pacific origin, (b) oceanic Arctic residents and (c) neritic Arctic expatriates. As compared to the Pacific gateway the advective supply of zooplankton biomass through the Atlantic gateways is 2-3 times higher. Advection characterises how the main planktonic organisms interact along the contiguous domains and shows how the subarctic production regimes fuel life in the Arctic Ocean. The main differences in the advective regimes through the Pacific and Atlantic gateways are presented. The Arctic Ocean is, at least in some regions, a net heterotrophic ocean that - during the foreseeable global warming trend - will more and more rely

  1. Advection by polytropic compressible turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, F.; O'Brien, E. E.; Cai, X.; Liu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to examine scalar correlation in low Mach number, polytropic, homogeneous, two-dimensional turbulence (Ms≤0.7) for which the initial conditions, Reynolds, and Mach numbers have been chosen to produce three types of flow suggested by theory: (a) nearly incompressible flow dominated by vorticity, (b) nearly pure acoustic turbulence dominated by compression, and (c) nearly statistical equipartition of vorticity and compressions. Turbulent flows typical of each of these cases have been generated and a passive scalar field imbedded in them. The results show that a finite-difference based computer program is capable of producing results that are in reasonable agreement with pseudospectral calculations. Scalar correlations have been calculated from the DNS results and the relative magnitudes of terms in low-order scalar moment equations determined. It is shown that the scalar equation terms with explicit compressibility are negligible on a long time-averaged basis. A physical-space EDQNM model has been adapted to provide another estimate of scalar correlation evolution in these same two-dimensional, compressible cases. The use of the solenoidal component of turbulence energy, rather than total turbulence energy, in the EDQNM model gives results closer to those from DNS in all cases.

  2. The allusive cognitive deficit in paranoia: the case for mental time travel or cognitive self-projection.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, R

    2010-08-01

    Delusional beliefs are characteristic of psychosis and, of the delusions, the paranoid delusion is the single most common type associated with psychosis. The many years of research focused on neurocognition in schizophrenia, using standardized neurocognitive tests, have failed to find conclusive cognitive deficits in relation to positive symptoms. However, UK-based psychological research has identified sociocognitive anomalies in relation to paranoid thinking in the form of theory of mind (ToM), causal reasoning and threat-related processing anomalies. Drawing from recent neuroscientific research on the default mode network, this paper asserts that the common theme running through the psychological tests that are sensitive to the cognitive impairment of paranoia is the need to cognitively project the self through time, referred to as mental time travel. Such an understanding of the cognitive roots of paranoid ideation provides a synthesis between psychological and biological accounts of psychosis while also retaining the powerful argument that understanding abnormal thinking must start with models of normal cognition. This is the core theme running through the cognitive psychological literature of psychiatric disorders that enables research from this area to inform psychological therapy.

  3. The allusive cognitive deficit in paranoia: the case for mental time travel or cognitive self-projection.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, R

    2010-08-01

    Delusional beliefs are characteristic of psychosis and, of the delusions, the paranoid delusion is the single most common type associated with psychosis. The many years of research focused on neurocognition in schizophrenia, using standardized neurocognitive tests, have failed to find conclusive cognitive deficits in relation to positive symptoms. However, UK-based psychological research has identified sociocognitive anomalies in relation to paranoid thinking in the form of theory of mind (ToM), causal reasoning and threat-related processing anomalies. Drawing from recent neuroscientific research on the default mode network, this paper asserts that the common theme running through the psychological tests that are sensitive to the cognitive impairment of paranoia is the need to cognitively project the self through time, referred to as mental time travel. Such an understanding of the cognitive roots of paranoid ideation provides a synthesis between psychological and biological accounts of psychosis while also retaining the powerful argument that understanding abnormal thinking must start with models of normal cognition. This is the core theme running through the cognitive psychological literature of psychiatric disorders that enables research from this area to inform psychological therapy. PMID:20594394

  4. Three-dimensional crustal structure of the Mendocino Triple Junction region from local earthquake travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdonck, David; Zandt, George

    1994-12-01

    The large-scale, three-dimensional geometry of the Mendocino Triple Junction at Cape Mendocino, California, was investigated by inverting nearly 19,000 P wave arrival times from over 1400 local earthquakes to estimate the three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocentral parameters. A velocity grid 175 km (N-S) by 125 km (E-W) centered near Garberville, California, was constructed with 25 km horizontal and 5 km vertical mode spacing. The model was well resolved near Cape Mendocino, where the earthquakes and stations are concentrated. At about 40.6 N latitude a high-velocity gradient between 6.5 and 7.5 km/s dips gently to the south and east from about 15 km depth near the coast. Relocated hypocenters concentrate below this high gradient which we interpret as the oceanic crust of the subducted Gorda Plate. Therefore the depth to the top of the Gorda Plate near Cape Mendocino is interpreted to be approximately 15 km. The Gorda Plate appears intact and dipping approximately 8 deg eastward due to subduction and flexing downward 6 deg - 12 deg to the south. Both hypocenters and velocity structure suggest that the southern edge of the plate intersects the coastline at 40.3 N latitude and maintains a linear trend 15 deg south of east to at least 123 W longitude. The top of a large low-velocity region at 20-30 km depth extends about 50 km N-S and 75 km E-W (roughly between Garberville and Covelo) and is located above and south of the southern edge of the Gorda Plate. We interpret this low velocity area to be locally thickened crust (8-10 km) due to either local compressional forces associated with north-south compression caused by the northward impingement of the rigid Pacific Plate or by underthrusting of the base of the accretionary subduction complex at the southern terminous of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. South of Cape Mendocino and southwest of the Garberville fault, high velocities indicative of oceanic crust are detected at 15 km depth. We interpret this

  5. The nature and role of advection in advection-diffusion equations used for modelling bed load transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancey, Christophe; Bohorquez, Patricio; Heyman, Joris

    2016-04-01

    The advection-diffusion equation arises quite often in the context of sediment transport, e.g., for describing time and space variations in the particle activity (the solid volume of particles in motion per unit streambed area). Stochastic models can also be used to derive this equation, with the significant advantage that they provide information on the statistical properties of particle activity. Stochastic models are quite useful when sediment transport exhibits large fluctuations (typically at low transport rates), making the measurement of mean values difficult. We develop an approach based on birth-death Markov processes, which involves monitoring the evolution of the number of particles moving within an array of cells of finite length. While the topic has been explored in detail for diffusion-reaction systems, the treatment of advection has received little attention. We show that particle advection produces nonlocal effects, which are more or less significant depending on the cell size and particle velocity. Albeit nonlocal, these effects look like (local) diffusion and add to the intrinsic particle diffusion (dispersal due to velocity fluctuations), with the important consequence that local measurements depend on both the intrinsic properties of particle displacement and the dimensions of the measurement system.

  6. LLNL-G3Dv3: global P-wave tomography model for improved regional and teleseismic travel time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2013-05-01

    We develop a global-scale P-wave velocity model (LLNL-G3Dv3) designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The model provides a new image of Earth's interior, but the underlying practical purpose of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. The LLNL-G3Dv3 model is based on ~2.8 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multiple-event locator called Bayesloc. We construct LLNL-G3Dv3 within a spherical tessellation based framework, allowing for explicit representation of undulating and discontinuous layers including the crust and transition zone layers. Using a multi-scale inversion technique, regional trends as well as fine details are captured where the data allow. LLNL-G3Dv3 exhibits large-scale structures including cratons and superplumes as well numerous complex details in the upper mantle including within the transition zone. Particularly, the model reveals new details of a vast network of subducted slabs trapped within the transition beneath much of Eurasia, including beneath the Tibetan Plateau. We demonstrate the impact of Bayesloc multiple-event location on the resulting tomographic images through comparison with images produced without the benefit of multiple-event constraints (single-event locations). We find that the multiple-event locations allow for better reconciliation of the large set of direct P phases recorded at 0-97° distance and yield a smoother and more continuous image relative to the single-event locations. Travel times predicted from a 3-D model are also found to be strongly influenced by the initial locations of the input data, even when an iterative inversion/relocation technique is employed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-559093 Summary of the LLNL-G3Dv3 model architecture. a) Selected levels of the

  7. Distinguishing resuspension and advection signals in a hypertidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, David; Souza, Alex; Jago, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial material is supplied to an estuary system by the river, while marine material is supplied by the sea. Whether the estuary acts as a trap or a bypass zone for SPM (suspended particulate matter) depends upon the properties and dynamics of both the estuary, including the tidal and residual behaviour of the currents, and the SPM, including particle sizes and settling velocities and concentration gradients, which together control the dynamics, such as the trapping efficiency, of the estuary. Whether an SPM signal is regarded as being one of resuspension or advection depends upon the area of interest, and therefore distinguishing between resuspension and advection can be complex. Material that is resuspended within the area of study is regarded as resuspension, while that which is resuspended outside, but passes through, the area of interest, is regarded as advection. The results of a measurement campaign undertaken in a hypertidal UK estuary during the pre-spring bloom February-March and post-spring bloom May-June are presented utilising a combination of acoustic and optical instruments, moorings, and CTD stations. A characteristic asymmetric "twin peak" signal is present during both time periods, implying the presence of both resuspension and advection. This is confirmed through the use of harmonic analysis. A seasonal variation in the relative importance of the resuspension and advection components is seen between the two observation periods, with the small (<122µm) and large (>122µm) particles displaying different behaviours and providing a strong indication of the presence of flocculation. Approximate point flux calculations showed a reduction in the horizontal gradient of concentration, and subsequently the flood dominance of sediment transport, between May-June and February-March. This has been attributed to changes in biological activity and atmospheric forcing between the two observational periods. Ebb-dominant concentrations brought about by the

  8. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  9. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures. PMID:24597166

  10. Interplay of climate and land-use change on transport dynamics of intensively managed landscapes: a catchment travel time distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesh Yazdi, M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic trends and extensive implementation of drainage tiles in poorly drained agricultural lands have left significant fingerprints on the hydrology and water quality of the receiving streams. Tiles were initially designed to increase the crop productivity by removing excess soil moisture and improving field conditions. However, their hydro-ecological consequences have gradually emerged through observations of enhanced rates of nitrate and phosphorus delivered to the streams, as well as altered runoff volumes and timing. The Redwood River Basin (a 1,800 km2 basin located in southwest Minnesota) is an example of such a system where a considerable switch from small grains to row crops has taken place since 1970's, driving intensive tile installation culminating in a doubling of tiled length in the past two decades. Long-term hydrologic analysis of this basin shows that the daily streamflow has increased in all months after the land-use change period, and rising limbs of daily hydrographs exhibit increased dependence on precipitation during May-June. In this study we employ the recently developed theory of time-variant travel time distributions within the storage selection function framework to examine the interplay of climate and land-use change on transport dynamics. Comparison of two periods representing the tiled and untiled conditions demonstrates 18-38 days decrease in the mean travel time due to tile drainage during spring-summer, while almost no change is observed during winter showing an overall cyclic behavior over a year. Statistics of the marginal distributions also show less variability in the mean travel time for the tiled period, probably revealing the response of the more constrained engineered system. Furthermore, the relative impact of the climate and the spatial heterogeneity of the soil properties on the travel times are investigated via numerical experiments performed on nested sub-basins under untiled condition. The simulations suggest that

  11. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  12. Comparison of thermal advection measurements by clear-air radar and radiosonde techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Crochet, M.; Rougier, G.; Bazile, G. Meteorologie Nationale, Trappes )

    1990-10-01

    Vertical profiles of the horizontal wind have been measured every 4 min by a clear-air radar (stratospheric-troposphere radar), and vertical profiles of temperature have been obtained every 2 hours by three radiosonde soundings in the same zone in Brittany during the Mesoscale Frontal Dynamics Project FRONTS 87 campaign. Radar thermal advection is deduced from the thermal wind equation using the measured real horizontal wind instead of the geostrophic wind. Radiosonde thermal advection is determined directly from the sounding station data sets of temperature gradients and also approximately from the thermodynamic equation by the temperature tendency. These approximations, applied during a frontal passage, show the same general features and magnitude of the thermal advection, giving a preliminary but encouraging conclusion for a possible real-time utilization of clear-air radars to monitor thermal advection and to identify its characteristic features. 6 refs.

  13. Do future thoughts reflect personal goals? Current concerns and mental time travel into the past and future.

    PubMed

    Cole, Scott N; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Our overriding hypothesis was that future thinking would be linked with goals to a greater extent than memories; conceptualizing goals as current concerns (i.e., uncompleted personal goals). We also hypothesized that current-concern-related events would differ from non-current-concern-related events on a set of phenomenological characteristics. We report novel data from a study examining involuntary and voluntary mental time travel using an adapted laboratory paradigm. Specifically, after autobiographical memories or future thoughts were elicited (between participants) in an involuntary and voluntary retrieval mode (within participants), participants self-generated five current concerns and decided whether each event was relevant or not to their current concerns. Consistent with our hypothesis, compared with memories, a larger percentage of involuntary and voluntary future thoughts reflected current concerns. Furthermore, events related to current concerns differed from non-concern-related events on a range of cognitive, representational, and affective phenomenological measures. These effects were consistent across temporal direction. In general, our results agree with the proposition that involuntary and voluntary future thinking is important for goal-directed cognition and behaviour.

  14. Travel time calculation in regular 3D grid in local and regional scale using fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Local and regional 3D seismic velocity models of crust and sediments are very important for numerous technics like mantle and core tomography, localization of local and regional events and others. Most of those techniques require calculation of wave travel time through the 3D model. This can be achieved using multiple approaches from simple ray tracing to advanced full waveform calculation. In this study simple and efficient implementation of fast marching method is presented. This method provides more information than ray tracing and is much less complicated than methods like full waveform being the perfect compromise. Presented code is written in C++, well commented and is easy to modify for different types of studies. Additionally performance is widely discussed including possibilities of multithreading and massive parallelism like GPU. Source code will be published in 2016 as it is part of the PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  15. Effect of Migration Pathway on Travel Time and Survival of Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Johnson, Gary E.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Hughes, Michael S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2012-02-01

    Off-channel areas (side channels, tidal flats, sand bars, and shallow-water bays) may serve as important migration corridors through estuarine environments for salmon and steelhead smolts. Relatively large percentages (21-33%) of acoustic-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts were detected migrating through off-channel areas of the Columbia River estuary in 2008. The probability of survival for off-channel migrants (0.78-0.94) was similar to or greater than the survival probability of main channel migrants (0.67-0.93). Median travel times were similar for all species or run types and migration pathways we examined, ranging from 1-2 d. The route used by smolts to migrate through the estuary may affect their vulnerability to predation. Acoustic-tagged steelhead that migrated nearest to avian predator nesting colonies experienced higher predation rates (24%) than those that migrated farthest from the colonies (10%). The use of multiple migration pathways may be advantageous to out-migrating smolts because it helps to buffer against high rates of mortality, which may occur in localized areas, and helps to minimize inter- and intraspecific competition.

  16. S-P wave travel time residuals and lateral inhomogeneity in the mantle beneath Tibet and the Himalaya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, P.; Chen, W.-P.

    1984-01-01

    S-P wave travel time residuals were measured in earthquakes in Tibet and the Himalaya in order to study lateral inhomogeneities in the earth's mantle. Average S-P residuals, measured with respect to Jeffrey-Bullen (J-B) tables for 11 earthquakes in the Himalaya are less than +1 second. Average J-B S-P from 10 of 11 earthquakes in Tibet, however, are greater than +1 second even when corrected for local crustal thickness. The largest values, ranging between 2.5 and 4.9 seconds are for five events in central and northern Tibet, and they imply that the average velocities in the crust and upper mantle in this part of Tibet are 4 to 10 percent lower than those beneath the Himalaya. On the basis of the data, it is concluded that it is unlikely that a shield structure lies beneath north central Tibet unless the S-P residuals are due to structural variations occurring deeper than 250 km.

  17. Traveling 12 Time Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, George; Wildcat, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes a science and cultural exchange between Haskell Indian Nations University and Gorno Altaisk State University in the Federation of Russia. Reports that students and faculty focused on water quality and began development of a "train-the-trainers" program for sampling drinking water. (NB)

  18. A Full-Bayesian Approach to parameter inference from tracer travel time moments and investigation of scale effects at the Cape Cod Experimental Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Allan D.; Rubin, Yoram

    2000-01-01

    A method for inverting the travel time moments of solutes in heterogeneous aquifers is presented and is based on peak concentration arrival times as measured at various samplers in an aquifer. The approach combines a Lagrangian [Rubin and Dagan, 1992] solute transport framework with full-Bayesian hydrogeological parameter inference. In the full-Bayesian approach the noise values in the observed data are treated as hyperparameters, and their effects are removed by marginalization. The prior probability density functions (pdfs) for the model parameters (horizontal integral scale, velocity, and log K variance) and noise values are represented by prior pdfs developed from minimum relative entropy considerations. Analysis of the Cape Cod (Massachusetts) field experiment is presented. Inverse results for the hydraulic parameters indicate an expected value for the velocity, variance of log hydraulic conductivity, and horizontal integral scale of 0.42 m/d, 0.26, and 3.0 m, respectively. While these results are consistent with various direct-field determinations, the importance of the findings is in the reduction of confidence range about the various expected values. On selected control planes we compare observed travel time frequency histograms with the theoretical pdf, conditioned on the observed travel time moments. We observe a positive skew in the travel time pdf which tends to decrease as the travel time distance grows. We also test the hypothesis that there is no scale dependence of the integral scale λ with the scale of the experiment at Cape Cod. We adopt two strategies. The first strategy is to use subsets of the full data set and then to see if the resulting parameter fits are different as we use different data from control planes at expanding distances from the source. The second approach is from the viewpoint of entropy concentration. No increase in integral scale with distance is inferred from either approach over the range of the Cape Cod tracer experiment.

  19. Distributed Parallel Particle Advection using Work Requesting

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Cornelius; Camp, David; Hentschel, Bernd; Garth, Christoph

    2013-09-30

    Particle advection is an important vector field visualization technique that is difficult to apply to very large data sets in a distributed setting due to scalability limitations in existing algorithms. In this paper, we report on several experiments using work requesting dynamic scheduling which achieves balanced work distribution on arbitrary problems with minimal communication overhead. We present a corresponding prototype implementation, provide and analyze benchmark results, and compare our results to an existing algorithm.

  20. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.