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Sample records for adventitious rooting process1

  1. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  2. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  3. [Influencing factors on culture of medicinal plants adventitious roots].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Hui; Zuo, Bei-Mei

    2012-12-01

    With the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal plants resources cannot meet the request of Chinese medicine industry. Medicinal plants adventitious roots culture in a large scale is an important way to achieve Chinese medicine industrialization. However, how to establish good adventitious roots culture system is its key, such as plant hormones, explant, sucrose, innoculum and salt strength.

  4. A positive role for hydrogen gas in adventitious root development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-06-02

    Our recent study highlights the role of hydrogen gas (H2) in adventitious root development in cucumber. H2 is an effective gaseous signal molecule with the abilities to regulate plant growth and development and enhance plant resistance to environmental stimulus. In addition, the effect of H2 on fruit senescence and flowering time also has been reported. Adventitious root development is a critical step in plant vegetative propagation affected by a serious of signaling molecules, such as auxin, nitric oxide (NO), carbon oxide (CO), ethylene and Ca(2+). Observational evidence has shown that H2 can regulate adventitious root development in a dose-dependent manner. H2 may regulate HO-1/CO pathway through or not through NO pathway during adventitious rooting. Rooting-related enzymes, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, indoleacetic acid oxidase were required for H2-induced adventitious root. CsDNAJ-1, CsCPDK1/5, CsCDC6, CsAUX228-like, and CsAUX22D-like genes also were involved in this process.

  5. [Cultivation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots in bubble bioreactors].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Bei-Mei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Juan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To study cultivation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots in bubble bioreactors. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture different types of bioreactors. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results showed that of the three types tested, the most efficient bioreactor for cultivation of the ginseng adventitious roots was the cone-type bioreactors (with the 120 degrees ), in which, the growth curve of adventitious roots was S-shaped. The maximum biomass was obtained on the 40th day, with the fresh weight, dry weight and growth rate reaching the maximum, which were 113.15 g, 9.62 g and 63.13 times respectively, and the concomitant contents of polysaccharide and ginsenoside were 2.73% and 2.25 mg x g(-1). The results showed that the most efficient bioreactor for cultivation of the ginseng adventitious roots was the cone-type bioreactors (with the 120 degrees). These results provide a theoretical reference for developing an efficient production process of active metabolites of ginseng in the scale-up cultivation.

  6. Psoralen production in hairy roots and adventitious roots cultures of Psoralea coryfolia.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, P; Jayabalan, N

    2009-07-01

    Psoralea corylifolia is an endangered plant producing various compounds of medical importance. Adventitious roots and hairy roots were induced in cultures prepared from hypocotyl explants. Psoralen content was evaluated in both root types grown either in suspension cultures or on agar solidified medium. Psoralen content was approximately 3 mg g(-1) DW in suspension grown hairy roots being higher than in solid grown hairy roots and in solid and suspension-grown adventitious roots.

  7. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. Methods Taking Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Key Results Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. Conclusions The adventitious roots of A. philoxeroides formed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from

  8. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-04-10

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. TakingAlternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. The adventitious roots ofA. philoxeroidesformed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from ambient water, thereby alleviating the adverse effects of

  9. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting.

  10. Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-08-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ≥2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots.

  11. Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Echinacea purpurea for the production of caffeic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Echinacace purpurea (purple cone flower) is an important medicinal plant, and widely used for phytochemical purposes. The roots are traditionally used in herbal medicines and dietary supplements as an immunostimulant in treating inflammatory and viral diseases. Extensive research work has been carried out on both the induction of adventitious roots from E. purpurea as well as established small-scale (shake flask) to large-scale (bioreactor) cultures for the production of adventitious root biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. This chapter describes the methodologies of induction of adventitious roots from explants of E. purpurea, propagation of adventitious roots in suspension cultures, estimation of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. The detailed methodology for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of caffeic acid derivatives present in the adventitious roots is also discussed.

  12. Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants - From Genes to Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adventitious root formation is a key step in the clonal propagation of forest trees and horticultural crops. Difficulties in forming adventitious roots (ARs) on stem cuttings and plants produced in vitro hinders the propagation of elite trees and efficient production of many horticultural plant spec...

  13. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Señorans, Jorge; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2012-06-27

    Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water balance and gas exchange under

  14. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water

  15. The TOR Pathway Is Involved in Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis and Potato.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kexuan; Dong, Pan; Wang, Wanjing; Feng, Li; Xiong, Fangjie; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shumin; Feng, Shun; Wang, Bangjun; Zhang, Jiankui; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    In the agriculture industry, adventitious root formation is a core issue of plants asexual propagation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation is far beyond understanding. In present study we found that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling plays a key role in adventitious root formation in potato and Arabidopsis. The core components of TOR complex including TOR, RAPTOR, and LST8 are highly conserved in potato, but the seedlings of potato are insensitive to rapamycin, implying FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) lost the function to bridge the interaction of rapamycin and TOR in potato. To dissect TOR signaling in potato, the rapamycin hypersensitive potato plants (BP12-OE) were engineered by introducing yeast FKBP12 (ScFKBP12) into potato. We found that rapamycin can significantly attenuate the capability of adventitious root formation in BP12-OE potatoes. KU63794 (KU, an active-site TOR inhibitor) combined with rapamycin can more significantly suppress adventitious root formation of BP12-OE potato than the single treatments, such as KU63794 or rapamycin, indicating its synergistic inhibitory effects on potato adventitious root formation. Furthermore, RNA-seq data showed that many genes associated with auxin signaling pathway were altered when BP12-OE potato seedlings were treated with rapamycin + KU, suggesting that TOR may play a major role in adventitious root formation via auxin signaling. The auxin receptor mutant tir1 was sensitive to TOR inhibitors and the double and quadruple mutants including tir1afb2, tir1afb3, and tir1afb1afb2afb3 displayed more sensitive to asTORis than single mutant tir1. Consistently, overexpression of AtTIR1 in Arabidopsis and potato can partially overcome the inhibitory effect of asTORis and promote adventitious root formation under asTORis treatments. These observations suggest that TOR signaling regulates adventitious root formation by mediating auxin signaling in Arabidopsis and potato.

  16. The TOR Pathway Is Involved in Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis and Potato

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kexuan; Dong, Pan; Wang, Wanjing; Feng, Li; Xiong, Fangjie; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shumin; Feng, Shun; Wang, Bangjun; Zhang, Jiankui; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    In the agriculture industry, adventitious root formation is a core issue of plants asexual propagation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation is far beyond understanding. In present study we found that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling plays a key role in adventitious root formation in potato and Arabidopsis. The core components of TOR complex including TOR, RAPTOR, and LST8 are highly conserved in potato, but the seedlings of potato are insensitive to rapamycin, implying FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) lost the function to bridge the interaction of rapamycin and TOR in potato. To dissect TOR signaling in potato, the rapamycin hypersensitive potato plants (BP12-OE) were engineered by introducing yeast FKBP12 (ScFKBP12) into potato. We found that rapamycin can significantly attenuate the capability of adventitious root formation in BP12-OE potatoes. KU63794 (KU, an active-site TOR inhibitor) combined with rapamycin can more significantly suppress adventitious root formation of BP12-OE potato than the single treatments, such as KU63794 or rapamycin, indicating its synergistic inhibitory effects on potato adventitious root formation. Furthermore, RNA-seq data showed that many genes associated with auxin signaling pathway were altered when BP12-OE potato seedlings were treated with rapamycin + KU, suggesting that TOR may play a major role in adventitious root formation via auxin signaling. The auxin receptor mutant tir1 was sensitive to TOR inhibitors and the double and quadruple mutants including tir1afb2, tir1afb3, and tir1afb1afb2afb3 displayed more sensitive to asTORis than single mutant tir1. Consistently, overexpression of AtTIR1 in Arabidopsis and potato can partially overcome the inhibitory effect of asTORis and promote adventitious root formation under asTORis treatments. These observations suggest that TOR signaling regulates adventitious root formation by mediating auxin signaling in Arabidopsis and potato. PMID

  17. Selecting Populus with different adventitious root types for environmental benefits, fiber, and energy

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Jill A. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    Primary roots from seeds, sucker roots in aspens, and adventitious roots (ARs) in poplars and their hybrids are prevalent within the genus Populus. Two AR types develop on hardwood cuttings: (i) lateral roots from either preformed or induced primordia along the length of the cutting and (ii) basal roots from callus at the base of the cutting in...

  18. Dissecting the contribution of microtubule behaviour in adventitious root induction.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Rogovoy Stelmakh, Oksana; Mordehaev, Inna; Grumberg, Marina; Elbaum, Rivka; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Sadot, Einat

    2015-05-01

    Induction of adventitious roots (ARs) in recalcitrant plants often culminates in cell division and callus formation rather than root differentiation. Evidence is provided here to suggest that microtubules (MTs) play a role in the shift from cell division to cell differentiation during AR induction. First, it was found that fewer ARs form in the temperature-sensitive mutant mor1-1, in which the MT-associated protein MOR1 is mutated, and in bot1-1, in which the MT-severing protein katanin is mutated. In the two latter mutants, MT dynamics and form are perturbed. By contrast, the number of ARs increased in RIC1-OX3 plants, in which MT bundling is enhanced and katanin is activated. In addition, any1 plants in which cell walls are perturbed made more ARs than wild-type plants. MT perturbations during AR induction in mor1-1 or in wild-type hypocotyls treated with oryzalin led to the formation of amorphous clusters of cells reminiscent of callus. In these cells a specific pattern of polarized light retardation by the cell walls was lost. PIN1 polarization and auxin maxima were hampered and differentiation of the epidermis was inhibited. It is concluded that a fine-tuned crosstalk between MTs, cell walls, and auxin transport is required for proper AR induction.

  19. Dissecting the contribution of microtubule behaviour in adventitious root induction

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Rogovoy (Stelmakh), Oksana; Mordehaev, Inna; Grumberg, Marina; Elbaum, Rivka; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Sadot, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Induction of adventitious roots (ARs) in recalcitrant plants often culminates in cell division and callus formation rather than root differentiation. Evidence is provided here to suggest that microtubules (MTs) play a role in the shift from cell division to cell differentiation during AR induction. First, it was found that fewer ARs form in the temperature-sensitive mutant mor1-1, in which the MT-associated protein MOR1 is mutated, and in bot1-1, in which the MT-severing protein katanin is mutated. In the two latter mutants, MT dynamics and form are perturbed. By contrast, the number of ARs increased in RIC1-OX3 plants, in which MT bundling is enhanced and katanin is activated. In addition, any1 plants in which cell walls are perturbed made more ARs than wild-type plants. MT perturbations during AR induction in mor1-1 or in wild-type hypocotyls treated with oryzalin led to the formation of amorphous clusters of cells reminiscent of callus. In these cells a specific pattern of polarized light retardation by the cell walls was lost. PIN1 polarization and auxin maxima were hampered and differentiation of the epidermis was inhibited. It is concluded that a fine-tuned crosstalk between MTs, cell walls, and auxin transport is required for proper AR induction. PMID:25788735

  20. Jasmonates act positively in adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings.

    PubMed

    Lischweski, Sandra; Muchow, Anne; Guthörl, Daniela; Hause, Bettina

    2015-09-22

    Petunia is a model to study the process of adventitious root (AR) formation on leafy cuttings. Excision of cuttings leads to a transient increase in jasmonates, which is regarded as an early, transient and critical event for rooting. Here, the role of jasmonates in AR formation on petunia cuttings has been studied by a reverse genetic approach. To reduce the endogenous levels of jasmonates, transgenic plants were generated expressing a Petunia hybrida ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (PhAOC)-RNAi construct. The transgenic plants exhibited strongly reduced PhAOC transcript and protein levels as well as diminished accumulation of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine after wounding in comparison to wild type and empty vector expressing plants. Reduced levels of endogenous jasmonates resulted in formation of lower numbers of ARs. However, this effect was not accompanied by altered levels of auxin and aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC, precursor of ethylene) or by impaired auxin and ethylene-induced gene expression. Neither activity of cell-wall invertases nor accumulation of soluble sugars was altered by jasmonate deficiency. Diminished numbers of AR in JA-deficient cuttings suggest that jasmonates act as positive regulators of AR formation in petunia wild type. However, wound-induced rise in jasmonate levels in petunia wild type cuttings seems not to be causal for increased auxin and ethylene levels and for sink establishment.

  1. Auxin Controls Arabidopsis Adventitious Root Initiation by Regulating Jasmonic Acid Homeostasis[W

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Laurent; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Floková, Kristýna; Păcurar, Daniel I.; Novák, Ondřej; Staswick, Paul; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Păcurar, Monica; Demailly, Hervé; Geiss, Gaia; Bellini, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Vegetative shoot-based propagation of plants, including mass propagation of elite genotypes, is dependent on the development of shoot-borne roots, which are also called adventitious roots. Multiple endogenous and environmental factors control the complex process of adventitious rooting. In the past few years, we have shown that the auxin response factors ARF6 and ARF8, targets of the microRNA miR167, are positive regulators of adventitious rooting, whereas ARF17, a target of miR160, is a negative regulator. We showed that these genes have overlapping expression profiles during adventitious rooting and that they regulate each other’s expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by modulating the homeostasis of miR160 and miR167. We demonstrate here that this complex network of transcription factors regulates the expression of three auxin-inducible Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) genes, GH3.3, GH3.5, and GH3.6, encoding acyl-acid-amido synthetases. We show that these three GH3 genes are required for fine-tuning adventitious root initiation in the Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl, and we demonstrate that they act by modulating jasmonic acid homeostasis. We propose a model in which adventitious rooting is an adaptive developmental response involving crosstalk between the auxin and jasmonate regulatory pathways. PMID:22730403

  2. Adventitious rooting declines with the vegetative to reproductive switch and involves a changed auxin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Druege, Uwe; Geelen, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting, whereby roots form from non-root tissues, is critical to the forestry and horticultural industries that depend on propagating plants from cuttings. A major problem is that age of the tissue affects the ability of the cutting to form adventitious roots. Here, a model system has been developed using Pisum sativum to differentiate between different interpretations of ageing. It is shown that the decline in adventitious rooting is linked to the ontogenetic switch from vegetative to floral and is mainly attributed to the cutting base. Using rms mutants it is demonstrated that the decline is not a result of increased strigolactones inhibiting adventitious root formation. Monitoring endogenous levels of a range of other hormones including a range of cytokinins in the rooting zone revealed that a peak in jasmonic acid is delayed in cuttings from floral plants. Additionally, there is an early peak in indole-3-acetic acid levels 6h post excision in cuttings from vegetative plants, which is absent in cuttings from floral plants. These results were confirmed using DR5:GUS expression. Exogenous supplementation of young cuttings with either jasmonic acid or indole-3-acetic acid promoted adventitious rooting, but neither of these hormones was able to promote adventitious rooting in mature cuttings. DR5:GUS expression was observed to increase in juvenile cuttings with increasing auxin treatment but not in the mature cuttings. Therefore, it seems the vegetative to floral ontogenetic switch involves an alteration in the tissue’s auxin homeostasis that significantly reduces the indole-3-acetic acid pool and ultimately results in a decline in adventitious root formation. PMID:25540438

  3. Cortical Aerenchyma Formation in Hypocotyl and Adventitious Roots of Luffa cylindrica Subjected to Soil Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Aerenchyma formation is thought to be one of the important morphological adaptations to hypoxic stress. Although sponge gourd is an annual vegetable upland crop, in response to flooding the hypocotyl and newly formed adventitious roots create aerenchyma that is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, but is produced by radial elongation of cortical cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the morphological changes in flooded tissues and the pattern of cortical aerenchyma formation, and to analyse the relative amount of aerenchyma formed. Method Plants were harvested at 16 d after the flooding treatment was initiated. The root system was observed, and sections of fresh materials (hypocotyl, tap root and adventitious root) were viewed with a light or fluorescence microscope. Distributions of porosity along adventitious roots were estimated by a pycnometer method. Key Results Under flooded conditions, a considerable part of the root system consisted of new adventitious roots which soon emerged and grew quickly over the soil surface. The outer cortical cells of these roots and those of the hypocotyl elongated radially and contributed to the development of large intercellular spaces. The elongated cortical cells of adventitious roots were clearly T-shaped, and occurred regularly in mesh-like lacunate structures. In these positions, slits were formed in the epidermis. In the roots, the enlargement of the gas space system began close to the apex in the cortical cell layers immediately beneath the epidermis. The porosity along these roots was 11–45 %. In non-flooded plants, adventitious roots were not formed and no aerenchyma developed in the hypocotyl or tap root. Conclusions Sponge gourd aerenchyma is produced by the unique radial elongation of cells that make the expansigeny. These morphological changes seem to enhance flooding tolerance by promoting tissue gas exchange, and sponge gourd might thereby adapt to flooding stress. PMID:17921518

  4. Cortical Aerenchyma formation in hypocotyl and adventitious roots of Luffa cylindrica subjected to soil flooding.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Toshihiro

    2007-12-01

    Aerenchyma formation is thought to be one of the important morphological adaptations to hypoxic stress. Although sponge gourd is an annual vegetable upland crop, in response to flooding the hypocotyl and newly formed adventitious roots create aerenchyma that is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, but is produced by radial elongation of cortical cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the morphological changes in flooded tissues and the pattern of cortical aerenchyma formation, and to analyse the relative amount of aerenchyma formed. Plants were harvested at 16 d after the flooding treatment was initiated. The root system was observed, and sections of fresh materials (hypocotyl, tap root and adventitious root) were viewed with a light or fluorescence microscope. Distributions of porosity along adventitious roots were estimated by a pycnometer method. Under flooded conditions, a considerable part of the root system consisted of new adventitious roots which soon emerged and grew quickly over the soil surface. The outer cortical cells of these roots and those of the hypocotyl elongated radially and contributed to the development of large intercellular spaces. The elongated cortical cells of adventitious roots were clearly T-shaped, and occurred regularly in mesh-like lacunate structures. In these positions, slits were formed in the epidermis. In the roots, the enlargement of the gas space system began close to the apex in the cortical cell layers immediately beneath the epidermis. The porosity along these roots was 11-45 %. In non-flooded plants, adventitious roots were not formed and no aerenchyma developed in the hypocotyl or tap root. Sponge gourd aerenchyma is produced by the unique radial elongation of cells that make the expansigeny. These morphological changes seem to enhance flooding tolerance by promoting tissue gas exchange, and sponge gourd might thereby adapt to flooding stress.

  5. Comparative evaluation of oxidative enzyme activities during adventitious rooting in the cuttings of grapevine rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Kose, Cafer; Erdal, Serkan; Kaya, Ozkan; Atici, Okkeş

    2011-03-15

    This study investigated changes in peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities through adventitious rooting in hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks. Three grapevine rootstocks with different propensity to produce adventitious roots were selected: recalcitrant (Ramsey), non-recalcitrant (Rupestris du Lot) and intermediate (99R) cultivars. The averages of root number at 65 days were 96 in Lot, 76 in 99R and 30 in Ramsey. Both enzyme activities characteristically increased before adventitious rooting, regardless of rooting ability of the rootstocks, and then decreased. POX activity increased in Ramsey cuttings at 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days after planting, and then decreased gradually until 51 days. The highest POX activity was determined in Ramsey rootstock with the highest rooting ability and the lowest activity was determined in the rootstocks with the lowest rooting ability. PPO activity gradually increased in Ramsey rootstock cuttings from 10 days to 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days, and then decreased until 51 days. A significant correlation was identified between high POX activity and adventitious rooting capability in rootstocks, but the same result was not determined with PPO activity. A recalcitrant rooting variety cannot increase POX activity sufficiently before rooting. Therefore applications that could increase POX activity in stem cuttings during rooting may facilitate increased rooting in such rootstocks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Proliferation and glucosinolates accumulation of broccoli adventitious roots in liquid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhut, Nguyen Minh; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Cotyledons from 7-day-old in vitro broccoli seedling were used as explant source in adventitious root induction on MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 1.6 mg/l IBA and 7 g/l agar. Adventitious roots from cotyledons were transferred to liquid medium containing the same components as rooting medium for two weeks, then subcultured to MS medium with diferent sugar, macrominerals and casein hydrolysate concentrations. The best adventitious root growth was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose, 600 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 1.6 mg/l IBA (growth index of 4.00 in about 14 culture days with inoculum density of 1.0 g fresh weight / 30 ml of culture medium). The culturing process can be stopped on the 28th day for root biomass and on the 35th day for glucosinolates.

  7. Gravitropic response of adventitious roots cultivated in light and darkness on sucrose-free medium.

    PubMed

    Vinterhalter, D V; Vinterhalter, B S

    1999-11-30

    Elongation of adventitious roots of Dracaena fragrans was investigated under photoautotrophic conditions. Root elongation decreased and stopped when cultures were transferred to darkness. Upon return to light roots renewed growth after a 5 day lag period. During the first two days of intensive new growth roots were agravitropic elongating in random directions. Investigation showed that transient absence of geotropic response was connected with disappearance of starch grains in root tip which occurred due to sucrose starvation of cultures in continuous darkness.

  8. Chromate induces adventitious root formation via auxin signalling and SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    López-Bucio, José; Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Ruíz-Herrera, León Francisco; Juárez, Consuelo Vargas; Hernández-Madrigal, Fátima; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Morphological root plasticity optimizes nutrient and water uptake by plants and is a promising target to improve tolerance to metal toxicity. Exposure to sublethal chromate [Cr(VI)] concentrations inhibits root growth, decreases photosynthesis and compromises plant development and productivity. Despite the increasing environmental problem that Cr(VI) represents, to date, the Cr tolerance mechanisms of plants are not well understood, and it remains to be investigated whether root architecture remodelling is important for plant adaptation to Cr(VI) stress. In this report, we analysed the growth response of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to concentrations of Cr(VI) that strongly repress primary and lateral root growth. Interestingly, adventitious roots started developing, branched and allowed seedlings to grow under highly growth-repressing Cr(VI) concentrations. Cr(VI) negatively regulates auxin transport and response gene expression in the primary root tip, as evidenced by decreased expression of auxin-related reporters DR5::GFP, DR5::uidA and PIN1::PIN1::GFP, and then, another auxin maximum is established at the site of adventitious root initiation that drives adventitious root organogenesis. Both primary root growth inhibition and adventitious root formation induced by high Cr(VI) levels are blocked by a gain-of-function mutation in the SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene of Arabidopsis. These data provide evidence that suggests a critical role for auxin transport and signalling via IAA14/SLR1 in the developmental program linking Cr(VI) to root architecture remodelling.

  9. Identification of new adventitious rooting mutants amongst suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Schwambach, Joseli; Bellini, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process. PMID:24596172

  10. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting.

  11. Establishment of in vitro adventitious root cultures and analysis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Andrographolide is the principal bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, to which various diverse pharmacological properties are attributed. Traditionally, andrographolide was extracted from the leaves, stems and other parts of the plant. Leaves have the highest andrographolide content (2-3%) in comparison with the other plant parts. Adventitious root culture of leaf explants of A. paniculata was studied using different strength MS medium supplemented by different concentrations of auxins and a combination of NAA + kinetin for growth and andrographolide production. Among the different auxin treatments in adventitious root culture, only NAA was able to induce adventitious roots. Adventitious roots grown in modified strength MS medium showed the highest root growth (26.7 +/- 1.52), as well as the highest amount of andrographolide (133.3 +/- 1.5 mg/g DW) as compared with roots grown in half- and full-strength MS medium. Growth kinetics showed maximum biomass production after five weeks of culture in different strength MS liquid medium. The produced andrographolide content was 3.5 - 5.5 folds higher than that of the natural plant, depending on the medium strength.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A.; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders’ rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species. PMID:26230608

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  14. The AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 homeotic transcription factor PtAIL1 controls the formation of adventitious root primordia in poplar.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Adeline; Yordanov, Yordan S; Perrone, Irene; Karlberg, Anna; Tisserant, Emilie; Bellini, Catherine; Busov, Victor B; Martin, Francis; Kohler, Annegret; Bhalerao, Rishi; Legué, Valérie

    2012-12-01

    Adventitious rooting is an essential but sometimes rate-limiting step in the clonal multiplication of elite tree germplasm, because the ability to form roots declines rapidly with age in mature adult plant tissues. In spite of the importance of adventitious rooting, the mechanism behind this developmental process remains poorly understood. We have described the transcriptional profiles that are associated with the developmental stages of adventitious root formation in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Transcriptome analyses indicate a highly specific temporal induction of the AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 (PtAIL1) transcription factor of the AP2 family during adventitious root formation. Transgenic poplar samples that overexpressed PtAIL1 were able to grow an increased number of adventitious roots, whereas RNA interference mediated the down-expression of PtAIL1 expression, which led to a delay in adventitious root formation. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 15 genes, including the transcription factors AGAMOUS-Like6 and MYB36, was overexpressed in the stem tissues that generated root primordia in PtAIL1-overexpressing plants, whereas their expression was reduced in the RNA interference lines. These results demonstrate that PtAIL1 is a positive regulator of poplar rooting that acts early in the development of adventitious roots.

  15. Nitric oxide is required for hydrogen gas-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao; Wang, Meng; Niu, Lijuan; Xu, Qingqing; Jin, Xin

    2016-05-20

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is involved in plant development and stress responses. Cucumber explants were used to study whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in H2-induced adventitious root development. The results revealed that 50% and 100% hydrogen-rich water (HRW) apparently promoted the development of adventitious root in cucumber. While, the responses of HRW-induced adventitious rooting were blocked by a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride (l-NAME) and nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor NaN3. HRW also increased NO content and NOS and NR activity both in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Moreover, molecular evidence showed that HRW up-regulated NR genes expression in explants. The results indicate the importance of NOS and NR enzymes, which might be responsible for NO production in explants during H2-induced root organogenesis. Additionally, peroxidase (POD) and indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO) activity was significantly decreased in the explants treated with HRW, while HRW treatment significantly increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. In addition, cPTIO, l-NAME and NaN3 inhibited the actions of HRW on the activity of these enzymes. Together, NO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting, and NO may be acting downstream in plant H2 signaling cascade.

  16. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-07-01

    A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Plants were raised in large pots with 'sediment' roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4.7 ± 2.4 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence.

  17. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Methods Plants were raised in large pots with ‘sediment’ roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Key Results Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4·7 ± 2·4 µmol m−2 s−1) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Conclusions Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence. PMID:22419759

  18. [Cloning of cDNA fragments related to adventitious root formation from mango cotyledon section].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Zhang, Yi-Shun; Li, Yin; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-04-01

    Two cut surfaces of mango cotyledon (distal and proximal cut surfaces) showed different capability of adventitious root formation, only proximal cut surface could be induced to form the roots and the distal cut surface did not. cDNA fragments related to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated with suppressive subtractive hybridization. The forward substracted cDNA library was constructed using the cDNAs of distal (non-rooting) cut surface as driver and the cDNAs of proximal (rooting) cut surface as tester. Six positive clones were obtained by Virtual Northern blots. In this study, the putative up-regulated genes showed by sequence analysis were reported in mango for the first time, the deduced proteins among the positive clones were homologous to transporters, transcriptional regulators and enzymes.

  19. Ethylene Induces Epidermal Cell Death at the Site of Adventitious Root Emergence in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Mergemann, Heidi; Sauter, Margret

    2000-01-01

    In deepwater rice (Oryza sativa), adventitious root primordia initiate at the nodes as part of normal development. Emergence of the roots is dependent on flooding of the plant and is mediated by ethylene action. Root growth was preceded by the induced death of epidermal cells of the node external to the tip of the root primordium. Cell death proceeded until the epidermis split open. Through this crack the root eventually emerged. Induced death was confined to nodal epidermal cells covering the tip of the primordia. Our results suggest that this process facilitates adventitious root emergence and prevents injury to the growing root. Cell death was inducible not only by submergence but also by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the natural precursor of ethylene and it was suppressed in the presence of 2,5-norbornadiene (bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene), an inhibitor of ethylene action. Adventitious root growth and epidermal cell death are therefore linked to the ethylene signaling pathway, which is activated in response to low oxygen stress. PMID:11027711

  20. Chemical characterization and prebiotic activity of fructo-oligosaccharides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures.

    PubMed

    Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de

    2016-11-05

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability.

  1. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B

    2015-03-01

    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency.

  2. The quiescent center and the stem cell niche in the adventitious roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rovere, Federica Della; Fattorini, Laura; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-05-03

    Adventitious rooting is essential for the survival of numerous species from vascular cryptogams to monocots, and is required for successful micropropagation. The tissues involved in AR initiation may differ in planta and in in vitro systems. For example, in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARs originate from the hypocotyl pericycle in planta and the stem endodermis in in vitro cultured thin cell layers. The formation of adventitious roots (ARs) depends on numerous factors, among which the hormones, auxin, in particular. In both primary and lateral roots, growth depends on a functional stem cell niche in the apex, maintained by an active quiescent center (QC), and involving the expression of genes controlled by auxin and cytokinin. This review summarizes current knowledge about auxin and cytokinin control on genes involved in the definition and maintenance of QC, and stem cell niche, in the apex of Arabidopsis ARs in planta and in longitudinal thin cell layers.

  3. Adventitious roots of wheat seedlings that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions have increased root diameters with highly developed lysigenous aerenchyma.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takaki; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Exposing roots of plants to hypoxic conditions is known to greatly improve their anoxic stress tolerance. We previously showed that pre-treatment of wheat seedlings with an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), enhanced their tolerance of oxygen-deficient conditions. Although ACC-pretreated seminal roots of wheat seedlings grown under oxygen-deficient conditions avoided root tip death, they elongated very little. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ethylene on the responses of adventitious roots of wheat seedlings to oxygen-deficient conditions. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the adventitious roots of wheat seedlings pretreated with ACC appeared to reduce tip death under oxygen-deficient conditions, but the adventitious roots, like the seminal roots, hardly elongated. We also found that adventitious roots that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions continued to elongate even under such conditions. The adventitious roots emerged in oxygen-deficient conditions were found to have thicker root diameters than those emerged in aerated conditions. These results suggest that the adventitious roots with thicker root diameters can better cope with oxygen-deficient conditions. Measurements of the area of the lysigenous aerenchyma confirmed that the increased root diameters have a greater amount of air space generated by lysigenous aerenchyma formation.

  4. Adventitious roots of wheat seedlings that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions have increased root diameters with highly developed lysigenous aerenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Takaki; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Exposing roots of plants to hypoxic conditions is known to greatly improve their anoxic stress tolerance. We previously showed that pre-treatment of wheat seedlings with an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), enhanced their tolerance of oxygen-deficient conditions. Although ACC-pretreated seminal roots of wheat seedlings grown under oxygen-deficient conditions avoided root tip death, they elongated very little. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ethylene on the responses of adventitious roots of wheat seedlings to oxygen-deficient conditions. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the adventitious roots of wheat seedlings pretreated with ACC appeared to reduce tip death under oxygen-deficient conditions, but the adventitious roots, like the seminal roots, hardly elongated. We also found that adventitious roots that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions continued to elongate even under such conditions. The adventitious roots emerged in oxygen-deficient conditions were found to have thicker root diameters than those emerged in aerated conditions. These results suggest that the adventitious roots with thicker root diameters can better cope with oxygen-deficient conditions. Measurements of the area of the lysigenous aerenchyma confirmed that the increased root diameters have a greater amount of air space generated by lysigenous aerenchyma formation. PMID:24690588

  5. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis.

  6. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize: implications for root function during flooding.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2011-04-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic adventitious roots contain a complete photosynthetic pathway. Underwater photosynthetic rates are similar to those of stems, with a maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(max)) of 0.38 μmol O(2) m(-2) s(-1); however, this is c. 30-fold lower than that of aquatic-adapted leaves. Under saturating light with 300 mmol m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 μmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need little O(2) and carbohydrate inputs from the shoot when illuminated. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Genetic dissection of the role of ethylene in regulating auxin-dependent lateral and adventitious root formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sangeeta; Sukumar, Poornima; Liu, Xing; Cohen, Jerry D; Muday, Gloria K

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of ethylene in the formation of lateral and adventitious roots in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using mutants isolated for altered ethylene signaling and fruit ripening. Mutations that block ethylene responses and delay ripening -Nr (Never ripe), gr (green ripe), nor (non ripening), and rin (ripening inhibitor) - have enhanced lateral root formation. In contrast, the epi (epinastic) mutant, which has elevated ethylene and constitutive ethylene signaling in some tissues, or treatment with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC), reduces lateral root formation. Treatment with ACC inhibits the initiation and elongation of lateral roots, except in the Nr genotype. Root basipetal and acropetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport increase with ACC treatments or in the epi mutant, while in the Nr mutant there is less auxin transport than in the wild type and transport is insensitive to ACC. In contrast, the process of adventitious root formation shows the opposite response to ethylene, with ACC treatment and the epi mutation increasing adventitious root formation and the Nr mutation reducing the number of adventitious roots. In hypocotyls, ACC treatment negatively regulated IAA transport while the Nr mutant showed increased IAA transport in hypocotyls. Ethylene significantly reduces free IAA content in roots, but only subtly changes free IAA content in tomato hypocotyls. These results indicate a negative role for ethylene in lateral root formation and a positive role in adventitious root formation with modulation of auxin transport as a central point of ethylene-auxin crosstalk.

  8. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  9. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  10. Origin, timing, and gene expression profile of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and stems.

    PubMed

    Welander, Margareta; Geier, Thomas; Smolka, Anders; Ahlman, Annelie; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative propagation, but difficult to achieve in many crops. Understanding its molecular mechanisms is thus important for such species. Here we aimed at developing a rooting protocol for direct AR formation in stems, locating cellular AR origins in stems and exploring molecular differences underlying adventitious rooting in hypocotyls and stems. In-vitro-grown hypocotyls or stems of wild-type and transgenic ecotype Columbia (Col-0) of Arabidopsis thaliana were rooted on rooting media. Anatomy of AR formation, qRT-PCR of some rooting-related genes and in situ GUS expression were carried out during rooting from hypocotyls and stems. We developed a rooting protocol for AR formation in stems and traced back root origins in stems by anatomical and in situ expression studies. Unlike rooting in hypocotyls, rooting in stems was slower, and AR origins were mainly from lateral parenchyma of vascular bundles and neighboring starch sheath cells as well as, to a lesser extent, from phloem cap and xylem parenchyma. Transcript levels of GH3-3, LBD16, LBD29, and LRP1 in hypocotyls and stems were similar, but transcript accumulation was delayed in stems. In situ expression signals of DR5::GUS, LBD16::GUS, LBD29::GUS, and rolB::GUS reporters in stems mainly occurred at the root initiation sites, suggesting their involvement in AR formation. We have developed an efficient rooting protocol using half-strength Lepoivre medium for studying AR formation in stems, traced back the cellular AR origins in stems, and correlated expression of rooting-related genes with root initiation sites.

  11. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Different Mutant Genotypes of Arabidopsis Led to the Identification of 11 Proteins Correlating with Adventitious Root Development1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sorin, Céline; Negroni, Luc; Balliau, Thierry; Corti, Hélène; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Davanture, Marlène; Sandberg, Göran; Zivy, Michel; Bellini, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings or explants in vitro occurs routinely and is an obstacle for the clonal propagation and rapid fixation of elite genotypes. Adventitious rooting is known to be a quantitative genetic trait. We performed a proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants affected in their ability to develop adventitious roots in order to identify associated molecular markers that could be used to select genotypes for their rooting ability and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Comparison of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein profiles resulted in the identification of 11 proteins whose abundance could be either positively or negatively correlated with endogenous auxin content, the number of adventitious root primordia, and/or the number of mature adventitious roots. One protein was negatively correlated only to the number of root primordia and two were negatively correlated to the number of mature adventitious roots. Two putative chaperone proteins were positively correlated only to the number of primordia, and, interestingly, three auxin-inducible GH3-like proteins were positively correlated with the number of mature adventitious roots. The others were correlated with more than one parameter. The 11 proteins are predicted to be involved in different biological processes, including the regulation of auxin homeostasis and light-associated metabolic pathways. The results identify regulatory pathways associated with adventitious root formation and represent valuable markers that might be used for the future identification of genotypes with better rooting abilities. PMID:16377752

  13. Benefits of flooding-induced aquatic adventitious roots depend on the duration of submergence: linking plant performance to root functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Huber, Heidrun; Beljaars, Simone J M; Birnbaum, Diana; de Best, Sander; de Kroon, Hans; Visser, Eric J W

    2017-07-01

    Temporal flooding is a common environmental stress for terrestrial plants. Aquatic adventitious roots (aquatic roots) are commonly formed in flooding-tolerant plant species and are generally assumed to be beneficial for plant growth by supporting water and nutrient uptake during partial flooding. However, the actual contribution of these roots to plant performance under flooding has hardly been quantified. As the investment into aquatic root development in terms of carbohydrates may be costly, these costs may - depending on the specific environmental conditions - offset the beneficial effects of aquatic roots. This study tested the hypothesis that the balance between potential costs and benefits depends on the duration of flooding, as the benefits are expected to outweigh the costs in long-term but not in short-term flooding. The contribution of aquatic roots to plant performance was tested in Solanum dulcamara during 1-4 weeks of partial submergence and by experimentally manipulating root production. Nutrient uptake by aquatic roots, transpiration and photosynthesis were measured in plants differing in aquatic root development to assess the specific function of these roots. As predicted, flooded plants benefited from the presence of aquatic roots. The results showed that this was probably due to the contribution of roots to resource uptake. However, these beneficial effects were only present in long-term but not in short-term flooding. This relationship could be explained by the correlation between nutrient uptake and the flooding duration-dependent size of the aquatic root system. The results indicate that aquatic root formation is likely to be selected for in habitats characterized by long-term flooding. This study also revealed only limited costs associated with adventitious root formation, which may explain the maintenance of the ability to produce aquatic roots in habitats characterized by very rare or short flooding events.

  14. Gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Lunenfeld, B

    1968-03-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems.

  15. Gonadotropin Promotion of Adventitious Root Production on Cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera 1

    PubMed Central

    Leshem, Y.; Lunenfeld, B.

    1968-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA3-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems. PMID:5641189

  16. Analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation on Arabidopsis stem segments.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Vertocnik, Amy; Town, Christopher D

    2005-08-01

    Root induction by auxins is still not well understood at the molecular level. In this study a system has been devised which distinguishes between the two active auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IBA, but not IAA, efficiently induced adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis stem segments at a concentration of 10 microM. In wild-type plants, roots formed exclusively out of calli at the basal end of the segments. Root formation was inhibited by 10 microM 3,4,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. At intermediate IBA concentrations (3-10 microM), root induction was less efficient in trp1, a tryptophan auxotroph of Arabidopsis with a bushy phenotype but no demonstrable reduction in IAA levels. By contrast, two mutants of Arabidopsis with measurably higher levels of IAA (trp2, amt1) show root induction characteristics very similar to the wild type. Using differential display, transcripts specific to the rooting process were identified by devising a protocol that distinguished between callus production only and callus production followed by root initiation. One fragment was identical to the sequence of a putative regulatory subunit B of protein phosphatase 2A. It is suggested that adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis stem segments is due to an interaction between endogenous IAA and exogenous IBA. In stem explants, residual endogenous IAA is transported to the basal end of each segment, thereby inducing root formation. In stem segments in which the polar auxin transport is inhibited by TIBA, root formation does not occur.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Nodal Cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  18. Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties.

  19. Production of tropane alkaloids by small-scale bubble column bioreactor cultures of Scopolia parviflora adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji Yun; Jung, Hee Young; Kang, Seung Mi; Kim, Yong Duck; Kang, Young Min; Park, Dong Jin; Prasad, Doddananjappa Theertha; Choi, Myung Suk

    2007-07-01

    The mass production of tropane alkaloids from adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora, in small-scale bubble column bioreactor (BCB) was attempted. Adventitious roots of S. parviflora produced relatively enhanced levels of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in bioreactor compared to flask type cultures, and rapidly produced root clumps, with continuously increasing biomass throughout the culture period. The production of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in the top and bottom regions of root clumps were higher than in the core region. The adventitious root cultures of S. parviflora in the BCB required a relatively high level of aeration. The optimized conditions for the bioreactor culture growth and alkaloid production were found to be 3g of inoculum, on a fresh weight basis, a 15-day culture period and 0.4vvm of airflow. The elicitation by Staphylococus aureus increased the specific compound of scopolamine, while the production of hyoscyamine was slightly inhibited in BCB cultures.

  20. Gene expression profiling during adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Villacorta-Martín, Carlos; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; van de Rhee, Miranda; de Haan, Jorn; Acosta, Manuel; Passarinho, Paul; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-10-14

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical step in vegetative propagation of most ornamental plants, such as carnation. AR formation from stem cuttings is usually divided into several stages according to physiological and metabolic markers. Auxin is often applied exogenously to promote the development of ARs on stem cuttings of difficult-to-root genotypes. By whole transcriptome sequencing, we identified the genes involved in AR formation in carnation cuttings and in response to exogenous auxin. Their expression profiles have been analysed through RNA-Seq during a time-course experiment in the stem cutting base of two cultivars with contrasting efficiencies of AR formation. We explored the kinetics of root primordia formation in these two cultivars and in response to exogenously-applied auxin through detailed histological and physiological analyses. Our results provide, for the first time, a number of molecular, histological and physiological markers that characterize the different stages of AR formation in this species and that could be used to monitor adventitious rooting on a wide collection of carnation germplasm with the aim to identify the best-rooting cultivars for breeding purposes.

  1. BIG LEAF is a regulator of organ size and adventitious root formation in poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Yordanov, Yordan S.; Ma, Cathleen; Yordanova, Elena; ...

    2017-07-07

    Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs. Consistently, BL downregulation reduced leaf size at the earliest stagesmore » of leaf development. Ectopic expression in mature leaves resulted in continued growth most probably via sustained cell proliferation and thus the increased leaf size. In contrast to the positive effect on leaf growth, ectopic BL expression in stems interfered with and significantly reduced stem thickening, suggesting that BL is a highly specific activator of growth. Additionally, stem cuttings from BL overexpressing plants developed roots, whereas the wild type was difficult to root, demonstrating that BL is a positive regulator of adventitious rooting. Large transcriptomic changes in plants that overexpressed BL indicated that BL may have a broad integrative role, encompassing many genes linked to organ growth. Here, we conclude that BL plays a fundamental role in control of leaf size and thus may be a useful tool for modifying plant biomass productivity and adventitious rooting.« less

  2. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography.

  3. Triterpene and Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Metabolic Profiling of Hairy Roots, Adventitious Roots, and Seedling Roots of Astragalus membranaceus.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun Ji; Thwe, Aye Aye; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Kwang; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2015-10-14

    Astragalus membranaceus is an important traditional Chinese herb with various medical applications. Astragalosides (ASTs), calycosin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) are the primary metabolic components in A. membranaceus roots. The dried roots of A. membranaceus have various medicinal properties. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of genes related to the biosynthetic pathways of ASTs, calycosin, and CG to investigate the differences between seedling roots (SRs), adventitious roots (ARs), and hairy roots (HRs) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR study revealed that the transcription level of genes involved in the AST biosynthetic pathway was lowest in ARs and showed similar patterns in HRs and SRs. Moreover, most genes involved in the synthesis of calycosin and CG exhibited the highest expression levels in SRs. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the expression level of the genes correlated with the content of ASTs, calycosin, and CG in the three different types of roots. ASTs were the most abundant in SRs. CG accumulation was greater than calycosin accumulation in ARs and HRs, whereas the opposite was true in SRs. Additionally, 40 metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) documented the differences among SRs, ARs, and HRs. PCA comparatively differentiated among the three samples. The results of PCA showed that HRs were distinct from ARs and SRs on the basis of the dominant amounts of sugars and clusters derived from closely similar biochemical pathways. Also, ARs had a higher concentration of phenylalanine, a precursor for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, as well as CG. TCA cycle intermediates levels including succinic acid and citric acid indicated a higher amount in SRs than in the others.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide is a second messenger in the salicylic acid-triggered adventitious rooting process in mung bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Is a Second Messenger in the Salicylic Acid-Triggered Adventitious Rooting Process in Mung Bean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N’-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings. PMID:24386397

  6. Adventitious Root Production and Plastic Resource Allocation to Biomass Determine Burial Tolerance in Woody Plants from Central Canadian Coastal Dunes

    PubMed Central

    DECH, JEFFERY P.; MAUN, M. ANWAR

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Burial is a recurrent stress imposed upon plants of coastal dunes. Woody plants are buried on open coastal dunes and in forested areas behind active blowouts; however, little is known about the burial responses and adaptive traits of these species. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the growth and morphological responses to burial in sand of seven woody plant species native to central Canadian coastal dunes; and (b) to identify traits that determine burial tolerance in these species. • Methods Field experiments were conducted to determine the responses of each species to burial. Saplings were exposed to burial treatments of 0, 10, 25, 50 and 75 % of their height. Burial responses were evaluated based on regressions of total biomass, height, adventitious root production and percentage allocation to shoot, root and adventitious root biomass on percentage burial. • Key Results Pinus strobus and Picea glauca lacked burial tolerance. In response to the burial gradient, these species showed a strong linear decline in total biomass, minimal adventitious root production that peaked at moderate levels (25–50 % burial) and no change in allocation to shoots vs. roots. The tolerant species Juniperus virginiana, Thuja occidentalis and Picea mariana showed a quadratic response to burial, with little change in biomass up to 50 % burial, but a large decline at 75 %. These species produced abundant adventitious roots up to 50 % burial, but did not alter allocation patterns over the range of burial levels. Populus balsamifera and Salix cordata were stimulated by burial. These species showed linear increases in biomass with increasing burial, produced copious adventitious roots across the gradient and showed a clear shift in allocation to vertical shoot growth and adventitious root production at the expense of the original roots under high burial conditions. • Conclusions Adventitious root production and plastic resource

  7. Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Jinba’ during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Results The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum. Conclusions The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or

  8. Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixia; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhu, Lu; Zheng, Chen; Han, Shuang; Gu, Jing; Sun, Jing; Li, Huiyun; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Chen, Fadi

    2013-12-26

    A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar 'Jinba' during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum. The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or negatively correlated to ARF

  9. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Cibele T.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Ruedell, Carolina M.; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S.; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  10. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Cibele T; de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  11. Dark exposure of petunia cuttings strongly improves adventitious root formation and enhances carbohydrate availability during rooting in the light.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The effect of temporary dark exposure on adventitious root formation (ARF) in Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell' cuttings was investigated. Histological and metabolic changes in the cuttings during the dark treatment and subsequent rooting in the light were recorded. Excised cuttings were exposed to the dark for seven days at 10 degrees C followed by a nine-day rooting period in perlite or were rooted immediately for 16 days in a climate chamber at 22/20 degrees C (day/night) and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 100micromolm(-2)s(-1). Dark exposure prior to rooting increased, accelerated and synchronized ARF. The rooting period was reduced from 16 days (non-treated cuttings) to 9 days (treated cuttings). Under optimum conditions, despite the reduced rooting period, dark-exposed cuttings produced a higher number and length of roots than non-treated cuttings. An increase in temperature to 20 degrees C during the dark treatment or extending the cold dark exposure to 14 days caused a similar enhancement of root development compared to non-treated cuttings. Root meristem formation had already started during the dark treatment and was enhanced during the subsequent rooting period. Levels of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and starch in leaf and basal stem tissues significantly decreased during the seven days of dark exposure. This depletion was, however, compensated during rooting after 6 and 24h for soluble sugars in leaves and the basal stem, respectively, whereas the sucrose level in the basal stem was already increased at 6h. The association of higher carbohydrate levels with improved rooting in previously dark-exposed versus non-treated cuttings indicates that increased post-darkness carbohydrate availability and allocation towards the stem base contribute to ARF under the influence of dark treatment and provide energy for cell growth subject to a rising sink intensity in the base of the cutting. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  14. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  15. Effects of light regime and IBA concentration on adventitious rooting of an eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) clone

    Treesearch

    Alexander P. Hoffman; Joshua P. Adams; Andrew Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) has received a substantial amount of interest from invitro studies within the past decade. The ability to efficiently multiply the stock of established clones such as clone 110412 is a valuable asset for forest endeavors. However, a common problem encountered is initiating adventitious rooting in new micropropagation protocols....

  16. Proliferation and ajmalicine biosynthesis of Catharanthus roseus (L). G. Don adventitious roots in self-built temporary immersion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Vo Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Minh; Thien, Huynh Tri; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) is a medicinal plant containing about 130 types of alkaloids that have important pharmacological effects. Ajmalicine in periwinkle root is an antihypertensive drug used in treatment of high blood pressure. Adventitious roots obtained from periwinkle leaves of in vitro shoots grew well in quarter-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l IBA and 20 g/l sucrose. Dark condition was more suitable for root growth than light. However, callus formation also took place in addition to the growth of adventitious roots. Temporary immersion system was applied in the culture of adventitious roots in order to reduce the callus growth rate formed in shake flask cultures. The highest growth index of roots was achieved using the system with 5-min immersion every 45 min (1.676 ± 0.041). The roots cultured in this system grew well without callus formation. Ajmalicine content was highest in the roots cultured with 5-min immersion every 180 min (950 μg/g dry weight).

  17. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) (a hard-to-root specie) leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non-saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.

  18. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) (a hard-to-root specie) leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non-saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation. PMID:26635821

  19. Early action of pea symbiotic gene NOD3 is confirmed by adventitious root phenotype.

    PubMed

    Novák, Karel

    2010-11-01

    A supernodulating and Nts (nitrate-tolerant symbiosis) symbiotic mutation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) line RisfixC was found to retain its expression in the distant genetic background of pea lines Afghanistan L1268, Zhodino E900, and cv. Arvika. This finding allowed for reliable scoring for the trait in mapping crosses. The RisfixC mutation was localized 8.2cM apart from SYM2 and cosegregated with molecular markers for SYM2-NOD3 region Psc923 and OA-1. Grafting experiments showed that supernodulation is root-determined, consistently with mutants in the NOD3 locus. Therefore, the mutation of RisfixC can be localized in gene NOD3. Like in other published nod3 alleles, the RisfixC mutation determines supernodulation when it is expressed in the root but not in the shoot. Supernodulated adventitious roots that are spontaneously formed in the wild-type scions on mutant rootstocks indicate that the descending systemic signal, which is inhibitory to nodule formation, is absent in this type of chimeric plants. Since the descending signal production in the wild-type shoot reflects the presence of the ascending root signal, the nod3-associated lesion must be located in the beginning of the systemic circuit regulating nodule number. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of genetic, genomic and transcriptomic information identifies putative regulators of adventitious root formation in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Ribeiro, Cintia L.; Silva, Cynthia M.; Drost, Derek R.; ...

    2016-03-16

    In this study, adventitious roots (AR) develop from tissues other than the primary root, in a process physiologically regulated by phytohormones. Adventitious roots provide structural support and contribute to water and nutrient absorption, and are critical for commercial vegetative propagation of several crops. Here we quantified the number of AR, root architectural traits and root biomass in cuttings from a pseudo-backcross population of Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and whole-transcriptome analysis of individuals with alternative QTL alleles for AR number were used to identify putative regulators of AR development. As a result, parental individuals andmore » progeny showed extensive segregation for AR developmental traits. Quantitative trait loci for number of AR mapped consistently in the same interval of linkage group (LG) II and LG XIV, explaining 7–10 % of the phenotypic variation. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 26,121 genes differentially expressed during AR development, particularly during the first 24 h after cuttings were harvested. Of those, 1929 genes were differentially regulated between individuals carrying alternative alleles for the two QTL for number of AR, in one or more time point. Eighty-one of these genes were physically located within the QTL intervals for number of AR, including putative homologs of the Arabidopsis genes SUPERROOT2 (SUR2) and TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE ALPHA CHAIN (TSA1), both of which are involved in the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests the involvement of two genes of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway, SUR2 and TSA1, in the regulation of a critical trait for the clonal propagation of woody species. A possible model for this regulation is that poplar individuals that have poor AR formation synthesize auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily through the tryptophan (Trp) pathway. Much of

  1. Integration of genetic, genomic and transcriptomic information identifies putative regulators of adventitious root formation in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Cintia L.; Silva, Cynthia M.; Drost, Derek R.; Novaes, Evandro; Novaes, Carolina R. D. B.; Dervinis, Christopher; Kirst, Matias

    2016-03-16

    In this study, adventitious roots (AR) develop from tissues other than the primary root, in a process physiologically regulated by phytohormones. Adventitious roots provide structural support and contribute to water and nutrient absorption, and are critical for commercial vegetative propagation of several crops. Here we quantified the number of AR, root architectural traits and root biomass in cuttings from a pseudo-backcross population of Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and whole-transcriptome analysis of individuals with alternative QTL alleles for AR number were used to identify putative regulators of AR development. As a result, parental individuals and progeny showed extensive segregation for AR developmental traits. Quantitative trait loci for number of AR mapped consistently in the same interval of linkage group (LG) II and LG XIV, explaining 7–10 % of the phenotypic variation. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 26,121 genes differentially expressed during AR development, particularly during the first 24 h after cuttings were harvested. Of those, 1929 genes were differentially regulated between individuals carrying alternative alleles for the two QTL for number of AR, in one or more time point. Eighty-one of these genes were physically located within the QTL intervals for number of AR, including putative homologs of the Arabidopsis genes SUPERROOT2 (SUR2) and TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE ALPHA CHAIN (TSA1), both of which are involved in the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests the involvement of two genes of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway, SUR2 and TSA1, in the regulation of a critical trait for the clonal propagation of woody species. A possible model for this regulation is that poplar individuals that have poor AR formation synthesize auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily through the tryptophan (Trp) pathway. Much of the Trp

  2. Partial flooding enhances aeration in adventitious roots of black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuwen; Reza Pezeshki, S; Douglas Shields, F

    2006-04-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings are used for streambank stabilization where they are subjected to a range of soil moisture conditions including flooding. Flooding has been shown to adversely impact cutting performance, and improved understanding of natural adaptations to flooding might suggest handling and planting techniques to enhance success. However, data assessing the root aeration in adventitious roots that are developed on cuttings of woody species are scant. In addition, it appears that no data are available regarding aeration of the root system under partially flooded conditions. This experiment was designed to examine the effects of continuous flooding (CF) and partial flooding (PF) on aerenchyma formation and radial oxygen loss (ROL) in black willow cuttings. Photosynthetic and growth responses to these conditions were also investigated. Under laboratory condition, replicated potted cuttings were subjected to three treatments: no flooding (control, C), CF, and PF. Water was maintained above the soil surface in CF and at 10 cm depth in PF. Results indicated that after the 28-d treatments, root porosity ranged between 28.6% and 33.0% for the CF and C plants but was greater for the PF plants (39.2% for the drained and 37.2% for the flooded portions). A similar response pattern was found for ROL. In addition, CF treatment led to decreases in final root biomass and root/shoot ratio. Neither CF nor PF had any detectable adverse effects on plant gas exchange or photosystem II functioning. Our results indicated that S. nigra cuttings exhibited avoidance mechanisms in response to flooding, especially the partially flooded condition which is the most common occurrence in riparian systems.

  3. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B.; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2–3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding. PMID:24790121

  4. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Khandare, Rahul V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-04-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes.

  5. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J W

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2-3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding.

  6. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J W; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kensche, Philip R; Cristescu, Simona M; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding.

  7. The Arabidopsis Cop9 signalosome subunit 4 (CNS4) is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Lakehal, Abdellah; Pacurar, Andrea Mariana; Ranjan, Alok; Bellini, Catherine

    2017-04-04

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionary conserved multiprotein complex that regulates many aspects of plant development by controlling the activity of CULLIN-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). CRLs ubiquitinate and target for proteasomal degradation a vast number of specific substrate proteins involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including light and hormone signaling and cell division. As a consequence of CSN pleiotropic function, complete loss of CSN activity results in seedling lethality. Therefore, a detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in adult Arabidopsis plants has been hampered by the early seedling lethality of csn null mutants. Here we report the identification and characterization of a viable allele of the Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome subunit 4 (CSN4). The allele, designated csn4-2035, suppresses the adventitious root (AR) phenotype of the Arabidopsis superroot2-1 mutant, potentially by altering its auxin signaling. Furthermore, we show that although the csn4-2035 mutation affects primary and lateral root (LR) formation in the 2035 suppressor mutant, CSN4 and other subunits of the COP9 complex seem to differentially control AR and LR development.

  8. Inheritance and quantitative trail loci mapping of adventitious root numbers in cucumber seedlings under waterlogging conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2017-04-01

    The hypocotyl-derived adventitious root (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis has not been adequately understood. In the present study, a mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model was used to analyze AR numbers (ARN) 7 days after waterlogging treatment in six generations (P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2), using cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N and sensitive Pepino as parents. The results showed that the genetic model D-4, mixed one negative dominance major gene and additive-dominance polygenes, is the best-fitting genetic model for waterlogging-triggered ARN phenotype. A genetic linkage map spanning 550.8 cM and consisting of 149 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into seven linkage groups was constructed. Three QTLs (ARN3.1, ARN5.1, and ARN6.1) distributed on chromosomes 3, 5, and 6 were identified by composite interval mapping. The major-effect QTL, ARN6.1, located between SSR12898 and SSR04751, was the only locus detected in three seasons, with least likelihood (LOD) scores of 8.8, 10.4, and 9.5 and account for 17.6, 24, and 19.8% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Using five additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers, the ARN6.1 was narrowed down to a 0.79 Mb interval franked by SSR12898 and SNP25558853. Illumina RNA-sequencing data generated on hypocotyls of two parents 48 h after waterlogging treatment revealed 15 genes in the 0.79 Mb interval were differentially expressed, including Csa6G503880 encoding a salicylic acid methyl transferase-like protein, Csa6G504590 encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, and Csa6G505230 encoding a heavy metal-associated protein. Our findings shed light on the genetic architecture underlying adventitious rooting during waterlogging stress in cucumber, and provide a list of potential gene targets for further elucidating waterlogging tolerance in plants.

  9. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  10. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Mondia whitei Adventitious Roots and Ex vitro-Grown Somatic Embryogenic-Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Ponnusamy; Kumari, Aloka; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities. Adventitious roots derived from 2.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatments and ex vitro-grown plants derived from meta-topolin riboside and IAA treatments gave the best AChE and antibacterial activities. The in vitro-established M. whitei and ex vitro biomass have comparable ability to function as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and antibacterial agents, and can be used as potent bioresources in traditional medicine. PMID:27752244

  12. Identification of pectin methylesterase 3 as a basic pectin methylesterase isoform involved in adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Guénin, Stéphanie; Mareck, Alain; Rayon, Catherine; Lamour, Romain; Assoumou Ndong, Yves; Domon, Jean-Marc; Sénéchal, Fabien; Fournet, Françoise; Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Percoco, Giuseppe; Mouille, Grégory; Rolland, Aurélia; Rustérucci, Christine; Guerineau, François; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Gillet, Françoise; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Gutierrez, Laurent; Pelloux, Jérôme

    2011-10-01

    • Here, we focused on the biochemical characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana pectin methylesterase 3 gene (AtPME3; At3g14310) and its role in plant development. • A combination of biochemical, gene expression, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and reverse genetics approaches were used. • We showed that AtPME3 is ubiquitously expressed in A. thaliana, particularly in vascular tissues. In cell wall-enriched fractions, only the mature part of the protein was identified, suggesting that it is processed before targeting the cell wall. In all the organs tested, PME activity was reduced in the atpme3-1 mutant compared with the wild type. This was related to the disappearance of an activity band corresponding to a pI of 9.6 revealed by a zymogram. Analysis of the cell wall composition showed that the degree of methylesterification (DM) of galacturonic acids was affected in the atpme3-1 mutant. A change in the number of adventitious roots was found in the mutant, which correlated with the expression of the gene in adventitious root primordia. • Our results enable the characterization of AtPME3 as a major basic PME isoform in A. thaliana and highlight its role in adventitious rooting.

  13. Ethylene and auxin interaction in the control of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Veloccia, A.; Fattorini, L.; Della Rovere, F.; Sofo, A.; D’Angeli, S.; Betti, C.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots (ARs) are post-embryonic roots essential for plant survival and propagation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the auxin that controls AR formation; however, its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is known to enhance it. Ethylene affects many auxin-dependent processes by affecting IAA synthesis, transport and/or signaling, but its role in AR formation has not been elucidated. This research investigated the role of ethylene in AR formation in dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, and its interaction with IAA/IBA. A number of mutants/transgenic lines were exposed to various treatments, and mRNA in situ hybridizations were carried out and hormones were quantified In the wild-type, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 0.1 μM enhanced AR formation when combined with IBA (10 μM), but reduced it when applied alone; this effect did not occur in the ein3eil1 ethylene-insensitive mutant. ACC inhibited the expression of the IAA-biosynthetic genes WEI2, WEI7, and YUC6, but enhanced IBA-to-IAA conversion, as shown by the response of the ech2ibr10 mutant and an increase in the endogenous levels of IAA. The ethylene effect was independent of auxin-signaling by TIR1-AFB2 and IBA-efflux by ABCG carriers, but it was dependent on IAA-influx by AUX1/LAX3. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a crosstalk involving ethylene signaling, IAA-influx, and IBA-to-IAA conversion exists between ethylene and IAA in the control of AR formation. PMID:27831474

  14. Nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide alleviate drought stress in marigold explants and promote its adventitious root development.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Biao; Huang, Gao-Bao; Yu, Ji-Hua; Zhang, Mei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important environmental factors that regulates plant growth and development. In this study, we examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on adventitious rooting in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under drought stress. The results showed that the promoting effect of NO or H(2)O(2) on rooting under drought stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 μM NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or 600 μM H(2)O(2). Results also indicated that endogenous NO and H(2)O(2) may play crucial roles in rooting under drought conditions, and H(2)O(2) may be involved in rooting promoted by NO under drought stress. NO or H(2)O(2) treatment attenuated the destruction of mesophyll cells ultrastructure by drought stress. Similarly, NO or H(2)O(2) increased leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ΦPS II and qP), and hypocotyls soluble carbohydrate and protein content, while decreasing starch content. Results suggest that the protection of mesophyll cells ultrastructure by NO or H(2)O(2) under drought conditions improves the photosynthetic performance of leaves and alleviates the negative effects of drought on carbohydrate and nitrogen accumulation in explants, thereby adventitious rooting being promoted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  16. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  17. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on Adventitious Root Development and Associated Physiological Changes in Stem Cutting of Hemarthria compressa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Quan; Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, Yan; Ma, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Qun; Peng, Yan; Huang, Lin-Kai

    2014-01-01

    In order to find a way to induce rooting on cuttings of Hemarthria compressa cv. Ya’an under controlled conditions, a project was carried out to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on rooting in stem cuttings and related physiological changes during the rooting process of Hemarthria compressa. The cuttings were treated with five concentrations of NAA (0, 100, 200 300, 400 mg/l) at three soaking durations (10, 20, 30 minutes), and cuttings without treatment were considered as control. Samples were planted immediately into pots after treatment. IAA-oxidase (IAAO) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were determined after planting. Results showed that NAA had positive effect on rooting at the concentration of 200 mg/l compared to other concentrations at 30 days after planting (DAP). Among the three soaking durations, 20 minutes (min) of 200 mg/l NAA resulted in higher percentages of rooting, larger numbers of adventitious roots and heavier root dry weight per cutting. The lowest IAAO activity was obtained when soaked at 200 mg/l NAA for 20 min soaking duration. This was consistent with the best rooting ability, indicating that the lower IAAO activity, the higher POD activity and PPO activity could be used as an indicator of better rooting ability for whip grass cuttings and might serve as a good marker for rooting ability in cuttings. PMID:24595064

  18. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Is Involved in Hydrogen Gas-Induced Adventitious Root Development in Cucumber under Simulated Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Meng; Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed M.; Li, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are involved in plant growth and developmental processes and may induce plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the independent roles and interaction effect of H2 and CO in adventitious root development under drought conditions have still not received the needed research attention. We hypothesize that there exists crosstalk between H2 and CO during adventitious root development under drought stress. The results of our current study revealed that 50% (v/v) hydrogen-rich water (HRW), 500 μM Hemin (the CO donor) and 30% (w/v) CO aqueous solution apparently promoted the development of adventitious roots in cucumber explants (Cucumis Sativus L.) under drought stress. H2 and CO increased relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, and a+b), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quench coefficient] under drought condition. When the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was added to HRW/CO aqueous solution, the positive effect of HRW/CO aqueous solution on RWC, leaf chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were reversed. Additionally, superoxide dismutases, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase was significantly increased in the explants treated with HRW and CO aqueous solution under drought stress, thus alleviating oxidative damage, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2-) levels. H2 and CO also improved the levels of water soluble carbohydrate, total soluble protein, and proline content. However, the above CO/H2-mediated effects were reversed by CO scavenger Hb or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX. Therefore, CO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting under drought stress and alleviate oxidative damage by enhancing RWC, leaf

  20. Carbon Monoxide Is Involved in Hydrogen Gas-Induced Adventitious Root Development in Cucumber under Simulated Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Meng; Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed M; Li, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are involved in plant growth and developmental processes and may induce plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the independent roles and interaction effect of H2 and CO in adventitious root development under drought conditions have still not received the needed research attention. We hypothesize that there exists crosstalk between H2 and CO during adventitious root development under drought stress. The results of our current study revealed that 50% (v/v) hydrogen-rich water (HRW), 500 μM Hemin (the CO donor) and 30% (w/v) CO aqueous solution apparently promoted the development of adventitious roots in cucumber explants (Cucumis Sativus L.) under drought stress. H2 and CO increased relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, and a+b), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quench coefficient] under drought condition. When the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was added to HRW/CO aqueous solution, the positive effect of HRW/CO aqueous solution on RWC, leaf chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were reversed. Additionally, superoxide dismutases, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase was significantly increased in the explants treated with HRW and CO aqueous solution under drought stress, thus alleviating oxidative damage, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2(-)) levels. H2 and CO also improved the levels of water soluble carbohydrate, total soluble protein, and proline content. However, the above CO/H2-mediated effects were reversed by CO scavenger Hb or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX. Therefore, CO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting under drought stress and alleviate oxidative damage by enhancing RWC

  1. High miR156 Expression Is Required for Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via MxSPL26 Independent of PINs and ARFs in Malus xiaojinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaozhao; Li, Xu; Hu, Xingwang; Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai

    2017-01-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156), the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J) and rejuvenated (Mx-R) Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like) genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A) trees. However, the expression of SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE26 (SPL26) and some auxin response factor (ARF) gene family members were substantially higher in Mx-A than in Mx-R cuttings. The expression of NbRTCS-like but not NbPINs and NbARFs varied with miR156 expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants transformed with 35S:MdMIR156a6 or 35S:MIM156 constructs. Overexpressing the miR156-resistant MxrSPL genes in tobacco confirmed the involvement of MxSPL20, MxSPL21&22, and MxSPL26 in adventitious root formation. Together, high expression of miR156 was necessary for auxin-induced adventitious root formation via MxSPL26, but independent of MxPINs and MxARFs expression in M. xiaojinensis leafy cuttings. PMID:28674551

  2. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal

  3. Influence of Explant Position on Growth of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. Adventitious Root in Solid Medium and Enhance Production Biomass in Balloon Type Bubble Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solim, M. H.; Kristanti, A. N.; Manuhara, Y. S. W.

    2017-03-01

    Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. is one of traditional medicinal plant in Indonesia as an aphrodisiac. This plant has various compounds which is accumulated in roots. In vitro culture of this plant can enhance production of adventitious roots. The aim of this research was to know the influence of explants position on growth of T. paniculatum Gaertn. adventitious root in MS solid medium and enhance the production of biomass in balloon type bubble bioreactor. Explants from leaf were cultured at abaxial and adaxial positions in solid MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1. Adventitious roots were cultured in bioreactor with various treatments (without IBA, supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 and supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3). Result showed that the main growth of abaxial root was higher than adaxial, however, the total of adaxial root branch was higher than abaxial. The highest biomass production of adventitious root cultured was achieved by MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3. This treatment has produced fresh biomass two fold of initial inoculum.

  4. AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein movement correlates with formation of adventitious roots in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Martínez-Navarro, Angélica Concepción; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Proteins, or TCTP, is a superfamily of exclusively eukaryotic proteins essential in the regulation of proliferation and general growth. However, it is clear that these are multifunctional proteins given (1) the pleiotropic effects of its mutations, and (2), the multiple processes in which this protein is involved. TCTP function in general is conserved, since Arabidopsis AtTCTP1 can rescue a Drosophila mutant, and vice versa. It has become clear, however, that these proteins may have “taxon-specific” functions. In the case of plants, mRNA and/or proteins have been found in the phloem translocation stream of different species, suggesting a role in long-distance signaling. We have found that a second Arabidopsis TCTP gene, AtTCTP2, codes for a protein that moves long-distance through a graft union in tobacco. Interestingly, the mRNA is also transported long-distance. Both mRNA and protein move long-distance; interestingly, the movement, while more efficient from source to sink tissues, also occurs in the opposite direction. The protein reaches the nuclei of parenchyma cells and adventitious roots. Furthermore, it is clear that the long-distance delivery of AtTCTP2 protein and mRNA is required for the induction of adventitious roots. A model is presented that accounts for these observations. PMID:26237533

  5. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment. Several defense-related genes (48) were identified, participating in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway. Additionally, we mapped 72 unigenes to the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Four cytochrome P450s (CYP450) were likely to catalyze hydroxylation at C-16 (c15743_g1, c39772_g1, c55422_g1) and C-30 (c52011_g1) of the triterpene backbone. UDP-xylose synthases (c52571_g3) was selected as the candidate, which was likely to involve in ginsenoside Rb3 biosynthesis. PMID:27876840

  6. Effect of nitrogen source on biomass and bioactive compound production in submerged cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium to nitrate ratios of 0:30, 5:25, 10:20, 15:15, 20:10, 25:5, and 30:0 mM were tested to determine the optimal NH(4)(+) :NO(3)(-) ratio for improving biomass and bioactive compound production in Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots using 3-L bulb-type bubble bioreactors. A high ammonium nitrogen ratio had a negative effect on root growth, and the highest fresh and dry weights were obtained when NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios were 5:25 and 10:20 (mM) after 5 weeks of culture. Although the total production of eleutherosides B and E was slightly higher at the 10:20 ratio than at the 5:25 ratio (NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-)), we proposed that the optimal NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratio was 5:25 mM. This ratio achieved both the highest total production of five target bioactive compounds (eleutherosides B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and the highest root biomass. Furthermore, increasing NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios to 10:20 decreased pH in the medium, interrupted the absorption of essential minerals from the culture medium, and resulted in low biomass and increased relative oxidative stress levels, which were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, nitrate rather than ammonium nitrogen was more essential not for only biomass production but also for bioactive compound production in E. koreanum adventitious root cultures. The optimal nitrogen source ratio produced 5.63 g L(-1) of biomass and 24.41 mg of the five total bioactive compounds per gram of biomass (dry weight basis). The development of such in vitro culture technology will benefit the pilot-scale production of E. koreanum-based bioactive compounds for commercialization.

  7. Isolation, characterization and expression analysis of the BABY BOOM (BBM) gene from Larix kaempferi × L. olgensis during adventitious rooting.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui-Peng; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hua; Zhang, Shou-Gong

    2014-11-10

    The full-length cDNA and genomic sequences of the BABY BOOM (BBM) gene, designated LkBBM, were isolated from Larix kaempferi × Larix olgensis. The 3324 bp cDNA was cloned and its open reading frame (ORF) consists of 2370 nucleotides. The deduced 789 amino acid protein contains two AP2 domains and a BBM specific motif. Four conserved motifs between BBM and PLT were identified, which may be conducive to the similar function of BBM and PLT. The three dimensional (3D) structure of LkBBM was predicted and β-sheets in the AP2-R2 domain of LkBBM might recognize the specific base pairs in the major groove. Analysis of the LkBBM gene structure indicates that the gene has eight introns and nine exons. In the 5'-flanking promoter region of LkBBM, many important potential cis-acting elements were identified, such as the TATABOX5 element (a functional TATA element), ROOTMOTIFTAPOX1 element (element of root specificity), AUXREPSIAA4 element (element involved in auxin responsiveness and gene expression in root meristem), MYB1AT element (element involved in MYB recognition), ARR1AT element (element involved in cytokinin responsiveness), GARE1OSREP1 element (element involved in gibberellin responsiveness) and PYRIMIDINEBOXHVEPB1 element (element involved in abscisic acid responsiveness), which all suggested that the expression of LkBBM is highly regulated. Compared with gene expression levels in the stem, stem tip and leaf, LkBBM shows a specific expression in the root, which indicates that LkBBM plays a key role in regulating the development and growth of root in larch. In the processing of larch adventitious root formation, LkBBM started to express on the eighth day after rooting treatment and its transcript level increased continuously afterwards. According to the gene characteristics, LkBBM is proposed as a molecular marker for root primordia of larch, and the initial period of LkBBM expression may be the formation period of root primordia in the processing of adventitious

  8. Production of biomass and bioactive compounds from adventitious roots by optimization of culturing conditions of Eurycoma longifolia in balloon-type bubble bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Lulu, Tao; Park, So-Young; Ibrahim, Rusli; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L(-1) fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L(-1)) and NAA (5.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L(-1) IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L(-1) NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L(-1) fresh weight and 4.60 g L(-1) dry weight were obtained with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L(-1) medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tamarack and black spruce adventitious root patterns are similar in their ability to estimate organic layer depths in northern temperate forests

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Veverica; Evan S. Kane; Eric S. Kasischke

    2012-01-01

    Organic layer consumption during forest fires is hard to quantify. These data suggest that the adventitious root methods developed for reconstructing organic layer depths following wildfires in boreal black spruce forests can also be applied to mixed tamarack forests growing in temperate regions with glacially transported soils.

  10. Non-destructive digital imaging in poplar allows detailed analysis of adventitious rooting dynamics

    Treesearch

    R.J. Kodrzycki; R.B. Michaels; A.L. Friend; R.S. Zalesny; Ch.P. Mawata; D.W. McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of root formation are difficult to observe directly over time without disturbing the rooting environment. A novel system for a non-destructive, non-invasive root analysis (RootViz FS, Phenotype Screening Corp.) was evaluated for its ability to analyze root formation from cuttings over a 32 day period in three poplar genotypes (DN70, P. Deltoides x...

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the SAMS gene during adventitious root development in IBA-induced tetraploid black locust.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings.

  12. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the SAMS Gene during Adventitious Root Development in IBA-Induced Tetraploid Black Locust

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings. PMID:25285660

  13. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Thikra; Kensche, Philip R.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Mariani, Celestina

    2016-01-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara. Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. PMID:26850278

  14. Hydrogen-rich water regulates cucumber adventitious root development in a heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuting; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Fang; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is an endogenous gaseous molecule in plants. Although its reputation is as a "biologically inert gas", recent results suggested that H2 has therapeutic antioxidant properties in animals and plays fundamental roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. However, whether H2 regulates root morphological patterns is largely unknown. In this report, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize H2 physiological roles and possible signaling transduction pathways in the promotion of adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber explants. Our results showed that a 50% concentration of HRW was able to mimic the effect of hemin, an inducer of a carbon monoxide (CO) synthetic enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in restoring AR formation in comparison with the inhibition effect conferred by auxin-depletion treatment alone. It was further shown that the inducible effect of HRW could be further blocked by the co-treatment with N-1-naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA; an auxin transport inhibitor). The HRW-induced response, at least partially, was HO-1-dependent. This conclusion was supported by the fact that the exposure of cucumber explants to HRW up-regulates cucumber HO-1 gene expression and its protein levels. HRW-mediated induction of representative target genes related to auxin signaling and AR formation, such as CsDNAJ-1, CsCDPK1/5, CsCDC6, CsAUX22B-like, and CsAUX22D-like, and thereafter AR formation (particularly in the AR length) was differentially sensitive to the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Above blocking actions were clearly reversed by CO, further confirming that the above response was HO-1/CO-specific. However, the addition of a well-known antioxidant, ascorbic acid (AsA), failed to influence AR formation triggered by HRW, thus ruling out the involvement of redox homeostasis in this process. Together, these results indicated that HRW-induced adventitious rooting is, at least partially, correlated with the HO-1/CO

  15. The Cytokinin Type-B Response Regulator PtRR13 Is a Negative Regulator of Adventitious Root Development in Populus1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Gustavo A.; Morse, Alison M.; Dervinis, Christopher; Davis, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Adventitious root formation at the base of plant cuttings is an innate de novo organogenesis process that allows massive vegetative propagation of many economically and ecologically important species. The early molecular events following shoot excision are not well understood. Using whole-genome microarrays, we detected significant transcriptome remodeling during 48 h following shoot removal in Populus tremula × Populus alba softwood cuttings in the absence of exogenous auxin, with 27% and 36% of the gene models showing differential abundance between 0 and 6 h and between 6 and 24 h, respectively. During these two time intervals, gene networks involved in protein turnover, protein phosphorylation, molecular transport, and translation were among the most significantly regulated. Transgenic lines expressing a constitutively active form of the Populus type-B cytokinin response regulator PtRR13 (ΔDDKPtRR13) have a delayed rooting phenotype and cause misregulation of CONTINUOUS VASCULAR RING1, a negative regulator of vascularization; PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE TRANSPORTER9, an auxin efflux transporter; and two APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR genes with sequence similarity to TINY. Inappropriate cytokinin action via ΔDDKPtRR13 expression appeared to disrupt adventitious root development 24 h after shoot excision, when root founder cells are hypothesized to be sensitive to the negative effects of cytokinin. Our results are consistent with PtRR13 acting downstream of cytokinin to repress adventitious root formation in intact plants, and that reduced cytokinin signaling after shoot excision enables coordinated expression of ethylene, auxin, and vascularization pathways leading to adventitious root development. PMID:19395410

  16. Morphological and Physiological Factors Affecting Formation of Adventitious Roots on Sugar Maple Stem Cuttings

    Treesearch

    John R. Donnelly

    1977-01-01

    Sugar maple cuttings were collected twice a week throughout June from four mature trees. Some of the cuttings were analyzed for carbohydrate (starch and sugars) and nitrogen content; the others were stuck in rooting beds. Rooting response showed significant daily and clonal variations. Cuttings rooted best when their terminal leaves were mature, as judged by size and...

  17. Molecular cloning and expression of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, CsHO1, which is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Yue; Cao, Ze-Yu; Shen, Wen-Biao; Cui, Jin

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work showed that in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), auxin rapidly induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity and the product of HO action, carbon monoxide (CO), then triggers the signal transduction events leading to adventitious root formation. In this study, the cucumber HO-1 gene (named as CsHO1) was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns and encodes a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. Further results show that CsHO1 shares a high homology with plant HO-1 proteins and codes a 33.3 kDa protein with a 65-amino transit peptide, predicting a mature protein of 26.1 kDa. The mature CsHO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a fusion protein, which exhibits HO activity. The CsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Related biochemical analyses of mature CsHO1, including Vmax, Km, Topt and pHopt, were also investigated. CsHO1 mRNA was found in germinating seeds, roots, stem, and especially in leaf tissues. Several well-known adventitious root inducers, including auxin, ABA, hemin, nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CaCl(2), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), differentially up-regulate CsHO1 transcripts and corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that CsHO1 may be involved in cucumber adventitious rooting.

  18. Jasmonic acid and methyl dihydrojasmonate enhance saponin biosynthesis as well as expression of functional genes in adventitious roots of Panax notoginseng F.H. Chen.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxin; Wang, Juan; Wu, Xiaolei; Liu, Dahui; Li, Jing; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-03-01

    Panax notoginseng, an important herbal medicine, has wide uses for its bioactive compounds and health function. In this work, we compared the content of saponin in cultivation and adventitious root. The total content of saponins in adventitious root (8.48 mg⋅g(-1) ) was found lower than in the native one (3-year-old) (34.34 mg⋅g(-1) ). To enhance the content of bioactive compounds, we applied elicitors jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl dihydrojasmonate (MDJ) to the adventitious root culture. It was observed that the highest total content of saponins (71.94 mg⋅g(-1) ) was achieved after treatment with 5 mg⋅L(-1) JA, which was 2.09-fold higher than native roots and 8.45-fold higher than the control group. The findings from high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that six new compounds were present after the treatment with the elicitors. Furthermore, we found that JA and MDJ significantly upregulated the expression of the geranyl diphosphate synthase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, dammarenediol synthase, and CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2 (CYP450 enzyme) genes; downregulated the expression of the cycloartenol synthase gene; and increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings.

    PubMed

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Franken, Philipp; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Fischer, Kerstin; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H.; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin. PMID

  1. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings.

    PubMed

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin.

  2. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Elicited Panax ginseng Adventitious Roots to Discover Putative Ginsenoside Biosynthesis and Transport Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongzhe; Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Xiu, Hao; Huang, Jingjia; Wu, Kunlu; Chen, Xianghui; Li, Jijia; Wang, Li; Jeong, Ji-Hak; Park, Sun-Jin; Yang, Fang; Luo, Junli; Luo, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    The Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer belonging to the Araliaceae has long been used as an herbal medicine. Although public databases are presently available for this family, no methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicited transcriptomic information was previously reported on this species, with the exception of a few expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using the traditional Sanger method. Here, approximately 53 million clean reads of adventitious root transcriptome were separately filtered via Illumina HiSeq™2000 from two samples treated with MeJA (Pg-MeJA) and equal volumes of solvent, ethanol (Pg-Con). Jointly, a total of 71,095 all-unigenes from both samples were assembled and annotated, and based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 56,668 unigenes was obtained. Out of these annotated unigenes, 54,920 were assigned to the NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr) database, 35,448 to the Swiss-prot database, 43,051 to gene ontology (GO), and 19,986 to clusters of orthologous groups (COG). Searching in the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway database indicated that 32,200 unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Moreover, we obtained several genes showing a wide range of expression levels. We also identified a total of 749 ginsenoside biosynthetic enzyme genes and 12 promising pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) genes related to ginsenoside transport. PMID:25642758

  4. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity.

  5. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Unravels the Existence of Crucial Genes Regulating Primary Metabolism during Adventitious Root Formation in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase. PMID:24978694

  6. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis unravels the existence of crucial genes regulating primary metabolism during adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase.

  7. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dan; Gong, Biao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Shiqi; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min; Yang, Fengjuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 μM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) by down-regulating the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). To determine the interaction of MT and NO in ARF, MT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine, NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt as well as GSNOR-overexpression plants with low NO levels were used. The function of MT was removed by NO scavenger or GSNOR-overexpression plants. However, application of MT synthesis inhibitor did little to abolish the function of NO. These results indicate that NO, as a downstream signal, was involved in the MT-induced ARF. Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, as well as the expression of several genes related to the auxin signaling pathway (PIN1, PIN3, PIN7, IAA19, and IAA24), showed that MT influenced auxin transport and signal transduction as well as auxin accumulation through the NO signaling pathway. Collectively, these strongly suggest that elevated NO levels resulting from inhibited GSNOR activity and auxin signaling were involved in the MT-induced ARF in tomato plants. This can be applied in basic research and breeding. PMID:27252731

  8. Nitrogen- and storage-affected carbohydrate partitioning in high-light-adapted Pelargonium cuttings in relation to survival and adventitious root formation under low light.

    PubMed

    Druege, U; Zerche, S; Kadner, R

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitrogen- and storage-affected carbohydrate availability in rooting of pelargonium cuttings, focusing on the environmental conditions of stock plant cultivation at low latitudes, transport of cuttings, and rooting under the low light that prevails during the winter rooting period in Central European greenhouses. Carbohydrate partitioning in high-light-adapted cuttings of the cultivar 'Isabell' was studied in relation to survival and adventitious root formation under low light. Effects of a graduated supply of mineral nitrogen to stock plants and of cutting storage were examined. Nitrogen deficiency raised starch levels in excised cuttings, whereas the concentrations of glucose and total sugars in leaves and the basal stem were positively correlated with internal total nitrogen (Nt). Storage reduced starch to trace levels in all leaves, but sugar levels were only reduced in tissues of non-nitrogen deficient cuttings. Sugars accumulated in the leaf lamina of stored cuttings during the rooting period, whereas carbohydrates were simultaneously exhausted in all other cutting parts including the petioles, thereby promoting leaf senescence. The positive correlation between initial Nt and root number disappeared after storage. Irrespectively of storage, higher pre-rooting leaf glucose promoted subsequent sugar accumulation in the basal stem and final root number. The positive relationships between initial sugar levels in the stems with cutting survival and in leaves with root formation under low light were confirmed in a sample survey with 21 cultivars provided from different sources at low latitudes. The results indicate that adventitious rooting of pelargonium cuttings can be limited by the initial amount of nitrogen reserves. However, this relationship reveals only small plasticity and is superimposed by a predominant effect of carbohydrate availability that depends on the initial leaf sugar levels, when high

  9. Nitrogen- and Storage-affected Carbohydrate Partitioning in High-light-adapted Pelargonium Cuttings in Relation to Survival and Adventitious Root Formation under Low Light

    PubMed Central

    DRUEGE, U.; ZERCHE, S.; KADNER, R.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitrogen- and storage-affected carbohydrate availability in rooting of pelargonium cuttings, focusing on the environmental conditions of stock plant cultivation at low latitudes, transport of cuttings, and rooting under the low light that prevails during the winter rooting period in Central European greenhouses. • Methods Carbohydrate partitioning in high-light-adapted cuttings of the cultivar ‘Isabell’ was studied in relation to survival and adventitious root formation under low light. Effects of a graduated supply of mineral nitrogen to stock plants and of cutting storage were examined. • Key Results Nitrogen deficiency raised starch levels in excised cuttings, whereas the concentrations of glucose and total sugars in leaves and the basal stem were positively correlated with internal total nitrogen (Nt). Storage reduced starch to trace levels in all leaves, but sugar levels were only reduced in tissues of non-nitrogen deficient cuttings. Sugars accumulated in the leaf lamina of stored cuttings during the rooting period, whereas carbohydrates were simultaneously exhausted in all other cutting parts including the petioles, thereby promoting leaf senescence. The positive correlation between initial Nt and root number disappeared after storage. Irrespectively of storage, higher pre-rooting leaf glucose promoted subsequent sugar accumulation in the basal stem and final root number. The positive relationships between initial sugar levels in the stems with cutting survival and in leaves with root formation under low light were confirmed in a sample survey with 21 cultivars provided from different sources at low latitudes. • Conclusions The results indicate that adventitious rooting of pelargonium cuttings can be limited by the initial amount of nitrogen reserves. However, this relationship reveals only small plasticity and is superimposed by a predominant effect of carbohydrate

  10. Differential auxin transport and accumulation in the stem base lead to profuse adventitious root primordia formation in the aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Mignolli, F; Mariotti, L; Picciarelli, P; Vidoz, M L

    2017-02-27

    The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues. Indeed, in 20days old aer plants, the transport of labeled IAA was faster in apices than in hypocotyls, displaying an opposite trend in comparison to a wild type. In addition, auxin transport facilitators (SlPIN1, SlPIN4, SlLAX5) were more expressed in aer apices than in hypocotyls, suggesting that auxin moves faster from the upper to the lower part of the stem. Consequently, a significantly higher level of free and conjugated IAA was found at the base of aer stems with respect to their apices. This auxin accumulation is likely the cause of the aer phenotype.

  11. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  12. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

  13. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera adventitious root extracts through the alteration of primary and secondary metabolites via salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10-11 and 5-13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment.

  14. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  15. Direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells toward adventitious root formation in forest tree species: the effect of the juvenile–adult transition

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sala, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Cellular plasticity refers, among others, to the capability of differentiated cells to switch the differentiation process and acquire new fates. One way by which plant cell plasticity is manifested is through de novo regeneration of organs from somatic differentiated cells in an ectopic location. However, switching the developmental program of adult cells prior to organ regeneration is difficult in many plant species, especially in forest tree species. In these species, a decline in the capacity to regenerate shoots, roots, or embryos from somatic differentiated cells is associated with tree age and maturation. The decline in the ability to form adventitious roots from stem cuttings is one of the most dramatic effects of maturation, and has been the subject of investigations on the basic nature of the process. Cell fate switches, both in plants and animals, are characterized by remarkable changes in the pattern of gene expression, as cells switch from the characteristic expression pattern of a somatic cell to a new one directing a new developmental pathway. Therefore, determining the way by which cells reset their gene expression pattern is crucial to understand cellular plasticity. The presence of specific cellular signaling pathways or tissue-specific factors underlying the establishment, maintenance, and redirection of gene expression patterns in the tissues involved in adventitious root formation could be crucial for cell fate switch and for the control of age-dependent cellular plasticity. PMID:25071793

  16. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs indentified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Conclusion Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes tested in E. globulus. Based

  17. Generation of hermaphrodite transgenic papaya lines with virus resistance via transformation of somatic embryos derived from adventitious roots of in vitro shoots.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yi-Jung; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Wang, Hui-Chin; Wang, Shin-Lan; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2010-08-01

    Papaya production is seriously limited by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) worldwide and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) in Eastern Asia. An efficient transformation method for developing papaya lines with transgenic resistance to these viruses and commercially desirable traits, such as hermaphroditism, is crucial to shorten the breeding program for this fruit crop. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct pYP08 containing truncated PRSV coat protein (CP) and PLDMV CP genes coupled with the 3' untranslational region of PLDMV, was generated. Root segments from different portions of adventitious roots of in vitro multiple shoots of hermaphroditic plants of papaya cultivars 'Tainung No. 2', 'Sunrise', and 'Thailand' were cultured on induction medium for regeneration into somatic embryos. The highest frequency of somatic embryogenesis was from the root-tip segments of adventitious roots developed 2-4 weeks after rooting in perlite medium. After proliferation, embryogenic tissues derived from somatic embryos were wounded in liquid-phase by carborundum and transformed by Agrobacterium carrying pYP08. Similarly, another construct pBG-PLDMVstop containing untranslatable CP gene of PLDMV was also transferred to 'Sunrise' and 'Thailand', the parental cultivars of 'Tainung No. 2'. Among 107 transgenic lines regenerated from 349 root-tip segments, nine lines of Tainung No. 2 carrying YP08 were highly resistant to PRSV and PLDMV, and 9 lines (8 'Sunrise' and 1 'Thailand') carrying PLDMV CP highly resistant to PLDMV, by a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The hermaphroditic characteristics of the transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR with sex-linked primers and phenotypes of flower and fruit. Our approach has generated transgenic resistance to both PRSV and PLDMV with commercially desirable characters and can significantly shorten the time-consuming breeding programs for the generation of elite cultivars of papaya hybrids.

  18. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of nitrate reductase in juvenile cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis, which correlated with increased nitric oxide production and adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Szwerdszarf, David; Mordehaev, Inna; Levy, Aviv; Stelmakh, Oksana Rogovoy; Belausov, Eduard; Yaniv, Yossi; Uliel, Shai; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Riov, Joseph; Ophir, Ron; Sadot, Einat

    2012-09-01

    The loss of rooting capability following the transition from the juvenile to the mature phase is a known phenomenon in woody plant development. Eucalyptus grandis was used here as a model system to study the differences in gene expression between juvenile and mature cuttings. RNA was prepared from the base of the two types of cuttings before root induction and hybridized to a DNA microarray of E. grandis. In juvenile cuttings, 363 transcripts were specifically upregulated, enriched in enzymes of oxidation/reduction processes. In mature cuttings, 245 transcripts were specifically upregulated, enriched in transcription factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolites. A gene encoding for nitrate reductase (NIA), which is involved in nitric oxide (NO) production, was among the genes that were upregulated in juvenile cuttings. Concomitantly, a transient burst of NO was observed upon excision, which was higher in juvenile cuttings than in mature ones. Treatment with an NO donor improved rooting of both juvenile and mature cuttings. A single NIA gene was found in the newly released E. grandis genome sequence, the cDNA of which was isolated, overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants and shown to increase NO production in intact plants. Therefore, higher levels of NIA in E. grandis juvenile cuttings might lead to increased ability to produce NO and to form adventitious roots. Arabidopsis transgenic plants constantly expressing EgNIA did not exhibit a significantly higher lateral or adventitious root formation, suggesting that spatial and temporal rather than a constitutive increase in NO is favorable for root differentiation. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Large-scale cultivation of adventitious roots of Echinacea purpurea in airlift bioreactors for the production of chichoric acid, chlorogenic acid and caftaric acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2007-08-01

    Adventitious roots of Echinacea purpurea were cultured in airlift bioreactors (20 l, 500 l balloon-type, bubble bioreactors and 1,000 l drum-type bubble bioreactor) using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg indole butyric acid l(-1) and 50 g sucrose l(-1) for the production of chichoric acid, chlorogenic acid and caftaric acid. In the 20 l bioreactor (containing 14 l MS medium) a maximum yield of 11 g dry biomass l(-1) was achieved after 60 days. However, the amount of total phenolics (57 mg g(-1) DW), flavonoids (34 mg g(-1) DW) and caffeic acid derivatives (38 mg g(-1) DW) were highest after 50 days. Based on these studies, pilot-scale cultures were established and 3.6 kg and 5.1 kg dry biomass were achieved in the 500 l and 1,000 l bioreactors, respectively. The accumulation of 5 mg chlorogenic acid g(-1) DW, 22 mg chichoric acid g(-1) DW and 4 mg caftaric acids g(-1) DW were achieved with adventitious roots grown in 1,000 l bioreactors.

  20. A dsRNA-binding protein MdDRB1 associated with miRNA biogenesis modifies adventitious rooting and tree architecture in apple.

    PubMed

    You, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Xing-Bin; Feng, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Although numerous miRNAs have been already isolated from fruit trees, knowledge about miRNA biogenesis is largely unknown in fruit trees. Double-strand RNA-binding (DRB) protein plays an important role in miRNA processing and maturation; however, its role in the regulation of economically important traits is not clear yet in fruit trees. EST blast and RACE amplification were performed to isolate apple MdDRB1 gene. Following expression analysis, RNA binding and protein interaction assays, MdDRB1 was transformed into apple callus and in vitro tissue cultures to characterize the functions of MdDRB1 in miRNA biogenesis, adventitious rooting, leaf development and tree growth habit. MdDRB1 contained two highly conserved DRB domains. Its transcripts existed in all tissues tested and are induced by hormones. It bound to double-strand RNAs and interacted with AtDCL1 (Dicer-Like 1) and MdDCL1. Chip assay indicated its role in miRNA biogenesis. Transgenic analysis showed that MdDRB1 controls adventitious rooting, leaf curvature and tree architecture by modulating the accumulation of miRNAs and the transcript levels of miRNA target genes. Our results demonstrated that MdDRB1 functions in the miRNA biogenesis in a conserved way and that it is a master regulator in the formation of economically important traits in fruit trees.

  1. De novo sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of adventitious root development induced by exogenous indole-3-butyric acid in cuttings of tetraploid black locust.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jine; Meng, Seng; Guo, Erhui; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhong; Yang, Xitian

    2017-02-16

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is applied to the cuttings of various plant species to induce formation of adventitious roots (ARs) in commercial settings. Tetraploid black locust is an attractive ornamental tree that is drought resistant, sand tolerant, can prevent sand erosion and has various commercial uses. To further elucidate the mechanisms of AR formation, we used Illumina sequencing to analyze transcriptome dynamics and differential gene expression at four developmental stages in control (CK) and IBA-treated groups. The short reads were assembled into 127,038 unitranscripts and 101,209 unigenes, with average lengths of 986 and 852 bp. In total, 10,181 and 14,924 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the CK and IBA-treated groups, respectively. Comparison of the four consecutive developmental stages showed that 282 and 260 DEGs were shared between IBA-treated and CK, suggesting that IBA treatment increased the number of DEGs. We observed 1,721 up-regulated and 849 down-regulated genes in CI vs. II, 849 up-regulated and 836 down-regulated genes in CC vs. IC, 881 up-regulated and 631 down-regulated genes in CRP vs. IRP, and 5,626 up-regulated and 4,932 down-regulated genes in CAR vs. IAR, of which 25 up-regulated DEGs were common to four pairs, and these DEGs were significantly up-regulated at AR. These results suggest that substantial changes in gene expression are associated with adventitious rooting. GO functional category analysis indicated that IBA significantly up- or down-regulated processes associated with regulation of transcription, transcription of DNA dependent, integral to membrane and ATP binding during the development process. KEGG pathway enrichment indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, photosynthesis, nucleotide sugar metabolism, and lysosome were the pathways most highly regulated by IBA. We identified a number of differentially regulated unigenes, including 12 methionine-related genes

  2. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    PubMed

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) Natural Genetic Variation Rg1 and the DELLA Mutant Procera Control the Competence Necessary to Form Adventitious Roots and Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide use of plant regeneration for biotechnological purposes, the signals that allow cells to become competent to assume different fates remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that the Regeneration1 (Rg1) allele, a natural genetic variation from the tomato wild relative Solanum peruvianum, increases the capacity to form both roots and shoots in vitro; and that the gibberellin constitutive mutant procera (pro) presented the opposite phenotype, reducing organogenesis on either root-inducing medium (RIM) or shoot-inducing medium (SIM). Mutants showing alterations in the formation of specific organs in vitro were the auxin low-sensitivity diageotropica (dgt), the lateral suppresser (ls), and the KNOX-overexpressing Mouse ears (Me). dgt failed to form roots on RIM, Me increased shoot formation on SIM, and the high capacity for in vitro shoot formation of ls contrasted with its recalcitrance to form axillary meristems. Interestingly, Rg1 rescued the in vitro organ formation capacity in proRg1 and dgtRg1 double mutants and the ex vitro low lateral shoot formation in pro and ls. Such epistatic interactions were also confirmed in gene expression and histological analyses conducted in the single and double mutants. Although Me phenocopied the high shoot formation of Rg1 on SIM, it failed to increase rooting on RIM and to rescue the non-branching phenotype of ls. Taken together, these results suggest REGENERATION1 and the DELLA mutant PROCERA as controlling a common competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the specific induction of adventitious roots or shoots, which is controlled by DIAGEOTROPICA and MOUSE EARS, respectively. PMID:22915742

  4. Medium salt strength induced changes in growth, physiology and secondary metabolite content in adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia: the role of antioxidant enzymes and phenylalanine ammonia lyase.

    PubMed

    Abdullahil Baque, Md; Lee, Eun-Jung; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2010-07-01

    In an attempt to improve growth and secondary metabolite production, and to understand the possible mechanism involved in relation to the changes in physiology and activities of antioxidant enzymes, we cultured Morinda citrifolia adventitious roots in different strength (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid and 30 g l(-1) sucrose. Quarter-strength MS medium was proven suitable for the production of both root biomass and secondary metabolites [anthraquinone (AQ), phenolics and flavonoids]. With the increasing salt strength, root growth and AQ accumulation decreased significantly. Higher (1.5 and 2 MS) salt strength provoked osmotic stress resulted in more than twofold free proline accumulation than lower salt strength treated roots and induced free radical scavenging activity. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity showed a positive correlation in relation to salt strength that leads to an increase in phenol biosynthesis in expense of AQ formation. The elevated catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD) and superoxide dismutase activities and decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were observed in roots treated with 2.0 MS. On the other hand, APX activity was strongly activated along with considerable increase in CAT activity at 0.25 MS treated culture. However, the joint functions of CAT, G-POD and APX at 0.25 MS treated cultures were efficient to eliminate the potential danger of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as evidenced from low H(2)O(2) accumulation and low level of lipid peroxidation.

  5. Distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings and relationship between auxin transport, carbohydrate metabolism and adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Ahkami, Amir H; Melzer, Michael; Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Pollmann, Stephan; Ghorbani Javid, Majid; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R; Druege, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    To determine the contribution of polar auxin transport (PAT) to auxin accumulation and to adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings, the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was monitored in non-treated cuttings and cuttings treated with the auxin transport blocker naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and was complemented with precise anatomical studies. The temporal course of carbohydrates, amino acids and activities of controlling enzymes was also investigated. Analysis of initial spatial IAA distribution in the cuttings revealed that approximately 40 and 10 % of the total IAA pool was present in the leaves and the stem base as rooting zone, respectively. A negative correlation existed between leaf size and IAA concentration. After excision of cuttings, IAA showed an early increase in the stem base with two peaks at 2 and 24 h post excision and, thereafter, a decline to low levels. This was mirrored by the expression pattern of the auxin-responsive GH3 gene. NPA treatment completely suppressed the 24-h peak of IAA and severely inhibited root formation. It also reduced activities of cell wall and vacuolar invertases in the early phase of AR formation and inhibited the rise of activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase during later stages. We propose a model in which spontaneous AR formation in Petunia cuttings is dependent on PAT and on the resulting 24-h peak of IAA in the rooting zone, where it induces early cellular events and also stimulates sink establishment. Subsequent root development stimulates glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.

  6. Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).

    PubMed

    Abiko, Tomomi; Kotula, Lukasz; Shiono, Katsuhiro; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Nakazono, Mikio

    2012-09-01

    Enhancement of oxygen transport from shoot to root tip by the formation of aerenchyma and also a barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is common in waterlogging-tolerant plants. Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), grows in waterlogged soils. We investigated the formation of aerenchyma and ROL barrier induction in roots of Z. nicaraguensis, in comparison with roots of maize (inbred line Mi29), in a pot soil system and in hydroponics. Furthermore, depositions of suberin in the exodermis/hypodermis and lignin in the epidermis of adventitious roots of Z. nicaraguensis and maize grown in aerated or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution were studied. Growth of maize was more adversely affected by low oxygen in the root zone (waterlogged soil or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution) compared with Z. nicaraguensis. In stagnant deoxygenated solution, Z. nicaraguensis was superior to maize in transporting oxygen from shoot base to root tip due to formation of larger aerenchyma and a stronger barrier to ROL in adventitious roots. The relationships between the ROL barrier formation and suberin and lignin depositions in roots are discussed. The ROL barrier, in addition to aerenchyma, would contribute to the waterlogging tolerance of Z. nicaraguensis.

  7. Analysis of Microtubule-Associated-Proteins during IBA-Mediated Adventitious Root Induction Reveals KATANIN Dependent and Independent Alterations of Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Mordehaev, Inna; Sunil Kumar, Gujulla B; Ophir, Ron; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Sadot, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious roots (AR) are post embryonic lateral organs that differentiate from non-root tissues. The understanding of the molecular mechanism which underlies their differentiation is important because of their central role in vegetative plant propagation. Here it was studied how the expression of different microtubule (MT)-associated proteins (MAPs) is affected during AR induction, and whether expression differences are dependent on MT organization itself. To examine AR formation when MTs are disturbed we used two mutants in the MT severing protein KATANIN. It was found that rate and number of AR primordium formed following IBA induction for three days was reduced in bot1-1 and bot1-7 plants. The reduced capacity to form ARs in bot1-1 was associated with altered expression of MAP-encoding genes along AR induction. While the expression of MAP65-4, MAP65-3, AURORA1, AURORA2 and TANGLED, increased in wild-type but not in bot1-1 plants, the expression of MAP65-8 and MDP25 decreased in wild type plants but not in the bot1-1 plant after two days of IBA-treatment. The expression of MOR1 was increased two days after AR induction in wild type and bot1-1 plants. To examine its expression specifically in AR primordium, MOR1 upstream regulatory sequence was isolated and cloned to regulate GFP. Expression of GFP was induced in the primary root tips and lateral roots, in the pericycle of the hypocotyls and in all stages of AR primordium formation. It is concluded that the expression of MAPs is regulated along AR induction and that reduction in KATANIN expression inhibits AR formation and indirectly influences the specific expression of some MAPs.

  8. Analysis of Microtubule-Associated-Proteins during IBA-Mediated Adventitious Root Induction Reveals KATANIN Dependent and Independent Alterations of Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Mordehaev, Inna; Sunil Kumar, Gujulla B; Ophir, Ron; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Sadot, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious roots (AR) are post embryonic lateral organs that differentiate from non-root tissues. The understanding of the molecular mechanism which underlies their differentiation is important because of their central role in vegetative plant propagation. Here it was studied how the expression of different microtubule (MT)-associated proteins (MAPs) is affected during AR induction, and whether expression differences are dependent on MT organization itself. To examine AR formation when MTs are disturbed we used two mutants in the MT severing protein KATANIN. It was found that rate and number of AR primordium formed following IBA induction for three days was reduced in bot1-1 and bot1-7 plants. The reduced capacity to form ARs in bot1-1 was associated with altered expression of MAP-encoding genes along AR induction. While the expression of MAP65-4, MAP65-3, AURORA1, AURORA2 and TANGLED, increased in wild-type but not in bot1-1 plants, the expression of MAP65-8 and MDP25 decreased in wild type plants but not in the bot1-1 plant after two days of IBA-treatment. The expression of MOR1 was increased two days after AR induction in wild type and bot1-1 plants. To examine its expression specifically in AR primordium, MOR1 upstream regulatory sequence was isolated and cloned to regulate GFP. Expression of GFP was induced in the primary root tips and lateral roots, in the pericycle of the hypocotyls and in all stages of AR primordium formation. It is concluded that the expression of MAPs is regulated along AR induction and that reduction in KATANIN expression inhibits AR formation and indirectly influences the specific expression of some MAPs. PMID:26630265

  9. Gene expression profiling in juvenile and mature cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis reveals the importance of microtubule remodeling during adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Szwerdszarf, David; Mordehaev, Inna; Yaniv, Yossi; Levinkron, Saar; Rubinstein, Mor; Riov, Joseph; Ophir, Ron; Sadot, Einat

    2014-09-30

    The ability to form adventitious roots (AR) is an economically important trait that is lost during the juvenile-to-mature phase change in woody plants. Auxin treatment, which generally promotes rooting in juvenile cuttings, is often ineffective when applied to mature cuttings. The molecular basis for this phenomenon in Eucalyptus grandis was addressed here. A comprehensive microarray analysis was performed in order to compare gene-expression profiles in juvenile and mature cuttings of E. grandis, with or without auxin treatment on days, 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 post AR induction. Under these conditions AR primordia were formed only in auxin-treated juvenile cuttings. However, clustering the expression profiles revealed that the time after induction contributed more significantly to the differences in expression than the developmental phase of the cuttings or auxin treatment. Most detected differences which were related to the developmental phase and auxin treatment occurred on day 6, which correlated with the kinetics of AR-primordia formation. Among the functional groups of transcripts that differed between juvenile and mature cuttings was that of microtubules (MT). The expression of 42 transcripts annotated as coding for tubulin, MT-associated proteins and kinesin motor proteins was validated in the same RNA samples. The results suggest a coordinated developmental and auxin dependent regulation of several MT-related transcripts in these cuttings. To determine the relevance of MT remodeling to AR formation, MTs were subjected to subtle perturbations by trifluralin, a MT disrupting drug, applied during auxin induction. Juvenile cuttings were not affected by the treatment, but rooting of mature cuttings increased from 10 to more than 40 percent. The data suggest that juvenile-specific MT remodeling is involved in AR formation in E. grandis.

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insight into the Key Proteins Involved in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Adventitious Root Emergence under Waterlogging Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Ma, Xiaotian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common abiotic stress in both natural and agricultural systems, and it primarily affects plant growth by the slow oxygen diffusion in water. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, a key adaptation for waterlogging tolerant plants is the formation of adventitious roots (ARs). We found that cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N seedlings adapt to waterlogging stress by developing a larger number of ARs in hypocotyls, while almost no AR is generated in sensitive line Pepino. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AR emergence, the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach was employed to map the proteomes of hypocotyls cells of the Zaoer-N and Pepino under control and waterlogging conditions. A total of 5508 proteins were identified and 146 were differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), of which 47 and 56 DRPs were specific to tolerant and sensitive line, respectively. In the waterlogged Zaoer-N hypocotyls, DRPs related to alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylicacid oxidases, peroxidases, 60S ribosomal proteins, GSDL esterases/lipases, histone deacetylases, and histone H5 and were strongly overrepresented to manage the energy crisis, promote ethylene release, minimize oxidative damage, mobilize storage lipids, and stimulate cell division, differentiation and growth. The evaluations of ethylene production, ADH activity, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity and ethanol production were in good agreement with the proteomic results. qRT-PCR analysis of the corresponding 146 genes further confirmed the accuracy of the observed protein abundance. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying waterlogging triggered cucumber ARs emergence, and provided valuable information for the breeding of cucumber with enhanced tolerance to waterlogging. PMID:27790230

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments.

  12. Calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinases are involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Lanteri, María Luciana; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago it was demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP are involved in the auxin response during adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). More recently, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was shown to be induced by IAA in a NO-dependent, but cGMP-independent, pathway. In the present study, the involvement of Ca2+ and the regulation of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity during IAA- and NO-induced AR formation was evaluated in cucumber explants. The effectiveness of several broad-spectrum Ca2+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ chelators in affecting AR formation induced by IAA or NO was also examined. Results indicate that the explants response to IAA and NO depends on the availability of both intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ pools. Protein extracts from cucumber hypocotyls were assayed for CDPK activity by using histone IIIS or syntide 2 as substrates for in-gel or in vitro assays, respectively. The activity of a 50 kDa CDPK was detected after 1 d of either NO or IAA treatments and it extended up to the third day of treatment. This CDPK activity was affected in both extracts from NO- and IAA-treated explants in the presence of the specific NO-scavenger cPTIO, suggesting that NO is required for its maximal and sustained activity. The in-gel and the in vitro CDPK activity, as well as the NO- or IAA-induced AR formation, were inhibited by calmodulin antagonists. Furthermore, the induction of CDPK activity by NO and IAA was shown to be reliant on the activity of the enzyme guanylate cyclase.

  13. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Ann-Caroline; Jacobs, Fernando Alvarado; Eliasson, Lennart

    1991-01-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  14. N-3-Oxo-Decanoyl-l-Homoserine-Lactone Activates Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Cyclic GMP Signaling in Mung Bean1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xuegui; Todd, Christopher D.; Desikan, Radhika; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    N-Acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) are bacterial quorum-sensing signaling molecules that regulate population density. Recent evidence demonstrates their roles in plant defense responses and root development. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are essential messengers that participate in various plant physiological processes, but how these messengers modulate the plant response to N-acyl-homoserine-lactone signals remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-3-oxo-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone (3-O-C10-HL), in contrast to its analog with an unsubstituted branch chain at the C3 position, efficiently stimulated the formation of adventitious roots and the expression of auxin-response genes in explants of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. This response was mimicked by the exogenous application of auxin, H2O2, NO, or cGMP homologs but suppressed by treatment with scavengers or inhibitors of H2O2, NO, or cGMP metabolism. The 3-O-C10-HL treatment enhanced auxin basipetal transport; this effect could be reversed by treatment with H2O2 or NO scavengers but not by inhibitors of cGMP synthesis. Inhibiting 3-O-C10-HL-induced H2O2 or NO accumulation impaired auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced cGMP synthesis; however, blocking cGMP synthesis did not affect auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced H2O2 or NO generation. Additionally, cGMP partially rescued the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or NO scavengers on 3-O-C10-HL-induced adventitious root development and auxin-response gene expression. These results suggest that 3-O-C10-HL, unlike its analog with an unmodified branch chain at the C3 position, can accelerate auxin-dependent adventitious root formation, possibly via H2O2- and NO-dependent cGMP signaling in mung bean seedlings. PMID:22138973

  15. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Hypericum perforatum adventitious roots cultured in a mist bioreactor against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.

  16. Developmental role of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes during adventitious rooting of Juglans regia L. microshoots.

    PubMed

    Cheniany, Monireh; Ganjeali, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase play important role in the phenylpropanoid pathway, which produces many biologically important secondary metabolites participating in normal plant development. Flavonol quercetin is the main representant of these compounds that has been identified in numerous Juglans spp. In this survey, the developmental expression patterns of PAL and C4H genes during in vitro rooting of two walnut cultivars 'Sunland' and 'Howard' was examined by RT-PCR. To understand the potential role in rooting, the changing pattern of endogenous content of quercetin was also analyzed by HPLC. The 'Sunland' with better capacity to root had more quercetin content during the "inductive phase" of rooting than 'Howard'. In each cultivar, the level of PAL transcripts showed the same behavior with the changing patterns of quercetin during root formation of microshoots. The positive correlation between the changes of quercetin and PAL-mRNA indicated that PAL gene may have an immediate effect on flavonoid pathway metabolites including quercetin. Although the behavioral change of C4H expression was similar in both cultivars during root formation (with significantly more level for 'Howard'), it was not coincide with the changes of quercerin concentrations. Our results showed that C4H function is important for the normal development, but its transcriptional regulation does not correlate with quercetin as an efficient phenolic compound for walnut rhizogenesis.

  17. Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species.

    PubMed

    Malíková, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesová, Jitka

    2010-06-01

    Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in short-lived monocarps should not be overlooked.

  18. Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants.

    PubMed

    Clark, D G; Gubrium, E K; Barrett, J E; Nell, T A; Klee, H J

    1999-09-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.

  19. Root Formation in Ethylene-Insensitive Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David G.; Gubrium, Erika K.; Barrett, James E.; Nell, Terril A.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia × hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more belowground root mass but fewer aboveground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated taproots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli. PMID:10482660

  20. Melatonin promotes adventitious root regeneration in in vitro shoot tip explants of the commercial sweet cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and MxM 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb).

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, Virginia N; Therios, Ioannis N; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa N

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a natural compound of edible plants on the rooting of certain commercial sweet cherry rootstocks. Shoot tip explants from previous in vitro cultures of the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and M × M 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb) were included in the experiment. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with melatonin was tested concerning their rooting potential. Seven concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) alone or in combination with 5.71 μM of IAA or 4.92 μM of IBA were tested. For each rootstock, 21 treatments were included. The explants were grown in glass tubes containing 10 mL of substrate. The parameters measured include rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant, root length, and callus formation. The data presented in this study show that melatonin has a rooting promoting effect at a low concentration but a growth inhibitory effect at high concentrations. In the absence of auxin, 1 μM melatonin had auxinic response concerning the number and length of roots, but 10 μM melatonin was inhibitory to rooting in all the tested rootstocks. The final conclusion of this experiment is that exogenously applied melatonin acted as a rooting promoter and its action was similar to that of IAA. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  2. A major locus involved in the formation of the radial oxygen loss barrier in adventitious roots of teosinte Zea nicaraguensis is located on the short-arm of chromosome 3.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Saori; Nishiuchi, Shunsaku; Omori, Fumie; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Mano, Yoshiro; Nakazono, Mikio

    2017-02-01

    A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation. A segment of the short-arm of chromosome 3 of Z. nicaraguensis conferred ROL barrier formation in the genetic background of maize. This chromosome segment also decreased apoplastic solute permeability across the hypodermis/exodermis. However, the IL and maize were similar for suberin staining in the hypodermis/exodermis at 40 mm and further behind the root tip. Z. nicaraguensis contained suberin in the hypodermis/exodermis at 20 mm and lignin at the epidermis. The IL with ROL barrier, however, did not contain lignin in the epidermis. Discovery of the Z. nicaraguensis chromosomal region responsible for root ROL barrier formation has improved knowledge of this trait and is an important step towards improvement of waterlogging tolerance in maize.

  3. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rafael; Nissen, Scott J.; Sutter, Ellen G.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 13[C6]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 ± 6.5 versus 166.6 ± 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 ± 4.4 versus 263.7 ± 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  4. Congenitally Blind Counselor, Adventitiously Blind Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    A counselor blind from birth describes personal difficulties in fully understanding the experience of clients who are adventitiously blind. Congenitally blind counselors are urged to recognize that adaptive methods cannot compensate for the panoramic view of the environment provided by vision and that recently blinded individuals need to deal with…

  5. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  6. Comparison of phytohormone levels and transcript profiles during seasonal dormancy transitions in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and eco...

  7. Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery with significant stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Praveen; Jindal, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery is a rare condition of unknown etiology which usually presents in middle-aged men. We present Doppler and computed tomography angiography findings in a case of cystic adventitial disease with significant obstruction of popliteal artery, with secondary narrowing of popliteal vein. PMID:24082480

  8. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Fraxinus americana

    Treesearch

    Kaitlin J. Palla; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    White ash (Fraxinus americana) trees provide both ecological and economic benefits. Loss of this North American endemic would disturb the environment. The urban ash tree industry in the United States would also suffer, as would manufacturers of baseball bats, furniture, and cabinets.

  9. Adventitial inflammation and its interaction with intimal atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Wangler, Susanne; Gleissner, Christian A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Katus, Hugo A.; Erbel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of adventitial inflammation in correlation with atherosclerotic lesions has been recognized for decades. In the last years, several studies have investigated the relevance and impact of adventitial inflammation on atherogenesis. In the abdominal aorta of elderly Apoe−/− mice, adventitial inflammatory structures were characterized as organized ectopic lymphoid tissue, and therefore termed adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). These ATLOs possess similarities in development, structure and function to secondary lymphoid organs. A crosstalk between intimal atherosclerotic lesions and ATLOs has been suggested, and several studies could demonstrate a potential role for medial vascular smooth muscle cells in this process. We here review the development, phenotypic characteristics, and function of ATLOs in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of medial vascular smooth muscle cells and their interaction between plaque and ATLOs. PMID:25152736

  10. Current testing methods and challenges for detection of adventitious viruses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arifa S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological products. This paper discusses various sources of virus contamination and approaches to develop a comprehensive detection and mitigation strategy for product safety. Additionally, general safety concerns related to adventitious agents in biologics and current testing recommendations by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research for demonstrating the absence of adventitious agents in viral vaccines will be presented. The limitations of the conventional assays and the need for and consideration of new technologies for broad detection of novel agents will also be discussed.

  11. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Onoue, Kenji; Ikegami, Koji; Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Mano, Yuuki; Sano, Masaki; Saito, Takaaki; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV) to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  12. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  13. Adventitious Agents and Smallpox Vaccine in Strategic National Stockpile

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Bennie I.

    2005-01-01

    In keeping with current standards, we urge that old smallpox vaccines that were made in animal skin and are still a key part of our strategic national stockpile be tested for adventitious infectious agents. The advisory especially applies to viruses that have the potential for zoonotic transmission to human vaccine recipients. PMID:16022785

  14. Adventitious agents and smallpox vaccine in strategic national stockpile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Frederick A; Osburn, Bennie I

    2005-07-01

    In keeping with current standards, we urge that old smallpox vaccines that were made in animal skin and are still a key part of our strategic national stockpile be tested for adventitious infectious agents. The advisory especially applies to viruses that have the potential for zoonotic transmission to human vaccine recipients.

  15. LTB4 activates pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinguo; Tamosiuniene, Rasa; Sung, Yon K.; Shuffle, Eric M.; Tu, Allen B.; Valenzuela, Antonia; Jiang, Shirley; Zamanian, Roham T.; Fiorentino, David F.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Peters-Golden, Marc; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Chung, Lorinda; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Nicolls, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent study demonstrated a significant role for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) causing pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). LTB4 was found to directly injure luminal endothelial cells and promote growth of the smooth muscle cell layer of pulmonary arterioles. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of LTB4 on the pulmonary adventitial layer, largely composed of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that LTB4 enhanced human pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblast (HPAAF) proliferation, migration and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner through its cognate G-protein coupled receptor, BLT1. LTB4 activated HPAAF by up-regulating p38 MAPK as well as Nox4 signaling pathways. In an autoimmune model of PH, inhibition of these pathways blocked perivascular inflammation, decreased Nox4 expression, reduced reactive oxygen species production, reversed arteriolar adventitial fibroblast activation and attenuated PH development. This study uncovers a novel mechanism by which LTB4 further promotes PAH pathogenesis, beyond its established effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cells, by activating adventitial fibroblasts. PMID:26558820

  16. Strigolactones fine-tune the root system.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Depuydt, Stephen; Goormachtig, Sofie; Geelen, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Strigolactones were originally discovered to be involved in parasitic weed germination, in mycorrhizal association and in the control of shoot architecture. Despite their clear role in rhizosphere signaling, comparatively less attention has been given to the belowground function of strigolactones on plant development. However, research has revealed that strigolactones play a key role in the regulation of the root system including adventitious roots, primary root length, lateral roots, root hairs and nodulation. Here, we review the recent progress regarding strigolactone regulation of the root system and the antagonism and interplay with other hormones.

  17. A novel life cycle arising from leaf segments in plants regenerated from horseradish hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Mano, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1995-03-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root clones were established from hairy roots which were transformed with the Ri plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The transformed plants, which were regenerated from hairy root clones, had thicker roots with extensive lateral branches and thicker stems, and grew faster compared with non-transformed horseradish plants. Small sections of leaves of the transformed plants generated adventitious roots in phytohormone-free G (modified Gamborg's) medium. Root proliferation was followed by adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration. Approximately twenty plants were regenerated per square centimeter of leaf. The transformed plants were easily transferable from sterile conditions to soil. When leaf segments of the transformed plants were cultured in a liquid fertilizer under non-sterile conditions, adventitious roots were generated at the cut ends of the leaves. Adventitious shoots were generated at the boundary between the leaf and the adventitious roots and developed into complete plants. This novel life cycle arising from leaf segments is a unique property of the transformed plants derived from hairy root clones.

  18. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  19. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L).

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C; Liu, Zongrang; Scorza, Ralph

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with the apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KNOX1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a medium lacking cytokinin. Ectopic expression of KNOX genes retarded shoot growth by suppressing elongation of internodes in transgenic tobacco plants. Expression of each of the three KNOX1 genes induced malformation and extensive lobbing in tobacco leaves. In situ regeneration of adventitious shoots was observed from leaves and roots of transgenic tobacco plants expressing each of the three KNOX genes. In vitro culture of leaf explants and internode sections excised from in vitro grown MdKN1 expressing tobacco shoots regenerated adventitious shoots on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) basal medium in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Transgenic plum plants that expressed the MdKN2 or corn KNOX1 gene grew normally but MdKN1 caused a significant reduction in plant height, leaf shape and size and produced malformed curly leaves. A high frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration (96%) was observed in cultures of leaf explants excised from corn KNOX1-expressing transgenic plum shoots. In contrast to KNOX1-expressing tobacco, leaf and internode explants of corn KNOX1-expressing plum required synthetic cytokinin (thidiazuron) in the culture medium to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The induction of high-frequency regeneration of adventitious shoots in vitro from leaves and stem internodal sections of plum through the ectopic expression of a KNOX1 gene is the first such report for a woody perennial fruit trees.

  20. Rooting of carnation cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and characterized in carnation. The expression pattern of this gene was seen to depend on the organ, the cultivar and the time of cold storage. The variations observed in its expression could be related with the rooting ability of different carnation cultivars. PMID:19721760

  1. Clonal variation in lateral and basal rooting of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    R.S. Zalesny Jr.; J.A. Zalesny

    2011-01-01

    Successful establishment and productivity of Populus depends upon adventitious rooting from: 1) lateral roots that develop from either preformed or induced primordia and 2) basal roots that differentiate from callus at the base of the cutting in response to wounding. Information is needed for phytotechnologies about the degree to which ...

  2. Regulatory expectations of validation/qualification of adventitious virus assays.

    PubMed

    Baylis, S A; Blümel, J

    2010-01-01

    The European Union (EU) guideline concerning the virus safety evaluation of biotechnological investigational medicinal products (CPMP/BWP/398498/2005) recently came into force. In the guideline it is stated that analytical procedures supporting the qualification of cell banking systems, starting materials, as well as testing of unprocessed bulks for the presence of adventitious viruses, should be supported by appropriate qualification/validation studies. The validation protocols should prospectively set claims for assay performance, which should be verified by the validation experiments and demonstrate that a particular procedure is suitable for its intended purpose. Assay parameters for adventitious virus testing are discussed, and examples of validation of qualitative and quantitative assays for the detection of blood-borne viruses in human plasma are considered.

  3. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Background Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. Objective To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. Data sources A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Study selection Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Data extraction Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. Data synthesis A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the

  4. Massively parallel sequencing, a new method for detecting adventitious agents.

    PubMed

    Onions, David; Kolman, John

    2010-05-01

    There has been an upsurge of interest in developing new veterinary and human vaccines and, in turn, this has involved the development of new mammalian and insect cell substrates. Excluding adventitious agents from these cells can be problematic, particularly for cells derived from species with limited virological investigation. Massively parallel sequencing is a powerful new method for the identification of viruses and other adventitious agents, without prior knowledge of the nature of the agent. We have developed methods using random priming to detect viruses in the supernatants from cell substrates or in virus seed stocks. Using these methods we have recently discovered a new parvovirus in bovine serum. When applied to sequencing the transcriptome, massively parallel sequencing can reveal latent or silent infections. Enormous amounts of data are developed in this process usually between 100 and 400 Mbp. Consequently, sophisticated bioinformatic algorithms are required to analyse and verify virus targets.

  5. Theory and practice of conventional adventitious virus testing.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) For decades conventional tests in cell cultures and in laboratory animals have served as standard methods for broad-spectrum screening for adventitious viruses. New virus detection methods based on molecular biology have broadened and improved our knowledge about potential contaminating viruses and about the suitability of the conventional test methods. This paper summarizes and discusses practical aspects of conventional test schemes, such as detectability of various viruses, questionable or false-positive results, animal numbers needed, time and cost of testing, and applicability for rapidly changing starting materials. Strategies to improve the virus safety of biological medicinal products are proposed. The strategies should be based upon a flexible application of existing and new methods along with a scientifically based risk assessment. However, testing alone does not guarantee the absence of adventitious agents and must be accompanied by virus removing or virus inactivating process steps for critical starting materials, raw materials, and for the drug product.

  6. Detection of adventitious viruses in biologicals--a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Nims, R W

    2006-01-01

    Adventitious virus assays are performed as part of raw materials testing, cell-line characterization, and lot-release testing of biologicals such as monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy vectors, recombinant proteins, and vaccines. The testing methods follow guidance provided in the 9 CFR (bovine and porcine raw materials testing, and certain vaccine products) or Points to Consider documents (cell line characterization and evaluation of the majority of biologicals). The methodologies used and the types of adventitious viruses detected during testing of the various types of samples are discussed in this paper. The detection of adventitious viruses is quite rare, especially during evaluation of cell banks and biologicals produced in human, mouse, or insect cell substrates. The most common detection scenarios include bovine viral diarrhoea virus in foetal bovine serum samples, porcine parvovirus in porcine substrates, and murine minute virus, REO virus, and Cache Valley virus in Chinese hamster cell-derived bulk harvests. The two last-named viral entities are believed to be introduced via bovine serum used during the manufacturing process (during scale-up or during the entire process). Knowledge of the types of agents being detected is useful in designing viral clearance methodologies for purification processes and in engineering manufacturing processes and facilities.

  7. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    North American hardwood tree species, such as alder (Alnus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), basswood (Tilia spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), black cherry (Prunus seratina), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black willow (...

  8. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Çınar, Ayşegül; Dogan, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

  9. Acceleration of adventitious shoots by interaction between exogenous hormone and adenine sulphate in Althaea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Naz, Ruphi; Anis, M

    2012-11-01

    In the current study attempts were made to investigate the effects of three different phases of callus induction followed by adventitious regeneration from leaf segments (central and lateral vein). Callus induction was observed in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 15.0 μM 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Adventitious shoot buds formation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM 2,4-D and 20.0 μM AdS in liquid medium as it induced 19.2 ± 0.58 buds in central vein explants. Addition of different growth regulators (cytokinins-6-benzyladenine, kinetin and 2-isopentenyl adenine alone or in combination with auxins-indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid, improved the shoot regeneration efficiency, in which 5.0 μM 6-benzyl adenine along with 0.25 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid was shown to be the most effective medium for maximum shoot regeneration (81.3 %) with 24.6 number of shoots and 4.4 ± 0.08 cm shoot length per explant. Leaf culture of central veins led to better shoot formation capacity in comparison to lateral vein. Rooting was readily achieved on the differentiated shoots on 1/2 MS medium augmented with 20.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 80 % survival rate.

  10. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  11. Shoot size significantly affects rooting response of sugar maple softwood cuttings

    Treesearch

    John R. Donnelly

    1974-01-01

    Three hundred softwood cuttings were collected from each of three mature sugar maple trees to test the effect of shoot size on adventitious root formation. One of the trees was a good rooter (61 percent rooted); one was a poor rooter (19 percent rooted); and the third was a non-rooter (1 percent rooted). There was an insufficient number of rooted cuttings from the...

  12. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  13. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30–49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  14. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30-49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA.

  15. [Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration].

    PubMed

    Shi, Heping; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Wang, Bei; Sun, Jiangbing; Huang, Shengqin

    2014-11-01

    To use Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots to create new germplasm of Dianthus caryophyllus, we transformed D. caryophyllus with A. rhizogenes by leaf disc for plant regeneration from hairy roots. The white hairy roots could be induced from the basal surface of leaf explants of D. caryophyllus 12 days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC15834. The percentage of the rooting leaf explants was about 90% 21 days after inoculation. The hairy roots could grow rapidly and autonomously in liquid or solid phytohormone-free MS medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rol gene of Ri plasmid and silica gel thin-layer chromatography of opines from D. caryophyllus hairy roots. Hairy roots could form light green callus after cultured on MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L for 15 days. The optimum medium for adventitious shoots formation was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.02 mg/L, where the rate of adventitious shoot induction was 100% after cultured for 6 weeks. The mean number of adventitious shoot per callus was 30-40. The adventitious shoots can form roots when cultured on phytohormone-free 1/2 MS or 1/2 MS +0.5 mg/L NAA for 10 days. When the rooted plantlets transplanted in the substrate mixed with perlite sand and peat (volume ratio of 1:2), the survival rate was above 95%.

  16. Endothelial Cells Inhibit the Angiotensin II Induced Phenotypic Modulation of Rat Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Ying; Chang, Neng-Bin; Li, Tao; Jiang, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Lei; He, Yan-Zheng; Jiang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    The phenotypic modulation of vascular adventitial fibroblasts plays an important role in vascular remodeling. Evidence have shown that endothelial cells and adventitial fibroblasts interact under certain conditions. In this study, we investigated the influence of endothelial cells on the phenotypic modulation of adventitial fibroblasts. Endothelial cells and adventitial fibroblasts from rat thoracic aorta were cultivated in a co-culture system and adventitial fibroblasts were induced with angiotensin II (Ang II). Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and migration of adventitial fibroblasts were analyzed. Ang II upregulated the expression of collagen I and α-SMA and the migration of adventitial fibroblasts. Adventitial fibroblasts-endothelial cells co-culturing attenuated the effects of Ang II. Homocysteine-treated endothelial cells, which are functionally impaired, were less inhibitory of the phenotypic modulation of adventitial fibroblasts. Supplementation of endothelial cells with L-arginine (L-Arg) or 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) enhanced the trends, while with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) the opposite effect was observed. Under the influence of Ang II, adventitial fibroblasts were prone to undergo phenotypic modulation, which was closely related to vascular remodeling. Our study showed that endothelial cells influenced fibroblast phenotypic transformation and such effect would be mediated through the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1921-1927, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The role of strigolactones in root development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huwei; Tao, Jinyuan; Gu, Pengyuan; Xu, Guohua; Zhang, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) and their derivatives were recently defined as novel phytohormones that orchestrate shoot and root growth. Levels of SLs, which are produced mainly by plant roots, increase under low nitrogen and phosphate levels to regulate plant responses. Here, we summarize recent work on SL biology by describing their role in the regulation of root development and hormonal crosstalk during root deve-lopment. SLs promote the elongation of seminal/primary roots and adventitious roots (ARs) and they repress lateral root formation. In addition, auxin signaling acts downstream of SLs. AR formation is positively or negatively regulated by SLs depending largely on the plant species and experimental conditions. The relationship between SLs and auxin during AR formation appears to be complex. Most notably, this hormonal response is a key adaption that radically alters rice root architecture in response to nitrogen- and phosphate-deficient conditions.

  18. Analysis of genetic and environmental effects on hybrid poplar rooting in Central and Northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don Riemenschneider; Edmund Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic and environmental effects on adventitious root initiation and growth because rooting is biologically prerequisite to the establishment of hybrid poplar plantations. Six clones from two pedigrees (pure Populus deltoides "cottonwoods" and P. deltoides x P. maximowiczii hybrids) were...

  19. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Mo, Yiwei; Qian, Shanqin; Gu, Yunjie

    2002-10-01

    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (i) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25 degrees to 60 degrees . The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root, (ii) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side, (iii) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested, (iv) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100 mumol . m(2) -s(-1), the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root, (v) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30 degrees C with the temperature treatment of 10-40 degrees C. (vi) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (vii) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg . L(-1).

  20. Venous cystic adventitial disease presenting as an enlarging groin mass.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark F; Gavin, Timothy; Levin, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Venous cystic adventitial disease is an exceedingly rare vascular disorder, with 12 cases reported in the past decade. A 60-year-old woman presented with a painful, palpable groin mass without leg swelling. She was initially thought to have a nonreducible inguinal hernia. A computed tomography scan was obtained that revealed a cystic mass involving the right common femoral vein. Previous imaging revealed that the mass had enlarged over time. In the operating room, the cyst wall was excised without compromising vein integrity. The patient had an uneventful recovery and her pain resolved. We review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. We believe that the rapid evolution of this lesion suggests that an unknown inciting factor triggers its onset and growth.

  1. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Adventitious Reinforcement of Maladaptive Stimulus Control Interferes with Learning.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kathryn J; Hine, Kathleen; Hayashi, Yusuke; Williams, Dean C

    2016-09-01

    Persistent error patterns sometimes develop when teaching new discriminations. These patterns can be adventitiously reinforced, especially during long periods of chance-level responding (including baseline). Such behaviors can interfere with learning a new discrimination. They can also disrupt already learned discriminations, if they re-emerge during teaching procedures that generate errors. We present an example of this process. Our goal was to teach a boy with intellectual disabilities to touch one of two shapes on a computer screen (in technical terms, a simple simultaneous discrimination). We used a size-fading procedure. The correct stimulus was at full size, and the incorrect-stimulus size increased in increments of 10 %. Performance was nearly error free up to and including 60 % of full size. In a probe session with the incorrect stimulus at full size, however, accuracy plummeted. Also, a pattern of switching between choices, which apparently had been established in classroom instruction, re-emerged. The switching pattern interfered with already-learned discriminations. Despite having previously mastered a fading step with the incorrect stimulus up to 60 %, we were unable to maintain consistently high accuracy beyond 20 % of full size. We refined the teaching program such that fading was done in smaller steps (5 %), and decisions to "step back" to a smaller incorrect stimulus were made after every 5-instead of 20-trials. Errors were rare, switching behavior stopped, and he mastered the discrimination. This is a practical example of the importance of designing instruction that prevents adventitious reinforcement of maladaptive discriminated response patterns by reducing errors during acquisition.

  3. Adventitial fibroblasts are activated in the early stages of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fang; Ji Jian; Li Li; Chen Rong; Hu Weicheng . E-mail: huweicheng@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-01-19

    The role of the adventitia in vascular function and vascular lesion formation has been largely ignored. This study observed the activation of the adventitia and specifically the fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE(-/-) mouse. The results showed a gradual increase in expression of collagen types I and III after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of hyperlipidic diet. The earliest expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) protein and mRNA was detected in the adventitial fibroblast before the formation of intimal lesions. Proliferation, too, was first found in the adventitial fibroblasts. We hypothesize that the adventitial fibroblast is activated in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  4. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (P<0.05). In addition, catalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  5. An anatomically based imaging sign to detect adventitial cyst derived from the superior tibiofibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Pirola, Elena; Amrami, Kimberly K; Wang, Huan; Desy, Nicholas M; Spinner, Robert J

    2011-10-01

    The origin for complex intraneural cysts remains controversial despite recent emerging evidence to support their articular origin. The coexistence of intraneural and adventitial cysts has been described due to the proximate neurovascular bundle, i.e., the articular (neural) branch and vessels at the joint capsule. To clarify the pathogenesis, anatomically based imaging patterns can be identified. This paper characterizes a common finding identified on MRI describing the adventitial component originating from the superior tibiofibular joint (STFJ). MRIs of patients with fibular (peroneal) (n = 24) and tibial (n = 7) intraneural ganglion cysts were reviewed. Eleven patients with fibular intraneural ganglion cysts were identified as having a coexisting adventitial component. In all cases, the adventitial cyst extended from the anterior portion of the STFJ, within the capsular vessels, and along the anterior tibial vessels. The reproducible anatomy permitted the identification of an imaging pattern: the "vascular U" sign, consisting of cystic anterior tibial vessels running through the interosseous membrane between the proximal tibia and fibula. This sign was seen on axial MR image(s) obtained at the level of the fibular neck in all cases. To generalize these findings, the rare tibial intraneural ganglion cysts (derived from the posterior aspect of the STFJ) were examined; two cases had coexisting adventitial cysts with visualization of the vascular U sign. This new imaging pattern can improve the identification of adventitial cysts at the level of the STFJ.

  6. Clonal variation in morphology of Populus root systems following irrigation with landfill leachate or water during 2 years of establishment

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall; Edmund O. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generation in North America has prompted the use of Populus for phytoremediation of waste waters including landfill leachate. Populus species and hybrids are ideal for such applications because of their high water usage rates, fast growth, and extensive root systems. Adventitious rooting (i.e.,...

  7. The architecture of adventitial elastin in the canine infrarenal aorta.

    PubMed

    Haas, K S; Phillips, S J; Comerota, A J; White, J V

    1991-05-01

    Although the artery wall consists of three distinct layers, only the structures of the intima and media have been well characterized. The adventitia has generally been overlooked. Our examination focused on the organization of elastin and collagen which are the major components of this tunic. Canine infrarenal aortas were excised, stretched to their in vivo length, then pressure fixed in formalin. Transverse, longitudinal, and frontal sections were prepared with specific elastin and collagen stains. Areas of adventitia in these sections were examined with LM, and interconnections between collagen and elastin were photographed at various magnifications. Subsequently, the slides were fractured for attachment to SEM stubs, and the coverslips were demounted. The identical areas were then examined with SEM using the LM micrographs as a guide to identify elastin and collagen. Whole mount aortic ring preparations were digested in formic acid for 72 and 96 h at 45 degrees C to confirm adventitial elastin architecture. The adventitia was organized in alternating lamellae of collagen and elastin. The elastin lamellae consisted of continuous sheets of elastin with a longitudinal fibrillar substructure. Finer circumferential elastin fibers were also identified. These attached to both longitudinal elastin and adjacent collagen lamellae. Collagen lamellae were arranged in broad corrugated bands of fibrils. The unique architecture of the adventitia may explain some of the visco-elastic properties of the aorta in both normal and pathologic states.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to imitate inflammatory conditions. Results In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial infection contributes to

  9. Emerging roots alter epidermal cell fate through mechanical and reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Bianka; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Sauter, Margret

    2012-08-01

    A central question in biology is how spatial information is conveyed to locally establish a developmental program. Rice (Oryza sativa) can survive flash floods by the emergence of adventitious roots from the stem. Epidermal cells that overlie adventitious root primordia undergo cell death to facilitate root emergence. Root growth and epidermal cell death are both controlled by ethylene. This study aimed to identify the signal responsible for the spatial control of cell death. Epidermal cell death correlated with the proximity to root primordia in wild-type and ADVENTITIOUS ROOTLESS1 plants, indicating that the root emits a spatial signal. Ethylene-induced root growth generated a mechanical force of ~18 millinewtons within 1 h. Force application to epidermal cells above root primordia caused cell death in a dose-dependent manner and was inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene or diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Exposure of epidermal cells not overlying a root to either force and ethylene or force and the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole induced ectopic cell death. Genetic downregulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger METALLOTHIONEIN2b likewise promoted force-induced ectopic cell death. Hence, reprogramming of epidermal cell fate by the volatile plant hormone ethylene requires two signals: mechanosensing for spatial resolution and ROS for cell death signaling.

  10. CD14 Directs Adventitial Macrophage Precursor Recruitment: Role in Early Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Blomkalns, Andra L.; Gavrila, Daniel; Thomas, Manesh; Neltner, Bonnie S.; Blanco, Victor M.; Benjamin, Stephanie B.; McCormick, Michael L.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Denning, Gerene M.; Collins, Sean P.; Qin, Zhenyu; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Thompson, Robert W.; Weiss, Robert M.; Lindower, Paul D.; Pinney, Susan M.; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. Methods and Results CD14−/− mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII‐infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line‐1 (THP‐1) monocytes with IL‐6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14‐dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL‐6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. Conclusions These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL‐6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA. PMID:23537804

  11. Detection of patients considering observation frequency of continuous and discontinuous adventitious sounds in lung sounds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoki; Yamashita, Masaru; Matsunaga, Shoichi

    2016-08-01

    We propose an improved approach for distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with pulmonary emphysema by the use of one stochastic acoustic model for continuous adventitious sounds and another for discontinuous adventitious sounds. These models are able to represent the spectral features of the adventitious sounds for the detection of abnormal respiration. However, abnormal respiratory sounds with unclassifiable spectral features are present among the continuous and discontinuous adventitious sounds and mixing noises. These sounds cause difficulties in achieving a highly accurate classification. In this study, the difference in occurrence frequencies between two types of adventitious sounds for each considered auscultation point and inspiration/expiration was considered. This difference, in combination with the confusion tendency of the classifier, was formulated as the validity score of each respiratory sound. The conventional spectral likelihood and the newly formulated validity score were combined to perform detection of abnormal respiration and patients. In the classification of healthy subjects and patients, the proposed approach achieved a higher classification rate (87.7%) than the conventional method (85.2%), demonstrating the statistical superiority (5% level) of the former.

  12. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meng; Zhang, Bai-Gen; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis. However, characterization of VV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries. Methods: Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits. Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation, three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed; the number, density, and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia. Results: Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV, increased luminal surface, and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M), along with an accumulation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima, as compared to sham or single injury arteries. I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty, which is associated with intimal hyperplasia. Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis. PMID:26228224

  13. Adventitious agents and live viral vectored vaccines: Considerations for archiving samples of biological materials for retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Robertson, James S; Condit, Richard C; Seligman, Stephen J; Laderoute, Marian P; Sheets, Rebecca; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Gurwith, Marc; Kochhar, Sonali; Chapman, Louisa; Carbery, Baevin; Mac, Lisa M; Chen, Robert T

    2016-12-12

    Vaccines are one of the most effective public health medicinal products with an excellent safety record. As vaccines are produced using biological materials, there is a need to safeguard against potential contamination with adventitious agents. Adventitious agents could be inadvertently introduced into a vaccine through starting materials used for production. Therefore, extensive testing has been recommended at specific stages of vaccine manufacture to demonstrate the absence of adventitious agents. Additionally, the incorporation of viral clearance steps in the manufacturing process can aid in reducing the risk of adventitious agent contamination. However, for live viral vaccines, aside from possible purification of the virus or vector, extensive adventitious agent clearance may not be feasible. In the event that an adventitious agent is detected in a vaccine, it is important to determine its origin, evaluate its potential for human infection and pathology, and discern which batches of vaccine may have been affected in order to take risk mitigation action. To achieve this, it is necessary to have archived samples of the vaccine and ancillary components, ideally from developmental through to current batches, as well as samples of the biological materials used in the manufacture of the vaccine, since these are the most likely sources of an adventitious agent. The need for formal guidance on such vaccine sample archiving has been recognized but not fulfilled. We summarize in this paper several prior major cases of vaccine contamination with adventitious agents and provide points for consideration on sample archiving of live recombinant viral vector vaccines for use in humans.

  14. miR-29a-3p attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting pulmonary adventitial fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Dong, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Zhao; Liu, Yi; Gao, Yu-Qi; Dong, Ming-Qing; Li, Zhi-Chao

    2015-02-01

    Activation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts plays a key role in the pulmonary vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Previous studies showed that miRNAs participated in the regulation of fibroblast activation. This study explored the role of miR-29 in the activation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts and the therapeutic potential in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We found that hypoxia-induced pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts activation was accompanied with a drastic decrease of miR-29a-3p expression. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α or Smad3 reversed the hypoxia-induced decrease of miR-29-3p in cultured pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts. In vitro, miR-29a-3p mimic inhibited the hypoxia-induced proliferation, migration, and secretion of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, suppressed the hypoxia-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix collagen in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts; however, miR-29a-3p inhibitor mimicked the effect of hypoxia on the activation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts. Further studies revealed that preventative or therapeutic administration of miR-29a-3p significantly decreased pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricle hypertrophy index and ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats. These findings suggest that miR-29a-3p regulates the activation and phenotype of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts in hypoxia and has preventative and therapeutic potential in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Adventitious Agents: Issues and Considerations during Pre-Approval Reviews and Inspections.

    PubMed

    Eltermann, John

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) There are potential risks for adventitious agent contamination at every stage in the lifecycle of a product. This can range from an impact on product quality that must be investigated and corrected to the temporary shutdown of manufacturing altogether. An assessment of the risk management plans and the associated testing and proper manufacturing controls will be part of the review and inspection at the pre-approval stage in the product lifecycle, and the effectiveness of the mitigating activities will be monitored as part of the activities as well. Appropriate measures aiming at preventing or reducing adventitious agents should be considered as part of the overall plan to ensure both product quality and continued manufacturing.

  16. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Treesearch

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  17. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system.

  18. Adventitial stripping of the radial and ulnar arteries in Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Brigitta; Mayer, W; Vesely, M; Mayer, S; Partsch, H; Piza-Katzer, H

    2002-11-01

    Adventitial stripping of the palmar arch, the palmar common digital arteries, or the proper digital arteries is a last resort in the treatment of refractory primary or secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Seven patients who had adventitial stripping of the ulnar and radial arteries proximal to the wrist and resection of the nerve of Henle, if identifiable, are presented. All of them were evaluated by telethermography, acral rheography, and a questionnaire before and after surgery. All were asymptomatic after surgery with satisfactory healing of the ulcers at the fingertips. None of them relapsed during the follow-up time of 1.5 years.

  19. High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging of cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Turba, Ulku C; Housseini, Ahmed M; Kern, John A; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2010-02-01

    High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with cystic adventitial disease can demonstrate connections between cysts in the adventitia and the adjacent joint, which is important for successful treatment. The inability to identify these during surgery can lead to a recurrence; thus, high spatial resolution MRI has the potential to affect therapy. This article presents the high spatial resolution MRI findings of cystic adventitial disease in a series of three consecutive patients and discusses the relevance of these findings to the etiology and therapy.

  20. The etiology and management of cystic adventitial disease.

    PubMed

    Desy, Nicholas M; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare condition that affects arteries and veins. The etiology remains controversial and several treatment methods have been described. By understanding the pathogenesis of CAD, we can improve the surgical treatment, reduce recurrence rates, and improve patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the world's literature. We searched across multiple scientific databases and cross-referenced each article to collect the world's literature on CAD. Studies included were those that reported a case or case series of CAD. Each article was analyzed for site of CAD, patient demographic data, type of imaging, surgical management, presence of a joint connection on imaging or at surgery, and recurrences. A regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for cyst recurrence. We identified 503 reports (724 patients), which were included in our analysis. The most common vessel affected was the popliteal artery with 587 cysts. The mean age was 46 (range, 5-80) years with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 4:1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or angiography was performed for 182 cysts and conventional angiography was the most advanced imaging modality used in 355 patients who did not receive a MRI or computed tomography scan as part of their assessment. Multiple types of surgical interventions were reported with the most common being cyst resection and saphenous vein graft reconstruction (204 cases). There were 122 joint connections (17%) identified. Sixty-five patients (9%) developed at least one cyst recurrence or persistence. Percutaneous surgery (aspiration or angioplasty) was found to be a risk factor for cyst recurrence (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-29.0; P < .0001). Because of the rarity of this condition, publications were limited to level IV evidence consisting of case series and case reports. Several reports had short or no follow-up and few patients had postoperative

  1. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Fraxinus nigra

    Treesearch

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an endangered hardwood tree species under threat of extirpation by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an aggressive exotic phloemfeeding beetle. We have developed an efficient regeneration system through adventitious shoot organogenesis in F. nigra using in vitro-derived leaf explants. Two types of leaf...

  2. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  3. Tissue sealing device associated thermal spread: a comparison of histologic methods for detecting adventitial collagen denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ryan M.; Grisez, Brian T.; Thomas, Aaron C.; Livengood, Ryan H.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Thermal spread (thermal tissue damage) results from heat conduction through the tissues immediately adjacent to a hyperthermic tissue sealing device. The extent of such heat conduction can be assessed by the detection of adventitial collagen denaturation. Several histologic methods have been reported to measure adventitial collagen denaturation as a marker of thermal spread. This study compared hematoxylin and eosin staining, Gomori trichrome staining and loss of collagen birefringence for the detection of collagen denaturation. Twenty-eight ex vivo porcine carotid arteries were sealed with a commercially available, FDA-approved tissue sealing device. Following formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, two 5-micron tissue sections were hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori trichrome stained. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained section was evaluated by routine bright field microscopy and under polarized light. The trichromestained section was evaluated by routine bright field microscopy. Radial and midline adventitial collagen denaturation measurements were made for both the top and bottom jaw sides of each seal. The adventitial collagen denaturation lengths were determined using these three methods and statistically compared. The results showed that thermal spread, as represented by histologically detected collagen denaturation, is technique dependent. In this study, the trichrome staining method detected significantly less thermal spread than the hematoxylin and eosin staining and birefringence methods. Of the three methods, hematoxylin and eosin staining provided the most representative results for true thermal spread along the adjacent artery.

  4. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of southern highbush blueberry cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protocols were developed to optimize adventitious shoot regeneration from four southern highbush blueberry cultivars. Leaf explants from six-week-old shoots of the four cultivars were excised and cultured on ten WPM (woody plant medium)-based regeneration media each containing thidiazuron (TDZ) (4.5...

  5. Origin of adventitious roots in black walnut (Juglans nigra) softwood cuttings rooted under optimized conditions in a fog chamber

    Treesearch

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    High-quality black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) logs are of great economic value and are used in the manufacture of high-end products. Indigenous to the central hardwood region, black walnut has been commercially cultivated for many years, and genetic improvement and selections have resulted in superior timber genotypes. The recalcitrance of black...

  6. Adventitial VEGF165 gene transfer prevents lumen loss through induction of positive arterial remodeling after PTCA in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Deiner, Carolin; Schwimmbeck, Peter Lothar; Koehler, Ina Sabine; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Noutsias, Michel; Nikol, Sigrid; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Pels, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    Negative arterial remodeling still plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis even in the era of interventional stenting (e.g. arterial narrowing occurs proximal and distal of a stented segment). Previous studies suggest that increased angiogenesis and inhibited regression of injury-induced adventitial microvessels prevents negative remodeling. We have examined the effect of local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on adventitial microvessel angiogenesis/regression and arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty. Twenty pigs underwent angioplasty, each one in two major coronary arteries, followed by plasmid liposome gene transfer with either VEGF(165) or control gene LacZ (50 microg DNA with 50 microg of Lipofectine) into the (peri)adventitial space using a needle injection catheter. Arteries were examined at days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Local delivery of VEGF(165) gene into the outer compartments of balloon-injured porcine coronary arteries reduced lumen area loss due to distinct positive remodeling (arterial enlargement). Prevention of adventitial microvessel regression, enhanced adventitial elastin accumulation, reduced adventitial myofibroblast numbers, and a pronounced adventitial inflammatory response considered as a part of arterial healing seem to be the main VEGF-mediated mechanisms indicating the therapeutic potential of VEGF for restenosis prevention.

  7. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Iram; Anis, M; Aref, I M

    2010-11-01

    An effective protocol was developed for in vitro regeneration of the Cassia angustifolia via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants excised from 21-day-old axenic seedlings. Organogenic callus were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ). Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ as it induced 8.5 ± 0.98 shoots in 85% cultures. The number of shoots and shoot length was significantly enhanced when cultures were subcultured on auxin-cytokinin-containing medium. The highest number of shoots (12.5 ± 1.10) and shoot length (4.3 ± 0.20 cm) was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ and 1.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were rooted best on MS medium supplemented with 10.0 µM indole-3-butyric acid followed by their transfer to liquid MS filter paper bridge medium. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 70% survival rate. The plants showed normal morphological characteristics similar to the field grown plants.

  8. Rapid in vitro adventitious shoot propagation of Scopolia parviflora through rhizome cultures for enhanced production of tropane alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y M; Min, J Y; Moon, H S; Karigar, C S; Prasad, D T; Lee, C H; Choi, M S

    2004-09-01

    A rapid micropropagation system for Scopolia parviflora Nakai (Solanaceae), a rare medicinal plant native to Korea, was established using rhizome cultures. Shoots that originated from adventitious shoots of the rhizome were multiplied when the rhizomes were cultured on half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Optimum shoot multiplication was observed in half-strength B5 medium containing 3% (w/v) sucrose and 5.77 microM gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Each rhizome gave rise to an average of 12 shoots. Shoot elongation and root induction from multiple shoots occurred on growth regulator-free half-strength B5 solid medium. Healthy plantlets were transferred to a peat moss:vermiculite mixture for acclimatization, which was successful. The concentrations of tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine were determined in different tissues of native growing plants, in vitro-propagated plants and acclimatized plants by high-performance liquid chromatography. The analysis revealed that the levels of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were higher in in vitro-propagated plants than in the native growing plants. When the rhizome was cut into segments and transferred to optimal culture conditions for multiple shoot propagation, only 12 weeks were required to produce a mature plant. We conclude that in vitro propagation techniques through rhizome cultures provide an efficient and rapid method for shoot propagation of S. parviflora.

  9. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse inductive cues is limited. Here, we show that WOX11 contributes to root system plasticity. When seedlings are grown vertically on medium, WOX11 is not expressed in LR founder cells. During AR initiation, WOX11 is expressed in AR founder cells and activates LBD16LBD16 also functions in LR formation and is activated in that context by ARF7/19 and not by WOX11 This indicates that divergent initial processes that lead to ARs and LRs may converge on a similar mechanism for primordium development. Furthermore, we demonstrated that when plants are grown in soil or upon wounding on medium, the primary root is able to produce both WOX11-mediated and non-WOX11-mediated roots. The discovery of WOX11-mediated root-derived roots reveals a previously uncharacterized pathway that confers plasticity during the generation of root system architecture in response to different inductive cues. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Integration of root phenes for soil resource acquisition

    PubMed Central

    York, Larry M.; Nord, Eric A.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal availability of water and nutrients is a primary limitation to plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. The acquisition of soil resources by plant roots is therefore an important component of plant fitness and agricultural productivity. Plant root systems comprise a set of phenes, or traits, that interact. Phenes are the units of the plant phenotype, and phene states represent the variation in form and function a particular phene may take. Root phenes can be classified as affecting resource acquisition or utilization, influencing acquisition through exploration or exploitation, and in being metabolically influential or neutral. These classifications determine how one phene will interact with another phene, whether through foraging mechanisms or metabolic economics. Phenes that influence one another through foraging mechanisms are likely to operate within a phene module, a group of interacting phenes, that may be co-selected. Examples of root phene interactions discussed are: (1) root hair length × root hair density, (2) lateral branching × root cortical aerenchyma (RCA), (3) adventitious root number × adventitious root respiration and basal root growth angle (BRGA), (4) nodal root number × RCA, and (5) BRGA × root hair length and density. Progress in the study of phenes and phene interactions will be facilitated by employing simulation modeling and near-isophenic lines that allow the study of specific phenes and phene combinations within a common phenotypic background. Developing a robust understanding of the phenome at the organismal level will require new lines of inquiry into how phenotypic integration influences plant function in diverse environments. A better understanding of how root phenes interact to affect soil resource acquisition will be an important tool in the breeding of crops with superior stress tolerance and reduced dependence on intensive use of inputs. PMID:24062755

  11. An auxin-responsive endogenous peptide regulates root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengxi; Song, Yu; Yang, Hao; Liu, Zhibin; Zhu, Genfa; Yang, Yi

    2014-07-01

    Auxin plays critical roles in root formation and development. The components involved in this process, however, are not well understood. Here, we newly identified a peptide encoding gene, auxin-responsive endogenous polypeptide 1 (AREP1), which is induced by auxin, and mediates root development in Arabidopsis. Expression of AREP1 was specific to the cotyledon and to root and shoot meristem tissues. Amounts of AREP1 transcripts and AREP1-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were elevated in response to indoleacetic acid treatment. Suppression of AREP1 through RNAi silencing resulted in reduction of primary root length, increase of lateral root number, and expansion of adventitious roots, compared to the observations in wild-type plants in the presence of auxin. By contrast, transgenic plants overexpressing AREP1 showed enhanced growth of the primary root under auxin treatment. Additionally, root morphology, including lateral root number and adventitious roots, differed greatly between transgenic and wild-type plants. Further analysis indicated that the expression of auxin-responsive genes, such as IAA3, IAA7, IAA17, GH3.2, GH3.3, and SAUR-AC1, was significantly higher in AREP1 RNAi plants, and was slightly lower in AREP1 overexpressing plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the novel endogenous peptide AREP1 plays an important role in the process of auxin-mediated root development.

  12. Deciphering Phosphate Deficiency-Mediated Temporal Effects on Different Root Traits in Rice Grown in a Modified Hydroponic System.

    PubMed

    Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses.

  13. Deciphering Phosphate Deficiency-Mediated Temporal Effects on Different Root Traits in Rice Grown in a Modified Hydroponic System

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses. PMID:27200025

  14. Root rots

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  15. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  16. Quantifying Adventitious Error in a Covariance Structure as a Random Effect

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Browne, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to quantifying errors in covariance structures in which adventitious error, identified as the process underlying the discrepancy between the population and the structured model, is explicitly modeled as a random effect with a distribution, and the dispersion parameter of this distribution to be estimated gives a measure of misspecification. Analytical properties of the resultant procedure are investigated and the measure of misspecification is found to be related to the RMSEA. An algorithm is developed for numerical implementation of the procedure. The consistency and asymptotic sampling distributions of the estimators are established under a new asymptotic paradigm and an assumption weaker than the standard Pitman drift assumption. Simulations validate the asymptotic sampling distributions and demonstrate the importance of accounting for the variations in the parameter estimates due to adventitious error. Two examples are also given as illustrations. PMID:25813463

  17. Results of Survey Regarding Prevalence of Adventitial Infections in Mice and Rats at Biomedical Research Facilities.

    PubMed

    Marx, James O; Gaertner, Diane J; Smith, Abigail L

    2017-09-01

    Control of rodent adventitial infections in biomedical research facilities is of extreme importance in assuring both animal welfare and high-quality research results. Sixty-three U.S. institutions participated in a survey reporting the methods used to detect and control these infections and the prevalence of outbreaks from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. These results were then compared with the results of 2 similar surveys published in 1998 and 2008. The results of the current survey demonstrated that the rate of viral outbreaks in mouse colonies was decreasing, particularly in barrier facilities, whereas the prevalence of parasitic outbreaks has remained constant. These results will help our profession focus its efforts in the control of adventitial rodent disease outbreaks to the areas of the greatest needs.

  18. Molecular Analysis of Signals Controlling Dormancy and Growth in Underground Adventitious Buds of Leafy Spurge

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Anderson, James V.

    2002-01-01

    Dormancy and subsequent regrowth of adventitious buds is a critical physiological process for many perennial plants. We have used the expression of hormone and cell cycle-responsive genes as markers to follow this process in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In conjunction with earlier studies, we show that loss of mature leaves results in decreased sugar levels and increased gibberellin perception in underground adventitious buds. Gibberellin is sufficient for induction of S phase-specific but not M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of both apical and axillary buds or inhibition of polar auxin transport did not result in induction of S phase- or M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of polar auxin transport was necessary for continuation of the cell cycle and further bud development if the S phase was previously initiated. PMID:11950992

  19. Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: A potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Kurt R.; Frid, Maria G.; Yeager, Michael; Li, Min; Riddle, Suzette; McKinsey, Timothy; El Kasmi, Karim C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise. PMID:22558514

  20. Recurrent cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: successful treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare vascular condition that most commonly affects the popliteal artery. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is generally not considered a valid therapeutic option due to high recurrence rate. We report a case of CAD of the popliteal artery that recurred after surgical cyst enucleation that was successfully treated with PTA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful PTA for the treatment of recurrent CAD of the popliteal artery.

  1. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: an infrequent cause of intermittent claudication

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Paulo; Kuzniec, Sergio; Sacilotto, Roberto; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Wolosker, Nelson; Tachibana, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is frequently associated with atherosclerotic disease, but differential diagnosis must be sought in patients with no traditional risk factors. Cystic adventitial disease, of unknown etiology, most frequently affects the popliteal artery, and occasionally presents as intermittent claudication. We report a case of this disease and the surgical treatment, and discuss some aspects related to etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:25167336

  2. Detecting and quantifying the adventitious presence of transgenic seeds in safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Jed; McPherson, Marc; Topinka, Deborah; Hall, Linda; Good, Allen G

    2008-07-23

    Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) is currently being developed as a platform for the production of novel proteins. Methods for detecting and quantifying transgenic safflower are needed to ensure seed quality and to monitor for its adventitious presence. We developed and compared three methods of assaying for transgenic safflower presence in conventional seedlots: field bioassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Limits for reliable quantification for both ELISA and Q-PCR are approximately 0.1%, although levels at least as low as 0.02% can be detected by Q-PCR. Levels of quantification for the field bioassay are limited only by space and resources available. Multiple sampling methods to detect and quantify transgenic safflower presence at levels lower than 0.1% were used on field collected samples from a pollen outcrossing experiment to quantify the adventitious presence of transgenic safflower. Taking into account the potential utility and relative advantages or disadvantages of each detection method, it is recommended that the initial testing for the adventitious presence of transgenic seed be carried out using an antibody-based test if available and that Q-PCR-based assays to quantify transgenic proportion be used when it is necessary to identify specific transgenic constructs or if antibody-based assays are not readily available.

  3. Adventitial lymphatic capillary expansion impacts on plaque T cell accumulation in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rademakers, Timo; van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Daissormont, Isabelle T. M. N.; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Theodorou, Kosta; Theelen, Thomas L.; Gijbels, Marion; Anisimov, Andrey; Nurmi, Harri; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Schober, Andreas; Heeneman, Sylvia; Alitalo, Kari; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2017-01-01

    During plaque progression, inflammatory cells progressively accumulate in the adventitia, paralleled by an increased presence of leaky vasa vasorum. We here show that next to vasa vasorum, also the adventitial lymphatic capillary bed is expanding during plaque development in humans and mouse models of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we investigated the role of lymphatics in atherosclerosis progression. Dissection of plaque draining lymph node and lymphatic vessel in atherosclerotic ApoE−/− mice aggravated plaque formation, which was accompanied by increased intimal and adventitial CD3+ T cell numbers. Likewise, inhibition of VEGF-C/D dependent lymphangiogenesis by AAV aided gene transfer of hVEGFR3-Ig fusion protein resulted in CD3+ T cell enrichment in plaque intima and adventitia. hVEGFR3-Ig gene transfer did not compromise adventitial lymphatic density, pointing to VEGF-C/D independent lymphangiogenesis. We were able to identify the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, which has previously been shown to indirectly activate VEGFR3, as a likely pathway, in that its focal silencing attenuated lymphangiogenesis and augmented T cell presence. Taken together, our study not only shows profound, partly CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated, expansion of lymph capillaries in the adventitia of atherosclerotic plaque in humans and mice, but also is the first to attribute an important role of lymphatics in plaque T cell accumulation and development. PMID:28349940

  4. Dynamic transcriptional profiling provides insights into tuberous root development in Rehmannia glutinosa

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Xiao, Xingguo; Duan, Liusheng; Guo, Yuhai; Qi, Jianjun; Liao, Dengqun; Zhao, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Li, Xianen

    2015-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa, an herb of the Scrophulariaceae family, is widely cultivated in the Northern part of China. The tuberous root has well-known medicinal properties; however, yield and quality are threatened by abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular process of tuberous root development may help identify novel targets for its control. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly strategies to obtain a reference transcriptome that is relevant to tuberous root development. We then conducted RNA-seq quantification analysis to determine gene expression profiles of the adventitious root (AR), thickening adventitious root (TAR), and the developing tuberous root (DTR). Expression profiling identified a total of 6794 differentially expressed unigenes during root development. Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression profiling revealed changes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone biosynthesis during root development. Moreover, we identified and allocated putative functions to the genes involved in tuberous root development, including genes related to major carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transcription regulation. The present study provides the initial description of gene expression profiles of AR, TAR, and DTR, which facilitates identification of genes of interest. Moreover, our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root development and may assist in the design and development of improved breeding schemes for different R. glutinosa varieties through genetic manipulation. PMID:26113849

  5. Dynamic transcriptional profiling provides insights into tuberous root development in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Xiao, Xingguo; Duan, Liusheng; Guo, Yuhai; Qi, Jianjun; Liao, Dengqun; Zhao, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Li, Xianen

    2015-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa, an herb of the Scrophulariaceae family, is widely cultivated in the Northern part of China. The tuberous root has well-known medicinal properties; however, yield and quality are threatened by abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular process of tuberous root development may help identify novel targets for its control. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly strategies to obtain a reference transcriptome that is relevant to tuberous root development. We then conducted RNA-seq quantification analysis to determine gene expression profiles of the adventitious root (AR), thickening adventitious root (TAR), and the developing tuberous root (DTR). Expression profiling identified a total of 6794 differentially expressed unigenes during root development. Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression profiling revealed changes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone biosynthesis during root development. Moreover, we identified and allocated putative functions to the genes involved in tuberous root development, including genes related to major carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transcription regulation. The present study provides the initial description of gene expression profiles of AR, TAR, and DTR, which facilitates identification of genes of interest. Moreover, our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root development and may assist in the design and development of improved breeding schemes for different R. glutinosa varieties through genetic manipulation.

  6. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Histopathological Evidence of Adventitial or Medial Injury Is a Strong Predictor of Restenosis During Directional Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tarricone, Arthur; Ali, Ziad; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Gujja, Karthik; Kapur, Vishal; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Vasquez, Miguel; Zalewski, Adrian; Parides, Micheal; Overbey, Jessica; Wiley, Jose; Krishnan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the impact on restenosis rates of deep injury to the adventitial layer during directional atherectomy. Between 2007 and 2010, 116 consecutive patients (mean age 69.6 years; 56 men) with symptomatic femoropopliteal stenoses were treated with directional atherectomy at a single center. All patients had claudication and TASC A/B lesions in the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries. Histopathology analysis of atherectomy specimens was performed to identify adventitial injury. Clinical follow-up included physical examination and duplex ultrasound scans at 3, 6, and 12 months in all patients. The primary endpoint was the duplex-documented 1-year rate of restenosis, which was determined by a peak systolic velocity ratio <2.4. Patients were dichotomized by the presence or absence of adventitial or medial cuts as evaluated by histopathology. Adventitial injury were identified in 62 (53%) of patients. There were no differences in baseline demographic and clinical features (p>0.05), lesion length (58.7±12.8 vs 56.2±13.6 mm, p=0.40), or vessel runoff (1.9±0.6 vs 2.0±0.6, p=0.37) between patients with and without adventitial injury, respectively. The overall 1-year incidence of restenosis was 57%, but the rate was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in patients with adventitial or medial injury (97%, 60/62) as compared with those without (11%, 6/54). Lack of adventitial injury after atherectomy for femoropopliteal stenosis is strongly related to patency at 1 year. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Polymorphisms in the AOX2 gene are associated with the rooting ability of olive cuttings.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Vahideh; Mousavi, Amir; Razavi, Khadijeh; Cultrera, Nicolò; Alagna, Fiammetta; Mariotti, Roberto; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Baldoni, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    Different rooting ability candidate genes were tested on an olive cross progeny. Our results demonstrated that only the AOX2 gene was strongly induced. OeAOX2 was fully characterised and correlated to phenotypical traits. The formation of adventitious roots is a key step in the vegetative propagation of trees crop species, and this ability is under strict genetic control. While numerous studies have been carried out to identify genes controlling adventitious root formation, only a few loci have been characterised. In this work, candidate genes that were putatively involved in rooting ability were identified in olive (Olea europaea L.) by similarity with orthologs identified in other plant species. The mRNA levels of these genes were analysed by real-time PCR during root induction in high- (HR) and low-rooting (LR) individuals. Interestingly, alternative oxidase 2 (AOX2), which was previously reported to be a functional marker for rooting in olive cuttings, showed a strong induction in HR individuals. From the OeAOX2 full-length gene, alleles and effective polymorphisms were distinguished and analysed in the cross progeny, which were segregated based on rooting. The results revealed a possible correlation between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of OeAOX2 gene and rooting ability.

  9. Variation in virus symptom development and root architecture attributes at the onset of storage root initiation in 'beauregard' sweetpotato plants grown with or without nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Villordon, Arthur Q; Clark, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that virus infections, often symptomless, significantly limit sweetpotato productivity, especially in regions characterized by low input agricultural systems. In sweetpotatoes, the successful emergence and development of lateral roots (LRs), the main determinant of root architecture, determines the competency of adventitious roots to undergo storage root initiation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of some plant viruses on root architecture attributes during the onset of storage root initiation in 'Beauregard' sweetpotatoes that were grown with or without the presence of nitrogen. In two replicate experiments, virus-tested plants consistently failed to show visible symptoms at 20 days regardless of nitrogen treatment. In both experiments, the severity of symptom development among infected plants ranged from 25 to 118% when compared to the controls (virus tested plants grown in the presence of nitrogen). The presence of a complex of viruses (Sweet potato feathery mottle virus, Sweet potato virus G, Sweet potato virus C, and Sweet potato virus 2) was associated with 51% reduction in adventitious root number among plants grown without nitrogen. The effect of virus treatments on first order LR development depended on the presence or absence of nitrogen. In the presence of nitrogen, only plants infected with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus showed reductions in first order LR length, number, and density, which were decreased by 33%, 12%, and 11%, respectively, when compared to the controls. In the absence of nitrogen, virus tested and infected plants manifested significant reductions for all first order LR attributes. These results provide evidence that virus infection directly influences sweetpotato yield potential by reducing both the number of adventitious roots and LR development. These findings provide a framework for understanding how virus infection reduces sweetpotato yield and could lead to the development of novel strategies to

  10. Auxins differentially regulate root system architecture and cell cycle protein levels in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Cruz, Enrique; García-Ramírez, Elpidio; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Reyes de la Cruz, Homero; López-Bucio, José

    2015-03-15

    Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture has a complex organization, with adventitious and lateral roots determining its overall absorptive capacity. To generate basic information about the earlier stages of root development, we compared the post-embryonic growth of maize seedlings germinated in water-embedded cotton beds with that of plants obtained from embryonic axes cultivated in liquid medium. In addition, the effect of four different auxins, namely indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on root architecture and levels of the heat shock protein HSP101 and the cell cycle proteins CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA1 were analyzed. Our data show that during the first days after germination, maize seedlings develop several root types with a simultaneous and/or continuous growth. The post-embryonic root development started with the formation of the primary root (PR) and seminal scutellar roots (SSR) and then continued with the formation of adventitious crown roots (CR), brace roots (BR) and lateral roots (LR). Auxins affected root architecture in a dose-response fashion; whereas NAA and IBA mostly stimulated crown root formation, 2,4-D showed a strong repressing effect on growth. The levels of HSP101, CKS1, CYCA1 and CDKA in root and leaf tissues were differentially affected by auxins and interestingly, HSP101 registered an auxin-inducible and root specific expression pattern. Taken together, our results show the timing of early branching patterns of maize and indicate that auxins regulate root development likely through modulation of the HSP101 and cell cycle proteins.

  11. Hypoxia induces unique proliferative response in adventitial fibroblasts by activating PDGFβ receptor-JNK1 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Das, Mita

    2012-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition for which no disease-modifying therapies exist. PH is recognized as proliferative disease of the pulmonary artery (PA). In the experimental newborn calf model of hypoxia-induced PH, adventitial fibroblasts in the PA wall exhibit a heightened replication index. Because elevated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβ-R) signalling is associated with PH, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of PDGFβ-R contributes to fibroblast proliferation and adventitial remodelling in PH. Methods and results Newborn calves were exposed to either ambient air (PB = 640 mmHg) (Neo-C) or high altitude (PB = 445 mm Hg) (Neo-PH) for 2 weeks. PDGFβ-R phosphorylation was markedly elevated in PA adventitia of Neo-PH calves as well as in cultured PA fibroblasts isolated from Neo-PH animals. PDGFβ-R activation with PDGF-BB stimulated higher replication in Neo-PH cells compared with that of control fibroblasts. PDGF-BB-induced proliferation was dependent on reactive oxygen species generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activation in both cell populations; however, only Neo-PH cell division via PDGFβ-R activation displayed a unique dependence on c-Jun N-terminal kinase1 (JNK1) stimulation as the blockade of JNK1 with SP600125, a pharmacological antagonist of the JNK pathway, and JNK1-targeted siRNA selectively blunted Neo-PH cell proliferation. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that hypoxia-induced modified cells engage the PDGFβ-R-JNK1 axis to confer distinctively heightened proliferation and adventitial remodelling in PH. PMID:22735370

  12. Cloning and characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious shoot formation in Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, M; Alvarez, J M; Rodríguez, A; Fernández, B; Ordás, R J

    2010-08-15

    Type-A response regulators play an important role in cytokinin-induced adventitious shoot formation, acting as negative regulators of cytokinin signal transduction. In this work, we obtained the full-length cDNA clone of a type-A response regulator from the conifer Pinus pinea, designated PipiRR1. The derived peptide sequence showed all the characteristic motifs found in angiosperms. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed during adventitious shoot formation in P. pinea cotyledons, suggesting that PipiRR1 may play a role in caulogenesis in conifers. This is the first type-A response regulator identified in gymnosperms.

  13. Identification of genes differentially expressed during adventitious shoot induction in Pinus pinea cotyledons by subtractive hybridization and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pablo; Cortizo, Millán; Cantón, Francisco R; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Centeno, Maria L; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2007-12-01

    As part of a study aimed at understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in adventitious shoot bud formation in pine cotyledons, we conducted a transcriptome analysis to identify early-induced genes during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinea L. cotyledons cultured in the presence of benzyladenine. A subtractive cDNA library with more than 700 clones was constructed. Of these clones, 393 were sequenced, analyzed and grouped according to their putative function. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to confirm the differential expression of 30 candidate genes. Results are contrasted with available data for other species.

  14. Case report of adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery presented with the ''dog-leg'' sign.

    PubMed

    Nano, G; Dalainas, I; Casana, R; Stegher, S; Malacrida, G; Tealdi, D G

    2007-03-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery constitutes an infrequent cause of claudication in non-atherosclerotic young or middle-aged population. Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old female with adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery causing left lower leg claudication, detected by duplex scanning. The angio-CT showed the "dog-leg" sign, typical of the aneurysm of the popliteal artery. Surgery was performed through the posterior approach. The cyst and the affected segment of the artery were successfully excised and replaced with an autogenous saphenous vein graft. In 1 year follow-up the graft is patent and the patient is completely asymptomatic.

  15. Pulmonary Artery Adventitial Fibroblasts Cooperate with Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cells to Regulate Vasa Vasorum Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Neil J.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.; Hofmeister, Stephen E.; Richman, Aaron P.; Jones, Peter L.; Reeves, John T.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2006-01-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia. PMID:16723696

  16. A Methodology for Concomitant Isolation of Intimal and Adventitial Endothelial Cells from the Human Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Anne; Veillat, Véronique; Loriot, Sandrine; Spuul, Pirjo; Madonna, Francesco; Roques, Xavier; Génot, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortic diseases are diverse and involve a multiplicity of biological systems in the vascular wall. Aortic dissection, which is usually preceded by aortic aneurysm, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Although the endothelium is now known to play an important role in vascular diseases, its contribution to aneurysmal aortic lesions remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to define a reliable methodology for the isolation of aortic intimal and adventitial endothelial cells in order to throw light on issues relevant to endothelial cell biology in aneurysmal diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We set up protocols to isolate endothelial cells from both the intima and the adventitia of human aneurysmal aortic vessel segments. Throughout the procedure, analysis of cell morphology and endothelial markers allowed us to select an endothelial fraction which after two rounds of expansion yielded a population of >90% pure endothelial cells. These cells have the features and functionalities of freshly isolated cells and can be used for biochemical studies. The technique was successfully used for aortic vessel segments of 20 patients and 3 healthy donors. Conclusions/Significance This simple and highly reproducible method allows the simultaneous preparation of reasonably pure primary cultures of intimal and adventitial human endothelial cells, thus providing a reliable source for investigating their biology and involvement in both thoracic aneurysms and other aortic diseases. PMID:26599408

  17. Venous Adventitial Cystic Disease: A Review of 45 Cases Treated Since 1963

    PubMed Central

    Bascone, Corey; Szuchmacher, Mauricio; Cicchillo, Michael; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To review and identify the most accurate ways of diagnosing and treating adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of the venous system. Methods. Cases of ACD were collected through three popular medical databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, OVID, and MEDLINE. After reviewing the literature, the sites of occurrence of 323 cases of adventitial cystic disease were documented, and all cases of arterial ACD were excluded. The clinical features, treatment, and subsequent course of 45 cases of venous ACD are included in this paper. Results. After reviewing all 45 cases of venous ACD , we have confirmed that the most common vessel affected is the common femoral vein, which reproduces the most common symptom of venous ACD: asymmetric lower extremity swelling worsening over time. Conclusion. Venous ACD most commonly affects the common femoral vein. When unilateral leg swelling occurs with or without a noticeable mass, ACD should be considered. It is best confirmed with CT venography and the treatment of choice is transluminal cyst evacuation and excision. PMID:27885342

  18. Developmental anatomy and branching of roots of four Zeylanidium species (podostemaceae), with implications for evolution of foliose roots.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Y; Tsukamoto, I; Imaichi, R; Kato, M

    2002-12-01

    Podostemaceae have markedly specialized and diverse roots that are adapted to extreme habitats, such as seasonally submerged or exposed rocks in waterfalls and rapids. This paper describes the developmental anatomy of roots of four species of Zeylanidium, with emphasis on the unusual association between root branching and root-borne adventitious shoots. In Z. subulatum and Z. lichenoides with subcylindrical or ribbon-like roots, the apical meristem distal (exterior) to a shoot that is initiated within the meristem area reduces and loses meristematic activity. This results in a splitting into two meristems that separate the parental root and lateral root (anisotomous dichotomy). In Z. olivaceum with lobed foliose roots, shoots are initiated in the innermost zone of the marginal meristem, and similar, but delayed, meristem reduction usually occurs, producing a parenchyma exterior to shoots located between root lobes. In some extreme cases, due to meristem recovery, root lobing does not occur, so the margin is entire. In Z. maheshwarii with foliose roots, shoots are initiated proximal to the marginal meristem and there is no shoot-root lobe association. Results suggest that during evolution from subcylindrical or ribbon-like roots to foliose roots, reduction of meristem exterior to a shoot was delayed and then arrested as a result of inward shifting of the sites of shoot initiation. The evolutionary reappearance of a protective tissue or root cap in Z. olivaceum and Z. maheshwarii in the Zeylanidium clade is implied, taking into account the reported molecular phylogeny and root-cap development in Hydrobryum. Copyright 2002 Annals of Botany Company

  19. Chrysanthemum transcription factor CmLBD1 direct lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lu; Zheng, Chen; Liu, Ruixia; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Zhaohe; Xin, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Zhang, Fei; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) genes are important regulators of growth and development. Here, a chrysanthemum class I LBD transcription factor gene, designated CmLBD1, was isolated and its function verified. CmLBD1 was transcribed in both the root and stem, but not in the leaf. The gene responded to auxin and was shown to participate in the process of adventitious root primordium formation. Its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis thaliana increased the number of lateral roots formed. When provided with exogenous auxin, lateral root emergence was promoted. CmLBD1 expression also favored callus formation from A. thaliana root explants in the absence of exogenously supplied phytohormones. In planta, CmLBD1 probably acts as a positive regulator of the response to auxin fluctuations and connects auxin signaling with lateral root formation. PMID:26819087

  20. Elicitation Approaches for Withanolide Production in Hairy Root Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a versatile medicinal plant extensively utilized for production of phytochemical drug preparations. The roots and whole plants are traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicines, as well as in homeopathy. Several studies provide evidence for an array of pharmaceutical properties due to the presence of steroidal lactones named "withanolides." A number of research groups have focused their attention on the effects of biotic and abiotic elicitors on withanolide production using cultures of adventitious roots, cell suspensions, shoot suspensions, and hairy roots in large-scale bioreactor for producing withanolides. This chapter explains the detailed procedures for induction and establishment of hairy roots from leaf explants of W. somnifera, proliferation and multiplication of hairy root cultures, estimation of withanolide productivity upon elicitation with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, and quantification of major withanolides by HPLC. The protocol herein described could be implemented for large-scale cultivation of hairy root biomass to improve withanolide production.

  1. [Effects of phytohormones on plant regeneration and production of flavonoids in transgenic Saussurea involucrata hairy roots].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xianli; Jiang, Shuguang; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Fengxia; Zhao, Dexiu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the plant regeneration and production of flavonoids in three high-yield flavonoids transgenic Saussurea involucrata hairy roots C17, C27 and C46 by quantification of two phytohormones GA3 and IAA. The results showed that GA3 concentration at more than 1.0 mg/L could induce adventitious shoots in the hairy root lines. The highest shoot regeneration rate, about 82%, was obtained when the hairy roots C17 were cultured with 2.0 mg/L GA3. The results on HPLC and UV spectrophotometry showed that exogenous application of both GA3 and IAA increased the content of flavonoids in the hairy roots. The contents of flavonoids and apigenin in the hormone-treated hairy roots and regenerates were higher comparing with those in the untreated hairy roots and the regenerates. However, the content of flavonoids was not related to tissue weight, and was negatively related to the regeneration efficiency.

  2. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  3. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  4. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions.

    PubMed

    Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-04-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  5. Adventitial adipogenic degeneration is an unidentified contributor to aortic wall weakening in the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Stefan A; Gäbel, Gabor; Kokje, Vivianne B C; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2017-09-11

    The processes driving human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression are not fully understood. Although antiinflammatory and proteolytic strategies effectively quench aneurysm progression in preclinical models, so far all clinical interventions failed. These observations hint at an incomplete understanding of the processes involved in AAA progression and rupture. Interestingly, strong clinical and molecular associations exist between popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) and AAAs; however, PAAs have an extremely low propensity to rupture. We thus reasoned that differences between these aneurysms may provide clues toward (auxiliary) processes involved in AAA-related wall debilitation. A better understanding of the pathophysiologic processes driving AAA growth can contribute to pharmaceutical treatments in the future. Aneurysmal wall samples were collected during open elective and emergency repair. Control perirenal aorta was obtained during kidney transplantation, and reference popliteal tissue obtained from the anatomy department. This study incorporates various techniques including (immuno)histochemistry, Western Blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray, and cell culture. Histologic evaluation of AAAs, PAAs, and control aorta shows extensive medial (PAA) and transmural fibrosis (AAA), and reveals abundant adventitial adipocytes aggregates as an exclusive phenomenon of AAAs (P < .001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and microarray analysis showed enrichment of adipogenic mediators (C/EBP family P = .027; KLF5 P < .000; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, P = .032) in AAA tissue. In vitro differentiation tests indicated a sharply increased adipogenic potential of AAA adventitial mesenchymal cells (P < .0001). Observed enrichment of adipocyte-related genes and pathways in ruptured AAA (P < .0003) supports an association between the extent of fatty degeneration and rupture. This

  6. Evidence to support that adventitial cysts, analogous to intraneural ganglion cysts, are also joint-connected.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Desy, Nicholas M; Agarwal, Gautum; Pawlina, Wojciech; Kalra, Manju; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2013-03-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare condition in which cyst is found within a vessel, typically producing symptoms of vascular compromise. Most commonly located in the popliteal artery near the knee, it has been reported in arteries and veins throughout the body. Its pathogenesis has been poorly understood and various surgical approaches have been recommended. We extrapolated some recent information about a similar condition, intraneural ganglion cyst affecting the deep fibular (peroneal) nerve, to the prototype, CAD of the popliteal artery. In intraneural ganglion cysts affecting the deep fibular nerve we have shown that an articular (neural) branch is the conduit between the superior tibiofibular joint and the main parent nerve for which epineurial dissection of joint fluid can occur. We hypothesized that the same principles would apply to CAD and that an articular (vascular) branch would be the conduit from the knee joint leading to dissection to the main parent vessel. We reviewed five patients with CAD of the popliteal artery in whom MRIs were available: two treated by the primary author well familiar with the proposed articular theory, and three treated by others at our institution, less familiar with it. We then reviewed the literature critically to assess for additional evidence to support our articular (synovial) theory and an anatomic explanation. In the two cases treated by the primary author a joint connection was identified on high resolution MRI prospectively and intraoperatively through the middle genicular artery (MGA); postoperatively in these cases there was no recurrence. In the other three cases, a joint connection was not identified on imaging or at operation. Reinterpretation of these cases revealed a joint connection through the MGA in the one patient who had preoperative imaging and subclinical persistence/recurrence in the two patients who underwent postoperative MRIs done for other reasons. Our review of the literature and imaging

  7. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    PubMed Central

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  8. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution.

    PubMed

    Seago, James L; Fernando, Danilo D

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the

  9. Summary of cases of adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, D P; Burnham, S J; Goodreau, J J; Bergan, J J

    1979-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery is explored. The results of correspondence with authors reporting this condition are elaborated upon. This has provided an opportunity to discuss the history of the condition, the findings in 115 cases which have come to the attention of the Correspondence Office dealing with this entity, and the results of treatment. A discussion of the suspected etiology of the condition is presented. The condition remains one of unknown etiology which can be treated by cyst evacuation or aspiration when the popliteal artery is patent and which is best treated by arterial reconstruction when the artery is occluded. The results of such treatment are good but are dependent upon technical excellence of the operative procedure. PMID:426549

  10. Giant kelp vegetative propagation: Adventitious holdfast elements rejuvenate senescent individuals of the Macrocystis pyrifera "integrifolia" ecomorph.

    PubMed

    Murúa, Pedro; Müller, Dieter G; Patiño, David J; Westermeier, Renato

    2016-11-22

    Recent findings on holdfast development in the giant kelp highlighted its key importance for Macrocystis vegetative propagation. We report here for the first time the development of adventitious holdfasts from Macrocystis stipes. Swellings emerge spontaneously from different areas of the stipes, especially in senescent or creeping individuals. After being manually fastened to solid substrata, these swellings elongated into haptera, which became strongly attached after 1 month. Within 4 months, new thalli increased in size and vitality, and developed reproductive fronds. Our results suggest the usage of these structures for auxiliary attachment techniques. These could act as a backup, when primary holdfasts are weak, and thus improve the survival rate of the giant kelp in natural beds.

  11. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  12. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  13. An adventitious interaction of filamin A with RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mia; He, Qianjing; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Hartwig, John H.; Stossel, Thomas P.; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2016-01-15

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona–fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA. - Highlights: • RhoGDI2 is identified as a potential filamin A (FLNA)-binding partner. • Phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) interacts with FLNA. • RhoGDI2 phosphorylated (Tyr153) by src kinase does not interact with FLNA. • Mutation of Tyr-153 to Glu of RhoGDI2 does not mimic phosphorylation. • RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) provokes an adventitious interaction with FLNA.

  14. Developmental Anatomy and Branching of Roots of Four Zeylanidium Species (Podostemaceae), with Implications for Evolution of Foliose Roots

    PubMed Central

    HIYAMA, Y.; TSUKAMOTO, I.; IMAICHI, R.; KATO, M.

    2002-01-01

    Podostemaceae have markedly specialized and diverse roots that are adapted to extreme habitats, such as seasonally submerged or exposed rocks in waterfalls and rapids. This paper describes the developmental anatomy of roots of four species of Zeylanidium, with emphasis on the unusual association between root branching and root‐borne adventitious shoots. In Z. subulatum and Z. lichenoides with subcylindrical or ribbon‐like roots, the apical meristem distal (exterior) to a shoot that is initiated within the meristem area reduces and loses meristematic activity. This results in a splitting into two meristems that separate the parental root and lateral root (anisotomous dichotomy). In Z. olivaceum with lobed foliose roots, shoots are initiated in the innermost zone of the marginal meristem, and similar, but delayed, meristem reduction usually occurs, producing a parenchyma exterior to shoots located between root lobes. In some extreme cases, due to meristem recovery, root lobing does not occur, so the margin is entire. In Z. maheshwarii with foliose roots, shoots are initiated proximal to the marginal meristem and there is no shoot–root lobe association. Results suggest that during evolution from subcylindrical or ribbon‐like roots to foliose roots, reduction of meristem exterior to a shoot was delayed and then arrested as a result of inward shifting of the sites of shoot initiation. The evolutionary reappearance of a protective tissue or root cap in Z. olivaceum and Z. maheshwarii in the Zeylanidium clade is implied, taking into account the reported molecular phylogeny and root‐cap development in Hydrobryum. PMID:12451029

  15. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  16. Copper compounds influence in vitro rooting of birch microcuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, M.A.; Lineberger, R.D.; Struve, D.K. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of woody plant medium (WPM) with various formulations and concentrations of Cu[sup 2+] on in vitro rooting and subsequent shoot growth of microcuttings of a Betula pubescens x papyrifera clone were monitored for 28 days. Adventitious root initiation and elongation were reduced in magnitude and slowed in development by moderate to high Cu concentrations, with near zero root regeneration occurring at 157 [mu]M Cu. Shoot growth was also inhibited by 157 [mu]m Cu as cupric sulfate. Copper-toxicity symptoms were significantly increased by moderate to high levels of Cu as cuptric sulfate. Microcuttings responded differently to Cu[sup 2+] applied as cupric chloride. Root imitation, root elongation, and root branching were increased by moderate concentrations of Cu as cupric chloride. Shoot growth was slightly stimulated by cuptric chloride at moderate levels. No significant increase in Cu-toxicity symptoms was observed at concentrations up to 157 [mu]M Cu as cupric chloride. Cupric acetate and cupric carbonate produced more severe Cu-toxicity symptoms than cupric sulfate. Root regeneration and shoot growth were inhibited and increased Cu-toxicity symptoms were apparent even with low concentrations of Cu as cupric acetate or cupric carbonate. There was little or no effect on root regeneration when the Cu[sup 2+] in cupric sulfate was replaced by different cations, i.e., magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and sulfuric acid.

  17. Cortical and cap sedimentation in gravitropic Equisetum roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridge, R. W.; Sack, F. D.

    1992-01-01

    Although the rootcap is required for gravitropic sensing, various classical and contemporary data raise the question of whether additional sensing occurs away from the cap in roots. Roots of Equisetum hyemale L. (horsetail) were examined by light and electron microscopy to determine which cell components were distributed with respect to gravity both in and away from the rootcap. Adventitious roots from stem cuttings were gravitropic in a vertical orientation or if reoriented to the horizontal. Obvious amyloplast sedimentation was found in vertical and in reoriented roots 1) in cells in the center of the rootcap and 2) in young, elongating cortical cells located in two to three layers outside the endodermis. These cortical amyloplasts were smaller than cap amyloplasts and, unlike central cap amyloplasts, were occasionally found in the top of the cell. The nucleus was also sedimented on top of the amyloplasts in both cell types, both in vertical and in reoriented roots. Sedimentation of both organelles ceased as cortical cells elongated further or as cap cells became peripheral in location. In both cell types with sedimentation, endoplasmic reticulum was located in the cell periphery, but showed no obvious enrichment near the lower part of the cell in vertical roots. This is the first modern report of sedimentation away from the cap in roots, and it provides structural evidence that gravitropic sensing may not be confined to the cap in all roots.

  18. Foliar application of glyphosate affects molecular mechanisms in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and alters their vegetative growth patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term control of leafy spurge with glyphosate requires multiple applications because the plant reproduces vegetatively from abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs). Determining the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling vegetative reproduction in leafy spurge following foliar glyphos...

  19. The effects of exogenous hormones on rooting process and the activities of key enzymes of Malus hupehensis stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangxiang; Fan, Junjun; Tan, Qianqian; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Ting; Cao, Fuliang

    2017-01-01

    Malus hupehensis is an excellent Malus rootstock species, known for its strong adverse-resistance and apomixes. In the present study, stem cuttings of M. hupehensis were treated with three types of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), or green growth regulator (GGR). The effects and mechanisms of exogenous hormone treatment and antioxidant enzyme activity on adventitious root formation were investigated. The results showed that the apparent morphology of the adventitious root had four stages, including root pre-emergence stage (S0), early stage of root formation (S1), massive root formation stage (S2), and later stage of root formation (S3). The suitable concentrations of the three exogenous hormones, IAA, NAA and GGR, were 100 mg·L-1, 300 mg·L-1, and 300 mg·L-1, respectively. They shortened the rooting time by 25-47.4% and increased the rooting percentages of cuttings by 0.9-1.3 times, compared with that in the control. The dispersion in S0 stage was 3.6 times of that in the S1 stage after exogenous hormone application. The earlier the third critical point (P3) appeared, the shorter the rooting time and the greater the rooting percentage of the cuttings. During rhizogenesis, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, and PPO) showed an A-shaped trend. However, peak values of enzyme activity appeared at different points, which were 9 d before the P3, P3, and the fourth critical point (P4), respectively. Exogenous hormone treatment reduced the time to reach the peak value by 18 days, although the peak values of the enzymatic activities did not significantly changed. Our results suggested that exogenous hormone treatment mainly acted during the root pre-emergence stage, accelerated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, reduced the rooting time, and consequently promoted root formation. The three kinds of antioxidant enzymes acted on different stages of rooting.

  20. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  1. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T.; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P. Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B.; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J. Grover; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  2. Polyamines and Root Formation in Mung Bean Hypocotyl Cuttings 1

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ra'Anan; Altman, Arie; Bachrach, Uriel

    1982-01-01

    The effect of several polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), their precursors (l-arginine and l-ornithine), and some analogs and metabolic inhibitors (l-canavanine, l-canaline, and methylglyoxal-bis [guanylhydrazone]) on root formation have been studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) hypocotyl cuttings. Exogenously applied polyamines did not promote adventitious root formation. Rooting was inhibited by l-canavanine and l-canaline, and this inhibition was reversed by the corresponding amino acids l-arginine and l-ornithine. Methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and polyamine biosynthesis, was also found to inhibit root formation. All compounds at concentrations of >10−4 molarity completely inhibited natural root formation, whereas at <10−5 molarity only the indole-butyric acid-induced root formation was inhibited. Indole-butyric acid-induced root formation was accompanied by a considerable increase in polyamine levels, more than 2-fold of the control. Whereas senescing (unrooted) cuttings evinced a rapid decline in polyamine content during 48 hours, indole-butyric acid treatment resulted in elevated levels of putrescine and increased putrescine to spermidine ratio. The changes in polyamines were dependent on indole-butyric acid concentration and were organ specific. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16662586

  3. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mee, Edward T; Preston, Mark D; Minor, Philip D; Schepelmann, Silke

    2016-04-12

    Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4-14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation at Neutral and High pH by Adventitious Nickel at Nanomolar Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roger, Isolda; Symes, Mark D

    2015-11-04

    Electrolytic water oxidation using earth-abundant elements is a key challenge in the quest to develop cheap, large surface area arrays for solar-to-hydrogen conversion. There have been numerous studies in this area in recent years, but there remains an imperative to demonstrate that the current densities reported are indeed due to the species under consideration and not due to the presence of adventitious (yet possibly highly active) contaminants at low levels. Herein, we show that adventitious nickel at concentrations as low as 17 nM can act as a water oxidation catalyst in mildly basic aqueous solutions, achieving stable (tens of hours) current densities of 1 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials as low as 540 mV at pH 9.2 and 400 mV at pH 13. This nickel was not added to the electrolysis baths deliberately, but it was found to be present in the electrolytes as an impurity by ICP-MS. The presence of nickel on anodes from extended-time bulk electrolysis experiments was confirmed by XPS. In showing that such low levels of nickel can perform water oxidation at overpotentials comparable to many recently reported water oxidation catalysts, this work serves to raise the burden of proof required of new materials in this field: contamination by adventitious metal ions at trace loadings must be excluded as a possible cause of any observed water oxidation activity.

  5. Effect of La(III) on the growth and aging of root of loquat plantlet in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fashui, Hong; Weiping, Song; Zhigang, Wan; Mingliang, Yu; Jia, Yu; Jiajia, Liu; Ye, Sheng; Qunhua, Xi

    2005-05-01

    The effect of lanthanum on the adventitious root growth, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), O2* production rate, MDA content, and the relative plasma membrane permeability in roots of loquat test-tube plantlet were studied. Addition of lanthanum chloride (0.5 micromol/L) to the culture medium significantly increased the length of roots, increased the dry weight, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, decreased O2* production rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and the relative plasma membrane permeability. The relatively stable membrane structure of cell could defer the root aging of the plantlet in vitro. There are important theory meaning and practical value in applying LaCl3 in the rooting medium to raise the rate of rooting and transplant for wood plant.

  6. Aerenchyma Formation and Recovery from Hypoxia of the Flooded Root System of Nodulated Soybean

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, A. L.; GUERREIRO, S. M. C.; SODEK, L.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Flooding results in hypoxia of the root system to which N2 fixation of nodulated roots can be especially sensitive. Morphological adaptions, such as aerenchyma formation, can facilitate the diffusion of oxygen to the hypoxic tissues. Using soybean, the aim of the study was to characterize the morphological response of the nodulated root system to flooding and obtain evidence for the recovery of N metabolism. • Methods Sections from submerged tissues were observed by light microscopy, while sap bleeding from the xylem was analysed for nitrogenous components. • Key Results Flooding resulted in the rapid formation of adventitious roots and aerenchyma between the stem (immediately above the water line), roots and nodules. In the submerged stem, taproot, lateral roots and adventitious roots, lysigenous aerenchyma arose initially in the cortex and was gradually substituted by secondary aerenchyma arising from cells derived from the pericycle. Nodules developed aerenchyma from cells originating in the phellogen but nodules situated at depths greater than 7–8 cm showed little or no aerenchyma formation. As a result of aerenchyma formation, porosity of the taproot increased substantially between the 4th and 7th days of flooding, coinciding with the recovery of certain nitrogenous products of N metabolism of roots and nodules transported in the xylem. Thus, on the first day of flooding there was a sharp decline in xylem ureides and glutamine (products of N2 fixation), together with a sharp rise in alanine (product of anaerobic metabolism). Between days 7 and 10, recovery of ureides and glutamine to near initial levels was recorded while recovery of alanine was partial. • Conclusions N metabolism of the nodulated soybean root system can recover at least partially during a prolonged period of flooding, a process associated with aerenchyma formation. PMID:16199486

  7. Potato root system development and factors that determine its architecture.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mukul; Fogelman, Edna; Belausov, Eduard; Ginzberg, Idit

    2016-10-20

    The potato root system is often characterized as shallow and inefficient, with poor ability to extract water and minerals from the soil. Potato root system architecture (RSA) refers to its 3-dimensional structure as determined by adventitious root (AR) growth and branching through lateral roots (LR). Understanding how the root system develops holds potential to increase plant yield and optimize agricultural land use. Root system development was monitored in greenhouse-grown potato while a root-on-a-plate assay was developed to explore factors that affect AR and LR development. Expression study of LR-related genes was conducted. Transgenic plants carrying DR5:GFP and CycB1:GUS reporter genes were used to monitor auxin signaling and cell division during root primordia formation, respectively. Maximum root development occurred mainly during the 6-week post seed-tuber planting and slowed during the onset of tuberization. AR and LR development was coordinated - a positive correlation was found between the length of AR and LR and between LR length and number. The expression of LR-related genes was higher in LR than in AR. High nitrate levels reduced LR number and length, however ablation of root-cap by high temperature (33°C) or cutting resulted with enhanced formation of LR. Growth conditions affect AR and LR development in potato, determining the final architecture of its root system. The overall results indicate that LR formation in potato follows similar pattern as in model plants, facilitating study and manipulation of its RSA to improve soil exploitation and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Root growth

    Treesearch

    Terrell T. Baker; William H. Conner; B. Graeme Lockaby; Marianne K. Burke; John A. Stanturf

    2000-01-01

    While vegetation dynamics of forested floodplains have received considerable attention (Megonigal and others 1997, Mitch and Gosselink 1993), the highly dynamic fine root component of these ecosystems has been primarily ignored. Characterizing fine root growth is a challenging endeavor in any system, but the difficulties are particularly evident in forested floodplains...

  9. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of miRNAs and Their Targets during Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lingyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Weixuan; Liang, Di; Yang, Hailun; Jin, Yi; Xie, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa. PMID:24718555

  11. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Belart, Montserrat; Vilar, Ana; Martín, Marisa; Craver, Lourdes; Betriu, Àngels; Mauricio, Dídac; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Fernández, Elvira; Borràs, Mercè

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV) surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1) evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2) explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D) and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT) were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  12. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Belart, Montserrat; Vilar, Ana; Martín, Marisa; Craver, Lourdes; Betriu, Àngels; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Fernández, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV) surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1) evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2) explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D) and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT) were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients. PMID:28133420

  13. Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in varicella zoster virus-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Rempel, April; Wyborny, Ann; Stenmark, Kurt; Gilden, Don

    2015-11-15

    Upon reactivation, varicella zoster virus (VZV) spreads transaxonally, infects cerebral arteries and causes ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, as well as aneurysms. The mechanism(s) of VZV-induced aneurysm formation is unknown. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which digest extracellular structural proteins in the artery wall, play a role in cerebral and aortic artery aneurysm formation and rupture. Here, we examined the effect of VZV infection on expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 in primary human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (BRAFS). At 6 days post-infection, VZV- and mock-infected BRAFs were analyzed for mRNA levels of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 by RT-PCR and for corresponding total intra- and extracellular protein levels by multiplex ELISA. The activity of MMP-1 was also measured in a substrate cleavage assay. Compared to mock-infected BRAFs, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were all increased in VZV-infected BRAFs, whereas MMP-2 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were decreased. MMP-1 from the conditioned supernatant of VZV-infected BRAFs showed increased cleavage activity on an MMP-1-specific substrate compared to mock-infected BRAFs. Differential regulation of MMPs in VZV-infected BRAFs may contribute to aneurysm formation in VZV vasculopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of polar auxin transport on adventitious branches formation in Gracilaria lichenoides in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlei; Li, Huanqin; Lin, Xiangzhi; Zhang, Fang; Fang, Baishan; Wang, Zhaokai

    2016-11-01

    Seaweed tissue culture (STC) is an important micropropagation tool that has been applied for strain improvement, micropropagation and genetic engineering. Because the mechanisms associated with STC are poorly understood, its application to these organisms lags far behind that of tissue culture propagation of higher plants. Auxin, calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) fluxes all play key roles during plant growth and development. In this study, we therefore measured indole-3-acetic acid, Ca(2+) and H2 O2 fluxes of Gracilaria lichenoides explants during adventitious branches (ABs) formation for the first time using noninvasive micro-test technology. We confirmed that polar auxin transport (PAT) also occurs in the marine red alga G. lichenoides. We additionally found that N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid may suppress auxin efflux via ABCB1 transporters and then inhibit ABs formation from the apical region of G. lichenoides segments. The involvement of Ca(2+) and H2 O2 fluxes in PAT-mediated AB formation in G. lichenoides was also investigated. We propose that complex feedback among Ca(2+) , H2 O2 and auxin signaling and response systems may occur during ABs polar formation in G. lichenoides explants, similar to that in higher plants. Our results provide innovative insights that should aid future elucidation of mechanisms operative during STC.

  15. Cryopreservation of adventitious shoot tips of Paraisometrum mileense by droplet vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Yuan, Bin; Wang, Dandan; Lin, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Gesneriaceae family contains numerous species endemic to China, and many of them are listed as endangered species. There is a need for a simple and efficient method for long-term conservation of these species. The study aimed to establish an efficient procedure for cryopreserving Paraisometrum mileense, a critically endangered species endemic to Yunnan, China. Effects of sucrose concentration of preculture solution, duration of sucrose preculture, duration of plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) treatment, and cold acclimation on regeneration of cryopreserved adventitious shoot tips (ASTs) were assessed. Among different sucrose preculture regimes tested, preculture with 0.3M sucrose for 24h resulted in best regeneration of cryopreserved ASTs. PVS2 treatment also affected regeneration considerably with the maximum survival of ASTs after incubation in PVS2 for 90 min at 0 degrees C. With the optimised parameters, the level of shoot regeneration from cryopreserved ASTs reached 86%. No morphological abnormalities were observed during one year's growth of the plantlets developing from cryopreserved ASTs. Procedure established in this research is a promising technique for the cryopreservation of ASTs of this species.

  16. Percutaneous Image-Guided Aspiration and Sclerosis of Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Femoral Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason M.; Kiankhooy, Armin; Bertges, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher S.

    2009-07-15

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD), also known as cystic mucoid or myxomatous degeneration, is a rare vascular disease mainly seen in arteries. Seventeen cases have been reported in the world literature. We report the first known case of ACD successfully treated with percutaneous image-guided ethanol sclerosis. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass adherent to the wall of the common femoral vein. An ultrasound examination revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the leg, secondary to extrinsic compression of the common femoral vein. Three years prior to our procedure, the cyst was aspirated, which partially relieved the patient's symptoms. Over the following 3 years the patient's symptoms worsened and a 10-cm discrepancy in thigh size developed, in addition to the deep venous thrombosis associated with lower-extremity edema. Using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopic control, the cyst was drained and then sclerosed with absolute ethanol. The patient's symptoms and leg swelling resolved completely within several weeks. Follow-up physical examination and duplex ultrasound 6 months following sclerosis demonstrated resolution of the symptoms and elimination of the extrinsic compression effect of the ACD on the common femoral vein.

  17. Sampling and modeling for the quantification of adventitious genetically modified presence in maize.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Theodore Richard; Dwyer, Mark; McMillan, Jillian; Henry, Christine; Langrell, Stephen

    2008-05-14

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops is an important economic and political issue in the European Union. We examined the GM content in non-GM maize crops in Spain in 2005. Both the standing crop and the harvest were tested, and the %GM DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared the level of GM as a function of distance from known GM source fields in a 1.2 km2 landscape. The distribution of GM was compared to predictions from previous studies, and good agreement was found. Control and monitoring of adventitious GM presence in non-GM crops can only be achieved by fit-for-purpose sampling and testing schemes. We used a GM dispersal function to simulate non-GM crops in the studied zone and tested the accuracy of five different sampling schemes. Random sampling was found to be the most accurate and least susceptible to bias by GM spatial structure or gradients. Simulations showed that to achieve greater than 95% confidence in a GM labeling decision of a harvest (when treated as a single marketed lot), 34 samples would be needed when the harvest was outside 50% of the GM threshold value. The number of samples required increased rapidly as the harvest approached the GM threshold, implying that accurate labeling when the harvest is within +/-17% of the threshold may not be possible with high confidence.

  18. Distribution of myofibroblast and tenascin-C in cystic adventitial disease: comparison with ganglion.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Nishida, Naoki; Kawakami, Rika; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Hirota, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare peripheral artery disorder which shows the development of gelatinous cysts in the adventitia. Although several theories for the pathogenesis of CAD have been postulated, the etiology of CAD remains unclear. Histological examination of three CAD cases revealed that these cyst walls were composed of fibrous tissue and lacked both epithelial and endothelial lining. The surfaces of these cysts were partially covered with spindle-shaped cells, similar to the interstitial cells within the cyst wall. A pool of mucinous material in the adventitia was evident. Distribution of vimentin-positive spindle-shaped cells and scattered CD68-positive oval-shaped cells in the cyst wall was revealed by immunohistochemistry. A part of vimentin-positive spindle-shaped cells demonstrated to be positive for α-smooth muscle actin, indicating the presence of myofibroblasts in the cyst wall. A focal tenascin-C-positive area was observed in the cyst wall of our CAD cases. Presence of two different cell types, proliferation of myofibroblasts and expression of tenascin-C were consistent with those of cyst walls of 20 surgically resected ganglions. These results suggest that CAD may arise as capsular synovial structures, similar to ganglion cysts.

  19. Excessive Adventitial Remodeling Leads to Early Aortic Maladaptation in Angiotensin-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bersi, Mathew R; Bellini, Chiara; Wu, Jing; Montaniel, Kim R C; Harrison, David G; Humphrey, Jay D

    2016-05-01

    The primary function of central arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use it to sustain blood flow during diastole. Arterial stiffening compromises this normal mechanical function and adversely affects end organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys. Using an angiotensin II infusion model of hypertension in wild-type mice, we show that the thoracic aorta exhibits a dramatic loss of energy storage within 2 weeks that persists for at least 4 weeks. This diminished mechanical functionality results from increased structural stiffening as a result of an excessive accumulation of adventitial collagen, not a change in the intrinsic stiffness of the wall. A detailed analysis of the transmural biaxial wall stress suggests that the exuberant production of collagen results more from an inflammatory response than from a mechano-adaptation, hence reinforcing the need to control inflammation, not just blood pressure. Although most clinical assessments of arterial stiffening focus on intimal-medial thickening, these results suggest a need to measure and control the highly active and important adventitia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. In vitro Cultured Primary Roots Derived from Stem Segments of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Can Behave Like Storage Organs

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Ricardo D.; Faloci, Mirta M.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Mroginski, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Methods Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Key Results Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0·54 μm 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0·44 μm 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly

  1. Roots and Root Function: Introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of current issues related to water management, ecohydrology, and climate change are giving impetus to new research aimed at understanding roots and their functioning. Current areas of research include: use of advanced imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging to observe roots...

  2. Novel approach to continuous adventitious respiratory sound analysis for the assessment of bronchodilator response

    PubMed Central

    Fiz, José Antonio; Martínez-Rivera, Carlos; Torrents, Aurora; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Jané, Raimon

    2017-01-01

    Background A thorough analysis of continuous adventitious sounds (CAS) can provide distinct and complementary information about bronchodilator response (BDR), beyond that provided by spirometry. Nevertheless, previous approaches to CAS analysis were limited by certain methodology issues. The aim of this study is to propose a new integrated approach to CAS analysis that contributes to improving the assessment of BDR in clinical practice for asthma patients. Methods Respiratory sounds and flow were recorded in 25 subjects, including 7 asthma patients with positive BDR (BDR+), assessed by spirometry, 13 asthma patients with negative BDR (BDR-), and 5 controls. A total of 5149 acoustic components were characterized using the Hilbert spectrum, and used to train and validate a support vector machine classifier, which distinguished acoustic components corresponding to CAS from those corresponding to other sounds. Once the method was validated, BDR was assessed in all participants by CAS analysis, and compared to BDR assessed by spirometry. Results BDR+ patients had a homogenous high change in the number of CAS after bronchodilation, which agreed with the positive BDR by spirometry, indicating high reversibility of airway obstruction. Nevertheless, we also found an appreciable change in the number of CAS in many BDR- patients, revealing alterations in airway obstruction that were not detected by spirometry. We propose a categorization for the change in the number of CAS, which allowed us to stratify BDR- patients into three consistent groups. From the 13 BDR- patients, 6 had a high response, similar to BDR+ patients, 4 had a noteworthy medium response, and 1 had a low response. Conclusions In this study, a new non-invasive and integrated approach to CAS analysis is proposed as a high-sensitive tool for assessing BDR in terms of acoustic parameters which, together with spirometry parameters, contribute to improving the stratification of BDR levels in patients with

  3. SIRT1 Regulates the Inflammatory Response of Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts through Autophagy and Related Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Rong; Li, Ting-Ting; Jing, Ting; Li, Yan-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Feng; He, Yan-Hao; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Ji-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for cellular survival, differentiation, and homeostasis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, plays a pivotal role in modulation of autophagy. Recent studies found that autophagy was involved in the regulation of inflammatory response. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of SIRT1 on autophagy and inflammation, and whether autophagy can regulate the inflammatory response in vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAFs). Cell autophagy was evaluated by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of protein and mRNA were determined by Western blot analysis and real time-PCR. The production of cytokine was detected by ELISA. TNF-α induced autophagy and increased SIRT1 expression in VAFs. SIRT1 activator resveratrol enhanced TNF-α-induced VAF autophagy. In contrast, SIRT1 knockdown attenuated VAF autophagy. Both the Akt inhibitor MK2206 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin further increased TNF-α-induced VAF autophagy. Furthermore, SIRT1 knockdown increased Akt phosphorylation and inhibited the autophagy in VAFs. However, MK2206 attenuated the effect of SIRT1 knockdown on VAF autophagy. In addition, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that there is a relationship between cell autophagy and inflammation. We found that SIRT1 knockdown increased the expression of NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-6 and promoted the production of IL-1β in VAFs. Further study showed that autophagy activation decreased the expression of NLRP3 and IL-6 and inhibited the production of IL-1β, whereas autophagy inhibition increased the inflammatory response of VAFs. More importantly, our study showed that autophagy was involved in the degradation of NLRP3 through the autophagy-lysosome pathway. SIRT1 not only regulates VAF autophagy through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway but also suppresses the inflammatory response of VAFs through autophagy. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-05-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology.

  5. Galectin-3 Gene Inactivation Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions and Adventitial Inflammation in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Maurice; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mayer, Eugene P.

    2008-01-01

    This study has examined the role of galectin-3 (GaL3), a multicompartmented N-acetyllactosamine-binding chimeric lectin, on atherogenesis in the ApoE-deficient mouse model of atherosclerosis. Pathological changes consisting of atheromatous plaques, atherosclerotic microaneurysms extending into periaortic vascular channels, and adventitial and periaortic inflammatory infiltrates were assessed in an equal number (n = 36) of apolipoprotein (Apo)E-deficient mice and ApoE-GaL3 double-knockout mice. These mice were divided into three age groups, 21 to 23 weeks, 25 to 31 weeks, and 36 to 44 weeks of age. Results of this morphological analysis have shown an age-related increase in the incidence of aorta atheromatous plaques and periaortic vascular channels in ApoE-deficient mice. By contrast ApoE/GaL3 double-knockout mice did not show an increase in pathological changes with age. The 36- to 44-week group of ApoE−/−/GaL3−/− mice had a significantly lower number of atherosclerotic lesions (P < 0.004) and fewer atheromatous plaques (P < 0.008) when compared with ApoE−/−/GaL3+/+ mice of the same age. ApoE−/−/GaL3−/− mice had a lower number of perivascular inflammatory infiltrates and mast cells than those found in ApoE−/−/GaL3+/+ mice. The reduced number of perivascular mast cells may have resulted in a low level of interleukin-4 that contributed to the reduction in the morphological parameters of atherogenesis correlated with the lack of GaL3 expression. The effect of GaL3 deficiency on atherogenesis decrease could be related to its function as a multifunctional protein implicated in macrophage chemotaxis, angiogenesis, lipid loading, and inflammation. PMID:18156214

  6. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hong, Mo-Na; Chen, Qi-Zhi; Han, Wei-Qing; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-04-29

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment relating to adventitious presence of allergens in food: a probabilistic model applied to peanut in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Loup; Heraud, Fanny; La Vieille, Sébastien; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Crepet, Amélie

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy is a public health concern, owing to the high prevalence in France and the severity of the reactions. Despite peanut-containing product avoidance diets, a risk may exist due to the adventitious presence of peanut allergens in a wide range of food products. Peanut is not mentioned in their ingredients list, but precautionary labeling is often present. A method of quantifying the risk of allergic reactions following the consumption of such products is developed, taking the example of peanut in chocolate tablets. The occurrence of adventitious peanut proteins in chocolate and the dose-response relationship are estimated with a Bayesian approach using available published data. The consumption pattern is described by the French individual consumption survey INCA2. Risk simulations are performed using second-order Monte Carlo simulations, which separately propagates variability and uncertainty of the model input variables. Peanut allergens occur in approximately 36% of the chocolates, leading to a mean exposure level of 0.2 mg of peanut proteins per eating occasion. The estimated risk of reaction averages 0.57% per eating occasion for peanut-allergic adults. The 95% values of the risk stand between 0 and 3.61%, which illustrates the risk variability. The uncertainty, represented by the 95% credible intervals, is concentrated around these risk estimates. Children have similar results. The conclusion is that adventitious peanut allergens induce a risk of reaction for a part of the French peanut-allergic population. The method developed can be generalized to assess the risk due to the consumption of every foodstuff potentially contaminated by allergens.

  8. c-Myb Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adventitial Sca1+ Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Progenitors by Transactivation of Myocardin.

    PubMed

    Shikatani, Eric A; Chandy, Mark; Besla, Rickvinder; Li, Cedric C; Momen, Abdul; El-Mounayri, Omar; Robbins, Clinton S; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are believed to dedifferentiate and proliferate in response to vessel injury. Recently, adventitial progenitor cells were implicated as a source of VSMCs involved in vessel remodeling. c-Myb is a transcription factor known to regulate VSMC proliferation in vivo and differentiation of VSMCs from mouse embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors in vitro. However, the role of c-Myb in regulating specific adult vascular progenitor cell populations was not known. Our objective was to examine the role of c-Myb in the proliferation and differentiation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells. Using mice with wild-type or hypomorphic c-myb (c-myb(h/h)), BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) uptake and flow cytometry revealed defective proliferation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells at 8, 14, and 28 days post carotid artery denudation injury in c-myb(h/h) arteries. c-myb(h/h) cKit(+)CD34(-)Flk1(-)Sca1(+)CD45(-)Lin(-) cells failed to proliferate, suggesting that c-myb regulates the activation of specific Sca1(+) progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Although expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 did not vary between wild-type and c-myb(h/h) carotid arteries, in vitro differentiation of c-myb(h/h) Sca1(+) cells manifested defective transforming growth factor-β1-induced VSMC differentiation. This is mediated by reduced transcriptional activation of myocardin because chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed c-Myb binding to the myocardin promoter only during differentiation of Sca1(+) cells, myocardin promoter mutagenesis identified 2 specific c-Myb-responsive binding sites, and adenovirus-mediated expression of myocardin rescued the phenotype of c-myb(h/h) progenitors. These data support a role for c-Myb in the regulation of VSMC progenitor cells and provide novel insight into how c-myb regulates VSMC differentiation through myocardin. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. High Spatial Resolution MRI of Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Iliofemoral Vein Communicating with the Hip Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Michael; Pantziara, Maria Ioannidis, Kleanthis

    2013-05-14

    Venous cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an extremely rare entity, and so far less than 20 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe the imaging findings of CAD of iliofemoral vein in a 51-year-old woman who presented with leg swelling with special emphasis on high spatial resolution MRI, which demonstrated communication of the cyst with the hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of high spatial resolution MRI findings in venous CAD supporting a new theory about the pathogenesis of venous CAD.

  10. Salinity-induced reduction in root surface area and changes in major root and shoot traits at the phytomer level in wheat.

    PubMed

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Matthew, Cory; Uddin, Md Jasim; Bayazid, Khandaker Nafiz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salinity stress on root growth at the phytomer level in wheat to provide novel site-specific understanding of salinity damage in roots. Seedlings of 13 wheat varieties were grown hydroponically. Plants were exposed to three concentrations of NaCl, 0 (control), 50 and 100mM, from 47 days after sowing. In a destructive harvest 12 days later we determined the number of live leaves, adventitious roots, seminal roots and newly formed roots at the youngest phytomer; length and diameter of main axes; and length and diameter of root hairs and their number per millimetre of root axis. Elongation rate of main axes and root hair density were then derived. Root surface area at each root-bearing phytomer (Pr) was mechanistically modelled. New root formation was increased by salt exposure, while number of live leaves per plant decreased. The greatest salinity effect on root axis elongation was observed at the youngest roots at Pr1 and Pr2. Both the 50mM and the 100mM levels of salinity reduced root hair length by approximately 25% and root hair density by 40% compared with the control whereas root hairs alone contributed around 93% of the estimated total root surface area of an individual tiller. Decrease in main axis length of new roots, root hair density and root hair length combined to reduce estimated root surface area by 36-66% at the higher NaCl concentration. The varietal response towards the three salinity levels was found to be trait-specific. The data highlight reduction in root surface area as a major but previously largely unrecognized component of salinity damage. Salinity resistance is trait-specific. Selection for retention of root surface area at a specific phytomer position following salt exposure might be useful in development of salinity-tolerant crop varieties. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  11. Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: A modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorrell, B.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.; Woods, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the potential for inter-specific differences in root aeration to determine wetland plant distribution in nature. We compared aeration in species that differ in the type of sediment and depth of water they colonize. Differences in root anatomy, structure and physiology were applied to aeration models that predicted the maximum possible aerobic lengths and development of anoxic zones in primary adventitious roots. Differences in anatomy and metabolism that provided higher axial fluxes of oxygen allowed deeper root growth in species that favour more reducing sediments and deeper water. Modelling identified factors that affected growth in anoxic soils through their effects on aeration. These included lateral root formation, which occurred at the expense of extension of the primary root because of the additional respiratory demand they imposed, reducing oxygen fluxes to the tip and stele, and the development of stelar anoxia. However, changes in sediment oxygen demand had little detectable effect on aeration in the primary roots due to their low wall permeability and high surface impedance, but appeared to reduce internal oxygen availability by accelerating loss from laterals. The development of pressurized convective gas flow in shoots and rhizomes was also found to be important in assisting root aeration, as it maintained higher basal oxygen concentrations at the rhizome-root junctions in species growing into deep water. (C) 2000 Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Overexpression of OsRAA1 causes pleiotropic phenotypes in transgenic rice plants, including altered leaf, flower, and root development and root response to gravity.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lei; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Ming-Li; Xu, Yun-Yuan; Tan, Ke-hui; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Chong, Kang

    2004-07-01

    There are very few root genes that have been described in rice as a monocotyledonous model plant so far. Here, the OsRAA1 (Oryza sativa Root Architecture Associated 1) gene has been characterized molecularly. OsRAA1 encodes a 12.0-kD protein that has 58% homology to the AtFPF1 (Flowering Promoting Factor 1) in Arabidopsis, which has not been reported as modulating root development yet. Data of in situ hybridization and OsRAA1::GUS transgenic plant showed that OsRAA1 expressed specifically in the apical meristem, the elongation zone of root tip, steles of the branch zone, and the young lateral root. Constitutive expression of OsRAA1 under the control of maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter resulted in phenotypes of reduced growth of primary root, increased number of adventitious roots and helix primary root, and delayed gravitropic response of roots in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa), which are similar to the phenotypes of the wild-type plant treated with auxin. With overexpression of OsRAA1, initiation and growth of adventitious root were more sensitive to treatment of auxin than those of the control plants, while their responses to 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid in both transgenic line and wild type showed similar results. OsRAA1 constitutive expression also caused longer leaves and sterile florets at the last stage of plant development. Analysis of northern blot and GUS activity staining of OsRAA1::GUS transgenic plants demonstrated that the OsRAA1 expression was induced by auxin. At the same time, overexpression of OsRAA1 also caused endogenous indole-3-acetic acid to increase. These data suggested that OsRAA1 as a new gene functions in the development of rice root systems, which are mediated by auxin. A positive feedback regulation mechanism of OsRAA1 to indole-3-acetic acid metabolism may be involved in rice root development in nature.

  13. Overexpression of OsRAA1 Causes Pleiotropic Phenotypes in Transgenic Rice Plants, including Altered Leaf, Flower, and Root Development and Root Response to Gravity1

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lei; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Ming-Li; Xu, Yun-Yuan; Tan, Ke-hui; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Chong, Kang

    2004-01-01

    There are very few root genes that have been described in rice as a monocotyledonous model plant so far. Here, the OsRAA1 (Oryza sativa Root Architecture Associated 1) gene has been characterized molecularly. OsRAA1 encodes a 12.0-kD protein that has 58% homology to the AtFPF1 (Flowering Promoting Factor 1) in Arabidopsis, which has not been reported as modulating root development yet. Data of in situ hybridization and OsRAA1∷GUS transgenic plant showed that OsRAA1 expressed specifically in the apical meristem, the elongation zone of root tip, steles of the branch zone, and the young lateral root. Constitutive expression of OsRAA1 under the control of maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter resulted in phenotypes of reduced growth of primary root, increased number of adventitious roots and helix primary root, and delayed gravitropic response of roots in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa), which are similar to the phenotypes of the wild-type plant treated with auxin. With overexpression of OsRAA1, initiation and growth of adventitious root were more sensitive to treatment of auxin than those of the control plants, while their responses to 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid in both transgenic line and wild type showed similar results. OsRAA1 constitutive expression also caused longer leaves and sterile florets at the last stage of plant development. Analysis of northern blot and GUS activity staining of OsRAA1∷GUS transgenic plants demonstrated that the OsRAA1 expression was induced by auxin. At the same time, overexpression of OsRAA1 also caused endogenous indole-3-acetic acid to increase. These data suggested that OsRAA1 as a new gene functions in the development of rice root systems, which are mediated by auxin. A positive feedback regulation mechanism of OsRAA1 to indole-3-acetic acid metabolism may be involved in rice root development in nature. PMID:15247372

  14. Infection of Cultured Thin Cell Layer Roots of Lycopersicon esculentum by Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Radin, D. N.; Eisenback, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new aseptic culture system for studying interactions between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Meloidogyne incognita is described. Epidermal thin cell layer explants from peduncles of tomato produced up to 20 adventitious roots per culture in 4-9 days on Murashige &Scoog medium plus kinetin and indole acetic acid. Rooted cultures were transferred to Gamborg's B-5 medium and inoculated with infective second-stage juveniles. Gall formation was apparent 5 days after inoculation and egg production by mature females occurred within 25 days at 25 C in the susceptible genotypes Rutgers and Red Alert. Resistant genotypes LA655, LA656, and LA1022 exhibited a characteristic hypersensitive response. This system provides large numbers of cultured root tips for studies on the molecular basis of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:19283152

  15. Infection of Cultured Thin Cell Layer Roots of Lycopersicon esculentum by Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Radin, D N; Eisenback, J D

    1991-10-01

    A new aseptic culture system for studying interactions between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Meloidogyne incognita is described. Epidermal thin cell layer explants from peduncles of tomato produced up to 20 adventitious roots per culture in 4-9 days on Murashige &Scoog medium plus kinetin and indole acetic acid. Rooted cultures were transferred to Gamborg's B-5 medium and inoculated with infective second-stage juveniles. Gall formation was apparent 5 days after inoculation and egg production by mature females occurred within 25 days at 25 C in the susceptible genotypes Rutgers and Red Alert. Resistant genotypes LA655, LA656, and LA1022 exhibited a characteristic hypersensitive response. This system provides large numbers of cultured root tips for studies on the molecular basis of the host-parasite relationship.

  16. Chronic adventitial inflammation, vasa vasorum expansion, and 5-lipoxygenase up-regulation in irradiated arteries from cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Halle, Martin; Christersdottir, Tinna; Bäck, Magnus

    2016-11-01

    Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease is an emerging problem in a steadily increasing population of survivors of cancer. However, the underlying biology is poorly described, and the late onset, which occurs several years after exposure, precludes adequate investigations in animal and cell culture models. We investigated the role of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)/leukotriene pathway in radiation-induced vascular changes. Use of paired samples of irradiated arteries and nonirradiated internal control arteries from the same patient that were harvested during surgery for cancer reconstruction ≤10 yr after radiotherapy provides a unique human model of chronic radiation-induced vascular changes. Immunohistochemical stainings and perioperative inspection revealed an adventitial inflammatory response, with vasa vasorum expansion and chronic infiltration of CD68(+) macrophages. These macrophages stained positive for the leukotriene-forming enzyme 5-LO. Messenger RNA levels of 5-LO and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 were increased in irradiated arterial segments compared with control vessels. These results point to targeting the 5-LO/leukotriene pathway as a therapeutic adjunct to prevent late adverse vascular effects of radiotherapy.-Halle, M., Christersdottir, T., Bäck, M. Chronic adventitial inflammation, vasa vasorum expansion, and 5-lipoxygenase up-regulation in irradiated arteries from cancer survivors. © The Author(s).

  17. [Effects of flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki on adventitial fibroblasts proliferation by advanced oxidation protein products in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Liu, Shangxi; Bei, Weijian; Lai, Wenyan; Hou, Fanfan; Xu, Anlong

    2004-03-01

    To observe the effects of flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki on adventitial fibroblasts proliferation by advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in vitro. NIH-3T3 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with AOPP and flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki, respectively, and observed in comparison with the control group. The ratio of cell proliferation was determined by non-radioactive MTS/PES assay. The ratio of cell proliferation was 1.789 +/- 0.299 in the control group, and 2.064 +/- 0.141, 2.149 +/- 0.218, 2.108 +/- 0.165, 2.124 +/- 0.131 and 2.087 +/- 0.125 in AOPP groups corresponding to AOPP concentrations of 100, 50, 10, 1 and 0.1 microg/ml, respectively. It showed that AOPP significantly induced the fibroblasts proliferation when the concentration was above 100 ng/ml (P < 0.05). The ratio of cell proliferation was 1.714 +/- 0.179 in flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki group corresponding to concentration of 50 microg/ml. It also showed that flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki alone had no effect on fibroblasts proliferation (P > 0.05). With AOPP stimulation, flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki significantly inhibited fibroblasts proliferation (P < 0.05). Flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki can significantly inhibit the adventitial fibroblasts proliferation stimulated by AOPP in vitro.

  18. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  19. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  20. Root (Botany)

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  1. Learning and generalization in haptic classification of 2-D raised-line drawings of facial expressions of emotion by sighted and adventitiously blind observers.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Aneta; Klatzky, Roberta L; Lederman, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Sighted blindfolded individuals can successfully classify basic facial expressions of emotion (FEEs) by manually exploring simple 2-D raised-line drawings (Lederman et al 2008, IEEE Transactions on Haptics 1 27-38). The effect of training on classification accuracy was assessed by sixty sighted blindfolded participants (experiment 1) and by three adventitiously blind participants (experiment 2). We further investigated whether the underlying learning process(es) constituted token-specific learning and/or generalization. A hybrid learning paradigm comprising pre/post and old/new test comparisons was used. For both participant groups, classification accuracy for old (ie trained) drawings markedly increased over study trials (mean improvement --76%, and 88%, respectively). Additionally, RT decreased by a mean of 30% for the sighted, and 31% for the adventitiously blind. Learning was mostly token-specific, but some generalization was also observed for both groups. The sighted classified novel drawings of all six FEEs faster with training (mean RT decrease = 20%). Accuracy also improved significantly (mean improvement = 20%), but this improvement was restricted to two FEEs (anger and sadness). Two of three adventitiously blind participants classified new drawings more accurately (mean improvement = 30%); however, RTs for this group did not reflect generalization. Based on a limited number of blind subjects, our results tentatively suggest that adventitiously blind individuals learn to haptically classify FEEs as well as, or even better than, sighted persons.

  2. Application of quality by design in the control of adventitious viruses: gaps in current processes in the prevention of virus contaminants.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Barry

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA).

  3. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere.

  4. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G.

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere. PMID:26236301

  5. [Induction of polyploid hairy roots and its plant regeneration in Pogostemon cablin].

    PubMed

    Shi, Heping; Yu, Wu; Zhang, Guopeng; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Chow, Cheuk Fai Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: In order to enhance the content of secondary metabolites patchouli alcohol in Pogostemon cablin, we induced polyploid hairy roots and their plant regeneration, and determined the content of patchouli alcohol through artificial chromosome doubling with colchicine. The highest rate of polyploidy induction was more than 40% when hairy roots were treated with 0.05% colchicine for 36 h. The obtained polyploid hairy roots formed adventitious shoots when cultured in an MS medium with 6-BA 0.2 mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L for 60 d. Compared with the control diploid plants, the polyploid hairy root-regenerated plants of P. cablin had more developed root systems, thicker stems, shorter internodes and longer, wider and thicker leaves. Observation of the chromosome number in their root tip cells reveals that the obtained polyploid regenerated plants were tetraploidy, with 128 (4n = 128) chromosomes. The leaves contained around twice as many stomatal guard cells and chloroplasts as the controls, but the stomatal density declined with increasing ploidy. The stomatal density in diploid plants was around 1.67 times of that in polyploid plants. GC-MS analysis shows that the content of patchouli alcholol in the hairy root-derived polyploid plants was about 4.25 mg/g dry weight, which was 2.3 times of that in diploid plants. The present study demonstrates that polyploidization of hairy roots can stimulate the content of patchouli alcholol in medicinal plant of P. cablin.

  6. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    SciTech Connect

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, ({sup 35}S) methionine labelling shows no {und de novo} synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root.

  7. Genetic diversity of root anatomy in wild and cultivated Manihot species.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, N N; Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Nassar, N M A

    2011-04-05

    An anatomical study of roots was conducted on two wild Manihot species, namely M. glaziovii and M. fortalezensis, and two cassava varieties, M. esculenta Crantz variety UnB 201 and M. esculenta variety UnB 122, to identify taxonomic differences in primary growth. Anatomical characters of cassava roots have been rarely investigated. Their study may help cassava breeders to identify varieties with economically important characters, such as tolerance to drought. We investigated tap and lateral adventitious roots of two specimens of each clone or species. Free-hand cross-sections of roots were drawn; these had been clarified with 20% sodium hypochlorite solution, stained with 1% safranin-alcian blue ethanolic solution, dehydrated in ethanol series and butyl acetate and mounted in synthetic resin. Anatomical differences among Manihot species and varieties were found in the epidermal and exodermal cell shape and wall thickness, content of cortical parenchyma, and number of xylem poles. Wall thickness of the epidermis and exodermis of tap root were similar in all species, while in the lateral root there were differences in cell shape and wall thickness. Epidermal cells with thick walls were found in the tap root of all species and in lateral roots of cassava varieties. This character is apparently associated with tolerance to drought and disease. The variation in the number of xylem poles of cassava varieties was larger (4-8) than in wild species (4-6), and appears to support the hybrid origin of cassava.

  8. Developmental Anatomy of the Root Cortex of the Basal Monocotyledon, Acorus calamus (Acorales, Acoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    SOUKUP, ALEŠ; SEAGO, JAMES L.; VOTRUBOVÁ, OLGA

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomical structure and development of adventitious roots were analysed in the basal monocotyledon, Acorus calamus, to determine to what extent those features are related to phylogenetic position. • Methods Root specimens were harvested and sectioned, either with a hand microtome or freehand, at varying distances from the root tip and examined under the microscope using a variety of staining techniques. • Key Results Roots of Acorus calamus possess a unique set of developmental characteristics that produce some traits similar to those of another basal angiosperm group, Nymphaeales. The root apical meristem organization seems to be intermediate between that of a closed and an open monocotyledonous root apical meristem organization. The open-type root apical meristem consists of a curved zone of cortical initials and epidermal initials overlying the vascular cylinder initials; the epidermal part of the meristem varies in its association with the cortical initials and columellar initials of the promeristem. The cortex develops an endodermis with only Casparian bands, a dimorphic exodermis with Casparian bands and suberin lamellae, and a polygonal aerenchyma by differential expansion, as also observed in the Nymphaeales and some dicotyledonous species. The stele has characteristics like those of members of the Nymphaeaceae. • Conclusions Specific anatomical and developmental attributes of Acorus roots seem to be related to the phylogenetic position of this genus. PMID:15965268

  9. Analysis of genes developmentally regulated during storage root formation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in storage root formation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we performed a simplified differential display analysis on adventitious roots at different developmental stages of the storage root. The expression patterns were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, 10 genes were identified as being developmentally regulated and were named SRF1-SRF10. The expression of SRF1, SRF2, SRF3, SRF5, SRF6, SRF7, and SRF9 increased during storage root formation, whereas the expression of SRF4, SRF8, and SRF10 decreased. For further characterization, a full-length cDNA of SRF6 was isolated from the cDNA library of the storage root. SRF6 encoded a receptor-like kinase (RLK), which was structurally similar to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) II RLK family of Arabidopsis thaliana. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was most abundantly expressed in the storage roots, although a certain amount of expression was also observed in other vegetative organs. Tissue print mRNA blot analysis of the storage root showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was localized around the primary cambium and meristems in the xylem, which consist of actively dividing cells and cause the thickening of the storage root.

  10. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Methods Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9–13, 14–18, 19–23 and 24–28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lpr). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lpr of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lpr of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Key Results Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lpr values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lpr of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lpr of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Conclusions Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative

  11. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-02-01

    As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9-13, 14-18, 19-23 and 24-28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lp(r)). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lp(r) of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lp(r) of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lp(r) values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lp(r) of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lp(r) of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative development.

  12. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  13. Incorporation of a Reporter Peptide in FPOP Compensates for Adventitious Scavengers and Permits Time-Dependent Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ben; Mackness, Brian C.; Rempel, Don. L.; Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Matthews, C. Robert; Zitzewitz, Jill A.; Gross, Michael L.

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of a reporter peptide in solutions submitted to fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) allows for the correction of adventitious scavengers and enables the normalization and comparison of time-dependent results. Reporters will also be useful in differential experiments to control for the inclusion of a radical-reactive species. This incorporation provides a simple and quick check of radical dosage and allows comparison of FPOP results from day-to-day and lab-to-lab. Use of a reporter peptide in the FPOP workflow requires no additional measurements or spectrometers while building a more quantitative FPOP platform. It requires only measurement of the extent of reporter-peptide modification in a LC/MS/MS run, which is performed by using either data-dependent scanning or an inclusion list.

  14. An adventitial IL-6/MCP1 amplification loop accelerates macrophage-mediated vascular inflammation leading to aortic dissection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tieu, Brian C.; Lee, Chang; Sun, Hong; LeJeune, Wanda; Recinos, Adrian; Ju, Xiaoxi; Spratt, Heidi; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Milewicz, Dianna; Tilton, Ronald G.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular inflammation contributes to cardiovascular diseases such as aortic aneurysm and dissection. However, the precise inflammatory pathways involved have not been clearly defined. We have shown here that subcutaneous infusion of Ang II, a vasopressor known to promote vascular inflammation, into older C57BL/6J mice induced aortic production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1. Production of these factors occurred predominantly in the tunica adventitia, along with macrophage recruitment, adventitial expansion, and development of thoracic and suprarenal aortic dissections. In contrast, a reduced incidence of dissections was observed after Ang II infusion into mice lacking either IL-6 or the MCP-1 receptor CCR2. Further analysis revealed that Ang II induced CCR2+CD14hiCD11bhiF4/80– macrophage accumulation selectively in aortic dissections and not in aortas from Il6–/– mice. Adoptive transfer of Ccr2+/+ monocytes into Ccr2–/– mice resulted in selective monocyte uptake into the ascending and suprarenal aorta in regions of enhanced ROS stress, with restoration of IL-6 secretion and increased incidence of dissection. In vitro, coculture of monocytes and aortic adventitial fibroblasts produced MCP-1– and IL-6–enriched conditioned medium that promoted differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, induced CD14 and CD11b upregulation, and induced MCP-1 and MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that leukocyte-fibroblast interactions in the aortic adventitia potentiate IL-6 production, inducing local monocyte recruitment and activation, thereby promoting MCP-1 secretion, vascular inflammation, ECM remodeling, and aortic destabilization. PMID:19920349

  15. Elk-1-mediated 15-lipoxygenase expression is required for hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular adventitial fibroblast dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, L; Wang, X; Chen, M; Liu, Y; Xing, Y; Wang, X; Gao, S; Zhu, D

    2016-12-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, the role of 15-LO in the adventitia of the pulmonary arterial wall is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 15-LO in the modulation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblast (PAF) dynamics. Rats were exposed to normoxic or hypoxic (fraction of inspired O2  = 0.12) treatments for 7 days. PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations were measured by MTT assay, cell immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The 15-LO promoter was analysed by luciferase reporter and ChIP assays. Our results showed that hypoxia induced 15-LO expression in PAFs both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, hypoxia stimulated JNK phosphorylation in PAFs. Blocking 15-LO or JNK suppressed 15-LO-induced PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. The inhibition of p27(kipl) by gene silencing attenuated 15-LO-induced PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. Furthermore, JNK inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown suppressed hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression in PAFs. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays revealed that the 15-LO promoter contains Elk-1-binding sites and also that Elk-1 increased the hypoxia-induced activity of the 15-LO promoter. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes changes in the cellular dynamics of PAFs by inducing 15-LO expression, which leads to vascular adventitial remodelling. The modulation of p27(kipl) expression by 15-LO enhances PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. Furthermore, the JNK-dependent increase in Elk-1 signalling is required for hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression in PAFs. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The interaction of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 with macrophages promotes vascular adventitial remodeling in transverse aortic constriction rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Hui; Ruan, Chengchao; Zhong, Jiuchang; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang; Niu, Wenquan; Guo, Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a novel channel kinase, has been recently identified in the vasculature. However, its regulation and function in vascular diseases remain poorly understood. To address this lack of knowledge, we sought to examine whether TRPM7 can mediate the vascular remodeling process induced by pressure overload in the right common carotid artery proximal to the band (RCCA-B) in male Sprague-Dawley rats with transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The contribution of TRPM7 to amplified vascular remodeling after TAC was tested using morphometric and western blot analyses. Pressure overload-induced vascular wall thickening, especially in the adventitia, was readily detected in RCCA-B. The TRPM7 level was increased with a simultaneous accumulation of macrophages in the adventitia of RCCA-B, whereas the anti-inflammatory molecule annexin-1, a TRPM7 downstream target, was decreased. After the addition of the TRPM7 inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), significant reductions in macrophage accumulation as well as the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, SM-22-α and collagen I were observed, whereas annexin-1 was rescued. Finally, in cultured vascular adventitial fibroblasts treated with macrophage-conditioned medium, there were marked increases in the expression of TRPM7 and SM-22-α with a concurrent reduction in annexin-1 expression; these effects were largely prevented by treatment with 2-APB and specific anti-TRPM7 small interfering RNA. Our findings provide the first demonstration of the potential regulatory roles of TRPM7 in the vascular inflammation, pressure overload-mediated vascular adventitial collagen accumulation and cell phenotypic transformation in TAC rats. The targeting of TRPM7 has potential therapeutic importance for vascular diseases.

  17. Adventitious Arsenate Reductase Activity of the Catalytic Domain of the Human Cdc25B and Cdc25C Phosphatases†

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Sheng, Ju; Ajees, A. Abdul; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Rosen, Barry P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of eukaryotic enzymes that function as arsenate reductases are homologues of the catalytic domain of the human Cdc25 phosphatase. For example, the Leishmania major enzyme LmACR2 is both a phosphatase and an arsenate reductase, and its structure bears similarity to the structure of the catalytic domain of human Cdc25 phosphatase. These reductases contain an active site C-X5-R signature motif, where C is the catalytic cysteine, the five X residues form a phosphate binding loop, and R is a highly conserved arginine, which is also present in human Cdc25 phosphatases. We therefore investigated the possibility that the three human Cdc25 isoforms might have adventitious arsenate reductase activity. The sequences for the catalytic domains of Cdc25A, -B, and -C were cloned individually into a prokaryotic expression vector, and their gene products were purified from a bacterial host using nickel affinity chromatography. While each of the three Cdc25 catalytic domains exhibited phosphatase activity, arsenate reductase activity was observed only with Cdc25B and -C. These two enzymes reduced inorganic arsenate but not methylated pentavalent arsenicals. Alteration of either the cysteine and arginine residues of the Cys-X5-Arg motif led to the loss of both reductase and phosphatase activities. Our observations suggest that Cdc25B and -C may adventitiously reduce arsenate to the more toxic arsenite and may also provide a framework for identifying other human protein tyrosine phosphatases containing the active site Cys-X5-Arg loop that might moonlight as arsenate reductases. PMID:20025242

  18. Automatic Differentiation of Normal and Continuous Adventitious Respiratory Sounds Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Instantaneous Frequency.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Manuel; Fiz, José Antonio; Jané, Raimon

    2016-03-01

    Differentiating normal from adventitious respiratory sounds (RS) is a major challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Particularly, continuous adventitious sounds (CAS) are of clinical interest because they reflect the severity of certain diseases. This study presents a new classifier that automatically distinguishes normal sounds from CAS. It is based on the multiscale analysis of instantaneous frequency (IF) and envelope (IE) calculated after ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). These techniques have two major advantages over previous techniques: high temporal resolution is achieved by calculating IF-IE and a priori knowledge of signal characteristics is not required for EEMD. The classifier is based on the fact that the IF dispersion of RS signals markedly decreases when CAS appear in respiratory cycles. Therefore, CAS were detected by using a moving window to calculate the dispersion of IF sequences. The study dataset contained 1494 RS segments extracted from 870 inspiratory cycles recorded from 30 patients with asthma. All cycles and their RS segments were previously classified as containing normal sounds or CAS by a highly experienced physician to obtain a gold standard classification. A support vector machine classifier was trained and tested using an iterative procedure in which the dataset was randomly divided into training (65%) and testing (35%) sets inside a loop. The SVM classifier was also tested on 4592 simulated CAS cycles. High total accuracy was obtained with both recorded (94.6% ± 0.3%) and simulated (92.8% ± 3.6%) signals. We conclude that the proposed method is promising for RS analysis and classification.

  19. Using ChromaFlo intra-vascular ultrasound (IVUS) to analyze adventitial vasa vasorum distribution: considerations and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwood, Abena; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard

    2006-03-01

    The adventitia and outer media of large blood vessels are supplied with nutrients by microscopic blood vessels called vasa vasorum. While vasa vasorum have been implicated in a number of diseases including atherosclerosis, knowledge of their functional anatomy and specific role in these diseases has been hindered due to the small size of the vasa vasorum, and difficulty in accessing them. Micro-CT and histological methods have been used in ex-vivo animal studies of the vasa vasorum, but these techniques are limited by their inability to be used for in-vivo investigation. As such, there is very little in-vivo human data available. Intra-vascular ultrasound can acquire high-resolution anatomic images of coronary vessels. ChromaFlo IVUS has been used to identify blood flow in vessel lumens and has exciting prospect for in-vivo studies of vasa vasorum functional anatomy. In this study, ChromaFlo IVUS images of the human mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were segmented to analyze the distribution of adventitial vasa vasorum proximal to intimal plaque. Previous animal studies suggest that formation of intimal plaque is accompanied by increased density of adventitial vasa vasorum. The data collected with ChromaFlo ultrasound is inconsistent with the current literature. While IVUS has the fidelity to acquire high-resolution US images of the coronary arteries, ChromaFlo lacks the necessary resolving power to differentiate the vasa vasorum. Further study of IVUS and other imaging methods on a large cohort will provide the basis for future in-vivo analysis of coronary disease.

  20. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial.

  1. Silicon enhances suberization and lignification in roots of rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Alexander T.; Nye, Thandar; Repenning, Cornelia; Stahl, Frank; Zahn, Marc; Schenk, Manfred K.

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial element silicon (Si) may affect radial oxygen loss (ROL) of rice roots depending on suberization of the exodermis and lignification of sclerenchyma. Thus, the effect of Si nutrition on the oxidation power of rice roots, suberization and lignification was examined. In addition, Si-induced alterations of the transcript levels of 265 genes related to suberin and lignin synthesis were studied by custom-made microarray and quantitative Real Time-PCR. Without Si supply, the oxidation zone of 12 cm long adventitious roots extended along the entire root length but with Si supply the oxidation zone was restricted to 5 cm behind the root tip. This pattern coincided with enhanced suberization of the exodermis and lignification of sclerenchyma by Si supply. Suberization of the exodermis started, with and without Si supply, at 4–5 cm and 8–9 cm distance from the root tip (drt), respectively. Si significantly increased transcript abundance of 12 genes, while two genes had a reduced transcript level. A gene coding for a leucine-rich repeat protein exhibited a 25-fold higher transcript level with Si nutrition. Physiological, histochemical, and molecular-biological data showing that Si has an active impact on rice root anatomy and gene transcription is presented here. PMID:21172812

  2. The effects of exogenous hormones on rooting process and the activities of key enzymes of Malus hupehensis stem cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qianqian; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Ting; Cao, Fuliang

    2017-01-01

    Malus hupehensis is an excellent Malus rootstock species, known for its strong adverse-resistance and apomixes. In the present study, stem cuttings of M. hupehensis were treated with three types of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), or green growth regulator (GGR). The effects and mechanisms of exogenous hormone treatment and antioxidant enzyme activity on adventitious root formation were investigated. The results showed that the apparent morphology of the adventitious root had four stages, including root pre-emergence stage (S0), early stage of root formation (S1), massive root formation stage (S2), and later stage of root formation (S3). The suitable concentrations of the three exogenous hormones, IAA, NAA and GGR, were 100 mg·L-1, 300 mg·L-1, and 300 mg·L-1, respectively. They shortened the rooting time by 25–47.4% and increased the rooting percentages of cuttings by 0.9–1.3 times, compared with that in the control. The dispersion in S0 stage was 3.6 times of that in the S1 stage after exogenous hormone application. The earlier the third critical point (P3) appeared, the shorter the rooting time and the greater the rooting percentage of the cuttings. During rhizogenesis, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, and PPO) showed an A-shaped trend. However, peak values of enzyme activity appeared at different points, which were 9 d before the P3, P3, and the fourth critical point (P4), respectively. Exogenous hormone treatment reduced the time to reach the peak value by 18 days, although the peak values of the enzymatic activities did not significantly changed. Our results suggested that exogenous hormone treatment mainly acted during the root pre-emergence stage, accelerated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, reduced the rooting time, and consequently promoted root formation. The three kinds of antioxidant enzymes acted on different stages of rooting. PMID:28231330

  3. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Mortley, Desmond G.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Williams, Carol S.; Davis, Ceyla F.; Williams, John W.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Petersen, Barbara V.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of ‘Whatley/Loretan’ sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in ≈45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of

  4. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Mortley, Desmond G; Bonsi, Conrad K; Hill, Walter A; Morris, Carlton E; Williams, Carol S; Davis, Ceyla F; Williams, John W; Levine, Lanfang H; Petersen, Barbara V; Wheeler, Raymond M

    2008-05-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of 'Whatley/Loretan' sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in approximately 45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the

  5. Establishment of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Hairy root culture and optimization of its culture conditions for the production of triptolide and wilforine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuanshu; Miao, Guopeng; Guo, Jia; Huo, Yanbo; Zhang, Xing; Xie, Jiahua; Feng, Juntao

    2014-06-28

    In order to solve the shortage of natural Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. plant resource for the production of the important secondary metabolites triptolide and wilforine, hairy roots were induced from its root calli by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Induced hairy roots not only could be maintained and grown well in hormone-free half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium but also could produce sufficient amounts of both triptolide and wilforine. Although hairy roots produced approximately 15% less triptolide than adventitious roots and 10% less wilforine than naturally grown roots, they could grow fast and could be a suitable system for producing both secondary metabolites compared with other tissues. Addition of 50 micrometer methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could slightly affect hairy root growth, but dramatically stimulated the production of both triptolide and wilforine, whereas 50 micrometer salicylic acid had no apparent effect on hairy root growth with slightly stimulatory effects on the production of both secondary metabolites. Addition of precursor nicotinic acid, isoleucine, or aspartic acid at the concentration of 500 micrometer had varying effects on hairy root growth, but none of them had stimulatory effects on triptolide production, and only the former two had slightly beneficial effects on wilforine production. The majority of triptolide produced was secreted into the medium, whereas most of the produced wilforine was retained inside of hairy roots. Our studies provide a promising way to produce triptolide and wilforine in T. wilfordii hairy root cultures combined with MeJA treatment.

  6. Seedling root targets

    Treesearch

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  7. Modeling gene flow distribution within conventional fields and development of a simplified sampling method to quantify adventitious GM contents in maize

    PubMed Central

    Melé, Enric; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé-Messeguer, Marina; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Piferrer, Xavier; Capellades, Gemma; Serra, Joan; Pla, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been commercially grown for two decades. GM maize is one of 3 species with the highest acreage and specific events. Many countries established a mandatory labeling of products containing GM material, with thresholds for adventitious presence, to support consumers’ freedom of choice. In consequence, coexistence systems need to be introduced to facilitate commercial culture of GM and non-GM crops in the same agricultural area. On modeling adventitious GM cross-pollination distribution within maize fields, we deduced a simple equation to estimate overall GM contents (%GM) of conventional fields, irrespective of its shape and size, and with no previous information on possible GM pollen donor fields. A sampling strategy was designed and experimentally validated in 19 agricultural fields. With 9 samples, %GM quantification requires just one analytical GM determination while identification of the pollen source needs 9 additional analyses. A decision support tool is provided. PMID:26596213

  8. Root plasticity of Populus euphratica seedlings in response to different water table depths and contrasting sediment types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic

  9. Root Plasticity of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Response to Different Water Table Depths and Contrasting Sediment Types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic

  10. WOX11 and 12 Are Involved in the First-Step Cell Fate Transition during de Novo Root Organogenesis in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingchun; Sheng, Lihong; Xu, Yingqiang; Li, Jiqin; Yang, Zhongnan; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    De novo organogenesis is a process through which wounded or detached plant tissues or organs regenerate adventitious roots and shoots. Plant hormones play key roles in de novo organogenesis, whereas the mechanism by which hormonal actions result in the first-step cell fate transition in the whole process is unknown. Using leaf explants of Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the homeobox genes WUSCHEL RELATED HOMEOBOX11 (WOX11) and WOX12 are involved in de novo root organogenesis. WOX11 directly responds to a wounding-induced auxin maximum in and surrounding the procambium and acts redundantly with its homolog WOX12 to upregulate LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 (LBD16) and LBD29, resulting in the first-step cell fate transition from a leaf procambium or its nearby parenchyma cell to a root founder cell. In addition, our results suggest that de novo root organogenesis and callus formation share a similar mechanism at initiation. PMID:24642937

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal induced changes to plant growth and root system morphology in Prunus cerasifera.

    PubMed

    Berta, G; Trotta, A; Fusconi, A; Hooker, J E; Munro, M; Atkinson, D; Giovannetti, M; Morini, S; Fortuna, P; Tisserant, B; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V; Gianinazzi, S

    1995-05-01

    We compared root system morphogenesis of micropropogated transplants of Prunus cerasifera L. inoculated with either of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices or with the ericoid mycorrhizal species Hymenoscyphus ericae. All plants were grown in sand culture, irrigated with a nutrient solution that included a soluble source of phosphorus, for 75 days after transplanting. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased both the survival and growth (by over 100%) of transplants compared with either uninoculated controls or transplants inoculated with H. ericae. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased root, stem and leaf weights, leaf area, root length and specific leaf area, and it decreased root length/leaf area ratio, root/shoot weight ratio and specific root length. Both uptake of phosphorus and its concentration in leaves were increased by AM infection, although the time course of the relationships between intensity of AM infection and P nutrition were complex and suggested a role for factors other than nutrition. The time course for the development of infection varied. It was most rapid with G. mosseae, but it was ultimately higher with G. intraradices. None of the treatments significantly affected the lengths of adventitious roots or the first-, second- or third-order laterals that developed from them. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased the intensity of branching in all root orders with the effect being most obvious on first-order lateral roots where the number of branches increased from under 100 to over 300 brances m(-1). As a result, although first-order laterals made up 55% of the root systems of control plants, the comparable value was 36% in AM-infected plants. In contrast, second-order laterals represented 25% of control root systems, but 50% of AM-colonized root systems. Glomus intraradices but not G. mosseae increased root diameter. Anatomical studies revealed no changes in the overall form of the root

  12. Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment.

    PubMed

    Crance, Jessica L; Bowles, Ann E; Garver, Alan

    2014-04-15

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are thought to learn their vocal dialect. Dispersal in the species is rare, but effects of shifts in social association on the dialect can be studied under controlled conditions. Individual call repertoires and social association were measured in three adult female killer whales and three males (two juveniles and an adult) during two periods, 2001-2003 and 2005-2006. Three distinct dialect repertoires were represented among the subjects. An adventitious experiment in social change resulted from the birth of a calf and the transfer of two non-focal subjects in 2004. Across the two periods, 1691 calls were collected, categorized and attributed to individuals. Repertoire overlap for each subject dyad was compared with an index of association. During 2005-2006, the two juvenile males increased association with the unrelated adult male. By the end of the period, both had begun producing novel calls and call features characteristic of his repertoire. However, there was little or no reciprocal change and the adult females did not acquire his calls. Repertoire overlap and association were significantly correlated in the first period. In the second, median association time and repertoire similarity increased, but the relationship was only marginally significant. The results provided evidence that juvenile male killer whales are capable of learning new call types, possibly stimulated by a change in social association. The pattern of learning was consistent with a selective convergence of male repertoires.

  13. Sampling Strategies for Evaluating the Rate of Adventitious Transgene Presence in Non-Genetically Modified Crop Fields.

    PubMed

    Makowski, David; Bancal, Rémi; Bensadoun, Arnaud; Monod, Hervé; Messéan, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    According to E.U. regulations, the maximum allowable rate of adventitious transgene presence in non-genetically modified (GM) crops is 0.9%. We compared four sampling methods for the detection of transgenic material in agricultural non-GM maize fields: random sampling, stratified sampling, random sampling + ratio reweighting, random sampling + regression reweighting. Random sampling involves simply sampling maize grains from different locations selected at random from the field concerned. The stratified and reweighting sampling methods make use of an auxiliary variable corresponding to the output of a gene-flow model (a zero-inflated Poisson model) simulating cross-pollination as a function of wind speed, wind direction, and distance to the closest GM maize field. With the stratified sampling method, an auxiliary variable is used to define several strata with contrasting transgene presence rates, and grains are then sampled at random from each stratum. With the two methods involving reweighting, grains are first sampled at random from various locations within the field, and the observations are then reweighted according to the auxiliary variable. Data collected from three maize fields were used to compare the four sampling methods, and the results were used to determine the extent to which transgene presence rate estimation was improved by the use of stratified and reweighting sampling methods. We found that transgene rate estimates were more accurate and that substantially smaller samples could be used with sampling strategies based on an auxiliary variable derived from a gene-flow model. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Micropropagation of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume and regeneration induction via adventitious buds and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Radice, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Codiaeum variegatum (L) Blume cv. "Corazon de oro" and cv. "Norma" are successfully micropropagated when culture are initiated with explants taken from newly sprouted shoots. The establishment and multiplication steps are possible when 1 mg/L BA or 1 mg/L IAA and 3 mg/L 2iP are added to MS medium, according to the cultivar respectively selected.Adventive organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are induced from leaf explants taken from in vitro buds of croton. On leaf-sectioned of "Corazon de oro" cultured in vitro, 1 mg/L BA stimulates continuous somatic embryos development and induces some shoots too. Replacing BA with 1 mg/L TDZ induces up to 100% bud regeneration in the same explants. On the other hand, leaf-sectioned of C. variegatum cv. Norma does not start somatic embryo differentiation if 1 mg/L TDZ is not added to the MS basal medium. Incipient callus is observed after 30 days of culture, and then, subculture to MS with 1 mg/L BA allows the same process to show on the "Corazon de oro" cultivar. Somatic embryos show growth arrest that is partially overcome by transfer to hormone-free basal medium with activated charcoal. Root induction is possible on basal medium plus 1 mg/L IBA. Plantlets in the greenhouse have variegated leaves true-to-type.

  15. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from ({sup 35}S)methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root.

  16. Ethylene-Induced Inhibition of Root Growth Requires Abscisic Acid Function in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development. PMID:25330236

  17. Ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth requires abscisic acid function in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Yin, Cui-Cui; He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-10-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development.

  18. Contrasting dynamics of radial O2-loss barrier induction and aerenchyma formation in rice roots of two lengths

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Satoshi; Yamazaki, So; Isoda, Hiroko; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Nakazono, Mikio; Colmer, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Many wetland species form aerenchyma and a barrier to radial O2 loss (ROL) in roots. These features enhance internal O2 diffusion to the root apex. Barrier formation in rice is induced by growth in stagnant solution, but knowledge of the dynamics of barrier induction and early anatomical changes was lacking. Methods ROL barrier induction in short and long roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’) was assessed using cylindrical root-sleeving O2 electrodes and methylene blue indicator dye for O2 leakage. Aerenchyma formation was also monitored in root cross-sections. Microstructure of hypodermal/exodermal layers was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Key Results In stagnant medium, barrier to ROL formation commenced in long adventitious roots within a few hours and the barrier was well formed within 24 h. By contrast, barrier formation took longer than 48 h in short roots. The timing of enhancement of aerenchyma formation was the same in short and long roots. Comparison of ROL data and subsequent methylene blue staining determined the apparent ROL threshold for the dye method, and the dye method confirmed that barrier induction was faster for long roots than for short roots. Barrier formation might be related to deposition of new electron-dense materials in the cell walls at the peripheral side of the exodermis. Histochemical staining indicated suberin depositions were enhanced prior to increases in lignin. Conclusions As root length affected formation of the barrier to ROL, but not aerenchyma, these two acclimations are differentially regulated in roots of rice. Moreover, ROL barrier induction occurred before histochemically detectable changes in putative suberin and lignin deposits could be seen, whereas TEM showed deposition of new electron-dense materials in exodermal cell walls, so structural changes required for barrier functioning appear to be more subtle than previously described. PMID:21097947

  19. GENOME ENABLED MODIFICATION OF POPLAR ROOT DEVELOPMENT FOR INCREASED CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Busov, Victor

    2013-03-05

    DR5 as a reporter system to study auxin response in Populus Plant Cell Reports 32:453-463 Auxin responsive promoter DR5 reporter system is functional in Populus to monitor auxin response in tissues including leaves, roots, and stems. We described the behavior of the DR5::GUS reporter system in stably transformed Populus plants. We found several similarities with Arabidopsis, including sensitivity to native and synthetic auxins, rapid induction after treatment in a variety of tissues, and maximal responses in root tissues. There were also several important differences from Arabidopsis, including slower time to maximum response and lower induction amplitude. Young leaves and stem sections below the apex showed much higher DR5 activity than did older leaves and stems undergoing secondary growth. DR5 activity was highest in cortex, suggesting high levels of auxin concentration and/or sensitivity in this tissue. Our study shows that the DR5 reporter system is a sensitive and facile system for monitoring auxin responses and distribution at cellular resolution in poplar. The Populus AINTEGUMENTA LIKE 1 homeotic transcription factor PtAIL1 controls the formation of adventitious root primordia. Plant Physiol. 160: 1996-2006 Adventitious rooting is an essential but sometimes rate-limiting step in the clonal multiplication of elite tree germplasm, because the ability to form roots declines rapidly with age in mature adult plant tissues. In spite of the importance of adventitious rooting, the mechanism behind this developmental process remains poorly understood. We have described the transcriptional profiles that are associated with the developmental stages of adventitious root formation in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Transcriptome analyses indicate a highly specific temporal induction of the AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 (PtAIL1) transcription factor of the AP2 family during adventitious root formation. Transgenic poplar samples that overexpressed PtAIL1 were able to

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is involved in seed formation and modulation of primary and lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-García, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) cascades are signal transduction modules highly conserved in all eukaryotes regulating various aspects of plant biology, including stress responses and developmental programmes. In this study, we characterized the role of MAPK 6 (MPK6) in Arabidopsis embryo development and in post-embryonic root system architecture. We found that the mpk6 mutation caused altered embryo development giving rise to three seed phenotypes that, post-germination, correlated with alterations in root architecture. In the smaller seed class, mutant seedlings failed to develop the primary root, possibly as a result of an earlier defect in the division of the hypophysis cell during embryo development, but they had the capacity to develop adventitious roots to complete their life cycle. In the larger class, the MPK6 loss of function did not cause any evident alteration in seed morphology, but the embryo and the mature seed were bigger than the wild type. Seedlings developed from these bigger seeds were characterized by a primary root longer than that of the wild type, accompanied by significantly increased lateral root initiation and more and longer root hairs. Apparently, the increment in primary root growth resulted from an enhanced cell production and cell elongation. Our data demonstrated that MPK6 plays an important role during embryo development and acts as a repressor of primary and lateral root development. PMID:24218326

  1. Evaluation of cells and biological reagents for adventitious agents using degenerate primer PCR and massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Uhlenhaut, Christine; Krause, Philip R

    2014-12-12

    We employed a massively parallel sequencing (MPS)-based approach to test reagents and model cell substrates including Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), African green monkey kidney (Vero), and High Five insect cell lines for adventitious agents. RNA and DNA were extracted either directly from the samples or from viral capsid-enriched preparations, and then subjected to MPS-based non-specific virus detection with degenerate oligonucleotide primer (DOP) PCR. MPS by 454, Illumina MiSeq, and Illumina HiSeq was compared on independent samples. Virus detection using these methods was reproducibly achieved. Unclassified sequences from CHO cells represented cellular sequences not yet submitted to the databases typically used for sequence identification. The sensitivity of MPS-based virus detection was consistent with theoretically expected limits based on dilution of virus in cellular nucleic acids. Capsid preparation increased the number of viral sequences detected. Potential viral sequences were detected in several samples; in each case, these sequences were either artifactual or (based on additional studies) shown not to be associated with replication-competent viruses. Virus-like sequences were more likely to be identified in BLAST searches using virus-specific databases that did not contain cellular sequences. Detected viral sequences included previously described retrovirus and retrovirus-like sequences in CHO, Vero, MDCK and High Five cells, and nodavirus and endogenous bracovirus sequences in High Five insect cells. Bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine hokovirus, and porcine circovirus sequences were detected in some reagents. A recently described parvo-like virus present in some nucleic acid extraction resins was also identified in cells and extraction controls from some samples. The present study helps to illustrate the potential for MPS-based strategies in evaluating the presence of viral nucleic acids in various sample types

  2. TGF-β1/FGF-2 signaling mediates the 15-HETE-induced differentiation of adventitial fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Yan; Li, Guixia; Chen, Minggang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yanrui; Li, Yumei

    2016-01-05

    Pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts (PAFs) are activated under stress stimuli leading to their differentiation into myofibroblasts, which is involved in vessel remodeling. 15-HETE is known as an important factor in vessel remodeling under hypoxia; however, the role of 15-HETE in PAF phenotypic alteration is not clear. The effect of 15-HETE on PAF phenotypic alterations was investigated in the present study. PAFs were treated with 15-HETE (0.5 μM) for 24 h, and the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was analyzed. The 15-HETE induced α-SMA expression and cell morphology. 15-HETE upregulated FGF-2 levels in PAFs, and knockdown FGF-2 by siRNAs blocked the enhanced α-SMA expression induced by 15-HETE. p38 kinase was activated, and blocked depressed 15-HETE-induced FGF-2 expression. The downstream of p38 pathway, Egr-1 activation, was also raised by 15-HETE treatment, and silenced Egr-1 suppressed the 15-HETE-induced upregulation of FGF-2. TGF-β1 was upregulated with FGF-2 treatment, and α-SMA expression induced by FGF-2 was inhibited after the cell was transferred with TGF-β1 siRNA. Meanwhile, FGF-2 increased α-SMA expression and improved proliferation, which was associated with p27(kip1) and cyclin E variation. The above results suggest that p38/Egr-1 pathway-mediated FGF-2 is involved in 15-HETE-induced differentiation of PAFs into myofibroblasts and cell proliferation.

  3. Single-walled carbon nanotubes promote rat vascular adventitial fibroblasts to transform into myofibroblasts by SM22-α expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiqing; Liu, Lihua; Xi, Zhuge; Huang, Jiehua; Lin, Bencheng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be used as artery tissue-engineering materials by promoting vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAFs) to transform into myofibroblasts (MFs) and to find the signal pathway involved in this process. VAFs were primary cultured and incubated with various doses of SWCNTs suspension (0, 0.8, 3.2, 12.5, 50, and 200 μg/mL). In the present study, we used three methods (MTT, WST-1, and WST-8) at the same time to detect the cell viability and immunofluorescence probe technology to investigate the effects of oxidative injury after VAFs incubated with SWCNTs. Immunocytochemical staining was used to detect SM(22)-α expression to confirm whether VAFs transformed into MFs. The protein levels were detected by western blotting. The results of immunocytochemical staining showed that SM(22)-α was expressed after incubation with 50 μg/mL SWCNTs for 96 hours, but with oxidative damage. The mRNA and protein levels of SM(22)-α, C-Jun N-terminal kinase, TGF-β(1), and TGF-β receptor II in VAFs increased with the dose of SWCNTs. The expression of the p-Smad2/3 protein was upregulated while the Smad7 protein was significantly down-regulated. Smad4 was translocated to the nucleus to regulate SM(22)-α gene expression. In conclusion, SWCNTs promoted VAFs to transform into MFs with SM(22)-α expression by the C-Jun N-terminal kinase/Smads signal pathway at the early stage (48 hours) but weakened quickly. SWCNTs also promoted the transformation by the TGF-β(l)/Smads signal pathway at the advanced stage in a persistent manner. These results indicate that SWCNTs can possibly be used as artery tissue-engineering materials.

  4. Comparing root architectural models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  5. Adventitial Vessel Growth and Progenitor Cells Activation in an Ex Vivo Culture System Mimicking Human Saphenous Vein Wall Strain after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Prandi, Francesca; Piola, Marco; Soncini, Monica; Colussi, Claudia; D’Alessandra, Yuri; Penza, Eleonora; Agrifoglio, Marco; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Gaetano, Carlo; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Pesce, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft disease is a timely problem in coronary artery bypass grafting. Indeed, after exposure of the vein to arterial blood flow, a progressive modification in the wall begins, due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the intima. As a consequence, the graft progressively occludes and this leads to recurrent ischemia. In the present study we employed a novel ex vivo culture system to assess the biological effects of arterial-like pressure on the human saphenous vein structure and physiology, and to compare the results to those achieved in the presence of a constant low pressure and flow mimicking the physiologic vein perfusion. While under both conditions we found an activation of Matrix Metallo-Proteases 2/9 and of microRNAs-21/146a/221, a specific effect of the arterial-like pressure was observed. This consisted in a marked geometrical remodeling, in the suppression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metallo-Protease-1, in the enhanced expression of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 mRNAs and, finally, in the upregulation of microRNAs-138/200b/200c. In addition, the veins exposed to arterial-like pressure showed an increase in the density of the adventitial vasa vasorum and of cells co-expressing NG2, CD44 and SM22α markers in the adventitia. Cells with nuclear expression of Sox-10, a transcription factor characterizing multipotent vascular stem cells, were finally found in adventitial vessels. Our findings suggest, for the first time, a role of arterial-like wall strain in the activation of pro-pathologic pathways resulting in adventitial vessels growth, activation of vasa vasorum cells, and upregulation of specific gene products associated to vascular remodeling and inflammation. PMID:25689822

  6. Adventitial vessel growth and progenitor cells activation in an ex vivo culture system mimicking human saphenous vein wall strain after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Prandi, Francesca; Piola, Marco; Soncini, Monica; Colussi, Claudia; D'Alessandra, Yuri; Penza, Eleonora; Agrifoglio, Marco; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Gaetano, Carlo; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Pesce, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft disease is a timely problem in coronary artery bypass grafting. Indeed, after exposure of the vein to arterial blood flow, a progressive modification in the wall begins, due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the intima. As a consequence, the graft progressively occludes and this leads to recurrent ischemia. In the present study we employed a novel ex vivo culture system to assess the biological effects of arterial-like pressure on the human saphenous vein structure and physiology, and to compare the results to those achieved in the presence of a constant low pressure and flow mimicking the physiologic vein perfusion. While under both conditions we found an activation of Matrix Metallo-Proteases 2/9 and of microRNAs-21/146a/221, a specific effect of the arterial-like pressure was observed. This consisted in a marked geometrical remodeling, in the suppression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metallo-Protease-1, in the enhanced expression of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 mRNAs and, finally, in the upregulation of microRNAs-138/200b/200c. In addition, the veins exposed to arterial-like pressure showed an increase in the density of the adventitial vasa vasorum and of cells co-expressing NG2, CD44 and SM22α markers in the adventitia. Cells with nuclear expression of Sox-10, a transcription factor characterizing multipotent vascular stem cells, were finally found in adventitial vessels. Our findings suggest, for the first time, a role of arterial-like wall strain in the activation of pro-pathologic pathways resulting in adventitial vessels growth, activation of vasa vasorum cells, and upregulation of specific gene products associated to vascular remodeling and inflammation.

  7. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: elongation into the media of the popliteal artery and communication with the knee joint capsule: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Unno, N; Kaneko, H; Uchiyama, T; Yamamoto, N; Nakamura, S

    2000-01-01

    Cystic disease of the popliteal artery is a rare disorder in which most cases involve the formation of an adventitial cyst that disturbs the popliteal artery blood flow. We present herein the case of a patient presenting with popliteal artery occlusion due to compression by a cyst which formed at the media of the popliteal artery. The onset occurred during a baseball game in which he played catcher. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a communication of the cyst with the adjacent knee joint. This unusual case could provide important clues to help identify the pathogenesis of this disease.

  8. ZmHO-1, a maize haem oxygenase-1 gene, plays a role in determining lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Chang-He; Sun, Ya; Shen, Wen-Biao; Xie, Gui-Shui

    2012-03-01

    Previous results revealed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system is involved in auxin-induced adventitious root formation. In this report, a cDNA for the gene ZmHO-1, encoding an HO-1 protein, was cloned from Zea mays seedlings. ZmHO-1 has a conserved HO signature sequence and shares highest homology with rice SE5 (OsHO-1) protein. We further discovered that N-1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), haemin, and CO aqueous solution, led to the induction of ZmHO-1 expression as well as the thereafter promotion of lateral root development. These effects were specific for ZmHO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) differentially blocked the above actions. The addition of haemin and CO were able to reverse the auxin depletion-triggered inhibition of lateral root formation as well as the decreased ZmHO-1 transcripts. Molecular evidence showed that the haemin- or CO-mediated the modulation of target genes responsible for lateral root formation, including ZmCDK and ZmCKI2, could be blocked by ZnPPIX. Overexpression of ZmHO-1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in promotion of lateral root development as well as the modulation of cell cycle regulatory gene expressions. Overall, our results suggested that a maize HO-1 gene is required for the lateral root formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  10. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  11. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  12. Discrete square root smoothing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminski, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques applied in the square root least squares and square root filtering solutions are applied to the smoothing problem. Both conventional and square root solutions are obtained by computing the filtered solutions, then modifying the results to include the effect of all measurements. A comparison of computation requirements indicates that the square root information smoother (SRIS) is more efficient than conventional solutions in a large class of fixed interval smoothing problems.

  13. Corky root rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  14. Root production method system

    Treesearch

    Wayne Lovelace

    2002-01-01

    The RPM system (Root Production Method) is a multistep production system of container tree production that places primary emphasis on the root system because the root system ultimately determines the tree's survival and performance in its outplanted environment. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate volume production, in a...

  15. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  16. Evidence for Symplastic Involvement in the Radial Movement of Calcium in Onion Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Cholewa, Ewa; Peterson, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    The pathway of Ca2+ movement from the soil solution into the stele of the root is not known with certainty despite a considerable body of literature on the subject. Does this ion cross an intact, mature exodermis and endodermis? If so, is its movement through these layers primarily apoplastic or symplastic? These questions were addressed using onion (Allium cepa) adventitious roots lacking laterals. Radioactive Ca2+ applied to the root tip was not transported to the remainder of the plant, indicating that this ion cannot be supplied to the shoot through this region where the exodermis and endodermis are immature. A more mature zone, in which the endodermal Casparian band was present, delivered 2.67 nmol of Ca2+ mm−1 treated root length d−1 to the transpiration stream, demonstrating that the ion had moved through an intact endodermis. Farther from the root tip, a third zone in which Casparian bands were present in the exodermis as well as the endodermis delivered 0.87 nmol Ca2+ mm−1 root length d−1 to the transpiration stream, proving that the ion had moved through an unbroken exodermis. Compartmental elution analyses indicated that Ca2+ had not diffused through the Casparian bands of the exodermis, and inhibitor studies using La3+ and vanadate (VO43−) pointed to a major involvement of the symplast in the radial transport of Ca2+ through the endodermis. It was concluded that in onion roots, the radial movement of Ca2+ through the exodermis and endodermis is primarily symplastic. PMID:15064381

  17. Pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts cooperate with vasa vasorum endothelial cells to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization: a process mediated by hypoxia and endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Davie, Neil J; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V; Hofmeister, Stephen E; Richman, Aaron P; Jones, Peter L; Reeves, John T; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2006-06-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia.

  18. [Effects of flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki on adventitial fibroblast proliferation induced by advanced glycation end-products in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Bei, Wei-jian; Lai, Wen-yan; Xu, Ding-li; Peng, Wen-lie

    2003-12-01

    To observe the effects of flavone from the leaves of Diospyros kaki on proliferation of adventitial fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in vitro. NIH/3T3 cells cultured in vitro were treated with both AGEs and flavone from the leaves of Diospyros Kaki for observation in comparison with the cells that received treatments with either AGEs or flavone, or neither. The ratio of cell proliferation was determined by non-radioactive MTS/PES assay. The ratio of cell proliferation was 0.840+/-0.061 in the untreated control group, and was 1.330+/-0.055, 1.210+/-0.119, 1.029+/-0.076 and 0.792+/-0.060 in AGEs groups corresponding to AGE concentrations of 100, 50, 10 and 1 microg/ml respectively. AGEs significantly induced fibroblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the concentration was above 10 microg/ml (P<0.05), as compared with the untreated control group. (P<0.05). The ratio of cell proliferation was 0.829+/-0.056 in cells treated with flavone at the concentration of 50 microg/ml, which alone failed to affect fibroblast proliferation (P>0.05). With AGEs stimulation, however, flavone from the leaves of Diospyros kaki significantly inhibited the proliferation of the fibroblasts (P<0.05). Flavone from the leaves of Diospyros kaki can significantly inhibit the proliferation of adventitial fibroblasts stimulated by AGEs in vitro.

  19. Influence of rhizobacterial volatiles on the root system architecture and the production and allocation of biomass in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed

    Delaplace, Pierre; Delory, Benjamin M; Baudson, Caroline; Mendaluk-Saunier de Cazenave, Magdalena; Spaepen, Stijn; Varin, Sébastien; Brostaux, Yves; du Jardin, Patrick

    2015-08-12

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly being seen as a way of complementing conventional inputs in agricultural systems. The effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. This study sought to assess the effects of bacterial volatiles on the biomass production and root system architecture of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. An in vitro experiment allowing plant-bacteria interaction throughout the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth-promotion ability over a 10-day co-cultivation period. Five groups of bacteria were defined and characterised based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects ranged from unchanged to greatly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was increased only by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03, which induced an 81 % increase in total biomass, as well as enhancing total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88.5, 201.5 and 474.5 %, respectively. This study is the first report on bacterial volatile-mediated growth promotion of a grass plant. Contrasting modulations of biomass production coupled with changes in root system architecture were observed. Most of the strains that increased total plant biomass also modulated adventitious root growth. Under our screening conditions, total biomass production was strongly correlated with the length and branching of the root system components, except for primary root length. An analysis of the emission kinetics of the bacterial volatile compounds is being undertaken and should lead to the identification of the compounds responsible for the observed growth-promotion effects. Within the

  20. Effective purification of ginsenosides from cultured wild ginseng roots,red ginseng, and white ginseng with macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Li, Huayue; Lee, Jae-Hwa; Ha, Jong-Myung

    2008-11-01

    This study was aimed (i) to develop an effective method for the purification of ginsenosides for industrial use and (ii) to compare the distribution of ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots (adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng) with those of red ginseng (steamed ginseng) and white ginseng (air-dried ginseng). The crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng were obtained by using a 75% ethanol extraction combined with ultrasonication. This was followed sequentially by AB-8 macroporous adsorption chromatography, Amberlite IRA 900 Cl anion-exchange chromatography, and Amberlite XAD16 adsorption chromatography for further purification. The contents of total ginsenosides were increased from 4.1%, 12.1%, and 11.3% in the crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng to 79.4%, 71.7%, and 72.5% in the final products, respectively. HPLC analysis demonstrated that ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots were distributed in a different ratio compared with red ginseng and white ginseng.

  1. Partial versus complete submergence: snorkelling aids root aeration in Rumex palustris but not in R. acetosa.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Max; Pedersen, Ole

    2014-10-01

    The root and shoot tissues of flood-tolerant wetland plants are highly porous to enable internal gas phase diffusion of O2 during waterlogging or submergence. In the case of only partial submergence (snorkelling), the atmosphere can act as source of O2 . The aim of this study was to assess the effect of waterlogging, partial submergence and complete submergence in the dark as well as in light on O2 partial pressure (pO2 ) in roots of Rumex palustris (flood tolerant) and R. acetosa (flood intolerant). We used O2 microelectrodes to measure pO2 of adventitious roots during manipulations of the water level around the shoot. Root pO2 in both species declined significantly upon submergence but remained oxic also when shoots were completely submerged in the dark (0.8 and 4.6 kPa in R. acetosa and R. palustris, respectively). The snorkelling effect was substantial in R. palustris only. Submergence in light had less impact on root pO2 and the effect of snorkelling was also minor. Hence, the benefits of light (underwater photosynthesis) and air contact (snorkelling) upon growth and survival in submerged wetland plants can now be linked to enhanced internal aeration.

  2. Identification of genes regulated by histone acetylation during root development in Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xujun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Chuanping; Li, Shujuan

    2016-02-04

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key enzymes catalyzing the removal of acetyl groups from histones. HDACs act in concert with histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to regulate histone acetylation status, which modifies chromatin structure, affecting gene transcription and thus regulating multiple biological processes such as plant growth and development. Over a decade, certain HDACs in herbaceous plants have been deeply studied. However, functions of HDACs in woody plants are not well understood. Histone deacetylase specific inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) was used to investigate the role of HDACs in organogenesis of roots and root development in Populus trochocarpa. The adventitious roots were regenerated and grown on medium supplemented with 0, 1, and 2.5 μM TSA. TSA treatment delayed root regeneration and inhibited primary root growth. To examine the genes modified by TSA in the regenerated roots, tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. Approximately 4.5 million total clean tags were mapped per library. The distinct clean tags for the three libraries corresponding to 0, 1 and 2.5 μM TSA treatment were 166167, 143103 and 153507, from which 38.45%, 31.84% and 38.88% were mapped unambiguously to the unigene database, respectively. Most of the tags were expressed at similar levels, showing a < 5-fold difference after 1 μM and 2.5 μM TSA treatments and the maximum fold-change of the tag copy number was around 20. The expression levels of many genes in roots were significantly altered by TSA. A total of 36 genes were up-regulated and 1368 genes were down-regulated after 1 μM TSA treatment, while 166 genes were up-regulated and 397 genes were down-regulated after 2.5 μM TSA treatment. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses indicated that the differentially expressed genes were related to many kinds of molecular functions and biological processes. The genes encoding key enzymes catalyzing gibberellin biosynthesis

  3. Root canal irrigants.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-10-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were 'root canal irrigants' and 'endodontic irrigants.' The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  4. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  5. Heme oxygenase is involved in cobalt chloride-induced lateral root development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Bo; Cao, Ze-Yu; Ling, Teng-Fang; Shen, Wen-Biao

    2011-04-01

    In animals, heme oxygenase (HO), a rate-limiting enzyme responsible for carbon monoxide (CO) production, was regarded as a protective system maintaining cellular homeostasis. It was also established that metal ions are powerful HO-inducing agents and cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) was the first metal ion identified with an inducing property. Previous study suggests that CoCl(2) stimulates adventitious root formation in tomato and cucumber cuttings. In this test, we discover that both CoCl(2) and an inducer of HO-1, hemin, could lead to the promotion of lateral root development, as well as the induction of HO-1 protein expression, HO activity, or LeHO-1/2 transcripts, in lateral root initiation zone of tomato seedlings. The effect is specific for HO since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) blocked the above actions of CoCl(2), and the inhibitory effect was reversed partially when 50% CO aqueous solution was added. However, the addition of ascorbic acid (AsA), a well-known antioxidant, exhibited no obvious effect on lateral root formation. Molecular evidence further showed that CoCl(2)-induced the up-regulation of target genes responsible for lateral root formation, including LeCDKA1, LeCYCA2;1, and LeCYCA3;1, was suppressed differentially by ZnPPIX. And these decreases were reversed further by the addition of CO. All together, these results suggest a novel role for HO in the CoCl(2)-induced tomato lateral root formation.

  6. Rooting and vitality of poinsettia cuttings was increased by arbuscular mycorrhiza in the donor plants.

    PubMed

    Druege, Uwe; Xylaender, Marco; Zerche, Siegfried; von Alten, Henning

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence that the rooting performance of cuttings can be improved by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of donor plants. Poinsettia stock plants were inoculated with the Glomus intraradices isolate H510 and grown in three different cultivation systems (two organic and one conventional). AM colonization was not related to P availability in the substrate. Decay of the excised cuttings in response to unfavorable postharvest storage conditions was significantly reduced by AM colonization of the stock plants. In most cases, AM significantly promoted the formation of adventitious roots in the stored cuttings. The strongest effect of AM was found when donor plants were grown in a modified organic substrate; then AM-conditioned cuttings showed higher leaf sugar levels and a changed kinetic of carbohydrates during storage. Analyses of N, P, and K in cuttings did not indicate a nutritional effect. The results support the idea that an altered carbohydrate metabolism and plant hormones can contribute to improved rooting performance of cuttings excised from mycorrhizal donor plants.

  7. Varicella-Zoster Virus Downregulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in Human Brain Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts, Perineurial Cells, and Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dallas; Blackmon, Anna; Neff, C. Preston; Palmer, Brent E.; Gilden, Don; Badani, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy produces stroke, giant cell arteritis, and granulomatous aortitis, and it develops after virus reactivates from ganglia and spreads transaxonally to arterial adventitia, resulting in persistent inflammation and pathological vascular remodeling. The mechanism(s) by which inflammatory cells persist in VZV-infected arteries is unknown; however, virus-induced dysregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) may play a role. Specifically, PD-L1 can be expressed on virtually all nucleated cells and suppresses the immune system by interacting with the programmed cell death protein receptor 1, found exclusively on immune cells; thus, downregulation of PD-L1 may promote inflammation, as seen in some autoimmune diseases. Both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses to test whether VZV infection of adventitial cells downregulates PD-L1 showed decreased PD-L1 expression in VZV-infected compared to mock-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (HBVAFs), perineural cells (HPNCs), and fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLs) at 72 h postinfection. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed no change in PD-L1 transcript levels between mock- and VZV-infected cells, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism for VZV-mediated downregulation of PD-L1. Flow cytometry analyses showed decreased major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression in VZV-infected cells and adjacent uninfected cells compared to mock-infected cells. These data suggest that reduced PD-L1 expression in VZV-infected adventitial cells contribute to persistent vascular inflammation observed in virus-infected arteries from patients with VZV vasculopathy, while downregulation of MHC-I prevents viral clearance. IMPORTANCE Here, we provide the first demonstration that VZV downregulates PD-L1 expression in infected HBVAFs, HPNCs, and HFLs, which, together with the noted VZV-mediated downregulation of MHC-I, might foster persistent inflammation in vessels

  8. Varicella-Zoster Virus Downregulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in Human Brain Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts, Perineurial Cells, and Lung Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dallas; Blackmon, Anna; Neff, C Preston; Palmer, Brent E; Gilden, Don; Badani, Hussain; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-12-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy produces stroke, giant cell arteritis, and granulomatous aortitis, and it develops after virus reactivates from ganglia and spreads transaxonally to arterial adventitia, resulting in persistent inflammation and pathological vascular remodeling. The mechanism(s) by which inflammatory cells persist in VZV-infected arteries is unknown; however, virus-induced dysregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) may play a role. Specifically, PD-L1 can be expressed on virtually all nucleated cells and suppresses the immune system by interacting with the programmed cell death protein receptor 1, found exclusively on immune cells; thus, downregulation of PD-L1 may promote inflammation, as seen in some autoimmune diseases. Both flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses to test whether VZV infection of adventitial cells downregulates PD-L1 showed decreased PD-L1 expression in VZV-infected compared to mock-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (HBVAFs), perineural cells (HPNCs), and fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLs) at 72 h postinfection. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed no change in PD-L1 transcript levels between mock- and VZV-infected cells, indicating a posttranscriptional mechanism for VZV-mediated downregulation of PD-L1. Flow cytometry analyses showed decreased major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression in VZV-infected cells and adjacent uninfected cells compared to mock-infected cells. These data suggest that reduced PD-L1 expression in VZV-infected adventitial cells contribute to persistent vascular inflammation observed in virus-infected arteries from patients with VZV vasculopathy, while downregulation of MHC-I prevents viral clearance. Here, we provide the first demonstration that VZV downregulates PD-L1 expression in infected HBVAFs, HPNCs, and HFLs, which, together with the noted VZV-mediated downregulation of MHC-I, might foster persistent inflammation in vessels, leading to

  9. Ascending aortic adventitial remodeling and fibrosis are ameliorated with Apelin-13 in rats after TAC via suppression of the miRNA-122 and LGR4-β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran; Zhang, Zhen-Zhou; Chen, Lai-Jiang; Yu, Hui-Min; Guo, Shu-Jie; Xu, Ying-Le; Oudit, Gavin Y; Zhang, Yan; Chang, Qing; Song, Bei; Chen, Dong-Rui; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Zhong, Jiu-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Apelin has been proved to be a critical mediator of vascular function and homeostasis. Here, we investigated roles of Apelin in aortic remodeling and fibrosis in rats with transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TAC and then randomized to daily deliver Apelin-13 (50μg/kg) or angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker Irbesartan (50mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Pressure overload resulted in myocardial hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, aortic remodeling and adventitial fibrosis with reduced levels of Apelin in ascending aortas of rat after TAC compared with sham-operated group. These changes were associated with marked increases in levels of miRNA-122, TGFβ1, CTGF, NFAT5, LGR4, and β-catenin. More importantly, Apelin and Irbesartan treatment strikingly prevented TAC-mediated aortic remodeling and adventitial fibrosis in pressure overloaded rats by blocking AT1 receptor and miRNA-122 levels and repressing activation of the CTGF-NFAT5 and LGR4-β-catenin signaling. In cultured primary rat adventitial fibroblasts, exposure to angiotensin II (100nmolL(-1)) led to significant increases in cellular migration and levels of TGFβ1, CTGF, NFAT5, LGR4 and β-catenin, which were effectively reversed by pre-treatment with Apelin (100nmolL(-1)) and miRNA-122 inhibitor (50nmolL(-1)). In conclusion, Apelin counterregulated against TAC-mediated ascending aortic remodeling and angiotensin II-induced promotion of cellular migration by blocking AT1 receptor and miRNA-122 levels and preventing activation of the TGFβ1-CTGF-NFAT5 and LGR4-β-catenin signaling, ultimately contributing to attenuation of aortic adventitial fibrosis. Our data point to Apelin as an important regulator of aortic remodeling and adventitial fibrosis and a promising target for vasoprotective therapies.

  10. Dehydration-stress affects vegetative reproduction and transcriptome profiles in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed that infests mainly range, recreational and right-of-way lands in the great plains of the US and Canada. Although spread occurs by both seeds and roots, the perennial nature of leafy spurge is attributed to vegetative reproduction from an abundance of under...

  11. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca(2+)] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development.

  12. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca2+]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca2+] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development. PMID:26076049

  13. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant–water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Methods Root system development, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> –10 kPa) and mildly dry (> –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψleaf was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψleaf. Ψleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep

  14. Irrational Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  15. The Roots of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Yetta M.

    This review of research with children aged two to six on their reading, writing, and oral language development speaks of five roots of a tree of literate life that require nourishment in the soil of a written language environment. The roots discussed are the development of print awareness in situational contexts, the development of print awareness…

  16. Irrational Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  17. Trees and Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    Constructing a family history can be significant in helping persons understand and appreciate the root system that supports and sustains them. Oral history can be a valuable resource in family research as Alex Haley demonstrated in writing "Roots." The major difficulty of using oral tradition in tracing a family history is that family…

  18. Trees and Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    Constructing a family history can be significant in helping persons understand and appreciate the root system that supports and sustains them. Oral history can be a valuable resource in family research as Alex Haley demonstrated in writing "Roots." The major difficulty of using oral tradition in tracing a family history is that family…

  19. Sugarbeet root aphid on postharvest root storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugarbeet root aphid (SBRA), Pemphigus betae Doane, is a serious insect pest of sugarbeet in several North American sugarbeet production areas; however, it is rarely an economic pest in the Red River Valley (RRV). In 2012 and 2013, all RRV factory districts were impacted by SBRA outbreaks, and ...

  20. Systematic evaluation of in vitro and in vivo adventitious virus assays for the detection of viral contamination of cell banks and biological products.

    PubMed

    Gombold, James; Karakasidis, Stephen; Niksa, Paula; Podczasy, John; Neumann, Kitti; Richardson, James; Sane, Nandini; Johnson-Leva, Renita; Randolph, Valerie; Sadoff, Jerald; Minor, Phillip; Schmidt, Alexander; Duncan, Paul; Sheets, Rebecca L

    2014-05-19

    Viral vaccines and the cell substrates used to manufacture them are subjected to tests for adventitious agents, including viruses, contaminate. Some of the compendial methods (in vivo and in vitro in cell culture) were established in the mid-20th century. These methods have not been subjected to current assay validation, as new methods would need to be. This study was undertaken to provide insight into the breadth (selectivity) and sensitivity (limit of detection) of the routine methods, two such validation parameters. Sixteen viral stocks were prepared and characterized. These stocks were tested in serial dilutions by the routine methods to establish which viruses were detected by which methods and above what limit of detection. Sixteen out of sixteen viruses were detected in vitro, though one (bovine viral diarrhea virus) required special conditions to detect and another (rubella virus) was detected with low sensitivity. Many were detected at levels below 1 TCID50 or PFU (titers were established on the production cell line in most cases). In contrast, in vivo, only 6/11 viruses were detected, and 4 of these were detected only at amounts one or more logs above 1 TCID50 or PFU. Only influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were detected at lower amounts in vivo than in vitro. Given the call to reduce, refine, or replace (3Rs) the use of animals in product safety testing and the emergence of new technologies for the detection of viruses, a re-examination of the current adventitious virus testing strategies seems warranted. Suggested pathways forward are offered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Systematic Evaluation of In Vitro and In Vivo Adventitious Virus Assays for the Detection of Viral Contamination of Cell Banks and Biological Products1

    PubMed Central

    Gombold, James; Karakasidis, Stephen; Niksa, Paula; Podczasy, John; Neumann, Kitti; Richardson, James; Sane, Nandini; Johnson-Leva, Renita; Randolph, Valerie; Sadoff, Jerald; Minor, Phillip; Schmidt, Alexander; Duncan, Paul; Sheets, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Viral vaccines and the cell substrates used to manufacture them are subjected to tests for adventitious agents, including viruses, which might contaminant them. Some of the compendial methods (in vivo and in vitro in cell culture) were established in the mid-20th century. These methods have not been subjected to current assay validation, as new methods would need to be. This study was undertaken to provide insight into the breadth (selectivity) and sensitivity (limit of detection) of the routine methods, two such validation parameters. Sixteen viral stocks were prepared and characterized. These stocks were tested in serial dilutions by the routine methods to establish which viruses were detected by which methods and above what limit of detection. Sixteen out of sixteen viruses were detected in vitro, though one (bovine viral diarrhea virus) required special conditions to detect and another (rubella virus) was detected with low sensitivity. Many were detected at levels below 1 TCID50 or PFU (titers were established on the production cell line in most cases). In contrast, in vivo, only 6/11 viruses were detected, and 4 of these were detected only at amounts one or more logs above 1 TCID50 or PFU. Only influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were detected at lower amounts in vivo than in vitro. Given the call to reduce, refine, or replace (3 R's) the use of animals in product safety testing and the emergence of new technologies for the detection of viruses, a re-examination of the current adventitious virus testing strategies seems warranted. Suggested pathways forward are offered. PMID:24681273

  2. Root nutrient foraging.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-10-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status.

  3. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  4. Early physiological flood tolerance is followed by slow post-flooding root recovery in the dryland riparian tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens.

    PubMed

    Argus, R E; Colmer, T D; Grierson, P F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated physiological and morphological responses to flooding and recovery in Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens, a riparian tree species from a dryland region prone to intense episodic floods. Seedlings in soil flooded for 88 d produced extensive adventitious roots, displayed stem hypertrophy (stem diameter increased by 93%) and increased root porosity owing to aerenchyma formation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) were maintained for at least 2 weeks of soil flooding, contrasting with previous studies of other subspecies of E. camaldulensis. Gradual declines followed in both gs (30% less than controls) and Pn (19% less). Total leaf soluble sugars did not differ between flooded and control plants. Root mass did not recover 32 d after flooding ceased, but gs was not lower than controls, suggesting the root system was able to functionally compensate. However, the limited root growth during recovery after flooding was surprising given the importance of extensive root systems in dryland environments. We conclude that early flood tolerance could be an adaptation to capitalize on scarce water resources in a water-limited environment. Overall, our findings highlight the need to assess flooding responses in relation to a species' fitness for particular flood regimes or ecological niches.

  5. Over-expression of mango (Mangifera indica L.) MiARF2 inhibits root and hypocotyl growth of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Jian-Yong; Chen, Qi-Zhu; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2011-06-01

    An auxin response factor 2 gene, MiARF2, was cloned in our previous study [1] from the cotyledon section of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zihua) during adventitious root formation, which shares an 84% amino acid sequence similarity to Arabidopsis ARF2. This study was to examine the effects of over-expression of the full-length MiARF2 open reading frame on the root and hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis showed that the T(3) transgenic lines had about 20-30% reduction in the length of hypocotyls and roots of the seedlings in comparison with the wild-type. The transcription levels of ANT and ARGOS genes which play a role in controlling organ size and cell proliferation in the transgenic seedlings also decreased. Therefore, the inhibited root and hypocotyl growth in the transgenic seedlings may be associated with the down-regulated transcription of ANT and ARGOS by the over-expression of MiARF2. This study also suggests that although MiARF2 only has a single DNA-binding domain (DBD), it can function as other ARF-like proteins containing complete DBD, middle region (MR) and carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (CTD).

  6. Plant regeneration, genetic fidelity, and active ingredient content of encapsulated hairy roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Janhvi Mishra; Rawat, Balwant; Mehrotra, Shakti

    2013-06-01

    Among five hairy root lines of Picrorhiza kurrooa that were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes, one (H7) was selected for encapsulation due to high accumulation of picrotin and picrotoxinin (8.3 and 47.6 μg/g DW, respectively). Re-grown encapsulated roots induced adventitious shoots with 73 % frequency on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, following 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Regenerated plantlets had 85 % survival after 2 months. Regenerants were of similar morphotype having increased leaf number and branched root system as compared to non-transformed plants. The transformed nature of the plants was confirmed through PCR and Southern blot analysis. Genetic fidelity analysis of transformed plants using RAPD and ISSR showed 5.2 and 3.6 % polymorphism, respectively. Phytochemical analysis also showed that picrotin and picrotoxinin content were similar in hairy root line and its regenerants.

  7. Transgenic modification of gai or rg/1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Busov, V.; Meilan, R; Pearce, D; Rood, s; Ma, C; Strauss, S

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain. Through transgenic modification, we found that DELLA-less versions of GAI (gai) and RGL1 (rgl1) in a Populus tree have profound, dominant effects on phenotype, producing pleiotropic changes in morphology and metabolic profiles. Shoots were dwarfed, likely via constitutive repression of GA-induced elongation, whereas root growth was promoted two- to threefold in vitro. Applied GA{sub 3} inhibited adventitious root production in wild-type poplar, but gai/rgl1 poplars were unaffected by the inhibition. The concentrations of bioactive GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4} in leaves of gai- and rgl1-expressing plants increased 12- to 64-fold, while the C{sub 19} precursors of GA{sub 1} (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19}) decreased three- to ninefold, consistent with feedback regulation of GA 20-oxidase in the transgenic plants. The transgenic modifications elicited significant metabolic changes. In roots, metabolic profiling suggested increased respiration as a possible mechanism of the increased root growth. In leaves, we found metabolite changes suggesting reduced carbon flux through the lignin biosynthetic pathway and a shift towards allocation of secondary storage and defense metabolites, including various phenols, phenolic glucosides, and phenolic acid conjugates.

  8. Cyclic GMP is involved in auxin signalling during Arabidopsis root growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaomin; Bi, Yurong

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) plays an important role in plant development and responses to stress. Recent studies indicated that cGMP is a secondary signal generated in response to auxin stimulation. cGMP also mediates auxin-induced adventitious root formation in mung bean and gravitropic bending in soybean. Nonetheless, the mechanism of the participation of cGMP in auxin signalling to affect these growth and developmental processes is largely unknown. In this report we provide evidence that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induces cGMP accumulation in Arabidopsis roots through modulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. Application of 8-bromo-cGMP (a cell-permeable cGMP derivative) increases auxin-dependent lateral root formation, root hair development, primary root growth, and gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of endogenous cGMP synthesis block these processes induced by auxin. Data also showed that 8-bromo-cGMP enhances auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA protein modulated by the SCFTIR1 ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, it was found that 8-bromo-cGMP is unable to directly influence the auxin-dependent TIR1-Aux/IAA interaction as evidenced by pull-down and yeast two-hybrid assays. In addition, we provide evidence for cGMP-mediated modulation of auxin signalling through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our results suggest that cGMP acts as a mediator to participate in auxin signalling and may govern this process by PKG activity via its influence on auxin-regulated gene expression and auxin/IAA degradation. PMID:24591051

  9. Cyclic GMP is involved in auxin signalling during Arabidopsis root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Nan, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Lei; Hu, Yanfeng; Wei, Yuantao; Liang, Xiaolei; Mao, Lina; Bi, Yurong

    2014-04-01

    The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) plays an important role in plant development and responses to stress. Recent studies indicated that cGMP is a secondary signal generated in response to auxin stimulation. cGMP also mediates auxin-induced adventitious root formation in mung bean and gravitropic bending in soybean. Nonetheless, the mechanism of the participation of cGMP in auxin signalling to affect these growth and developmental processes is largely unknown. In this report we provide evidence that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induces cGMP accumulation in Arabidopsis roots through modulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. Application of 8-bromo-cGMP (a cell-permeable cGMP derivative) increases auxin-dependent lateral root formation, root hair development, primary root growth, and gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of endogenous cGMP synthesis block these processes induced by auxin. Data also showed that 8-bromo-cGMP enhances auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA protein modulated by the SCF(TIR1) ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, it was found that 8-bromo-cGMP is unable to directly influence the auxin-dependent TIR1-Aux/IAA interaction as evidenced by pull-down and yeast two-hybrid assays. In addition, we provide evidence for cGMP-mediated modulation of auxin signalling through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our results suggest that cGMP acts as a mediator to participate in auxin signalling and may govern this process by PKG activity via its influence on auxin-regulated gene expression and auxin/IAA degradation.

  10. Root hydrotropism: an update.

    PubMed

    Cassab, Gladys I; Eapen, Delfeena; Campos, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    While water shortage remains the single-most important factor influencing world agriculture, there are very few studies on how plants grow in response to water potential, i.e., hydrotropism. Terrestrial plant roots dwell in the soil, and their ability to grow and explore underground requires many sensors for stimuli such as gravity, humidity gradients, light, mechanical stimulations, temperature, and oxygen. To date, extremely limited information is available on the components of such sensors; however, all of these stimuli are sensed in the root cap. Directional growth of roots is controlled by gravity, which is fixed in direction and intensity. However, other environmental factors, such as water potential gradients, which fluctuate in time, space, direction, and intensity, can act as a signal for modifying the direction of root growth accordingly. Hydrotropism may help roots to obtain water from the soil and at the same time may participate in the establishment of the root system. Current genetic analysis of hydrotropism in Arabidopsis has offered new players, mainly AHR1, NHR1, MIZ1, and MIZ2, which seem to modulate how root caps sense and choose to respond hydrotropically as opposed to other tropic responses. Here we review the mechanism(s) by which these genes and the plant hormones abscisic acid and cytokinins coordinate hydrotropism to counteract the tropic responses to gravitational field, light or touch stimuli. The biological consequence of hydrotropism is also discussed in relation to water stress avoidance.

  11. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis < 247 µm) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a range of root traits related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, different carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) fractions (i.e., extractive, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions) as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed significant relationships among root traits indicating an acquisition-conservation tradeoff for thin absorptive roots while no such trait relationships were found for thick absorptive roots. Similar results were found when reanalyzing data of a previous study including 96 plant species. The contrasting economic strategies between thin and thick absorptive roots, as revealed here, may provide a new perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  12. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  13. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.

    1990-10-01

    It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  14. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.

    1990-10-01

    It is shown how root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All non-periodic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  15. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  16. Origin and basipetal transport of the IAA responsible for rooting of carnation cuttings.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Germán; Ramón Guerrero, Juan; Angel Cano, Emilio; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2002-02-01

    from the leaves and transported in the stem through the polar auxin transport pathway was decisive in controlling adventitious rooting.

  17. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Pagès, Loïc; Wu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system's overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the field. A method combining both excavation and analysis was applied to extract and quantify root architectural traits of adult, field-grown maize plants. The relationships between root diameter and other root architectural characteristics are analysed for two maize cultivars. The basal diameter of the lateral roots (orders 1-3) was highly variable. Basal diameter was partly determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. Basal diameter defined a potential root length, but the lengths of most roots fell far short of this. This was explained partly by differences in the pattern of diameter change along roots. Diameter tended to decrease along most roots, with the steepness of the gradient of decrease depending on basal diameter. The longest roots were those that maintained (or sometimes increased) their diameters during elongation. The branching density (cm(-1)) of laterals was also determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. However, the location of this bearing segment along the mother root was also involved - intermediate positions were associated with higher densities of laterals. The method used here allows us to obtain very detailed records of the geometry and topology of a complex root system. Basal diameter and the pattern of diameter change along a root were associated with its final length. These relationships are especially useful in simulations of root elongation and branching in source-sink models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals

  18. Relationships between root diameter, root length and root branching along lateral roots in adult, field-grown maize

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Pagès, Loïc; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system’s overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the field. Methods A method combining both excavation and analysis was applied to extract and quantify root architectural traits of adult, field-grown maize plants. The relationships between root diameter and other root architectural characteristics are analysed for two maize cultivars. Key Results The basal diameter of the lateral roots (orders 1–3) was highly variable. Basal diameter was partly determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. Basal diameter defined a potential root length, but the lengths of most roots fell far short of this. This was explained partly by differences in the pattern of diameter change along roots. Diameter tended to decrease along most roots, with the steepness of the gradient of decrease depending on basal diameter. The longest roots were those that maintained (or sometimes increased) their diameters during elongation. The branching density (cm–1) of laterals was also determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. However, the location of this bearing segment along the mother root was also involved – intermediate positions were associated with higher densities of laterals. Conclusions The method used here allows us to obtain very detailed records of the geometry and topology of a complex root system. Basal diameter and the pattern of diameter change along a root were associated with its final length. These relationships are especially useful in simulations of root elongation and branching in source–sink models. PMID:26744490

  19. Response to Bagavathiannan and Van Acker's "Transgenes and national boundaries - The need for international regulations": Biotechnology developers and regulators already consider transgene movement across national boundaries and the environmental risks posed by adventitious presence of unapproved events are overstated.

    PubMed

    Nickson, Thomas E; Raybould, Alan F

    2009-01-01

    Bagavathiannan and Van Acker propose greater international cooperation and information sharing in risk assessment for biotechnology-derived crops because pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow across political boundaries may lead to the adventitious presence of unapproved transgenes at sites along the borders of neighboring countries. However, they fail to convince us that something is wrong with the current situation and provide no details of how it could be improved.

  20. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. PMID:28168270

  1. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Bodner, Gernot; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  3. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  4. How roots respond to gravity.

    PubMed

    Evans, M L; Moore, R; Hasenstein, K H

    1986-12-01

    Current knowledge about the mechanisms of plant root response to gravity is reviewed. The roles of the columella region and amyloplasts in the root cap are examined. Results of experiments related to gravistimulation in corn roots with and without root caps are explained. The role of auxin, abscisic acid, and calcium also are examined.

  5. Root-end resection.

    PubMed

    Blahuta, R; Stanko, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the retrospective clinical study was to analyse a complex of patients who underwent a root end resection in the Department of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery, Comenius University, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia between January 2006 and December 2009 on the small surgery court. A total number of 285 patients who underwent root end resection. Factors examined include sex, patients age structure, total number of resected teeth and their position in upper or lower jaw and the 10 most resected teeth. From 285 patients 103 (36.14 %) were males and 182 (63.86 %) were females. A total number of 378 root end resections was performed, 55 (14.55 %) in the lower jaw and 323 (85.45 %) in the upper jaw. The most resected teeth are from the first and second quadrant. There is a decrease trend by the number of patients who underwent root end resection and teeth which were resected in the timeline between 2006-2009. This process is positive and matches the worldwide trend, by making better and successfull endodontic treatment which results in healing of periapical pathology without the need of root end resection (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 20). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  6. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from inflorescence explants and peroxidase involvement in morphogenesis of Populus euphratica Olivier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Gao, Ziyang; Gao, Shumin; Sun, Fangfang; Cheng, Pengjun; Li, Fenglan

    2012-12-01

    The inflorescences as explants for rapid propagation in vitro remained unknown in Populus euphratica Olivier. Here, we reported that multiple shoots were initiation from calli of both male and female inflorescences. The optimum medium for shoot induction from male inflorescences was lactose sulfite medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. The optimum medium of shoot induction from female inflorescence calli was the MS medium containing 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. Rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.5∼1.0 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the highest frequency rooting was on medium containing 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA. No shoots were obtained on medium without BA and NAA. Peroxidase (POD) activity was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis during shoot induction and differentiation stages. The results showed that two bands of POD (2a and 2b) activity appeared lowest during the early 8 days at the dedifferentiation phase of leaves inducing calli, whereas POD 2a, 2b activity appeared to be increasing at the homeochronous dedifferentiation phase of inflorescence. Five most intensive bands, POD 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, and ab, appeared in 8th and 28th days at the redifferentiation phase during shoot morphogenesis. These results demonstrated that the POD was involved in shoot morphogenesis from both leaf and inflorescence explants of Populus euphratica.

  7. PHYTOCHROME AND FLOWERING TIME1/MEDIATOR25 Regulates Lateral Root Formation via Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Raya-González, Javier; Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Ruíz-Herrera, León Francisco; Kazan, Kemal; López-Bucio, José

    2014-01-01

    Root system architecture is a major determinant of water and nutrient acquisition as well as stress tolerance in plants. The Mediator complex is a conserved multiprotein complex that acts as a universal adaptor between transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II. In this article, we characterize possible roles of the MEDIATOR8 (MED8) and MED25 subunits of the plant Mediator complex in the regulation of root system architecture in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that loss-of-function mutations in PHYTOCHROME AND FLOWERING TIME1 (PFT1)/MED25 increase primary and lateral root growth as well as lateral and adventitious root formation. In contrast, PFT1/MED25 overexpression reduces these responses, suggesting that PFT1/MED25 is an important element of meristematic cell proliferation and cell size control in both lateral and primary roots. PFT1/MED25 negatively regulates auxin transport and response gene expression in most parts of the plant, as evidenced by increased and decreased expression of the auxin-related reporters PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1)::PIN1::GFP (for green fluorescent protein), DR5:GFP, DR5:uidA, and BA3:uidA in pft1-2 mutants and in 35S:PFT1 seedlings, respectively. No alterations in endogenous auxin levels could be found in pft1-2 mutants or in 35S:PFT1-overexpressing seedlings. However, detailed analyses of DR5:GFP and DR5:uidA activity in wild-type, pft1-2, and 35S:PFT1 seedlings in response to indole-3-acetic acid, naphthaleneacetic acid, and the polar auxin transport inhibitor 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid indicated that PFT1/MED25 principally regulates auxin transport and response. These results provide compelling evidence for a new role for PFT1/MED25 as an important transcriptional regulator of root system architecture through auxin-related mechanisms in Arabidopsis. PMID:24784134

  8. Root architecture and root and tuber crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Villordon, Arthur Q; Ginzberg, Idit; Firon, Nurit

    2014-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that optimization of root architecture for resource capture is vital for enabling the next green revolution. Although cereals provide half of the calories consumed by humans, root and tuber crops are the second major source of carbohydrates globally. Yet, knowledge of root architecture in root and tuber species is limited. In this opinion article, we highlight what is known about the root system in root and tuber crops, and mark new research directions towards a better understanding of the relation between root architecture and yield. We believe that unraveling the role of root architecture in root and tuber crop productivity will improve global food security, especially in regions with marginal soil fertility and low-input agricultural systems.

  9. Nerve root replantation.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic avulsion of nerve roots from the spinal cord is a devastating event that usually occurs in the brachial plexus of young adults following motor vehicle or sports accidents or in newborn children during difficult childbirth. A strategy to restore motor function in the affected arm by reimplanting into the spinal cord the avulsed ventral roots or autologous nerve grafts connected distally to the avulsed roots has been developed. Surgical outcome is good and useful recovery in shoulder and proximal arm muscles occurs. Pain is alleviated with motor recovery but sensory improvement is poor when only motor conduits have been reconstructed. In experimental studies, restoration of sensory connections with general improvement in the outcome from this surgery is pursued.

  10. Wired to the roots

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Bais, Harsh P.

    2012-01-01

    Often, plant-pathogenic microbe interactions are discussed in a host-microbe two-component system, however very little is known about how the diversity of rhizospheric microbes that associate with plants affect host performance against pathogens. There are various studies, which specially direct the importance of induced systemic defense (ISR) response in plants interacting with beneficial rhizobacteria, yet we don’t know how rhizobacterial associations modulate plant physiology. In here, we highlight the many dimensions within which plant roots associate with beneficial microbes by regulating aboveground physiology. We review approaches to study the causes and consequences of plant root association with beneficial microbes on aboveground plant-pathogen interactions. The review provides the foundations for future investigations into the impact of the root beneficial microbial associations on plant performance and innate defense responses. PMID:23073006

  11. Rice and Phragmites: effects of organic acids on growth, root permeability, and radial oxygen loss to the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J; Armstrong, W

    2001-08-01

    Young Phragmites plants were grown in two cocktails of monocarboxylic acids (C(1)-C(5)) at pH 6, where the concentration of each acid was innocuous and the total undissociated (potentially toxic) concentrations were 0.35 mmol/L and 0.42 mmol/L. Rice plants were subjected to 1.5 mmol/L acetic acid at pH 4.5 (undissociated concentration = 1.05 mmol/L). In Phragmites, each cocktail curtailed root growth especially and induced premature shoot senescence. In both species, after 3-5 d of treatment, radial oxygen loss (ROL) from apical regions of adventitious roots, and from Phragmites laterals, was reduced to very low values and associated with cell wall lignification and suberization in the surface cell layers. At later stages of treatment, rice responded to acetic acid in similar ways to Phragmites, with the development of intercellular and callus type occlusions in the gas space system, vascular blockages, and the failure of laterals to emerge. The results are relevant to the supply of oxygen from Phragmites roots to sediments for the phytopurification of waste waters, to the efflux of methane and carbon dioxide from wetlands, and to rice cultivation.

  12. Feline immunodeficiency virus and retrovirus-mediated adventitial ex vivo gene transfer to rabbit carotid artery using autologous vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kankkonen, Hanna M; Turunen, Mikko P; Hiltunen, Mikko O; Lehtolainen, Pauliina; Koponen, Jonna; Leppänen, Pia; Turunen, Anna-Mari; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2004-03-01

    We have developed an ex vivo gene transfer technique to rabbit arterial wall using autologous smooth muscle cells (SMCs). SMCs were harvested from rabbit ear artery, transduced in vitro with vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and returned to the adventitial surface of the carotid artery using a periadventitial silicone collar or collagen sheet placed around the artery. Beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and human apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) cDNAs were used as transgenes. After retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of lacZ the selected cells implanted with high efficiency and expressed lacZ marker gene at a very high level 7 and 14 days after the operation. The level of lacZ expression decreased thereafter but was still detectable 12 weeks after the gene transfer, and was exclusively localized to the site of cell implantation inside the collar. Utilizing FIV vector expressing apoE3, low levels of apoE were measured from serum collected from a low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits 1 month after the gene transfer. The physiological effect of apoE expression was detected as transiently elevated serum cholesterol levels. The results indicate that the model can be used for high efficiency local gene transfer in arteries, e.g. during vascular surgery. The model is also valuable for studying expression, stability and safety of new gene transfer vectors and their expression products in vivo.

  13. Responses of adventitial CD34(+) vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells and medial smooth muscle cells to carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Wu, Yan; Zheng, Yong; Ao, Feng; Kang, Kai; Wan, Yu; Song, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34(+) vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC(+) SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU(+) cells, whereas the CD34(+) cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating that the cell expansion in SMC culture was attributed to SM MHC(+) SMCs. The adventitia-isolated CD34(+) VRS/Pcs responded to PDGF-BB by differentiating into SMC-like cells which expressed SM22α (an early stage SMC marker), but seldom SM MHC (a late stage SMC marker). In carotid injury model, the CD34(+) VRS/Pcs differentiated SMC-like cells migrated in very few numbers into only the outer layer of the media, and this was further confirmed by a cell tracking analysis. While the neointimal cells were consistently SM MHC(+) and CD34(-) SMCs during whole course of the post-injury remodeling. Thus it is speculated that the adventitial CD34(+) VRS/Pcs, at least in rat model, do not directly participate in neointimal formation, but function to maintain homeostasis of the media during injury-induced vascular wall remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgenic manipulation of plant embryo sacs tracked through cell-type-specific fluorescent markers: cell labeling, cell ablation, and adventitious embryos.

    PubMed

    Lawit, Shai J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Agee, April; Caswell, Eric S; Albertsen, Marc C

    2013-06-01

    Expression datasets relating to the Arabidopsis female gametophyte have enabled the creation of a tool set which allows simultaneous visual tracking of each specific cell type (egg, synergids, central cell, and antipodals). This cell-specific, fluorescent labeling tool-set functions from gametophyte cellularization through fertilization and early embryo development. Using this system, cell fates were tracked within Arabidopsis ovules following molecular manipulations, such as the ablation of the egg and/or synergids. Upon egg cell ablation, it was observed that a synergid can switch its developmental fate to become egg/embryo-like upon loss of the native egg. Also, manipulated was the fate of the somatic ovular cells, which can become egg- and embryo-like, reminiscent of adventitious embryony. These advances represent initial steps toward engineering synthetic apomixis resulting in seed derived wholly from the maternal plant. The end goal of applied apomixis research, fixing important agronomic traits such as hybrid vigor, would be a key benefit to agricultural productivity.

  15. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes.

    PubMed

    Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Landi, Pierangelo; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Salvi, Silvio; Conti, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a drought tolerance index (DTI) computed as GY-WS/GY-WW. In hydroponics, 11, 7, 9, and 10 QTLs were identified for primary root length (R1L), primary root diameter (R1D), primary root weight (R1W), and for the weight of the adventitious seminal roots (R2W), respectively. In the field, 7, 8, and 9 QTLs were identified for GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, respectively. Despite the weak correlation of root traits in hydroponics with GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, a noticeable overlap between the corresponding QTLs was observed. QTLs for R2W most frequently and consistently overlapped with QTLs for GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. At four QTL regions, an increase in R2W was positively associated with GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. A 10 cM interval on chromosome 1 between PGAMCTA205 and php20644 showed the strongest effect on R1L, R1D, R2W, GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI. These results indicate the feasibility of using hydroponics in maize to identify QTL regions controlling root traits at an early growth stage and also influencing GY in the field. A comparative analysis of the QTL regions herein identified with those described in previous studies investigating root traits in different maize populations revealed a number of QTLs in common.

  16. Great Plains Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

  17. The Roots Of Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1973-01-01

    Alienation in our society takes several forms--withdrawal, hostility, or efforts to reform. The author traces the roots of alienation to our neglect of many of the needs of children, particularly their need for interaction with adults. Among his many recommendations are: modified work schedules to permit more time with children and systems for…

  18. Rooting of conifer propagules

    Treesearch

    R.L. Mott

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the general problems involved with the propagation of elite conifer clones by rooted cuttings is drawn from published reports. New approaches for resolving these problems can come from studies of clone production through tissue culture methods. Probable extension of tissue culture techniques will permit the establishment of clones from adult, proven trees...

  19. Root hair sweet growth

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

    2011-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development. PMID:21918376

  20. Great Plains Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

  1. Armillaria Root Disease

    Treesearch

    R.E. Williams; C.G. III Shaw; P.M. Wargo; W.H. Sites

    1986-01-01

    Armillaria root disease is found throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. In the continental United States, the disease has been reported in nearly every State. Hosts include hundreds of species of trees, shrubs, vines, and forbs growing in forests, along roadsides, and in cultivated areas. The disease is caused by fungi, which live as parasites on...

  2. Multiple external root resorption.

    PubMed

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  3. Grass Roots Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, John W.

    Some aspects of a grass roots evaluation training program are presented. The program consists of two elements: (1) a series of 11 slide/tape individualized self-paced units, and (2) a six-week summer program. Three points of view on this program are: (1) University graduate programs in quantitative areas are usually consumed by specialists; (2)…

  4. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3)…

  5. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  6. Silicon Promotes Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Enhances Salinity Tolerance of Ajuga multiflora Bunge by Altering Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Si concentration on shoot regeneration and salinity tolerance of Ajuga multiflora. Addition of Si to the shoot induction medium significantly increased the frequency of shoot induction. The average number of shoots regenerated per explant decreased on the medium containing NaCl alone, while there was less decrease when the shoot induction medium was supplemented with both NaCl and Si. The shoot induction percentage increased linearly with increasing concentration of Si in the NaCl containing medium. Addition of Si to the shoot induction medium significantly increased SOD, POD, APX, and CAT activity in regenerated shoot buds as compared with the control. The inclusion of Si to the NaCl containing medium significantly increased the SOD activity in leaves and roots, while it decreased POD, APX, and CAT activity in both organs. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that there are no distinct differences in the structure of stomata between the control and Si-treated plants. However, NaCl treatment significantly affected the structure and number of stomata as compared to the control. Wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the high Si deposition in trichomes of plants grown in the Si containing medium but not in plants grown in the medium without Si. PMID:24526904

  7. Yellow-Poplar Rooting Habits

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Although the configuration of pole-sized yellow-poplar root systems in Tennessee is quite variable, a branched taproot with several widely spreading laterals is typical. Rooting depth is particularly limited by clayey texture, wetness, and firmness of subsoils.

  8. Advances in root reinforcement experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Niedda, Marcello

    2013-04-01

    Root reinforcement is considered in many situations an important effect of vegetation for slope stability. In the past 20 years many studies analyzed root reinforcement in laboratory and field experiments, as well as through modeling frameworks. Nearby the important contribution of roots to shear strength, roots are recognized to impart stabilization also through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. Lateral root reinforcement under tensile solicitations (such as in the upper part of a shallow landslide) was documented and discussed by some studies. The most common method adopted to measure lateral root reinforcement are pullout tests where roots (single or as bundle) are pulled out from a soil matrix. These conditions are indeed representative for the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope (such in a tension crack). However, there is also the situation where roots anchored at the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding soil mass. In this last case it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study discussed this mechanism so far. The main objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of roots considering the two presented cases of lateral root reinforcement discussed above - roots slipping out from stable soil profile or sliding soil matrix from anchored roots-, and discuss the implication of the results for slope stability modeling. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments for both roots pullout and soil sliding mechanisms using a tilting box with a bundle of 15 roots. Both Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots and soil were collected from the study area in Sardinia (Italy), and reconstructed in laboratory, filling the root and soil layer by layer up to 0.4 meter thickness. The results show that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil sliding range from 0.5 to 1. This results indicate that

  9. Angles of multivariable root loci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized eigenvalue problem is demonstrated to be useful for computing the multivariable root locus, particularly when obtaining the arrival angles to finite transmission zeros. The multivariable root loci are found for a linear, time-invariant output feedback problem. The problem is then employed to compute a closed-loop eigenstructure. The method of computing angles on the root locus is demonstrated, and the method is extended to a multivariable optimal root locus.

  10. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to