Science.gov

Sample records for adversary action sequences

  1. Adversary Sequence Interruption Model

    1985-11-15

    PC EASI is an IBM personal computer or PC-compatible version of an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. PC EASI utilizes a methodology called Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) which evaluates the probability of interruption (PI) for a given sequence of adversary tasks. Probability of interruption is defined as the probability that the response force will arrive before the adversary force has completed its task. The EASI methodology is amore » probabilistic approach that analytically evaluates basic functions of the physical security system (detection, assessment, communications, and delay) with respect to response time along a single adversary path. It is important that the most critical scenarios for each target be identified to ensure that vulnerabilities have not been overlooked. If the facility is not overly complex, this can be accomplished by examining all paths. If the facility is complex, a global model such as Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) may be used to identify the most vulnerable paths. PC EASI is menu-driven with screen forms for entering and editing the basic scenarios. In addition to evaluating PI for the basic scenario, the sensitivities of many of the parameters chosen in the scenario can be analyzed. These sensitivities provide information to aid the analyst in determining the tradeoffs for reducing the probability of interruption. PC EASI runs under the Micro Data Base Systems'' proprietary database management system Knowledgeman. KMAN provides the user environment and file management for the specified basic scenarios, and KGRAPH the graphical output of the sensitivity calculations. This software is not included. Due to errors in release 2 of KMAN, PC EASI will not execute properly; release 1.07 of KMAN is required.« less

  2. Adversarial inferencing for generating dynamic adversary behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surman, Joshua M.; Hillman, Robert G.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

    2003-09-01

    In the current world environment, the rapidly changing dynamics of organizational adversaries are increasing the difficulty for Military Analysts and Planners to accurately predict potential actions. As an integral part of the planning process, we need to assess our planning strategies against the range of potential adversarial actions. This dynamic world environment has established a necessity to develop tools to assist in establishing hypotheses for future adversary actions. Our research investigated the feasibility to utilize an adversarial tool as the core element within a predictive simulation to establish emergent adversarial behavior. It is our desire to use this intelligent adversary to generate alternative futures in performing Course of Action (COA) analysis. Such a system will allow planners to gauge and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative plans under varying actions and reactions. This research focuses on one of many possible techniques required to address the technical challenge of generating intelligent adversary behaviors. This development activity addresses two research components. First, establish an environment in which to perform the feasibility experiment and analysis. The proof of concept performed to analyze and assess this feasibility of utilizing an adversarial inferencing system to provide emergent adversary behavior is discussed. Second, determine if the appropriate interfaces can be reasonably established to provide integration with an existing force structure simulation framework. The authors also describe the envisioned simulation system and the software development performed to extend the inferencing engine and system interface toward that goal. The experimental results of observing emergent adversary behavior by applying the simulated COAs to the adversary model will be discussed. The research addresses numerous technological challenges in developing the necessary methodologies and tools for a software-based COA analysis

  3. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  4. Adversarial risk analysis for counterterrorism modeling.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jesus; Rios Insua, David

    2012-05-01

    Recent large-scale terrorist attacks have raised interest in models for resource allocation against terrorist threats. The unifying theme in this area is the need to develop methods for the analysis of allocation decisions when risks stem from the intentional actions of intelligent adversaries. Most approaches to these problems have a game-theoretic flavor although there are also several interesting decision-analytic-based proposals. One of them is the recently introduced framework for adversarial risk analysis, which deals with decision-making problems that involve intelligent opponents and uncertain outcomes. We explore how adversarial risk analysis addresses some standard counterterrorism models: simultaneous defend-attack models, sequential defend-attack-defend models, and sequential defend-attack models with private information. For each model, we first assess critically what would be a typical game-theoretic approach and then provide the corresponding solution proposed by the adversarial risk analysis framework, emphasizing how to coherently assess a predictive probability model of the adversary's actions, in a context in which we aim at supporting decisions of a defender versus an attacker. This illustrates the application of adversarial risk analysis to basic counterterrorism models that may be used as basic building blocks for more complex risk analysis of counterterrorism problems. PMID:22150163

  5. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  6. Acoustic Packaging of Action Sequences by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Tapscott, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether acoustic input, in the form of infant-directed speech, influenced infants' segmenting of action sequences. Thirty-two 7.5- to 11.5-month-old infants were familiarized with video sequences made up of short action clips. Narration coincided with portions of the action stream to package certain pairs of clips together.…

  7. Detecting Emotions from Connected Action Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Daniel; Robinson, Peter

    In this paper we deal with the problem of detecting emotions from the body movements produced by naturally connected action sequences. Although action sequences are one of the most common forms of body motions in everyday scenarios their potential for emotion recognition has not been explored in the past. We show that there are fundamental differences between actions recorded in isolation and in natural sequences and demonstrate a number of techniques which allow us to correctly label action sequences with one of four emotions up to 86% of the time. Our results bring us an important step closer to recognizing emotions from body movements in natural scenarios.

  8. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  9. A cognitive architecture for adversary intent inferencing: structure of knowledge and computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.

    2003-09-01

    Existing target-based and objectives-based ("strategy-to-task") approaches to mission planning do not explicitly address the adversary"s decision-making processes. Obviously, the adversary"s courses of action (COA) are influenced in a cause-and-effect manner by actions taken by friendly forces. Given the iterative/interleaved nature of actions taken by enemy and friendly forces, mission planning must clearly take adversarial decision making into account especially during concurrent mission planning and execution. Currently, adversarial behaviour with regards to cause-and-effect are difficult to account for within the framework of existing planning approaches. This paper describes a cognitive architecture for computationally modeling, predicting, and explaining adversarial behaviors and COAs and proposes an integrated framework for mission planning. Our framework fits naturally within the Effects-Based Operations (EBO) approach to mission planning.

  10. Potential criminal adversaries of nuclear programs: a portrait

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1980-07-01

    This paper examines the possibility that terrorists or other kinds of criminals might attempt to seize or sabotage a nuclear facility, steal nuclear material, or carry out other criminal activities in the nuclear domain which has created special problems for the security of nuclear programs. This paper analyzes the potential threat. Our tasks was to describe the potential criminal adversary, or rather the spectrum of potential adversaries who conceivably might carry out malevolent criminal actions against nuclear programs and facilities. We were concerned with both the motivations as well as the material and operational capabilities likely to be displayed by various categories of potential nuclear adversaries.

  11. Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

  12. Optimal Online Prediction in Adversarial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Peter L.

    In many prediction problems, including those that arise in computer security and computational finance, the process generating the data is best modelled as an adversary with whom the predictor competes. Even decision problems that are not inherently adversarial can be usefully modeled in this way, since the assumptions are sufficiently weak that effective prediction strategies for adversarial settings are very widely applicable.

  13. The learning of action sequences through social transmission.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Andrew; Cownden, Daniel; Laland, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Previous empirical work on animal social learning has found that many species lack the ability to learn entire action sequences solely through reliance on social information. Conversely, acquiring action sequences through asocial learning can be difficult due to the large number of potential sequences arising from even a small number of base actions. In spite of this, several studies report that some primates use action sequences in the wild. We investigate how social information can be integrated with asocial learning to facilitate the learning of action sequences. We formalize this problem by examining how learners using temporal difference learning, a widely applicable model of reinforcement learning, can combine social cues with their own experiences to acquire action sequences. The learning problem is modeled as a Markov decision process. The learning of nettle processing by mountain gorillas serves as a focal example. Through simulations, we find that the social facilitation of component actions can combine with individual learning to facilitate the acquisition of action sequences. Our analysis illustrates that how even simple forms of social learning, combined with asocial learning, generate substantially faster learning of action sequences compared to asocial processes alone, and that the benefits of social information increase with the length of the action sequence and the number of base actions. PMID:26006723

  14. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  15. Skeleton-based human action recognition using multiple sequence alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenwen; Liu, Kai; Cheng, Fei; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2015-05-01

    Human action recognition and analysis is an active research topic in computer vision for many years. This paper presents a method to represent human actions based on trajectories consisting of 3D joint positions. This method first decompose action into a sequence of meaningful atomic actions (actionlets), and then label actionlets with English alphabets according to the Davies-Bouldin index value. Therefore, an action can be represented using a sequence of actionlet symbols, which will preserve the temporal order of occurrence of each of the actionlets. Finally, we employ sequence comparison to classify multiple actions through using string matching algorithms (Needleman-Wunsch). The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on datasets captured by commodity depth cameras. Experiments of the proposed method on three challenging 3D action datasets show promising results.

  16. Modeling intelligent adversaries for terrorism risk assessment: some necessary conditions for adversary models.

    PubMed

    Guikema, Seth

    2012-07-01

    Intelligent adversary modeling has become increasingly important for risk analysis, and a number of different approaches have been proposed for incorporating intelligent adversaries in risk analysis models. However, these approaches are based on a range of often-implicit assumptions about the desirable properties of intelligent adversary models. This "Perspective" paper aims to further risk analysis for situations involving intelligent adversaries by fostering a discussion of the desirable properties for these models. A set of four basic necessary conditions for intelligent adversary models is proposed and discussed. These are: (1) behavioral accuracy to the degree possible, (2) computational tractability to support decision making, (3) explicit consideration of uncertainty, and (4) ability to gain confidence in the model. It is hoped that these suggested necessary conditions foster discussion about the goals and assumptions underlying intelligent adversary modeling in risk analysis. PMID:22150359

  17. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  18. Action sequence for layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pepe, P E; Gay, M; Cobb, L A; Handley, A J; Zaritsky, A; Hallstrom, A; Hickey, R W; Jacobs, I; Berg, R A; Bircher, N G; Zideman, D A; de Vos, R; Callanan, V

    2001-04-01

    Although some minor modifications were forged, the general consensus was to maintain most of the current guidelines for phone first/phone fast, no-assisted-ventilation CPR, the A-B-C (vs C-A-B) sequence of CPR, and the recovery position. The decisions to leave these guidelines as they are were based on a lack of evidence to justify the proposed changes, coupled with a reluctance to make revisions that would require major changes in worldwide educational practices without such evidence.Nonetheless, some major changes were made. The time-honored procedure ol pulse check by lay rescuers was eliminated altogether and replaced with an assessment for other signs of circulation. Likewise, it was recommended that even the professional rescuer now check for these other signs of circulation. Although professional rescuers may simultaneously check for a pulse, they should do so only for a short period of time (within 10 seconds). There was also enthusiasm for deleting the ventilation aspect of EMS dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions that are provided to rescuers at the scene who are inexperienced in CPR. lt was made clear, though, that the data are applicable only to adult patients who are receiving CPR and that the data are appropriate most for EMS systems with rapid response times. PMID:11290966

  19. Action-effect congruence during observational learning leads to faster action sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Jared C; Gray, Zachary; Schilberg, Lukas; Vidrin, Ilya; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Common coding theory suggests that any action (pressing a piano key) is intimately linked with its resultant sensory effect (an auditory musical tone). We conducted two experiments to explore the effect of varying auditory action-effect patterns during complex action learning. In Experiment 1, participants were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, watched a silent video of a hand playing a sequence on a piano keyboard with no auditory action effect (observation) and were asked to practise and perform the sequence on an identical keyboard with varying action effects (reproduction). During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones (identical to observed video), Group 2 heard typical scale-ascending piano tones with each key press, Group 3 heard fixed but out-of-sequence piano tones with each key press, and Group 4 heard random piano tones with each key press. In Experiment two, new participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and watched an identical video; however, the video in this experiment contained typical, scale-ascending piano sounds. During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones while Group 2 heard typical, scale-ascending piano tones with each key press (identical to observed video). Our results showed that participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction matched those in the observed video learned the action sequence faster than participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction differed from those in the observed video. Additionally, our results suggest that adding an effect during reproduction (when one is absent during observation) is somewhat more detrimental to action sequence learning than removing an effect during reproduction (when one is present during observation).

  20. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection. PMID:25910268

  1. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.

  2. Capturing the uncertainty in adversary attack simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Brooks, Traci N.; Berry, Robert Bruce

    2008-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive uncertainty technique to evaluate uncertainty, resulting in a more realistic evaluation of PI, thereby requiring fewer resources to address scenarios and allowing resources to be used across more scenarios. For a given set of dversary resources, two types of uncertainty are associated with PI for a scenario: (1) aleatory (random) uncertainty for detection probabilities and time delays and (2) epistemic (state of knowledge) uncertainty for the adversary resources applied during an attack. Adversary esources consist of attributes (such as equipment and training) and knowledge about the security system; to date, most evaluations have assumed an adversary with very high resources, adding to the conservatism in the evaluation of PI. The aleatory uncertainty in PI is ddressed by assigning probability distributions to detection probabilities and time delays. A numerical sampling technique is used to evaluate PI, addressing the repeated variable dependence in the equation for PI.

  3. Modeling adversarial intent for interactive simulation and gaming: the fused intent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; McQueary, Bruce; Krause, Lee

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the intent of today's enemy necessitates changes in intelligence collection, processing, and dissemination. Unlike cold war antagonists, today's enemies operate in small, agile, and distributed cells whose tactics do not map well to established doctrine. This has necessitated a proliferation of advanced sensor and intelligence gathering techniques at level 0 and level 1 of the Joint Directors of Laboratories fusion model. The challenge is in leveraging modeling and simulation to transform the vast amounts of level 0 and level 1 data into actionable intelligence at levels 2 and 3 that include adversarial intent. Currently, warfighters are flooded with information (facts/observables) regarding what the enemy is presently doing, but provided inadequate explanations of adversarial intent and they cannot simulate 'what-if' scenarios to increase their predictive situational awareness. The Fused Intent System (FIS) aims to address these deficiencies by providing an environment that answers 'what' the adversary is doing, 'why' they are doing it, and 'how' they will react to coalition actions. In this paper, we describe our approach to FIS which includes adversarial 'soft-factors' such as goals, rationale, and beliefs within a computational model that infers adversarial intent and allows the insertion of assumptions to be used in conjunction with current battlefield state to perform what-if analysis. Our approach combines ontological modeling for classification and Bayesian-based abductive reasoning for explanation and has broad applicability to the operational, training, and commercial gaming domains.

  4. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, William H. Jr.

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  5. Recognizing surgeon's actions during suture operations from video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Ohya, Jun; Chiba, Toshio; Xu, Rong; Yamashita, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Because of the shortage of nurses in the world, the realization of a robotic nurse that can support surgeries autonomously is very important. More specifically, the robotic nurse should be able to autonomously recognize different situations of surgeries so that the robotic nurse can pass necessary surgical tools to the medical doctors in a timely manner. This paper proposes and explores methods that can classify suture and tying actions during suture operations from the video sequence that observes the surgery scene that includes the surgeon's hands. First, the proposed method uses skin pixel detection and foreground extraction to detect the hand area. Then, interest points are randomly chosen from the hand area so that their 3D SIFT descriptors are computed. A word vocabulary is built by applying hierarchical K-means to these descriptors, and the words' frequency histogram, which corresponds to the feature space, is computed. Finally, to classify the actions, either SVM (Support Vector Machine), Nearest Neighbor rule (NN) for the feature space or a method that combines "sliding window" with NN is performed. We collect 53 suture videos and 53 tying videos to build the training set and to test the proposed method experimentally. It turns out that the NN gives higher than 90% accuracies, which are better recognition than SVM. Negative actions, which are different from either suture or tying action, are recognized with quite good accuracies, while "Sliding window" did not show significant improvements for suture and tying and cannot recognize negative actions.

  6. Clinical actionability enhanced through deep targeted sequencing of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Zhao, Hao; Zhang, Qingxiu; Ezzeddine, Nader; Tang, Lin-ya; Qi, Yuan; Mao, Yong; Chen, Tenghui; Chong, Zechen; Zhou, Wanding; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Johnson, Amber; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Routbort, Mark J.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; de Groot, John; Moulder, Stacy; Vinod, Ravi; Farhangfar, Carol J.; Shaw, Kenna Mills; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.; Eterovic, Agda Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Further advances of targeted cancer therapy require comprehensive in-depth profiling of somatic mutations that are present in subpopulations of tumor cells in a clinical tumor sample. However, it is unclear to what extent such intra-tumor heterogeneity is present and whether it may affect clinical decision making. To unravel this challenge, we established a deep targeted sequencing platform to identify potentially actionable DNA alterations in tumor samples. Methods We assayed 515 FFPE tumor samples and matched germline (475 patients) from 11 disease sites by capturing and sequencing all the exons in 201 cancer related genes. Mutations, indels and copy number data were reported. Results We obtained a 1000-fold average sequencing depth and identified 4794 non-synonymous mutations in the samples analyzed, which 15.2% were present at less than 10% allele frequency. Most of these low level mutations occurred at known oncogenic hotspots and are likely functional. Identifying low level mutations improved identification of mutations in actionable genes in 118 (24.84%) patients, among which 47 (9.8%) would otherwise be unactionable. In addition, acquiring ultra-high depth also ensured a low false discovery rate (less than 2.2%) from FFPE samples. Conclusion Our results were as accurate as a commercially available CLIA-compliant hotspot panel, but allowed the detection of a higher number of mutations in actionable genes. Our study revealed the critical importance of acquiring and utilizing high depth in profiling clinical tumor samples and presented a very useful platform for implementing routine sequencing in a cancer care institution. PMID:25626406

  7. Learning Sequences of Actions in Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.

  8. Extended defense systems :I. adversary-defender modeling grammar for vulnerability analysis and threat assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2006-03-01

    Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes. The adversary-defender modeling (ADM) grammar employs classical set theory and notation. It is designed to incorporate contributions from subject matter experts in all relevant disciplines, without bias. The Attack Scenario Space U{sub S} is the set universe of all scenarios possible under physical laws. An attack scenario is a postulated event consisting of the active engagement of at least one adversary with at least one defended target. Target Information Space I{sub S} is the universe of information about targets and defenders. Adversary and defender groups are described by their respective Character super-sets, (A){sub P} and (D){sub F}. Each super-set contains six elements: Objectives, Knowledge, Veracity, Plans, Resources, and Skills. The Objectives are the desired end-state outcomes. Knowledge is comprised of empirical and theoretical a priori knowledge and emergent knowledge (learned during an attack), while Veracity is the correspondence of Knowledge with fact or outcome. Plans are ordered activity-task sequences (tuples) with logical contingencies. Resources are the a priori and opportunistic physical assets and intangible attributes applied to the execution of associated Plans elements. Skills for both adversary and defender include the assumed general and task competencies for the associated plan set, the realized value of competence in execution or exercise, and the opponent's planning assumption of the task competence.

  9. A model of adversary characteristics for designing employee monitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.; Smith, G.

    1990-07-16

    Employee screening and monitoring programs are an important component of the defense in depth at nuclear facilities. Ideally, such programs should maximize the probability of detecting an adversary and minimize the probability of falsely detecting'' a nonadversary by taking into account the characteristics of potential adversaries. This paper presents a model for identifying patterns of characteristics, or indicators, that may be more prevalent among adversaries than among non-adversaries and, therefore, can be used for detecting adversaries. It assumes that adversaries are detected when a background check or other monitoring program recognizes suspect patterns of indicators such as drug abuse, unexplained income, financial problems, abnormal scores on psychological tests, etc. The model quantifies the probabilities that adversaries will manifest various patterns of indicators. The analyses presented in the paper identify sets of patterns that are most likely to be manifested by several types of adversaries. Monitoring programs that can recognize these patterns should be more likely to detect adversaries. We have also estimated the probability that a normal employee might manifest the same patterns and be incorrectly detected as an adversary. The likelihoods use subjective probability judgements, however, statistical measures can be incorporated should they become available. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  11. California's experience with non-adversary divorce.

    PubMed

    Schoen, R; Greenblatt, H N; Mielke, R B

    1975-05-01

    California's Family Law Act of 1969, effective January 1, 1970, instituted non-adversary proceedings for divorce, suggested a more equal division of community property and reduced the minimum waiting time for a final divorce decree. A rapid increase in the number of divorces granted in California followed. Analysis revealed that the 1969 Law did not lead to any real increase in marital dissolution among Californians or produce any significant changes in the characteristics of the population filing for divorce. What was seen were certain modifications in behavior on the part of divorcing persons to take advantage of the Law's new provisions.

  12. The influence of action possibility and end-state comfort on motor imagery of manual action sequences.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2015-12-01

    It has been proposed that the preparation of goal-direct actions involves internal movement simulation, or motor imagery. Evidence suggests that motor imagery is critically involved in the prediction of action consequences and contributes heavily to movement planning processes. The present study examined whether the sensitivity towards end-state comfort and the possibility/impossibility to perform an action sequence are considered during motor imagery. Participants performed a mental rotation task in which two images were simultaneously presented. The image on the left depicted the start posture of a right hand when grasping a bar, while the right image depicted the hand posture at the end of the action sequence. The right image displayed the bar in a vertical orientation with the hand in a comfortable (thumb-up) or in an uncomfortable (thumb-down) posture, while the bar in the left image was rotated in picture plane in steps of 45°. Crucially, the two images formed either a physically possible or physically impossible to perform action sequence. Results revealed strikingly different response time patterns for the two action sequence conditions. In general, response times increased almost monotonically with increasing angular disparity for the possible to perform action sequences. However, slight deviations from this monotonicity were apparent when the sequences contained an uncomfortable as opposed to a comfortable final posture. In contrast, for the impossible sequences, response times did not follow a typical mental rotation function, but instead were uniformly very slow. These findings suggest that both biomechanical constraints (i.e., end-state comfort) and the awareness of the possibility/impossibility to perform an action sequence are considered during motor imagery. We conclude that motor representations contain information about the spatiotemporal movement organization and the possibility of performing an action, which are crucially involved in

  13. AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

  14. Arguing with Adversaries: Aikido, Rhetoric, and the Art of Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese martial art of aikido affords a framework for understanding argument as harmonization rather than confrontation. Two movements, circling away ("tenkan") and entering in ("irimi"), suggest tactics for arguing with adversaries. The ethical imperative of aikido involves protecting one's adversary from harm, using the least force…

  15. TRANSITION FROM ADVERSARIAL TO COOPERATIVE STRATEGIC INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    This note extends the game theoretic analysis of strategic conflicts begun in earlier Seminars on Planetary Emergencies to interactions with and without defenses between two or more adversaries with more realistic target structures. It reviews the essentials of game theory as applied to the analysis of strategic decisions, the application of first and second strike costs as payoffs, and solution optimization, which resolves several inconsistencies seen with earlier metrics. The stability of the current bilateral offensive configuration is shown to be high and insensitive to deep reductions in offensive forces, the deployment of limited defenses, and the exchange of significant offensive forces for defenses. The transition from adversarial to cooperative interaction is represented by the progressive reduction of the parameters representing each side's preference for damaging or deterring the other, which monotonically improves stability. Estimates of strike incentives in bilateral and trilateral configurations are reduced by the inclusion of high value targets in both sides' force allocations, which dominates the details of offensive and defensive forces. The shift to high value targets stabilizes trilateral offensive configurations, a result that differs with that from analyses based on military costs only. When defenses are included, they lead to a balance between a large defended side and small undefended side that resembles the balance between two large sides. Including the large side's preference for defense of high value targets in the analyses reduces its strike incentives and thus the small side's incentive to preempt. However, it also removes the large sides' ability to deter, so the stability of multi-polar configurations continues to be controlled by the least stable dyad, which places constraints on the size of defenses that can be deployed stably that could be more stringent than those from the bilateral balance.

  16. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  17. Children's Imitation of Causal Action Sequences Is Influenced by Statistical and Pedagogical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Shafto, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Children are ubiquitous imitators, but how do they decide which actions to imitate? One possibility is that children rationally combine multiple sources of information about which actions are necessary to cause a particular outcome. For instance, children might learn from contingencies between action sequences and outcomes across repeated…

  18. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Do, Quang; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  19. 13 CFR 134.603 - What is an adversary adjudication?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act § 134.603 What is an adversary adjudication? For purposes of this subpart,...

  20. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  1. Neural Bases of Sequence Processing in Action and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carota, Francesca; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Real-time estimation of what we will do next is a crucial prerequisite of purposive behavior. During the planning of goal-oriented actions, for instance, the temporal and causal organization of upcoming subsequent moves needs to be predicted based on our knowledge of events. A forward computation of sequential structure is also essential for…

  2. Dynamic mesolimbic dopamine signaling during action sequence learning and expectation violation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Anne L.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Bye, Jeffrey K.; Linker, Kay E.; Wang, Alice S.; Wassum, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075

  3. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  4. Terrorism and Perspectivist Philosophy: Understanding Adversarial News Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Perspective realism, particularly as modified into the special case of adversarial perspectivism, and the analogy of reciprocal concave and convex world views, is an important and neglected component in accounting for the widespread discrepancies in the reporting of so-called "terrorist" events. However, the tendencies toward cooperation between…

  5. Allies and adversaries: policy insights into strategic defense relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Don, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    This research addresses alliance relationships in an adversarial context, focusing on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and its relationship to the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO or the Warsaw Pact). The underlying themes have application to other alliances such as the Australia-New Zealand-United States agreements (ANZUS) or contemplated security arrangements in the Mid-East. The study determines that there are three prime determinants of the level of defense enjoyed by a nation within an alliance. The most influential factor is the economic well-being of the nation in question, coupled with its tastes and preferences. The next most influential factor is the level of defense effort undertaken by the nation's adversary. The least influential factor is the defense provided by a nation's allies. In exploring the overall framework in which allies and adversaries act, the analysis uncovers evidence that their relations are characterized by a threat-bargain process. In this process, a nation uses military capability to threaten an adversary in the hopes of improving its own bargaining position. Thus, when NATO's priority mechanism, deterrence, is successful in averting war, the confrontation between NATO and the WTO does not end; it merely changes in character.

  6. Infants Use Social Context to Bind Actions into a Collaborative Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking was used to show that 18-month-old infants are sensitive to social context as a sign that others' actions are bound together as a collaborative sequence based on a joint goal. Infants observed five identical demonstrations in which Actor 1 moved a block to one location and Actor 2 moved the same block to a new location, creating…

  7. Variable-Interval Sequenced-Action Camera (VINSAC). Dissemination Document No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ted

    The 16 millimeter (mm) Variable-Interval Sequenced-Action Camera (VINSAC) is designed for inexpensive photographic recording of effective teacher instruction and use of instructional materials for teacher education and research purposes. The camera photographs single frames at preselected time intervals (.5 second to 20 seconds) which are…

  8. Infants' Sensitivity to the Causal Features of Means-End Support Sequences in Action and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2005-01-01

    Current work has yielded differential findings regarding infants' ability to perceptually detect the causal structure of a means-end support sequence. Resolving this debate has important implications for perception-action dissociations in this domain of object knowledge. In Study 1, 12-month-old infants' ability to perceive the causal structure of…

  9. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    SciTech Connect

    HARLAN, CHARLENE P.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualties to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.

  10. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualtiesmore » to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.« less

  11. Synchronous imitation of continuous action sequences: The role of spatial and topological mapping.

    PubMed

    Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2015-10-01

    What are the mapping mechanisms that enable people to synchronously imitate continuous action sequences observed in others? We investigated this question in 4 experiments that used a tapping task where participants synchronously performed alternating bimanual hand movements with a model presented in an egocentric or allocentric orientation. Their task was to tap in synchrony, with each hand matching the movements of the ipsilateral model hand as closely as possible. The results show that automatic establishment of topological mappings, where the performer's hand is mapped onto the model's anatomically matching hand even if the 2 are spatially misaligned, can interfere with maintaining spatial mappings (Experiments 1 and 2). The interference was particularly strong in musicians who have expertise in establishing topological mappings in continuous performance (Experiment 4). Adopting an unusual body posture greatly interfered with establishing spatial as well as topological mappings (Experiment 3). Together, the results suggest that synchronous imitation of continuous action sequences depends on flexible predictive models that simultaneously apply spatial and topological mapping constraints to enable an actor to act in synchrony with observed action sequences. PMID:26052697

  12. An Action Sequence Withheld in Memory Can Delay Execution of Visually Guided Actions: The Generalization of Response Compatibility Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiediger, Matthew D.; Fournier, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Withholding an action plan in memory for later execution can delay execution of another action, if the actions share a similar (compatible) action feature (i.e., response hand). This phenomenon, termed compatibility interference (CI), was found for identity-based actions that do not require visual guidance. The authors examined whether CI can…

  13. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “American Adversaries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Copley in a Transatlantic World'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... Adversaries: West and Copley in a Transatlantic World,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  14. Quantifying Adversary Capabilities to Inform Defensive Resource Allocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Bier, Vicki M

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian Stackelberg game capable of analyzing the joint effects of both attacker intent and capabilities on optimal defensive strategies. The novel feature of our model is the use of contest success functions from economics to capture the extent to which the success of an attack is attributable to the adversary's capability (as well as the level of defensive investment), rather than pure luck. Results of a two-target example suggest that precise assessment of attacker intent may not be necessary if we have poor estimates of attacker capability.

  15. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  16. Quantifying Adversary Capabilities to Inform Defensive Resource Allocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Bier, Vicki M

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian Stackelberg game capable of analyzing the joint effects of both attacker intent and capabilities on optimal defensive strategies. The novel feature of our model is the use of contest success functions from economics to capture the extent to which the success of an attack is attributable to the adversary's capability (as well as the level of defensive investment), rather than pure luck. Results of a two-target example suggest that precise assessment of attacker intent may not be necessary if we have poor estimates of attacker capability. PMID:25929274

  17. From days to hours: reporting clinically actionable variants from whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Middha, Sumit; Baheti, Saurabh; Hart, Steven N; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A

    2014-01-01

    As the cost of whole genome sequencing (WGS) decreases, clinical laboratories will be looking at broadly adopting this technology to screen for variants of clinical significance. To fully leverage this technology in a clinical setting, results need to be reported quickly, as the turnaround rate could potentially impact patient care. The latest sequencers can sequence a whole human genome in about 24 hours. However, depending on the computing infrastructure available, the processing of data can take several days, with the majority of computing time devoted to aligning reads to genomics regions that are to date not clinically interpretable. In an attempt to accelerate the reporting of clinically actionable variants, we have investigated the utility of a multi-step alignment algorithm focused on aligning reads and calling variants in genomic regions of clinical relevance prior to processing the remaining reads on the whole genome. This iterative workflow significantly accelerates the reporting of clinically actionable variants with no loss of accuracy when compared to genotypes obtained with the OMNI SNP platform or to variants detected with a standard workflow that combines Novoalign and GATK. PMID:24505267

  18. Adversarial intent modeling using embedded simulation and temporal Bayesian knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Melhuish, James; Seidel, Andy; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Li, Deqing; Gorniak, Mark

    2009-05-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness among air strategy planners, BAE Systems has developed Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment for authoring, integration, validation, and debugging of models relating multiple domains, including political, military, social, economic and information. CMIST provides a unified graphical user interface for such systems of systems modeling, spanning several disparate modeling paradigms. Here, we briefly review the CMIST architecture and then compare modeling results using two approaches to intent modeling. The first uses reactive agents with simplified behavior models that apply rule-based triggers to initiate actions based solely on observations of the external world at the current time in the simulation. The second method models proactive agents running an embedded CMIST simulation representing their projection of how events may unfold in the future in order to take early preventative action. Finally, we discuss a recent extension to CMIST that incorporates Temporal Bayesian Knowledge Bases for more sophisticated models of adversarial intent that are capable of inferring goals and future actions given evidence of current actions at particular times.

  19. Entrainment and task co-representation effects for discrete and continuous action sequences.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Fu, En

    2015-12-01

    A large body of work has established an influence of other people's actions on our own actions. For example, actors entrain to the movements of others, in studies that typically employ continuous movements. Likewise, studies on co-representation have shown that people automatically co-represent a co-actor's task, in studies that typically employ discrete actions. Here we examined entrainment and co-representation within a single task paradigm. Participants sat next to a confederate while simultaneously moving their right hand back and forth between two targets. We crossed whether or not the participant and the confederate moved over an obstacle and manipulated whether participants generated discrete or continuous movement sequences, while varying the space between the actors and whether the actors could see each other's movements. Participants moved higher when the confederate cleared an obstacle than when he did not. For continuous movements, this effect depended on the availability of visual information, as would be expected on the basis of entrainment. In contrast, the co-actor's task modulated the height of discrete movements, regardless of the availability of visual information, which is consistent with co-representation. Space did not have an effect. These results provide new insights into the interplay between co-representation and entrainment for discrete- and continuous-action tasks. PMID:25911443

  20. Chemical genomic profiling via barcode sequencing to predict compound mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Simpkins, Scott W.; Li, Sheena C.; Deshpande, Raamesh; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charlie; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chemical genomics is an unbiased, whole-cell approach to characterizing novel compounds to determine mode of action and cellular target. Our version of this technique is built upon barcoded deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been adapted to a high-throughput methodology using next-generation sequencing. Here we describe the steps to generate a chemical genomic profile from a compound of interest, and how to use this information to predict molecular mechanism and targets of bioactive compounds. PMID:25618354

  1. Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability during Acquisition of Action Sequences by Observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Moriyama, Noriyoshi; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Excitability of the corticospinal pathway increases during observation of an action. However, how corticospinal excitability changes during observation of sequential actions in the course of acquiring novel skills (observational learning) remains unexplored. To investigate this, we used a previously unpracticed sequence of ten hand postures. Participants were asked to repeat observation and replication of the sequence. This block of observation and replication was repeated 5 times. During observation of a given hand posture (OK sign), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand muscles. In experiment 1, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position of the sequence. Almost all participants could replicate the OK sign only at the 5th block of the experiment. MEP amplitude was greater than that in the control, and decreased with the stages. This suggested that during observational learning of sequential hand postures MEP changed with the progress of the learning. To evaluate this idea, we performed two additional experiments. In experiment 2, the OK sign appeared in the 2nd position. Almost all participants replicated the OK sign even in the 1st block. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. In experiment 3, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position, but the order of other signs was randomized in every stage. Many participants were not able to replicate the OK sign even during the 5th block of the experiment. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. These results suggest that: (1) During observational learning modulation of corticospinal excitability is associated with the learning process. (2) Corticospinal excitability decreases as learning progresses. PMID:22615889

  2. From impartial expert to adversary in the wake of Ake.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, S

    1988-01-01

    In deciding Ake v. Oklahoma, the Supreme Court held that, when defendants demonstrate that their sanity is likely to be a significant factor at trial, the State must assure them access to a competent psychiatrist who will not only examine them but also render other assistance to the defense. There have been 28 known subsequent decisions in which appellate courts have ruled on the validity of Ake-based claims; in only four did the defendant prevail. The case nonetheless raises issues relative to the proper role of the psychiatric expert. The Supreme Court's decisions, although not introducing a new ethical topic, appear to be favoring a more adversarial posture, at least within certain parameters. I suggest that impartiality, independence, and advocacy need not be mutually exclusive concepts and that some of our traditional beliefs about what part we should play in criminal law may have to be modified and expanded.

  3. 'Meatball searching' - The adversarial approach to online information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the different styles of online searching can be described as either formal (highly precise) or informal with the needs of the client dictating which is most applicable at a particular moment. The background and personality of the searcher also come into play. Particular attention is focused on meatball searching which is a form of online searching characterized by deliberate vagueness. It requires generally comprehensive searches, often on unusual topics and with tight deadlines. It is most likely to occur in search centers serving many different disciplines and levels of client information sophistication. Various information needs are outlined as well as the laws of meatball searching and the adversarial approach. Traits and characteristics important to sucessful searching include: (1) concept analysis, (2) flexibility of thinking, (3) ability to think in synonyms and (4) anticipation of variant word forms and spellings.

  4. Eighteen-Month-Olds, but not 14-Month-Olds, Use Social Context to Bind Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Christine; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that 18-month-olds, but not 14-month-olds, can anticipate others' actions based on an interpretation of shared goals that bind together individual actions into a collaborative sequence. After viewing a sequence of actions performed by two people who socially interact, 18-month-olds bound together the socially engaged actors' actions such that they later expected the actors to share the same final goal. Eighteen-month-olds who saw nonsocially engaged actors did not have this expectation and neither did 14-month-olds when viewing either socially or nonsocially engaged actors. The results are discussed in light of the possibility that experience in collaborations could be necessary for understanding collaboration from a third-person perspective. PMID:26640417

  5. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  6. Satisfiability-unsatisfiability transition in the adversarial satisfiability problem.

    PubMed

    Bardoscia, Marco; Nagaj, Daniel; Scardicchio, Antonello

    2014-03-01

    Adversarial satisfiability (AdSAT) is a generalization of the satisfiability (SAT) problem in which two players try to make a Boolean formula true (resp. false) by controlling their respective sets of variables. AdSAT belongs to a higher complexity class in the polynomial hierarchy than SAT, and therefore the nature of the critical region and the transition are not easily parallel to those of SAT and worthy of independent study. AdSAT also provides an upper bound for the transition threshold of the quantum satisfiability problem (QSAT). We present a complete algorithm for AdSAT, show that 2-AdSAT is in P, and then study two stochastic algorithms (simulated annealing and its improved variant) and compare their performances in detail for 3-AdSAT. Varying the density of clauses α we claim that there is a sharp SAT-UNSAT transition at a critical value whose upper bound is αc≲1.5, suggesting a much stricter upper bound for the QSAT transition than those previously found. PMID:24730811

  7. Human collective dynamics: Two groups in adversarial encounter. [melete code

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.L.; Harlow, F.H.; Genin, K.E.

    1988-04-01

    The behavior of a group of people depends strongly on the interaction of personal (individual) traits with the collective moods of the group as a whole. We have developed a computer program to model circumstances of this nature with recognition of the crucial role played by such psychological properties as fear, excitement, peer pressure, moral outrage, and anger, together with the distribution among participants of intrinsic susceptibilities to these emotions. This report extends previous work to consider two groups of people in adversarial encounter, for example, two platoons in battle, a SWAT team against rioting prisoners, or opposing mobs of different ethnic backgrounds. Closely related applications of the modeling include prowling groups of predatory animals interacting with herds of prey, and even the ''slow-mob'' behavior of social or political units in their response to legislative or judicial activities. Examples in this present study emphasize battlefield encounters, with each group characterizzed by its susceptibilities, skills, and other manifestions of both intentional and accidental circumstances. Specifically, we investigate the relative importance of leadership, camaraderie, training level (i.e. skill in firing weapons), bravery, excitability, and dedication in the battle performance of personnel with random or specified distributions of capabilities and susceptibilities in these various regards. The goal is to exhibit the probable outcome of these encounters in circumstances involving specified battle goals and distributions of terrain impediments. A collateral goal is to provide a real-time hands-on battle simulator into which a leadership trainee can insert his own interactive command.

  8. Massive parallel sequencing uncovers actionable FGFR2-PPHLN1 fusion and ARAF mutations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sia, Daniela; Losic, Bojan; Moeini, Agrin; Cabellos, Laia; Hao, Ke; Revill, Kate; Bonal, Dennis; Miltiadous, Oriana; Zhang, Zhongyang; Hoshida, Yujin; Cornella, Helena; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Pinyol, Roser; Kasai, Yumi; Roayaie, Sasan; Thung, Swan N; Fuster, Josep; Schwartz, Myron E; Waxman, Samuel; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Schadt, Eric; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Llovet, Josep M

    2015-01-22

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a fatal bile duct cancer with dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options. By performing RNA- and exome-sequencing analyses, we report a novel fusion event, FGFR2-PPHLN1 (16%), and damaging mutations in the ARAF oncogene (11%). Here we demonstrate that the chromosomal translocation t(10;12)(q26;q12) leading to FGFR2-PPHLN1 fusion possesses transforming and oncogenic activity, which is successfully inhibited by a selective FGFR2 inhibitor in vitro. Among the ARAF mutations, N217I and G322S lead to activation of the pathway and N217I shows oncogenic potential in vitro. Screening of a cohort of 107 iCCA patients reveals that FGFR2 fusions represent the most recurrent targetable alteration (45%, 17/107), while they are rarely present in other primary liver tumours (0/100 of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); 1/21 of mixed iCCA-HCC). Taken together, around 70% of iCCA patients harbour at least one actionable molecular alteration (FGFR2 fusions, IDH1/2, ARAF, KRAS, BRAF and FGF19) that is amenable for therapeutic targeting.

  9. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts.

  10. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  11. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    PubMed

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for.

  12. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  13. Adversarial reasoning and resource allocation: the LG approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    Many existing automated tools purporting to model the intelligent enemy utilize a fixed battle plan for the enemy while using flexible decisions of human players for the friendly side. According to the Naval Studies Board, "It is an open secret and a point of distress ... that too much of the substantive content of such M&S has its origin in anecdote, ..., or a narrow construction tied to stereotypical current practices of 'doctrinally correct behavior.'" Clearly, such runs lack objectivity by being heavily skewed in favor of the friendly forces. Presently, the military branches employ a variety of game-based simulators and synthetic environments, with manual (i.e., user-based) decision-making, for training and other purposes. However, without an ability to automatically generate the best strategies, tactics, and COA, the games serve mostly to display the current situation rather than form a basis for automated decision-making and effective training. We solve the problem of adversarial reasoning as a gaming problem employing Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new type of game theory demonstrating significant increase in size in gaming problems solvable in real and near-real time. It appears to be a viable approach for solving such practical problems as mission planning and battle management. Essentially, LG may be structured into two layers: game construction and game solving. Game construction includes construction of a game called an LG hypergame based on a hierarchy of Abstract Board Games (ABG). Game solving includes resource allocation for constructing an advantageous initial game state and strategy generation to reach a desirable final game state in the course of the game.

  14. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  15. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-12-16

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  16. Exome Sequencing of Cell-Free DNA from Metastatic Cancer Patients Identifies Clinically Actionable Mutations Distinct from Primary Disease.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy M; Johnson-Camacho, Katherine; Peto, Myron; Wang, Nicholas J; Macey, Tara A; Korkola, James E; Koppie, Theresa M; Corless, Christopher L; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the molecular drivers of cancer by sequencing is the backbone of precision medicine and the basis of personalized therapy; however, biopsies of primary tumors provide only a snapshot of the evolution of the disease and may miss potential therapeutic targets, especially in the metastatic setting. A liquid biopsy, in the form of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing, has the potential to capture the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity present in metastatic disease, and, through serial blood draws, track the evolution of the tumor genome. In order to determine the clinical utility of cfDNA sequencing we performed whole-exome sequencing on cfDNA and tumor DNA from two patients with metastatic disease; only minor modifications to our sequencing and analysis pipelines were required for sequencing and mutation calling of cfDNA. The first patient had metastatic sarcoma and 47 of 48 mutations present in the primary tumor were also found in the cell-free DNA. The second patient had metastatic breast cancer and sequencing identified an ESR1 mutation in the cfDNA and metastatic site, but not in the primary tumor. This likely explains tumor progression on Anastrozole. Significant heterogeneity between the primary and metastatic tumors, with cfDNA reflecting the metastases, suggested separation from the primary lesion early in tumor evolution. This is best illustrated by an activating PIK3CA mutation (H1047R) which was clonal in the primary tumor, but completely absent from either the metastasis or cfDNA. Here we show that cfDNA sequencing supplies clinically actionable information with minimal risks compared to metastatic biopsies. This study demonstrates the utility of whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA from patients with metastatic disease. cfDNA sequencing identified an ESR1 mutation, potentially explaining a patient's resistance to aromatase inhibition, and gave insight into how metastatic lesions differ from the primary tumor.

  17. Consensus of discrete-time multi-agent systems with adversaries and time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiming; He, Xiongxiong; Liu, Shuai; Xie, Lihua

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the resilient asymptotic consensus problem for discrete-time multi-agent systems in the presence of adversaries and transmission delays. The network is assumed to have ? loyal agents and ? adversarial agents, and each loyal agent in the network has no knowledge of the network topology other than an upper bound on the number of adversarial agents in its neighborhood. For the considered networked system, only locally delayed information is available for each loyal agent, and also the information flow is directed and a control protocol using only local information is designed to guarantee the realization of consensus with respect to communication graph, which satisfies a featured network robustness. Numerical examples are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  18. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    PubMed

    Neal, Tess M S

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process.

  19. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the “allegiance effect” in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  20. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    PubMed

    Neal, Tess M S

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  1. Action at a distance in supercoiled DNA: effects of sequence on slither, branching, and intramolecular concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Sprous, D; Harvey, S C

    1996-01-01

    We report a computer modeling study of DNA supercoiling in model plasmids over the size range of 140-1260 bp. We used a computer model with basepair resolution. Molecular dynamics was used to produce ensembles at 300 K and to investigate intramolecular motions. The plasmid models varied by their sequence. The sequence types employed for comparison included a curve-bearing plasmid, a heterogenous sequence plasmid, and a homogenous sequence. Within the three sequence types tested at the 1260-bp plasmid size, we observed several sequence-dependent phenomena. Writhe, radius of gyration, slither motion, and branching probability were seen to be sequence dependent. Branching probability was the least in the homogenous plasmid and the greatest in the curve-bearing plasmid. The curve imposed a symmetry on the plasmid that was absent in the heterogenous sequence. Significant localizations and enhancements of intramolecular concentration were seen to a persistence length. Molecular dynamics allowed us to observe the mechanism of branch formation and reabsorption. We observed a size-dependent change in the types of motion observed in plasmids. Slither motion predominated in plasmids up to 600 bp in size, whereas global rearrangements were more important in the 1260 mer. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 10 PMID:8785349

  2. Ensuring Adversarial Process in the FISA Court Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Schiff, Adam B. [D-CA-28

    2013-09-20

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Adolescents' preferences regarding disclosure of incidental findings in genomic sequencing that are not medically actionable in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, Sophia B; Martin, Lisa J; Cassedy, Amy; Hopkin, Robert J; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny

    2016-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing has challenged the consensus that predictive testing should not be performed on asymptomatic minors for conditions that are not medically actionable in childhood. While the available literature suggests that most parents want access to incidental findings discovered in genomic sequencing, there is little information regarding adolescents' views. This study's goal is to determine adolescent views regarding the disclosure of incidental findings for adult onset conditions that are not medically actionable in childhood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in 7-12th grade science classes in three Cincinnati public schools. Most (235 of 282, 83%) students wanted access to non-actionable incidental findings. These participants most frequently (38%) endorsed future planning as the reason for disclosure. Seventy-two percent of students believed they should participate in the decision making process. Seventy-three percent of students believed that parents of children less than 12 years old should have access to this information. Adolescents want to have access to and participate in decisions about incidental findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149544

  4. Managing Quality, Identity and Adversaries in Public Discourse with Machine Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Automation can mitigate issues when scaling and managing quality and identity in public discourse on the web. Discourse needs to be curated and filtered. Anonymous speech has to be supported while handling adversaries. Reliance on human curators or analysts does not scale and content can be missed. These scaling and management issues include the…

  5. Constructing Learning: Adversarial and Collaborative Working in the British Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dan; Felstead, Alan; Fuller, Alison; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna; Kakavelakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two competing systems of work organisation in the British construction industry and their consequences for learning. Under the traditional "adversarial" system, conflict, hostility and litigation between contractors are commonplace. Such a climate actively militates against collective learning and knowledge sharing between…

  6. Mediation in Child Protection Cases: An Alternative to the Adversary System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Sally E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses two concerns regarding adverse effects of increased litigation in child protection cases: (1) fallout from the adversarial process on agencies' work with families; and (2) dissonance between the approaches of social workers and lawyers to decision-making about families. Recommends mediation to prevent less serious cases from going to…

  7. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides. PMID:25923714

  8. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yixi; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides.

  9. Throwing action from full-cue and motion-only video-models of an arm movement sequence.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether videotaped demonstrations of an action which displayed only the motion pattern of a model's limb as compared with one which showed both form and motion provide sufficient information for modelling a given pattern of movement. Video-demonstrations of an arm-movement sequence which ended with a throwing action were shown to adult subjects whose task was to model precisely what they saw. Each demonstration lasted 6 sec. and was shown 6 times. It portrayed the arm of a model, who held a small ball, performing a sequence of movements (flexion and extension of the elbow) which ended in the ball being thrown about 2.5 m with a 'darts-style' action. Three types of demonstration were presented: one showed the whole arm in dark clothing against a light-coloured background, another showed the arm as the relative motion of patches of light situated at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints, and the third showed the arm as the relative motion of the upper and lower segments of the arm represented by strips of light-reflectant material. These were the stimuli for the between-groups experimental conditions. Goniometry techniques were used to compare the performance of subjects relative to the model. Analysis showed that the order of the preparatory sequence was correctly produced after 4 trials under all conditions. Range of arm movement in projecting the ball closely approximated that of the model after 4 trials in all conditions. The time taken for the arm to project the ball remained constant across trials under all conditions and was always slower than the demonstrated cadence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Seeing Chinese Characters in Action: An fMRI Study of the Perception of Writing Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Lanyun; Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese character is composed of a finite set of strokes whose order in writing follows consensual principles and is learnt through school education. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigates the neural activity associated with the perception of writing sequences by asking participants to observe…

  11. Identifying Learning Behaviors by Contextualizing Differential Sequence Mining with Action Features and Performance Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Our learning-by-teaching environment, Betty's Brain, captures a wealth of data on students' learning interactions as they teach a virtual agent. This paper extends an exploratory data mining methodology for assessing and comparing students' learning behaviors from these interaction traces. The core algorithm employs sequence mining techniques to…

  12. Next Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Actionable Mutations in Solid and Liquid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alan J; Hiemenz, Matthew C; Lieberman, David B; Sukhadia, Shrey; Li, Barnett; Grubb, Joseph; Candrea, Patrick; Ganapathy, Karthik; Zhao, Jianhua; Roth, David; Alley, Evan; Loren, Alison; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2016-01-01

    As our understanding of the driver mutations necessary for initiation and progression of cancers improves, we gain critical information on how specific molecular profiles of a tumor may predict responsiveness to therapeutic agents or provide knowledge about prognosis. At our institution a tumor genotyping program was established as part of routine clinical care, screening both hematologic and solid tumors for a wide spectrum of mutations using two next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels: a custom, 33 gene hematological malignancies panel for use with peripheral blood and bone marrow, and a commercially produced solid tumor panel for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue that targets 47 genes commonly mutated in cancer. Our workflow includes a pathologist review of the biopsy to ensure there is adequate amount of tumor for the assay followed by customized DNA extraction is performed on the specimen. Quality control of the specimen includes steps for quantity, quality and integrity and only after the extracted DNA passes these metrics an amplicon library is generated and sequenced. The resulting data is analyzed through an in-house bioinformatics pipeline and the variants are reviewed and interpreted for pathogenicity. Here we provide a snapshot of the utility of each panel using two clinical cases to provide insight into how a well-designed NGS workflow can contribute to optimizing clinical outcomes. PMID:27684276

  13. Next Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Actionable Mutations in Solid and Liquid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alan J; Hiemenz, Matthew C; Lieberman, David B; Sukhadia, Shrey; Li, Barnett; Grubb, Joseph; Candrea, Patrick; Ganapathy, Karthik; Zhao, Jianhua; Roth, David; Alley, Evan; Loren, Alison; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2016-09-20

    As our understanding of the driver mutations necessary for initiation and progression of cancers improves, we gain critical information on how specific molecular profiles of a tumor may predict responsiveness to therapeutic agents or provide knowledge about prognosis. At our institution a tumor genotyping program was established as part of routine clinical care, screening both hematologic and solid tumors for a wide spectrum of mutations using two next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels: a custom, 33 gene hematological malignancies panel for use with peripheral blood and bone marrow, and a commercially produced solid tumor panel for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue that targets 47 genes commonly mutated in cancer. Our workflow includes a pathologist review of the biopsy to ensure there is adequate amount of tumor for the assay followed by customized DNA extraction is performed on the specimen. Quality control of the specimen includes steps for quantity, quality and integrity and only after the extracted DNA passes these metrics an amplicon library is generated and sequenced. The resulting data is analyzed through an in-house bioinformatics pipeline and the variants are reviewed and interpreted for pathogenicity. Here we provide a snapshot of the utility of each panel using two clinical cases to provide insight into how a well-designed NGS workflow can contribute to optimizing clinical outcomes.

  14. With God on our side: Religious primes reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a menacing adversary.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T; Pollack, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The imagined support of benevolent supernatural agents attenuates anxiety and risk perception. Here, we extend these findings to judgments of the threat posed by a potentially violent adversary. Conceptual representations of bodily size and strength summarize factors that determine the relative threat posed by foes. The proximity of allies moderates the envisioned physical formidability of adversaries, suggesting that cues of access to supernatural allies will reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a threatening target. Across two studies, subtle cues of both supernatural and earthly social support reduced the envisioned physical formidability of a violent criminal. These manipulations had no effect on the perceived likelihood of encountering non-conflictual physical danger, raising the possibility that imagined supernatural support leads participants to view themselves not as shielded from encountering perilous situations, but as protected should perils arise.

  15. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms.

  16. With God on our side: Religious primes reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a menacing adversary.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T; Pollack, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The imagined support of benevolent supernatural agents attenuates anxiety and risk perception. Here, we extend these findings to judgments of the threat posed by a potentially violent adversary. Conceptual representations of bodily size and strength summarize factors that determine the relative threat posed by foes. The proximity of allies moderates the envisioned physical formidability of adversaries, suggesting that cues of access to supernatural allies will reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a threatening target. Across two studies, subtle cues of both supernatural and earthly social support reduced the envisioned physical formidability of a violent criminal. These manipulations had no effect on the perceived likelihood of encountering non-conflictual physical danger, raising the possibility that imagined supernatural support leads participants to view themselves not as shielded from encountering perilous situations, but as protected should perils arise. PMID:26524139

  17. Adversarial risk analysis with incomplete information: a level-k approach.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Casey; McLay, Laura; Guikema, Seth

    2012-07-01

    This article proposes, develops, and illustrates the application of level-k game theory to adversarial risk analysis. Level-k reasoning, which assumes that players play strategically but have bounded rationality, is useful for operationalizing a Bayesian approach to adversarial risk analysis. It can be applied in a broad class of settings, including settings with asynchronous play and partial but incomplete revelation of early moves. Its computational and elicitation requirements are modest. We illustrate the approach with an application to a simple defend-attack model in which the defender's countermeasures are revealed with a probability less than one to the attacker before he decides on how or whether to attack. PMID:22035126

  18. Cooperation and punishment in an adversarial game: How defectors pave the way to a peaceful society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, M. B.; Brantingham, P. J.; D'Orsogna, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of human cooperation has been the subject of much research, especially within the framework of evolutionary public goods games, where several mechanisms have been proposed to account for persistent cooperation. Yet, in addressing this issue, little attention has been given to games of a more adversarial nature, in which defecting players, rather than simply free riding, actively seek to harm others. Here, we develop an adversarial evolutionary game using the specific example of criminal activity, recasting the familiar public goods strategies of punishers, cooperators, and defectors in this light. We then introduce a strategy—the informant—with no clear analog in public goods games and show that individuals employing this strategy are a key to the emergence of systems where cooperation dominates. We also find that a defection-dominated regime may be transitioned to one that is cooperation-dominated by converting an optimal number of players into informants. We discuss these findings, the role of informants, and possible intervention strategies in extreme adversarial societies, such as those marred by wars and insurgencies.

  19. Superselective Particle Embolization Enhances Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation: Effects of Particle Size and Sequence of Action

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till Westphal, Saskia; Woitok, Anna; Penzkofer, Tobias Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of particle size and course of action of superselective bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) on the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods. Twenty pigs were divided into five groups: group 1a, 40-{mu}m bland TAE before RFA; group 1b, 40-{mu}m bland TAE after RFA; group 2a, 250-{mu}m bland TAE before RFA; group 2b, 250-{mu}m bland TAE after RFA and group 3, RFA alone. A total of 40 treatments were performed with a combined CT and angiography system. The sizes of the treated zones were measured from contrast-enhanced CTs on days 1 and 28. Animals were humanely killed, and the treated zones were examined pathologically. Results. There were no complications during procedures and follow-up. The short-axis diameter of the ablation zone in group 1a (mean {+-} standard deviation, 3.19 {+-} 0.39 cm) was significantly larger than in group 1b (2.44 {+-} 0.52 cm; P = 0.021), group 2a (2.51 {+-} 0.32 cm; P = 0.048), group 2b (2.19 {+-} 0.44 cm; P = 0.02), and group 3 (1.91 {+-} 0.55 cm; P < 0.001). The greatest volume of ablation was achieved by performing embolization with 40-{mu}m particles before RFA (group 1a; 20.97 {+-} 9.65 cm{sup 3}). At histology, 40-{mu}m microspheres were observed to occlude smaller and more distal arteries than 250-{mu}m microspheres. Conclusion. Bland TAE is more effective before RFA than postablation embolization. The use of very small 40-{mu}m microspheres enhances the efficacy of RFA more than the use of larger particles.

  20. Pulling to Scale: Motor Planning for Sequences of Repeated Actions by Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kate M.; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that nontool-using primates are capable of sophisticated motor planning for a single action. The present study extends this work by asking whether monkeys are capable of planning a sequence of repetitive motor actions to accommodate a task demand. We presented tamarins with a tape measure baited with a food reward at near or far distances and measured their manual intergrasp distances as they reeled in the food. In Condition 1, subjects viewed the reward as they pulled, whereas in Condition 2, they received no visual feedback during pulling. Across both experiments, we found that the intergrasp distance in Near trials was significantly smaller than in Far trials, an effect that was demonstrated even during the first two pulls of each trial. These results suggest that tamarins prospectively scale their intergrasp distances in accordance with the distance to the goal. These findings provide further support for the lengthy evolutionary history of sophisticated motor planning abilities in primates. PMID:23586538

  1. Next-generation sequencing identifies high frequency of mutations in potentially clinically actionable genes in sebaceous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, Michael T; Singh, Rajesh R; Seviour, Elena G; Curry, Jonathan L; Hudgens, Courtney W; Bell, Diana; Wimmer, Daniel A; Ning, Jing; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Zhang, Li; Davies, Michael A; Prieto, Victor G; Broaddus, Russell R; Ram, Prahlad; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Esmaeli, Bita

    2016-09-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy with frequent recurrence and metastases. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy, but effective systemic therapies are lacking because the molecular alterations driving SC remain poorly understood. To identify these, we performed whole-exome next-generation sequencing of 409 cancer-associated genes on 27 SCs (18 primary/locally recurrent ocular, 5 paired metastatic ocular, and 4 primary extraocular) from 20 patients. In ocular SC, we identified 139 non-synonymous somatic mutations (median/lesion 3; range 0-23). Twenty-five of 139 mutations (18%) occurred in potentially clinically actionable genes in 6 of 16 patients. The most common mutations were mutations in TP53 (n = 9), RB1 (n = 6), PIK3CA (n = 2), PTEN (n = 2), ERBB2 (n = 2), and NF1 (n = 2). TP53 and RB1 mutations were restricted to ocular SC and correlated with aberrant TP53 and RB protein expression. Systematic pathway analyses demonstrated convergence of these mutations to activation of the PI3K signalling cascade, and PI3K pathway activation was confirmed in tumours with PTEN and/or PIK3CA mutations. Considerable inter-tumoural heterogeneity was observed between paired primary and metastatic ocular SCs. In primary extraocular SC, we identified 77 non-synonymous somatic mutations (median/lesion 22.5; range 3-29). This overall higher mutational load was attributed to a microsatellite instability phenotype in three of four patients and somatically acquired mutations in mismatch repair genes in two of four patients. Eighteen of 77 mutations (23%) were in potentially clinically actionable genes in three of four patients, including BTK, FGFR2, PDGFRB, HRAS, and NF1 mutations. Identification of potentially clinically actionable mutations in 9 of 20 SC patients (45%) underscores the importance of next-generation sequencing to expand the spectrum of genotype-matched targeted therapies. Frequent activation of PI3K signalling pathways provides a strong

  2. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  3. Semantic policy and adversarial modeling for cyber threat identification and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFrancesco, Anton; McQueary, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Today's enterprise networks undergo a relentless barrage of attacks from foreign and domestic adversaries. These attacks may be perpetrated with little to no funding, but may wreck incalculable damage upon the enterprises security, network infrastructure, and services. As more services come online, systems that were once in isolation now provide information that may be combined dynamically with information from other systems to create new meaning on the fly. Security issues are compounded by the potential to aggregate individual pieces of information and infer knowledge at a higher classification than any of its constituent parts. To help alleviate these challenges, in this paper we introduce the notion of semantic policy and discuss how it's use is evolving from a robust approach to access control to preempting and combating attacks in the cyber domain, The introduction of semantic policy and adversarial modeling to network security aims to ask 'where is the network most vulnerable', 'how is the network being attacked', and 'why is the network being attacked'. The first aspect of our approach is integration of semantic policy into enterprise security to augment traditional network security with an overall awareness of policy access and violations. This awareness allows the semantic policy to look at the big picture - analyzing trends and identifying critical relations in system wide data access. The second aspect of our approach is to couple adversarial modeling with semantic policy to move beyond reactive security measures and into a proactive identification of system weaknesses and areas of vulnerability. By utilizing Bayesian-based methodologies, the enterprise wide meaning of data and semantic policy is applied to probability and high-level risk identification. This risk identification will help mitigate potential harm to enterprise networks by enabling resources to proactively isolate, lock-down, and secure systems that are most vulnerable.

  4. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  5. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  6. Game Theoretic Evaluation of Threat Detection Problems-The Central Role of the Adversary

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of security problems hinge on the detection of threats and discrimination of threats from innocuous objects. The theory that frames these problems is common among medical diagnostics, radar and sonar imaging, and detection of radiological, chemical, and biological agents. In many of these problems, the nature of the threat is subject to control by a malicious adversary, and the choice of a reference (or "design basis") threat is a very diffcult, and often intractable, aspect of the problem. It is this class of problems that this report considers.

  7. The Role of Human Parietal Area 7A as a Link between Sequencing in Hand Actions and in Overt Speech Production.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Amunts, Katrin; Hensel, Tanja; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-01-01

    Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focused on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions has yet to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether motor sequencing of hand vs. speech actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables ("po-pi-po"). Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45). In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of) speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a previously underspecified role of the SPL in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the motor system. PMID:23227016

  8. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968.

  9. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  10. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. PMID:27428585

  11. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  12. A comparative analysis of PRA and intelligent adversary methods for counterterrorism risk management.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jason; Parnell, Gregory S

    2011-09-01

    In counterterrorism risk management decisions, the analyst can choose to represent terrorist decisions as defender uncertainties or as attacker decisions. We perform a comparative analysis of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) methods including event trees, influence diagrams, Bayesian networks, decision trees, game theory, and combined methods on the same illustrative examples (container screening for radiological materials) to get insights into the significant differences in assumptions and results. A key tenent of PRA and decision analysis is the use of subjective probability to assess the likelihood of possible outcomes. For each technique, we compare the assumptions, probability assessment requirements, risk levels, and potential insights for risk managers. We find that assessing the distribution of potential attacker decisions is a complex judgment task, particularly considering the adaptation of the attacker to defender decisions. Intelligent adversary risk analysis and adversarial risk analysis are extensions of decision analysis and sequential game theory that help to decompose such judgments. These techniques explicitly show the adaptation of the attacker and the resulting shift in risk based on defender decisions. PMID:21418080

  13. Arlen Spector and the Construction of Adversarial Discourse: Selective Representation in the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, S. Ashley

    1995-01-01

    Reports on Senator Arlen Spector's interview of Anita Hill during hearings on Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas and her allegations of sexual harassment. Examines the social structures and argumentative strategies Spector invoked to place Hill in a position of "powerlessness." Argues that the key resource contributing to the adversarial nature…

  14. Imparting protean behavior to mobile robots accomplishing patrolling tasks in the presence of adversaries.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2015-10-08

    Providing unpredictable trajectories for patrol robots is essential when coping with adversaries. In order to solve this problem we developed an effective approach based on the known protean behavior of individual prey animals-random zig-zag movement. The proposed bio-inspired method modifies the normal robot's path by incorporating sudden and irregular direction changes without jeopardizing the robot's mission. Such a tactic is aimed to confuse the enemy (e.g. a sniper), offering less time to acquire and retain sight alignment and sight picture. This idea is implemented by simulating a series of fictive-temporary obstacles that will randomly appear in the robot's field of view, deceiving the obstacle avoiding mechanism to react. The new general methodology is particularized by using the Arnold's cat map to obtain the timely random appearance and disappearance of the fictive obstacles. The viability of the proposed method is confirmed through an extensive simulation case study.

  15. A 2D chaotic path planning for mobile robots accomplishing boundary surveillance missions in adversarial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2014-10-01

    The path-planning algorithm represents a crucial issue for every autonomous mobile robot. In normal circumstances a patrol robot will compute an optimal path to ensure its task accomplishment, but in adversarial conditions the problem is getting more complicated. Here, the robot’s trajectory needs to be altered into a misleading and unpredictable path to cope with potential opponents. Chaotic systems provide the needed framework for obtaining unpredictable motion in all of the three basic robot surveillance missions: area, points of interests and boundary monitoring. Proficient approaches have been provided for the first two surveillance tasks, but for boundary patrol missions no method has been reported yet. This paper addresses the mentioned research gap by proposing an efficient method, based on chaotic dynamic of the Hénon system, to ensure unpredictable boundary patrol on any shape of chosen closed contour.

  16. Intergroup reconciliation: effects of adversary's expressions of empathy, responsibility, and recipients' trust.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Arie; Liviatan, Ido

    2006-04-01

    The present study explores the effects of expressions of empathy for the ingroup's conflict-related suffering and assumed responsibility for causing it by a representative of the rival outgroup on recipient's willingness for reconciliation. It is suggested that such positive expressions by an adversary will have positive effects on reconciliation only in the presence of a basic level of trust in the outgroup. In two studies, Israeli-Jewish participants were exposed to a Palestinian leader who either expressed or did not express empathy and/or Palestinian responsibility for Israelis' suffering. After reading the speech, participants completed a questionnaire that measured their attitudes toward reconciliation with Palestinians. Results of both studies show that whereas expression of empathy led to more positive attitudes when trust was high, it tended to have adverse effects when trust was low. Similar effects were not found for assumed responsibility. Implications for research on intergroup conflict and reconciliation are discussed.

  17. Insider adversary study for the Office of Safeguards and Security: US Department of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, R.H.

    1983-06-24

    This study provides the Department of Energy (DOE) with a comprehensive description of insider adversary activity at its nuclear facilities and those nuclear facilities operated for DOE by its contractors. The description is based on DOE's violation records from 1965 to 1982. Files were reviewed and data were collected from DOE Headquarters, field offices, and selected laboratory and contractor records. The quality and completeness of the study's data are somewhat limited due to inconsistencies in the organization, content, and availability of Headquarters and field office case reports. File organization and retention periods as well as reporting standards vary among DOE offices, facilities, and contractors. The range of crime reviewed was extensive and included major as well as minor levels of crimes. The criterion used for inclusion of crimes in this study was that they were committed by an insider who exhibited wrongful intent in the commission of the crime.

  18. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others.

  19. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Eli J; Norton, Michael I; Reis, Harry T; Ariely, Dan; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Frost, Jeana H; Maniaci, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our conceptualizations of the familiarity-attraction link, as well as the limitations of prior research, were masking a set of higher order principles capable of integrating these diverse conceptualizations. This realization led us to adopt a broader perspective, which focuses on three distinct relationship stages-awareness, surface contact, and mutuality-and suggests that the influence of familiarity on attraction depends on both the nature and the stage of the relationship between perceivers and targets. This article introduces the framework that emerged from our discussions and suggests directions for research to investigate its validity. PMID:25910379

  20. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others. PMID:24552075

  1. Molecular target sequence similarity as a basis for species extrapolation to assess the ecological risk of chemicals with known modes of action.

    PubMed

    Lalone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Burgoon, Lyle D; Russom, Christine L; Helgen, Henry W; Berninger, Jason P; Tietge, Joseph E; Severson, Megan N; Cavallin, Jenna E; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-15

    It is not feasible to conduct toxicity tests with all species that may be impacted by chemical exposures. Therefore, cross-species extrapolation is fundamental to environmental risk assessment. Recognition of the impracticality of generating empirical, whole organism, toxicity data for the extensive universe of chemicals in commerce has been an impetus driving the field of predictive toxicology. We describe a strategy that leverages expanding databases of molecular sequence information together with identification of specific molecular chemical targets whose perturbation can lead to adverse outcomes to support predictive species extrapolation. This approach can be used to predict which species may be more (or less) susceptible to effects following exposure to chemicals with known modes of action (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides). Primary amino acid sequence alignments are combined with more detailed analyses of conserved functional domains to derive the predictions. This methodology employs bioinformatic approaches to automate, collate, and calculate quantitative metrics associated with cross-species sequence similarity of key molecular initiating events (MIEs). Case examples focused on the actions of (a) 17α-ethinyl estradiol on the human (Homo sapiens) estrogen receptor; (b) permethrin on the mosquito (Aedes aegypti) voltage-gated para-like sodium channel; and (c) 17β-trenbolone on the bovine (Bos taurus) androgen receptor are presented to demonstrate the potential predictive utility of this species extrapolation strategy. The examples compare empirical toxicity data to cross-species predictions of intrinsic susceptibility based on analyses of sequence similarity relevant to the MIEs of defined adverse outcome pathways. Through further refinement, and definition of appropriate domains of applicability, we envision practical and routine utility for the molecular target similarity-based predictive method in chemical risk assessment, particularly where testing

  2. The Effects of Sacred Value Networks Within an Evolutionary, Adversarial Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, Scott G.; Short, Martin B.; Brantingham, P. Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    The effects of personal relationships and shared ideologies on levels of crime and the formation of criminal coalitions are studied within the context of an adversarial, evolutionary game first introduced in Short et al. (Phys. Rev. E 82:066114, 2010). Here, we interpret these relationships as connections on a graph of N players. These connections are then used in a variety of ways to define each player's "sacred value network"—groups of individuals that are subject to special consideration or treatment by that player. We explore the effects on the dynamics of the system that these networks introduce, through various forms of protection from both victimization and punishment. Under local protection, these networks introduce a new fixed point within the game dynamics, which we find through a continuum approximation of the discrete game. Under more complicated, extended protection, we numerically observe the emergence of criminal coalitions, or "gangs". We also find that a high-crime steady state is much more frequent in the context of extended protection networks, in both the case of Erdős-Rényi and small world random graphs.

  3. Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Chad; Jana, Suman; Ray, Baishakhi; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Modern network security rests on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. Distributed systems, mobile and desktop applications, embedded devices, and all of secure Web rely on SSL/TLS for protection against network attacks. This protection critically depends on whether SSL/TLS clients correctly validate X.509 certificates presented by servers during the SSL/TLS handshake protocol. We design, implement, and apply the first methodology for large-scale testing of certificate validation logic in SSL/TLS implementations. Our first ingredient is "frankencerts," synthetic certificates that are randomly mutated from parts of real certificates and thus include unusual combinations of extensions and constraints. Our second ingredient is differential testing: if one SSL/TLS implementation accepts a certificate while another rejects the same certificate, we use the discrepancy as an oracle for finding flaws in individual implementations. Differential testing with frankencerts uncovered 208 discrepancies between popular SSL/TLS implementations such as OpenSSL, NSS, CyaSSL, GnuTLS, PolarSSL, MatrixSSL, etc. Many of them are caused by serious security vulnerabilities. For example, any server with a valid X.509 version 1 certificate can act as a rogue certificate authority and issue fake certificates for any domain, enabling man-in-the-middle attacks against MatrixSSL and GnuTLS. Several implementations also accept certificate authorities created by unauthorized issuers, as well as certificates not intended for server authentication. We also found serious vulnerabilities in how users are warned about certificate validation errors. When presented with an expired, self-signed certificate, NSS, Safari, and Chrome (on Linux) report that the certificate has expired-a low-risk, often ignored error-but not that the connection is insecure against a man-in-the-middle attack. These results demonstrate that automated adversarial testing with frankencerts

  4. From Adversary to Partner: Have Quality Improvement Organizations Made the Transition?

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Carlson, Melissa DA; Gallo, William T; Scinto, Jeanne; Campbell, Miriam K; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe the perceived impact of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) on quality of care for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, in the context of new efforts to work more collaboratively with hospitals in the pursuit of quality improvement. Data Source Primary data collected from a national random sample of 105 hospital quality management directors interviewed between January and July 2002. Study Design We interviewed quality management directors concerning their interactions with the QIO interventions, the helpfulness of QIO interventions and the degree to which they helped or hindered their hospital quality efforts, and their recommendations for improving QIO effectiveness. Principle Findings More than 90% of hospitals reported that their QIO had initiated specific interventions, the most common being the provision of educational materials, benchmark data, and hospital performance data. Many respondents (60%) rated most QIO interventions as helpful or very helpful, although only one-quarter of respondents believed quality of care would have been worse without the QIO interventions. To increase QIO efficacy, respondents recommended that QIOs appeal more directly to senior administration, target physicians (not just hospital employees), and enhance the perceived validity and timeliness of data used in quality indicators. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the QIOs have overcome, to some degree, the previously adversarial and punitive roles of Peer Review Organizations with hospitals. The generally positive view among most hospital quality improvement directors concerning the QIO interventions suggests that QIOs are potentially poised to take a leading role in promoting quality of care. However, the full potential of QIOs will likely not be realized until QIOs are able to engender greater engagement from senior hospital administration and physicians. PMID:15762902

  5. Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Chad; Jana, Suman; Ray, Baishakhi; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Modern network security rests on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. Distributed systems, mobile and desktop applications, embedded devices, and all of secure Web rely on SSL/TLS for protection against network attacks. This protection critically depends on whether SSL/TLS clients correctly validate X.509 certificates presented by servers during the SSL/TLS handshake protocol. We design, implement, and apply the first methodology for large-scale testing of certificate validation logic in SSL/TLS implementations. Our first ingredient is “frankencerts,” synthetic certificates that are randomly mutated from parts of real certificates and thus include unusual combinations of extensions and constraints. Our second ingredient is differential testing: if one SSL/TLS implementation accepts a certificate while another rejects the same certificate, we use the discrepancy as an oracle for finding flaws in individual implementations. Differential testing with frankencerts uncovered 208 discrepancies between popular SSL/TLS implementations such as OpenSSL, NSS, CyaSSL, GnuTLS, PolarSSL, MatrixSSL, etc. Many of them are caused by serious security vulnerabilities. For example, any server with a valid X.509 version 1 certificate can act as a rogue certificate authority and issue fake certificates for any domain, enabling man-in-the-middle attacks against MatrixSSL and GnuTLS. Several implementations also accept certificate authorities created by unauthorized issuers, as well as certificates not intended for server authentication. We also found serious vulnerabilities in how users are warned about certificate validation errors. When presented with an expired, self-signed certificate, NSS, Safari, and Chrome (on Linux) report that the certificate has expired—a low-risk, often ignored error—but not that the connection is insecure against a man-in-the-middle attack. These results demonstrate that automated adversarial testing with

  6. Compliance monitoring for the chemical weapons convention preliminary operational concepts--an adversarial analysis. Technical report, 5 September-12 November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Rudney, B.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this report is to assess preliminary operational concepts developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC). The 'Adversarial Analysis Methodology for the Chemical Weapons Convention,' developed by the JAYCOR Team, provides a conceptual framework and criteria for this assessment. Adversarial analysis (AA) complements the CRDEC methodology by accounting for noncompliance activities and includes risk and vulnerability analyses as well as a politico-strategic assessment of potentially noncompliant nations. CRDEC highlights many difficulties, flaws, and discrepancies in the formal CWC verification regime. AA helps overcome these shortcomings. First, it identifies how an adversary might accomplish cheating, spoofing, and circumvention (CSC), including underlying motivations and objectives. Second, it highlights potential verification system vulnerabilities that would permit CSC. Finally, it assesses the impact of such activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The end product of this approach is a vulnerability assessment report describing the potential effectiveness of various deceptive practices and recommendations for improving the verification regime's resistance to deception.... On-Site Inspections, CRDEC, Adversarial Analysis, Verification, Deception, Chemical Weapons, Convention, Chemical Weapons, Noncompliance.

  7. From adversary to target market: the ACT-UP boycott of Philip Morris

    PubMed Central

    Offen, N; Smith, E; Malone, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: In 1990, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT-UP) sparked a year long boycott of Philip Morris's Marlboro cigarettes and Miller beer. The boycott protested the company's support of Senator Jesse Helms (R-North Carolina), a leading opponent of AIDS funding and civil rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. ACT-UP demanded that Philip Morris sever its ties with Helms and acknowledge its responsibility to the LGBT community and to people with AIDS. Objective: To assess the impact of the boycott on the LGBT community, the tobacco industry, and the tobacco control movement; and to determine what lessons tobacco control advocates can extract from this case. Data sources: Internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives. Methods: Search of tobacco industry documents websites using "boycott", "ACT-UP", "gay", and other terms. Results: Philip Morris used the boycott to its own advantage. It exploited differences within the community and settled the boycott by pledging large donations to combat AIDS. Through corporate philanthropy, Philip Morris gained entrée to the LGBT market without appearing gay friendly. Many LGBT organisations, thirsty for recognition and funding from mainstream corporations, welcomed Philip Morris's overtures without considering the health hazards of tobacco. Conclusions: Unless the goal of a boycott is to convince the tobacco industry to abandon tobacco altogether, such actions invite the industry to expand its marketing under the guise of philanthropy. Tobacco control advocates should be clear about goals and acceptable settlement terms before participating in a boycott of a tobacco company. PMID:12773732

  8. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  9. Habit learning by naïve macaques is marked by response sharpening of striatal neurons representing the cost and outcome of acquired action sequences

    PubMed Central

    Desrochers, Theresa M.; Amemori, Ken-ichi; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Over a century of scientific work has focused on defining the factors motivating behavioral learning. Observations in animals and humans trained on a wide range of tasks support reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms as accounting for the learning. Still unknown, however, are the signals that drive learning in naïve, untrained subjects. Here, we capitalized on a sequential saccade task in which macaque monkeys acquired repetitive scanning sequences without instruction. We found that spike activity in the caudate nucleus after each trial corresponded to an integrated cost-benefit signal that was highly correlated with the degree of naturalistic untutored learning by the monkeys. Across learning, neurons encoding both cost and outcome gradually acquired increasingly sharp phasic trial-end responses that paralleled the development of the habit-like, repetitive saccade sequences. Our findings demonstrate a novel integrated cost-benefit signal by which RL and its neural correlates could drive naturalistic behaviors in freely behaving primates. PMID:26291166

  10. Habit Learning by Naive Macaques Is Marked by Response Sharpening of Striatal Neurons Representing the Cost and Outcome of Acquired Action Sequences.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Theresa M; Amemori, Ken-ichi; Graybiel, Ann M

    2015-08-19

    Over a century of scientific work has focused on defining the factors motivating behavioral learning. Observations in animals and humans trained on a wide range of tasks support reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms as accounting for the learning. Still unknown, however, are the signals that drive learning in naive, untrained subjects. Here, we capitalized on a sequential saccade task in which macaque monkeys acquired repetitive scanning sequences without instruction. We found that spike activity in the caudate nucleus after each trial corresponded to an integrated cost-benefit signal that was highly correlated with the degree of naturalistic untutored learning by the monkeys. Across learning, neurons encoding both cost and outcome gradually acquired increasingly sharp phasic trial-end responses that paralleled the development of the habit-like, repetitive saccade sequences. Our findings demonstrate an integrated cost-benefit signal by which RL and its neural correlates could drive naturalistic behaviors in freely behaving primates. PMID:26291166

  11. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about “off-target” effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme—dubbed mCAL for “Multiplexing of Cas9 at Artificial Loci”—can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  12. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about "off-target" effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme-dubbed mCAL for " M: ultiplexing of C: as9 at A: rtificial L: oci"-can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  13. Adversaries or Allies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Describes a role-playing simulation of a public meeting where community members are concerned about toxic material dumping. Use of the simulation in postgraduate management courses to emphasize the importance of trust between people and between groups in work situations is discussed. (four references) (LRW)

  14. Coordinate action of distinct sequence elements localizes checkpoint kinase Hsl1 to the septin collar at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Sterling, Sarah M.; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N.; Sargsyan, Aspram; Garcia, Galo; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle requires processes that are tightly regulated both spatially and temporally. Surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) exert quality control and impose order on the timing and organization of downstream events by impeding cell cycle progression until the necessary components are available and undamaged and have acted in the proper sequence. In budding yeast, a checkpoint exists that does not allow timely execution of the G2/M transition unless and until a collar of septin filaments has properly assembled at the bud neck, which is the site where subsequent cytokinesis will occur. An essential component of this checkpoint is the large (1518-residue) protein kinase Hsl1, which localizes to the bud neck only if the septin collar has been correctly formed. Hsl1 reportedly interacts with particular septins; however, the precise molecular determinants in Hsl1 responsible for its recruitment to this cellular location during G2 have not been elucidated. We performed a comprehensive mutational dissection and accompanying image analysis to identify the sequence elements within Hsl1 responsible for its localization to the septins at the bud neck. Unexpectedly, we found that this targeting is multipartite. A segment of the central region of Hsl1 (residues 611–950), composed of two tandem, semiredundant but distinct septin-associating elements, is necessary and sufficient for binding to septin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. However, in addition to 611–950, efficient localization of Hsl1 to the septin collar in the cell obligatorily requires generalized targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, a function normally provided by the C-terminal phosphatidylserine-binding KA1 domain (residues 1379–1518) in Hsl1 but that can be replaced by other, heterologous phosphatidylserine-binding sequences. PMID:27193302

  15. Massively parallel sequencing of phyllodes tumours of the breast reveals actionable mutations, and TERT promoter hotspot mutations and TERT gene amplification as likely drivers of progression.

    PubMed

    Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Murray, Melissa; Burke, Kathleen A; Edelweiss, Marcia; Geyer, Felipe C; Macedo, Gabriel S; Inagaki, Akiko; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Martelotto, Luciano G; Marchio, Caterina; Lim, Raymond S; Ioris, Rafael A; Nahar, Pooja K; Bruijn, Ino De; Smyth, Lillian; Akram, Muzaffar; Ross, Dara; Petrini, John H; Norton, Larry; Solit, David B; Baselga, Jose; Brogi, Edi; Ladanyi, Marc; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-03-01

    Phyllodes tumours (PTs) are breast fibroepithelial lesions that are graded based on histological criteria as benign, borderline or malignant. PTs may recur locally. Borderline PTs and malignant PTs may metastasize to distant sites. Breast fibroepithelial lesions, including PTs and fibroadenomas, are characterized by recurrent MED12 exon 2 somatic mutations. We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in PTs and whether these may assist in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. We collected 100 fibroadenomas, 40 benign PTs, 14 borderline PTs and 22 malignant PTs; six, six and 13 benign, borderline and malignant PTs, respectively, and their matched normal tissue, were subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) using the MSK-IMPACT sequencing assay. Recurrent MED12 mutations were found in 56% of PTs; in addition, mutations affecting cancer genes (eg TP53, RB1, SETD2 and EGFR) were exclusively detected in borderline and malignant PTs. We found a novel recurrent clonal hotspot mutation in the TERT promoter (-124 C>T) in 52% and TERT gene amplification in 4% of PTs. Laser capture microdissection revealed that these mutations were restricted to the mesenchymal component of PTs. Sequencing analysis of the entire cohort revealed that the frequency of TERT alterations increased from benign (18%) to borderline (57%) and to malignant PTs (68%; p < 0.01), and TERT alterations were associated with increased levels of TERT mRNA (p < 0.001). No TERT alterations were observed in fibroadenomas. An analysis of TERT promoter sequencing and gene amplification distinguished PTs from fibroadenomas with a sensitivity and a positive predictive value of 100% (CI 95.38-100%) and 100% (CI 85.86-100%), respectively, and a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 39% (CI 28.65-51.36%) and 68% (CI 60.21-75.78%), respectively. Our results suggest that TERT alterations may drive the progression of PTs, and may assist in the differential diagnosis

  16. Massively parallel sequencing of phyllodes tumours of the breast reveals actionable mutations, and TERT promoter hotspot mutations and TERT gene amplification as likely drivers of progression.

    PubMed

    Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Murray, Melissa; Burke, Kathleen A; Edelweiss, Marcia; Geyer, Felipe C; Macedo, Gabriel S; Inagaki, Akiko; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Martelotto, Luciano G; Marchio, Caterina; Lim, Raymond S; Ioris, Rafael A; Nahar, Pooja K; Bruijn, Ino De; Smyth, Lillian; Akram, Muzaffar; Ross, Dara; Petrini, John H; Norton, Larry; Solit, David B; Baselga, Jose; Brogi, Edi; Ladanyi, Marc; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-03-01

    Phyllodes tumours (PTs) are breast fibroepithelial lesions that are graded based on histological criteria as benign, borderline or malignant. PTs may recur locally. Borderline PTs and malignant PTs may metastasize to distant sites. Breast fibroepithelial lesions, including PTs and fibroadenomas, are characterized by recurrent MED12 exon 2 somatic mutations. We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in PTs and whether these may assist in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. We collected 100 fibroadenomas, 40 benign PTs, 14 borderline PTs and 22 malignant PTs; six, six and 13 benign, borderline and malignant PTs, respectively, and their matched normal tissue, were subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) using the MSK-IMPACT sequencing assay. Recurrent MED12 mutations were found in 56% of PTs; in addition, mutations affecting cancer genes (eg TP53, RB1, SETD2 and EGFR) were exclusively detected in borderline and malignant PTs. We found a novel recurrent clonal hotspot mutation in the TERT promoter (-124 C>T) in 52% and TERT gene amplification in 4% of PTs. Laser capture microdissection revealed that these mutations were restricted to the mesenchymal component of PTs. Sequencing analysis of the entire cohort revealed that the frequency of TERT alterations increased from benign (18%) to borderline (57%) and to malignant PTs (68%; p < 0.01), and TERT alterations were associated with increased levels of TERT mRNA (p < 0.001). No TERT alterations were observed in fibroadenomas. An analysis of TERT promoter sequencing and gene amplification distinguished PTs from fibroadenomas with a sensitivity and a positive predictive value of 100% (CI 95.38-100%) and 100% (CI 85.86-100%), respectively, and a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 39% (CI 28.65-51.36%) and 68% (CI 60.21-75.78%), respectively. Our results suggest that TERT alterations may drive the progression of PTs, and may assist in the differential diagnosis

  17. Pulling out the Intentional Structure of Action: The Relation between Action Processing and Action Production in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2005-01-01

    Adults and children readily construct action representations organized with respect to an ultimate goal. These representations allow one to predict the consequences of action, interpret and describe actions, and categorize action sequences. In this paper, we explore the ontogeny of hierarchically organized action representations, and its relation…

  18. In search of actionable targets for agrigenomics and microalgal biofuel production: sequence-structural diversity studies on algal and higher plants with a focus on GPAT protein.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) pathway provides several targets for genetic engineering to optimize microalgal lipid productivity. GPAT (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the initial step of TAG biosynthesis. Despite many recent biochemical studies, a comprehensive sequence-structure analysis of GPAT across diverse lipid-yielding organisms is lacking. Hence, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of plastid-located GPAT proteins from 7 microalgae and 3 higher plants species. The close evolutionary relationship observed between red algae/diatoms and green algae/plant lineages in the phylogenetic tree were further corroborated by motif and gene structure analysis. The predicted molecular weight, amino acid composition, Instability Index, and hydropathicity profile gave an overall representation of the biochemical features of GPAT protein across the species under study. Furthermore, homology models of GPAT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Glycine max provided deep insights into the protein architecture and substrate binding sites. Despite low sequence identity found between algal and plant GPATs, the developed models exhibited strikingly conserved topology consisting of 14α helices and 9β sheets arranged in two domains. However, subtle variations in amino acids of fatty acyl binding site were identified that might influence the substrate selectivity of GPAT. Together, the results will provide useful resources to understand the functional and evolutionary relationship of GPAT and potentially benefit in development of engineered enzyme for augmenting algal biofuel production.

  19. Emerging perception of causality in action-and-reaction sequences from 4 to 6 months of age: is it domain-specific?

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D; Surian, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a distance. Primarily, our study sought to determine from what age infants see the causal structure of this reaction event. In addition, we looked at whether this causal percept depends on an animate style of motion and whether it correlates with tasks assessing goal perception and goal-directed action. Infants saw either causal reactions or noncausal delayed control events in which blue started some time after red stopped. These events involved squares that moved either rigidly or nonrigidly in an apparently animate manner. After habituation to one of the four events, infants were tested on reversal of the habituation event. Spatiotemporal features reversed for all events, but causal roles changed only in reversed reactions. The 6-month-olds dishabituated significantly more to reversal of causal reaction events than to noncausal delay events, whereas younger infants reacted similarly to reversal of both. Thus, perceptual causality for reaction events emerges by 6 months of age, a younger age than previously reported but, crucially, the same age at which perceptual causality for launch events has emerged in prior research. On our second question, animate/inanimate motion had no effect at any age, nor did significant correlations emerge with our additional tasks assessing goal perception or goal-directed object retrieval. Available evidence, here and elsewhere, is as compatible with a view that infants initially see A affecting B, without differentiation into physical or psychological causality, as with the standard assumption of distinct physical/psychological causal perception.

  20. Bases of biocontrol: Sequence predicts synthesis and mode of action of agrocin 84, the Trojan Horse antibiotic that controls crown gall

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Gun; Park, Byoung Keun; Kim, Sung-Uk; Choi, Doil; Nahm, Baek Hie; Moon, Jae Sun; Reader, John S.; Farrand, Stephen K.; Hwang, Ingyu

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter K84, used worldwide to biocontrol crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, produces an antiagrobacterial compound called agrocin 84. We report the nucleotide sequence of pAgK84, a 44.42-kb plasmid coding for production of this disubstituted adenine nucleotide antibiotic. pAgK84 encodes 36 ORFs, 17 of which (agn) code for synthesis of or immunity to agrocin 84. Two genes, agnB2 and agnA, encode aminoacyl tRNA synthetase homologues. We have shown that the toxic moiety of agrocin 84 inhibits cellular leucyl-tRNA synthetases and AgnB2, which confers immunity to the antibiotic, is a resistant form of this enzyme. AgnA, a truncated homologue of asparaginyl tRNA synthetase could catalyze the phosphoramidate bond between a precursor of the methyl pentanamide side group and the nucleotide. We propose previously undescribed chemistry, catalyzed by AgnB1, to generate the precursor necessary for this phosphoramidate linkage. AgnC7 is related to ribonucleotide reductases and could generate the 3′-deoxyarabinose moiety of the nucleoside. Bioinformatics suggest that agnC3, agnC4, and agnC6 contribute to maturation of the methyl pentanamide, whereas agnC2 may produce the glucofuranose side group bound to the adenine ring. AgnG is related to bacterial exporters. An agnG mutant accumulated agrocin 84 intracellularly but did not export the antibiotic. pAgK84 is transmissible and encodes genes for conjugative DNA processing but lacks a type IV secretion system, suggesting that pAgK84 transfers by mobilization. By sequence analysis, the deletion engineered into pAgK1026 removed the oriT and essential tra genes, confirming the enhanced environmental safety of this modified form of pAgK84. PMID:16731618

  1. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  2. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  3. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  4. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  5. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  6. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  7. The minimalist grammar of action.

    PubMed

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-12

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

  8. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  9. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  10. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid...

  11. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  12. Using adversary text to detect adversary phase changes.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to help develop a research roadmap and small proof ofconcept for addressing key problems and gaps from the perspective of using text analysis methods as a primary tool for detecting when a group is undergoing a phase change. Self- rganizing map (SOM) techniques were used to analyze text data obtained from the tworld-wide web. Statistical studies indicate that it may be possible to predict phase changes, as well as detect whether or not an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  13. Pulling out the intentional structure of action: the relation between action processing and action production in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Adults and children readily construct action representations organized with respect to an ultimate goal. These representations allow one to predict the consequences of action, interpret and describe actions, and categorize action sequences. In this paper, we explore the ontogeny of hierarchically organized action representations, and its relation to infants’ ability to produce similar sequences. To do so, we examine infants’ perception and performance of a means-end sequence: pulling a cloth to retrieve a toy. Using a visual habituation paradigm, we demonstrate that 12-month-old infants understand that the initial step of the cloth-pulling sequence is directed toward the ultimate goal of attaining the toy, and use their knowledge of the causal constraints of the sequence to make this goal attribution. Ten-month-olds, however, appear transitional with respect to this understanding: their ability to identify the goal of the cloth-pulling sequence is related to their own ability to planfully solve a similar sequence. These findings are consistent with a burgeoning body of literature suggesting an intimate link between action production and perception, and suggest that this link is in place by at least 10 months of age. PMID:15629472

  14. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  15. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  16. Emergence of Cognition from Action.

    PubMed

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2014-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input-output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed "cognition." Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform "what if" scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions.

  17. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  18. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  19. Human action recognition by extracting motion trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuwen; Yang, Shangpeng

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel human action recognition framework named Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Hybrid Event Probability Sequence (HEPS), which can recognize unlabeled actions from videos. First, motion trajectories are effectively extracted using the centers of moving objects. Secondly, the HEPS is constructed using the trajectories and represents different human actions. Finally, the improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with inertia weight is introduced to recognize human actions using HMM. The proposed methods are evaluated on UCF Human Action Dataset and achieve 76.67% accurate rate. The comparative experiments results demonstrate that the HMM got superior results with HEPS and PSO.

  20. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  1. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  2. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  3. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  4. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  5. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  6. MSLICE Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Morris, John R.

    2011-01-01

    MSLICE Sequencing is a graphical tool for writing sequences and integrating them into RML files, as well as for producing SCMF files for uplink. When operated in a testbed environment, it also supports uplinking these SCMF files to the testbed via Chill. This software features a free-form textural sequence editor featuring syntax coloring, automatic content assistance (including command and argument completion proposals), complete with types, value ranges, unites, and descriptions from the command dictionary that appear as they are typed. The sequence editor also has a "field mode" that allows tabbing between arguments and displays type/range/units/description for each argument as it is edited. Color-coded error and warning annotations on problematic tokens are included, as well as indications of problems that are not visible in the current scroll range. "Quick Fix" suggestions are made for resolving problems, and all the features afforded by modern source editors are also included such as copy/cut/paste, undo/redo, and a sophisticated find-and-replace system optionally using regular expressions. The software offers a full XML editor for RML files, which features syntax coloring, content assistance and problem annotations as above. There is a form-based, "detail view" that allows structured editing of command arguments and sequence parameters when preferred. The "project view" shows the user s "workspace" as a tree of "resources" (projects, folders, and files) that can subsequently be opened in editors by double-clicking. Files can be added, deleted, dragged-dropped/copied-pasted between folders or projects, and these operations are undoable and redoable. A "problems view" contains a tabular list of all problems in the current workspace. Double-clicking on any row in the table opens an editor for the appropriate sequence, scrolling to the specific line with the problem, and highlighting the problematic characters. From there, one can invoke "quick fix" as described

  7. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  8. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  9. 15 CFR 310.4 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (3) The relative merit of the applications in terms of their qualifications as tourism destination..., that the hearing is not adversary in nature and that the sole objective thereof is to clarify...

  10. Polymorphix: a sequence polymorphism database.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Eric; Duret, Laurent; Penel, Simon; Galtier, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Within-species sequence variation data are of special interest since they contain information about recent population/species history, and the molecular evolutionary forces currently in action in natural populations. These data, however, are presently dispersed within generalist databases, and are difficult to access. To solve this problem, we have developed Polymorphix, a database dedicated to sequence polymorphism. It contains within-species homologous sequence families built using EMBL/GenBank under suitable similarity and bibliographic criteria. Polymorphix is an ACNUC structured database allowing both simple and complex queries for population genomic studies. Alignments within families as well as phylogenetic trees can be download. When available, outgroups are included in the alignment. Polymorphix contains sequences from the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes of every eukaryote species represented in EMBL. It can be accessed by a web interface (http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/polymorphix/query.php).

  11. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  12. Binding space and time through action.

    PubMed

    Binetti, N; Hagura, N; Fadipe, C; Tomassini, A; Walsh, V; Bestmann, S

    2015-04-22

    Space and time are intimately coupled dimensions in the human brain. Several lines of evidence suggest that space and time are processed by a shared analogue magnitude system. It has been proposed that actions are instrumental in establishing this shared magnitude system. Here we provide evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that the interaction between space and time is enhanced when magnitude information is acquired through action. Participants observed increases or decreases in the height of a visual bar (spatial magnitude) while judging whether a simultaneously presented sequence of acoustic tones had accelerated or decelerated (temporal magnitude). In one condition (Action), participants directly controlled the changes in bar height with a hand grip device, whereas in the other (No Action), changes in bar height were externally controlled but matched the spatial/temporal profile of the Action condition. The sign of changes in bar height biased the perceived rate of the tone sequences, where increases in bar height produced apparent increases in tone rate. This effect was amplified when the visual bar was actively controlled in the Action condition, and the strength of the interaction was scaled by the magnitude of the action. Subsequent experiments ruled out that this was simply explained by attentional factors, and additionally showed that a monotonic mapping is also required between grip force and bar height in order to bias the perception of the tones. These data provide support for an instrumental role of action in interfacing spatial and temporal quantities in the brain.

  13. Emergence of Cognition from Action

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input–output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed “cognition.” Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform “what if” scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions. PMID:25752314

  14. Action goals influence action-specific perception.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2009-12-01

    We examined the processes that mediate the emergence of action-specific influences on perception that have recently been reported for baseball batting and golf putting (Witt, Linkenauger, Bakdash, & Proffitt, 2008; Witt & Proffitt, 2005). To this end, we used a Schokokusswurfmaschine: Children threw a ball at a target, which, if hit successfully, launched a ball that the children then had to catch. In two experiments, children performed either a throwing-and-catching task or a throwing-only task, in which no ball was launched. After each task, the size of the target or of the ball was estimated. Results indicate that action-specific influences on perceived size occur for objects that are related to the end goal of the action, but not for objects that are related to intermediate action goals. These results suggest that action-specific influences on perception are contingent upon the primary action goals to be achieved.

  15. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  16. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  17. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  18. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA.

    PubMed

    Heather, James M; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way.

  19. Jointly Learning Multiple Sequential Dynamics for Human Action Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An-An; Su, Yu-Ting; Nie, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Zhao-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Discovering visual dynamics during human actions is a challenging task for human action recognition. To deal with this problem, we theoretically propose the multi-task conditional random fields model and explore its application on human action recognition. For visual representation, we propose the part-induced spatiotemporal action unit sequence to represent each action sample with multiple partwise sequential feature subspaces. For model learning, we propose the multi-task conditional random fields (MTCRFs) model to discover the sequence-specific structure and the sequence-shared relationship. Specifically, the multi-chain graph structure and the corresponding probabilistic model are designed to represent the interaction among multiple part-induced action unit sequences. Moreover we propose the model learning and inference methods to discover temporal context within individual action unit sequence and the latent correlation among different body parts. Extensive experiments are implemented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method on two popular RGB human action datasets, KTH & TJU, and the depth dataset in MSR Daily Activity 3D. PMID:26147979

  20. Integration of Temporal and Ordinal Information During Serial Interception Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gobel, Eric W.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Reber, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of expert motor skills typically involves learning to perform a precisely timed sequence of movements (e.g., language production, music performance, athletic skills). Research examining incidental sequence learning has previously relied on a perceptually-cued task that gives participants exposure to repeating motor sequences but does not require timing of responses for accuracy. Using a novel perceptual-motor sequence learning task, learning a precisely timed cued sequence of motor actions is shown to occur without explicit instruction. Participants learned a repeating sequence through practice and showed sequence-specific knowledge via a performance decrement when switched to an unfamiliar sequence. In a second experiment, the integration of representation of action order and timing sequence knowledge was examined. When either action order or timing sequence information was selectively disrupted, performance was reduced to levels similar to completely novel sequences. Unlike prior sequence-learning research that has found timing information to be secondary to learning action sequences, when the task demands require accurate action and timing information, an integrated representation of these types of information is acquired. These results provide the first evidence for incidental learning of fully integrated action and timing sequence information in the absence of an independent representation of action order, and suggest that this integrative mechanism may play a material role in the acquisition of complex motor skills. PMID:21417511

  1. Your actions in my cerebellum: subclinical deficits in action observation in patients with unilateral chronic cerebellar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Fasanelli, Monica; Andreatta, Olaf; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Barchiesi, Guido; Caruana, Fausto

    2012-03-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that cognitive consequences of cerebellar lesions tend to be mild and less important than the symptoms due to lesions to cerebral areas. By contrast, imaging studies consistently report strong cerebellar activity during tasks of action observation and action understanding. This has been interpreted as part of the automatic motor simulation process that takes place in the context of action observation. The function of the cerebellum as a sequencer during executed movements makes it a good candidate, within the framework of embodied cognition, for a pivotal role in understanding the timing of action sequences. Here, we investigated a cohort of eight patients with chronic, first-ever, isolated, ischemic lesions of the cerebellum. The experimental task consisted in identifying a plausible sequence of pictures from a randomly ordered group of still frames extracted from (a) a complex action performed by a human actor ("biological action" test) or (b) a complex physical event occurring to an inanimate object ("folk physics" test). A group of 16 healthy participants was used as control. The main result showed that cerebellar patients performed significantly worse than controls in both sequencing tasks, but performed much worse in the "biological action" test than in the "folk physics" test. The dissociation described here suggests that observed sequences of simple motor acts seem to be represented differentially from other sequences in the cerebellum.

  2. Goal-Directed Action Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyere, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of individuals with autism to represent goal-directed behavioural actions. We compared the performance of subjects with autism (n=16), mentally retarded subjects (n=14) and normal healthy subjects (n=15) in a sequencing task consisted in arranging pictures of single events in their…

  3. Preserving sequence annotations across reference sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Matching and comparing sequence annotations of different reference sequences is vital to genomics research, yet many annotation formats do not specify the reference sequence types or versions used. This makes the integration of annotations from different sources difficult and error prone. Results As part of our effort to create linked data for interoperable sequence annotations, we present an RDF data model for sequence annotation using the ontological framework established by the OBO Foundry ontologies and the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We defined reference sequences as the common domain of integration for sequence annotations, and identified three semantic relationships between sequence annotations. In doing so, we created the Reference Sequence Annotation to compensate for gaps in the SO and in its mapping to BFO, particularly for annotations that refer to versions of consensus reference sequences. Moreover, we present three integration models for sequence annotations using different reference assemblies. Conclusions We demonstrated a working example of a sequence annotation instance, and how this instance can be linked to other annotations on different reference sequences. Sequence annotations in this format are semantically rich and can be integrated easily with different assemblies. We also identify other challenges of modeling reference sequences with the BFO. PMID:25093075

  4. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  5. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  6. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  7. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  8. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  9. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  10. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  11. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way. PMID:26554401

  12. Multimodal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence.

  13. Whole Genome Sequencing

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Whole Genome Sequencing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... the full story, click here . What is whole genome sequencing? Whole genome sequencing is the mapping out ...

  14. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  15. Science sequence design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Bollman, W. E.; Freeman, J. E.; Helton, M. R.; Reichert, R. J.; Travers, E. S.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The activities of the following members of the Navigation Team are recorded: the Science Sequence Design Group, responsible for preparing the final science sequence designs; the Advanced Sequence Planning Group, responsible for sequence planning; and the Science Recommendation Team (SRT) representatives, responsible for conducting the necessary sequence design interfaces with the teams during the mission. The interface task included science support in both advance planning and daily operations. Science sequences designed during the mission are also discussed.

  16. Bovine Parathyroid Hormone: Amino Acid Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, H. Bryan; Ronan, Rosemary

    1970-01-01

    Bovine parathyroid hormone has been isolated in homogeneous form, and its complete amino acid sequence determined. The bovine hormone is a single chain, 84 amino acids long. It contains amino-terminal alanine, and carboxyl-terminal glutamine. The bovine parathyroid hormone is approximately three times the length of the newly discovered hormone, thyrocalcitonin, whose action is reciprocal to parathyroid hormone. Images PMID:5275384

  17. 32 CFR 179.7 - Sequencing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental justice issues, economies of scale, evaluation of total life cycle costs, and estimated valuations... and environmental impacts in general, including injuries to natural resources. (b) Procedures and... environmental restoration activities for that fiscal year. If sequencing decisions result in action at an...

  18. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  19. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  20. Continuous Human Action Recognition Using Depth-MHI-HOG and a Spotter Model

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Hyukmin; Yoon, Changyong; Lee, Heejin; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for spotting and recognizing continuous human actions using a vision sensor. The method is comprised of depth-MHI-HOG (DMH), action modeling, action spotting, and recognition. First, to effectively separate the foreground from background, we propose a method called DMH. It includes a standard structure for segmenting images and extracting features by using depth information, MHI, and HOG. Second, action modeling is performed to model various actions using extracted features. The modeling of actions is performed by creating sequences of actions through k-means clustering; these sequences constitute HMM input. Third, a method of action spotting is proposed to filter meaningless actions from continuous actions and to identify precise start and end points of actions. By employing the spotter model, the proposed method improves action recognition performance. Finally, the proposed method recognizes actions based on start and end points. We evaluate recognition performance by employing the proposed method to obtain and compare probabilities by applying input sequences in action models and the spotter model. Through various experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for recognizing continuous human actions in real environments. PMID:25742172

  1. Continuous human action recognition using depth-MHI-HOG and a spotter model.

    PubMed

    Eum, Hyukmin; Yoon, Changyong; Lee, Heejin; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for spotting and recognizing continuous human actions using a vision sensor. The method is comprised of depth-MHI-HOG (DMH), action modeling, action spotting, and recognition. First, to effectively separate the foreground from background, we propose a method called DMH. It includes a standard structure for segmenting images and extracting features by using depth information, MHI, and HOG. Second, action modeling is performed to model various actions using extracted features. The modeling of actions is performed by creating sequences of actions through k-means clustering; these sequences constitute HMM input. Third, a method of action spotting is proposed to filter meaningless actions from continuous actions and to identify precise start and end points of actions. By employing the spotter model, the proposed method improves action recognition performance. Finally, the proposed method recognizes actions based on start and end points. We evaluate recognition performance by employing the proposed method to obtain and compare probabilities by applying input sequences in action models and the spotter model. Through various experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for recognizing continuous human actions in real environments. PMID:25742172

  2. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  3. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  4. Preferential Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derrick A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical rationale for preferential affirmative action presented by Daniel C. Maguire in "A New American Justice." Maintains that self-interest bars present society's acceptance of Maguire's theories of justice, as demonstrated in negative reactions to the Harvard Law Review's affirmative action plan. (MJL)

  5. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  6. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  7. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  8. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  9. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  10. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  11. The generalized quaternion sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we define the recurrence sequence by using the relation matrix of the generalized quaternion group and then, we obtain miscellaneous properties of this sequence. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups which are produced by generating matrix of the sequence defined when read modulo m. Furthermore, we study this sequence modulo m, and then we derive the relationship among the order the cyclic groups obtained and the periods of the sequence defined.

  12. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  13. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  14. Teachers Unions as Partners, Not Adversaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catone, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Chicago has long been one of the national epicenters for public school reform. In many ways the reform efforts of the past decade in the Windy City have served as the blueprint for the current focus of federal education priorities. In particular, federal policy for school turnaround and transformation takes clear cues from the efforts that current…

  15. Action-Based Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to domain representation and planning that is fundamentally different from traditional methods; an approach based strictly on actions and their interrelationships, rather than on state-based goals and preconditions. In particular, we focus on the action-based planner COLLAGE, describe its methods for plan-construction, and contrast them with more traditional approaches to planning. Experiences with COLLAGE in realistic domains have shown that the action-based approach is not only more natural to use, but can also be more cost-efficient than traditional planning methods.

  16. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  17. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  18. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  19. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  20. The Action Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubenow, Gerald C.

    1972-01-01

    A description of the Serrano vs. Priest class action suit in California, challenging the system of financing education through property taxes; author touches upon the possibilities for the courts becoming change agents in the struggle for social reform. (SP)

  1. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  2. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  3. Contamination of sequence databases with adaptor sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Sanders, A.R.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.

    1997-02-01

    Because of the exponential increase in the amount of DNA sequences being added to the public databases on a daily basis, it has become imperative to identify sources of contamination rapidly. Previously, contaminations of sequence databases have been reported to alert the scientific community to the problem. These contaminations can be divided into two categories. The first category comprises host sequences that have been difficult for submitters to manage or control. Examples include anomalous sequences derived from Escherichia coli, which are inserted into the chromosomes (and plasmids) of the bacterial hosts. Insertion sequences are highly mobile and are capable of transposing themselves into plasmids during cloning manipulation. Another example of the first category is the infection with yeast genomic DNA or with bacterial DNA of some commercially available cDNA libraries from Clontech. The second category of database contamination is due to the inadvertent inclusion of nonhost sequences. This category includes incorporation of cloning-vector sequences and multicloning sites in the database submission. M13-derived artifacts have been common, since M13-based vectors have been widely used for subcloning DNA fragments. Recognizing this problem, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) started to screen, in April 1994, all sequences directly submitted to GenBank, against a set of vector data retrieved from GenBank by use of key-word searches, such as {open_quotes}vector.{close_quotes} In this report, we present evidence for another sequence artifact that is widespread but that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-03-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

  5. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed “reads” are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions. PMID:24681819

  6. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  7. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  8. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  9. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences.

  10. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences. PMID:27265133

  11. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  12. The Effect of Action Experience on Sensorimotor EEG Rhythms during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent line of inquiry has examined how an observer’s experience with action changes the neural processing of similar actions when they are subsequently observed. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that giving participants different types and amounts of experience with specific objects would lead to differential patterns of sensorimotor rhythms during the observation of similar actions on those objects. While EEG was recorded, three groups of participants (n = 20 in each group; mean age = 22.0 years, SD = 2.7) watched video clips of an actor reaching, grasping, and lifting two objects. Participants then received information about differences in weight between the two objects. One group gained this information through extended sensorimotor experience with the objects, a second group received much briefer sensorimotor experience with the objects, and the third group read written information about the objects’ weights. Participants then viewed the action sequences again. For participants who had sensorimotor experience with the objects, the EEG response to viewing the actions was differentially sensitive to the anticipated weight of the objects. We conclude that this sensitivity was based on the participant’s prior sensorimotor experience with the objects. The participants who only received semantic information about the objects showed no such effects. The primary conclusion is that even brief experience with actions affects sensorimotor cortex activity during the subsequent observation of similar actions. PMID:24568874

  13. Sequence information signal processor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Waterman, Michael S.; Hunkapillar, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is used to compare two sequences, such as genetic sequences, to determine which alignment of the sequences produces the greatest similarity. The circuit includes a linear array of series-connected processors, each of which stores a single element from one of the sequences and compares that element with each successive element in the other sequence. For each comparison, the processor generates a scoring parameter that indicates which segment ending at those two elements produces the greatest degree of similarity between the sequences. The processor uses the scoring parameter to generate a similar scoring parameter for a comparison between the stored element and the next successive element from the other sequence. The processor also delivers the scoring parameter to the next processor in the array for use in generating a similar scoring parameter for another pair of elements. The electronic circuit determines which processor and alignment of the sequences produce the scoring parameter with the highest value.

  14. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  15. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  16. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  17. Nonparametric Combinatorial Sequence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, Fabian L.; Jordan, Michael I.; Jojic, Nebojsa

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This paper presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three sequence datasets which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  18. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  19. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Herter, Brandi N.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications. PMID:26395152

  20. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Todd N; Wylie, Kristine M; Herter, Brandi N; Storch, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications.

  1. Career Academy Course Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Thom; Lenz, Robert

    This career academy course sequence guide is designed to give teachers a quick overview of the course sequences of well-known career academy and career pathway programs from across the country. The guide presents a variety of sample course sequences for the following academy themes: (1) arts and communication; (2) business and finance; (3)…

  2. Implicit sequence learning based on instructed task set.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, Robert; Frensch, Peter A; Cohen, Asher; Wenke, Dorit

    2012-09-01

    How does the way we code and control actions influence automatic skill acquisition processes? Wenke and Frensch (2005) showed that instructions can lead participants to code spatial responses based on color. Here, we tested in 3 experiments to what extent response labeling and instruction-based response coding can determine what is learned in implicit sequence learning. Instructions mapped 4 gray shape stimuli to 1 of the 4 keys each in a serial reaction task, referring to the keys in terms of either their color or their spatial location. In Experiments 1 and 2 we found that people in the color instruction conditions used color for action control and acquired sequence knowledge containing color: They were susceptible to irrelevant stimulus colors at transfer and could transfer color sequence knowledge to a new arrangement of response positions and fingers, whereas participants who had received spatial instructions could not. Implicit sequence learning was thus surprisingly flexible. Depending on whether an arbitrary nonspatial response feature was used or not used to explain the stimulus-response mappings, we either found or did not find evidence that this feature became part of action control and sequence learning. Furthermore, Experiment 3 suggested that response position might become part of the sequence knowledge even if instructions do not emphasize this response feature. Together, the findings suggest that implicit sequence learning is based on action control, which in turn strongly, but not entirely, depends on which response features are used to explain the stimulus-response mappings in the instructions.

  3. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  4. Uncorrectable sequences and telecommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekroot, Laura; Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Swanson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of a tail sequence for command link transmission units is to fail to decode, so that the command decoder will begin searching for the start of the next unit. A tail sequence used by several missions and recommended for this purpose by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Standards is analyzed. A single channel error can cause the sequence to decode. An alternative sequence requiring at least two channel errors before it can possibly decode is presented. (No sequence requiring more than two channel errors before it can possibly decode exists for this code.)

  5. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  6. Regulatory sequence analysis tools.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Jacques

    2003-07-01

    The web resource Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools (RSAT) (http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/rsat) offers a collection of software tools dedicated to the prediction of regulatory sites in non-coding DNA sequences. These tools include sequence retrieval, pattern discovery, pattern matching, genome-scale pattern matching, feature-map drawing, random sequence generation and other utilities. Alternative formats are supported for the representation of regulatory motifs (strings or position-specific scoring matrices) and several algorithms are proposed for pattern discovery. RSAT currently holds >100 fully sequenced genomes and these data are regularly updated from GenBank.

  7. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  8. Encoding of human action in Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Patrik; Cantagallo, Anna; Craighero, Laila; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Roy, Alice C; Pozzo, Thierry; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Fadiga, Luciano

    2009-07-01

    Broca's area has been considered, for over a century, as the brain centre responsible for speech production. Modern neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence have suggested a wider functional role is played by this area. In addition to the evidence that it is involved in syntactical analysis, mathematical calculation and music processing, it has recently been shown that Broca's area may play some role in language comprehension and, more generally, in understanding actions of other individuals. As shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging, Broca's area is one of the cortical areas activated by hand/mouth action observation and it has been proposed that it may form a crucial node of a human mirror-neuron system. If, on the one hand, neuroimaging studies use a correlational approach which cannot offer a final proof for such claims, available neuropsychological data fail to offer a conclusive demonstration for two main reasons: (i) they use tasks taxing both language and action systems; and (ii) they rarely consider the possibility that Broca's aphasics may also be affected by some form of apraxia. We administered a novel action comprehension test--with almost no linguistic requirements--on selected frontal aphasic patients lacking apraxic symptoms. Patients, as well as matched controls, were shown short movies of human actions or of physical events. Their task consisted of ordering, in a temporal sequence, four pictures taken from each movie and randomly presented on the computer screen. Patient's performance showed a specific dissociation in their ability to re-order pictures of human actions (impaired) with respect to physical events (spared). Our study provides a demonstration that frontal aphasics, not affected by apraxia, are specifically impaired in their capability to correctly encode observed human actions.

  9. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  10. The shape of action.

    PubMed

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of the joint time courses of these variables showed that looking time and physical change were locally maximal at breakpoints and greater for higher level action units than for lower level units. Even when slideshows were scrambled, breakpoints were regarded longer and were more physically different from ordinary moments, showing that breakpoints are distinct even out of context. Breakpoints are bridges: from one action to another, from one level to another, and from perception to conception.

  11. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  12. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  13. Action and gait recognition from recovered 3-D human joints.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junxia; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin; Wu, Youshou

    2010-08-01

    A common viewpoint-free framework that fuses pose recovery and classification for action and gait recognition is presented in this paper. First, a markerless pose recovery method is adopted to automatically capture the 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences from volume data. Second, multiple configuration features (combination of joints) and movement features (position, orientation, and height of the body) are extracted from the recovered 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences. A hidden Markov model (HMM) and an exemplar-based HMM are then used to model the movement features and configuration features, respectively. Finally, actions are classified by a hierarchical classifier that fuses the movement features and the configuration features, and persons are recognized from their gait sequences with the configuration features. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated with experiments on the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique Xmas Motion Acquisition Sequences data set.

  14. Characterizing Genetic Variants for Clinical Action

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Erin M.; Din-Lovinescu, Corina; Berg, Jonathan S.; Brooks, Lisa D.; Duncanson, Audrey; Dunn, Michael; Good, Peter; Hubbard, Tim; Jarvik, Gail P.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Sherry, Stephen T.; Aronson, Naomi; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Blumberg, Bruce; Calonge, Ned; Colhoun, Helen M.; Epstein, Robert S.; Flicek, Paul; Gordon, Erynn S.; Green, Eric D.; Green, Robert C.; Hurles, Matthew; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Knaus, William; Ledbetter, David H.; Levy, Howard P.; Lyon, Elaine; Maglott, Donna; McLeod, Howard L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Wicklund, Catherine; Manolio, Teri A.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Williams, Marc S.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies, DNA sequencing studies, and other genomic studies are finding an increasing number of genetic variants associated with clinical phenotypes that may be useful in developing diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategies for individual patients. However, few common variants have been integrated into routine clinical practice. The reasons for this are several, but two of the most significant are limited evidence about the clinical implications of the variants and a lack of a comprehensive knowledge base that captures genetic variants, their phenotypic associations, and other pertinent phenotypic information that is openly accessible to clinical groups attempting to interpret sequencing data. As the field of medicine begins to incorporate genome-scale analysis into clinical care, approaches need to be developed for collecting and characterizing data on the clinical implications of variants, developing consensus on their actionability, and making this information available for clinical use. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Wellcome Trust thus convened a workshop to consider the processes and resources needed to: 1) identify clinically valid genetic variants; 2) decide whether they are actionable and what the action should be; and 3) provide this information for clinical use. This commentary outlines the key discussion points and recommendations from the workshop. PMID:24634402

  15. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  16. Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Tatsuo S.; Mackevicius, Emily L.; Payne, Hannah L.; Lynch, Galen F.; Fee, Michale S.

    2015-01-01

    Neural sequences are a fundamental feature of brain dynamics underlying diverse behaviors, but the mechanisms by which they develop during learning remain unknown. Songbirds learn vocalizations composed of syllables; in adult birds, each syllable is produced by a different sequence of action potential bursts in the premotor cortical area HVC. Here we carried out recordings of large populations of HVC neurons in singing juvenile birds throughout learning to examine the emergence of neural sequences. Early in vocal development, HVC neurons begin producing rhythmic bursts, temporally locked to a ‘prototype’ syllable. Different neurons are active at different latencies relative to syllable onset to form a continuous sequence. Through development, as new syllables emerge from the prototype syllable, initially highly overlapping burst sequences become increasingly distinct. We propose a mechanistic model in which multiple neural sequences can emerge from the growth and splitting of a common precursor sequence. PMID:26618871

  17. Developmental sequences for hopping as assessment instruments: a generalizability analysis.

    PubMed

    Painter, M A

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the generalizability with which undergraduate kinesiology and elementary education students can rate children's hopping performances according to prelongitudinally validated developmental sequences for the arms, legs, and total body. Twenty observers were assigned to one of four training groups (n = 5): (a) kinesiology students/total-body sequence, (b) kinesiology students/component sequences, (c) elementary education students/total-body sequence, and (d) elementary education students/component sequences. The observers rated five trials of videotaped hopping performances by 10 boys and 10 girls between the ages of 3.5 and 9.0 years. The results suggested that when kinesiology students receive 2 hours of training, one observer can reliably assess leg action in one trial (.80) and arm action in five trials (.80). In contrast, one elementary education student can reliably assess leg action within five trials (.80), but the average score of two observers assessing three trials each is needed to assess arm action (.81). Reliable assessment of total-body action requires two observers for both the kinesiology students (four trials each = .80) and the elementary education students (two trials each = .84).

  18. Optimal rotation sequences for active perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakath, David; Rachuy, Carsten; Clemens, Joachim; Schill, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    One major objective of autonomous systems navigating in dynamic environments is gathering information needed for self localization, decision making, and path planning. To account for this, such systems are usually equipped with multiple types of sensors. As these sensors often have a limited field of view and a fixed orientation, the task of active perception breaks down to the problem of calculating alignment sequences which maximize the information gain regarding expected measurements. Action sequences that rotate the system according to the calculated optimal patterns then have to be generated. In this paper we present an approach for calculating these sequences for an autonomous system equipped with multiple sensors. We use a particle filter for multi- sensor fusion and state estimation. The planning task is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP), where the system decides in each step, what actions to perform next. The optimal control policy, which provides the best action depending on the current estimated state, maximizes the expected cumulative reward. The latter is computed from the expected information gain of all sensors over time using value iteration. The algorithm is applied to a manifold representation of the joint space of rotation and time. We show the performance of the approach in a spacecraft navigation scenario where the information gain is changing over time, caused by the dynamic environment and the continuous movement of the spacecraft

  19. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  20. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  1. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  2. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  3. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  4. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  5. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  6. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  7. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  8. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  9. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  10. From Intuition to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of principals intuitively believe that the arts belong in schools and in every child's life. Now is the time to take action on your intuition--and become an instructional leader for the arts, just as you are for every core subject. Arts-engaged principals share strategies for becoming instructional leaders for the arts.

  11. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  12. Action Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  13. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  14. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  15. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  16. Promoting Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, John

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a lesson on the extinction process allowing students to better understand why and how species become endangered before they attempt to take action on this problem. Provides background information and describes several suggested methodologies, evaluation and enrichment ideas, six resources, and two references. (LZ)

  17. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  18. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  19. Literacy Portfolios in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.

    Intended for new and experienced teachers in grades K-8, this book takes readers through a process of thinking about how to put portfolios into action. The book models a process for making decisions about the type of portfolio, what to place in it, how to structure the interactions with it, and how to use it to evaluate student progress and report…

  20. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  1. Programs for Urban Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board of Young Men's Christian Associations, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains descriptions of 150 urban action programs being conducted by Young Men's Christian Associations throughout the United States. Planning principles are included to assist those who wish to adapt the programs to local situations: involvement of people in planning; use of local indigenous leadership; planning in collaboration…

  2. Affirmative Action Fallout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  3. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  4. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  5. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  6. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  7. Gaze Following Is Modulated by Expectations Regarding Others’ Action Goals

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Osorio, Jairo; Müller, Hermann J.; Wiese, Eva; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others’ behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others’ mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants’ expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gaze-cueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an action-incongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent. PMID:26606534

  8. Action representation of sound: audiomotor recognition network while listening to newly acquired actions.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Saltzman, Elliot; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2007-01-10

    The discovery of audiovisual mirror neurons in monkeys gave rise to the hypothesis that premotor areas are inherently involved not only when observing actions but also when listening to action-related sound. However, the whole-brain functional formation underlying such "action-listening" is not fully understood. In addition, previous studies in humans have focused mostly on relatively simple and overexperienced everyday actions, such as hand clapping or door knocking. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to ask whether the human action-recognition system responds to sounds found in a more complex sequence of newly acquired actions. To address this, we chose a piece of music as a model set of acoustically presentable actions and trained non-musicians to play it by ear. We then monitored brain activity in subjects while they listened to the newly acquired piece. Although subjects listened to the music without performing any movements, activation was found bilaterally in the frontoparietal motor-related network (including Broca's area, the premotor region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the inferior parietal region), consistent with neural circuits that have been associated with action observations, and may constitute the human mirror neuron system. Presentation of the practiced notes in a different order activated the network to a much lesser degree, whereas listening to an equally familiar but motorically unknown music did not activate this network. These findings support the hypothesis of a "hearing-doing" system that is highly dependent on the individual's motor repertoire, gets established rapidly, and consists of Broca's area as its hub. PMID:17215391

  9. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. PMID:24268321

  10. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding.

  11. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  12. The processing of actions and action-words in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Cecchetto, Cinzia; Mazzon, Giulia; Granello, Giulia; Cattaruzza, Tatiana; Verriello, Lorenzo; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with prime consequences on the motor function and concomitant cognitive changes, most frequently in the domain of executive functions. Moreover, poorer performance with action-verbs versus object-nouns has been reported in ALS patients, raising the hypothesis that the motor dysfunction deteriorates the semantic representation of actions. Using action-verbs and manipulable-object nouns sharing semantic relationship with the same motor representations, the verb-noun difference was assessed in a group of 21 ALS-patients with severely impaired motor behavior, and compared with a normal sample's performance. ALS-group performed better on nouns than verbs, both in production (action and object naming) and comprehension (word-picture matching). This observation implies that the interpretation of the verb-noun difference in ALS cannot be accounted by the relatedness of verbs to motor representations, but has to consider the role of other semantic and/or morpho-phonological dimensions that distinctively define the two grammatical classes. Moreover, this difference in the ALS-group was not greater than the noun-verb difference in the normal sample. The mental representation of actions also involves an executive-control component to organize, in logical/temporal order, the individual motor events (or sub-goals) that form a purposeful action. We assessed this ability with action sequencing tasks, requiring participants to re-construct a purposeful action from the scrambled presentation of its constitutive motor events, shown in the form of photographs or short sentences. In those tasks, ALS-group's performance was significantly poorer than controls'. Thus, the executive dysfunction manifested in the sequencing deficit -but not the selective verb deficit- appears as a consistent feature of the cognitive profile associated with ALS. We suggest that ALS can offer a valuable model to study the relationship between

  13. Sequences for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  14. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  15. M&m Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Harris S.; Shiflett, Ray C.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a sequence recursively formed as follows: Start with three real numbers, and then when k are known, let the (k +1)st be such that the mean of all k +1 equals the median of the first k. The authors conjecture that every such sequence eventually becomes stable. This article presents results related to their conjecture.

  16. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  17. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  18. Twin Mitochondrial Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Yosr; Martinez, Selena; Gong, Henry; Dumas, Kevin; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2013-09-01

    When applying genome-wide sequencing technologies to disease investigation, it is increasingly important to resolve sequence variation in regions of the genome that may have homologous sequences. The human mitochondrial genome challenges interpretation given the potential for heteroplasmy, somatic variation, and homologous nuclear mitochondrial sequences (numts). Identical twins share the same mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from early life, but whether the mitochondrial sequence remains similar is unclear. We compared an adult monozygotic twin pair using high throughput-sequencing and evaluated variants with primer extension and mitochondrial pre-enrichment. Thirty-seven variants were shared between the twin individuals, and the variants were verified on the original genomic DNA. These studies support highly identical genetic sequence in this case. Certain low-level variant calls were of high quality and homology to the mitochondrial DNA, and they were further evaluated. When we assessed calls in pre-enriched mitochondrial DNA templates, we found that these may represent numts, which can be differentiated from mtDNA variation. We conclude that twin identity extends to mitochondrial DNA, and it is critical to differentiate between numts and mtDNA in genome sequencing, particularly since significant heteroplasmy could influence genome interpretation. Further studies on mtDNA and numts will aid in understanding how variation occurs and persists. PMID:24040623

  19. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  20. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  1. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  2. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  3. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  4. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  5. Action-perception coupling in violinists.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Takafumi; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Sparks, Joseph; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates auditory-motor coupling in musically trained participants using a Stroop-type task that required the execution of simple finger sequences according to aurally presented number sequences (e.g., "2," "4," "5," "3," "1"). Digital remastering was used to manipulate the pitch contour of the number sequences such that they were either congruent or incongruent with respect to the resulting action sequence. Conservatoire-level violinists showed a strong effect of congruency manipulation (increased response time for incongruent vs. congruent trials), in comparison to a control group of non-musicians. In Experiment 2, this paradigm was used to determine whether pedagogical background would influence this effect in a group of young violinists. Suzuki trained violinists differed significantly from those with no musical background, while traditionally trained violinists did not. The findings extend previous research in this area by demonstrating that obligatory audio-motor coupling is directly related to a musicians' expertise on their instrument of study and is influenced by pedagogy. PMID:23908612

  6. Structured Time Series Analysis for Human Action Segmentation and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Dian Gong; Medioni, Gerard; Xuemei Zhao

    2014-07-01

    We address the problem of structure learning of human motion in order to recognize actions from a continuous monocular motion sequence of an arbitrary person from an arbitrary viewpoint. Human motion sequences are represented by multivariate time series in the joint-trajectories space. Under this structured time series framework, we first propose Kernelized Temporal Cut (KTC), an extension of previous works on change-point detection by incorporating Hilbert space embedding of distributions, to handle the nonparametric and high dimensionality issues of human motions. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, which yields realtime segmentation, and produces high action segmentation accuracy. Second, a spatio-temporal manifold framework is proposed to model the latent structure of time series data. Then an efficient spatio-temporal alignment algorithm Dynamic Manifold Warping (DMW) is proposed for multivariate time series to calculate motion similarity between action sequences (segments). Furthermore, by combining the temporal segmentation algorithm and the alignment algorithm, online human action recognition can be performed by associating a few labeled examples from motion capture data. The results on human motion capture data and 3D depth sensor data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in automatically segmenting and recognizing motion sequences, and its ability to handle noisy and partially occluded data, in the transfer learning module. PMID:26353312

  7. Perceiving Goals and Actions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyère, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to parse familiar sequences of action into meaningful events in young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as compared to young individuals with typical development (TD) and young individuals with moderate mental retardation or learning disabilities (MLDs). While viewing two…

  8. Infants' Enumeration of Actions: Numerical Discrimination and Its Signature Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2005-01-01

    Are abstract representations of number--representations that are independent of the particular type of entities that are enumerated--a product of human language or culture, or do they trace back to human infancy? To address this question, four experiments investigated whether human infants discriminate between sequences of actions (jumps of a…

  9. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  10. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people’s actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant’s arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants’ grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant’s target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate’s grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings

  11. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people's actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant's arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants' grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant's target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate's grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings provide

  12. Learning atomic human actions using variable-length Markov models.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Ming; Shih, Sheng-Wen; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark; Lin, Cheng-Chung

    2009-02-01

    Visual analysis of human behavior has generated considerable interest in the field of computer vision because of its wide spectrum of potential applications. Human behavior can be segmented into atomic actions, each of which indicates a basic and complete movement. Learning and recognizing atomic human actions are essential to human behavior analysis. In this paper, we propose a framework for handling this task using variable-length Markov models (VLMMs). The framework is comprised of the following two modules: a posture labeling module and a VLMM atomic action learning and recognition module. First, a posture template selection algorithm, based on a modified shape context matching technique, is developed. The selected posture templates form a codebook that is used to convert input posture sequences into discrete symbol sequences for subsequent processing. Then, the VLMM technique is applied to learn the training symbol sequences of atomic actions. Finally, the constructed VLMMs are transformed into hidden Markov models (HMMs) for recognizing input atomic actions. This approach combines the advantages of the excellent learning function of a VLMM and the fault-tolerant recognition ability of an HMM. Experiments on realistic data demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed system.

  13. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  14. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  15. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian Thomas; Leitner, Thomas Kenneth; Apetrei, Cristian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette Tina Marie

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  16. Evolution of DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tipu, Hamid Nawaz; Shabbir, Ambreen

    2015-03-01

    Sanger and coworkers introduced DNA sequencing in 1970s for the first time. It principally relied on termination of growing nucleotide chain when a dideoxythymidine triphosphate (ddTTP) was inserted in it. Detection of terminated sequences was done radiographically on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Improvements that have evolved over time in original Sanger sequencing include replacement of radiography with fluorescence, use of separate fluorescent markers for each nucleotide, use of capillary electrophoresis instead of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then introduction of capillary array electrophoresis. However, this technique suffered from few inherent limitations like decreased sensitivity for low level mutant alleles, complexities in analyzing highly polymorphic regions like Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and high DNA concentrations required. Several Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have been introduced by Roche, Illumina and other commercial manufacturers that tend to overcome Sanger sequencing limitations and have been reviewed. Introduction of NGS in clinical research and medical diagnostics is expected to change entire diagnostic approach. These include study of cancer variants, detection of minimal residual disease, exome sequencing, detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and their disease association, epigenetic regulation of gene expression and sequencing of microorganisms genome.

  17. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  18. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  19. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  20. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  1. Hierarchical processing in music, language, and action: Lashley revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-05-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized "syntax of action" necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion-that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions-is consistent with considerable experimental data.

  2. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  3. Directed forgetting benefits motor sequence encoding.

    PubMed

    Tempel, Tobias; Frings, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments investigated directed forgetting of newly learned motor sequences. Concurrently with the list method of directed forgetting, participants successively learned two lists of motor sequences. Each sequence consisted of four consecutive finger movements. After a short distractor task, a recall test was given. Both experiments compared a forget group that was instructed to forget list-1 items with a remember group not receiving a forget instruction. We found that the instruction to forget list 1 enhanced recall of subsequently learned motor sequences. This benefit of directed forgetting occurred independently of costs for list 1. A mediation analysis showed that the encoding accuracy of list 2 was a mediator of the recall benefit, that is, the more accurate execution of motor sequences of list 2 after receiving a forget instruction for list 1 accounted for better recall of list 2. Thus, the adaptation of the list method to motor action provided more direct evidence on the effect of directed forgetting on subsequent learning. The results corroborate the assumption of a reset of encoding as a consequence of directed forgetting. PMID:26471189

  4. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  5. A Paradigm of Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Peyton, R. Ben

    A paradigm is proposed that would permit curriculum developers and others to specifically plan for training in environmental action as an integral and substantial component in this field. The three-part paradigm identifies and defines specific categories of action. It then identifies and illustrates the levels at which these actions can be taken.…

  6. Rethinking Actions: Implementation and Association

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word “action”—one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the fronto-parietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others’ actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. PMID:26352170

  7. Must Affirmative Action Be Divisive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Solomon Andhil

    1975-01-01

    Affirmative action is seen as causing dissension and cleavages in the civil rights coalition. Requisites suggested for winning support for affirmative action are thorough knowledge of its rationale and components, assuring whites they will not be pushed out of jobs, and a continued emphasis on the urgency for affirmative action. (Author/AM)

  8. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  9. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  10. Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses scope and sequence plans for curriculum coordination in elementary and secondary education related to school libraries. Highlights include library skills; levels of learning objectives; technology skills; media literacy skills; and information inquiry skills across disciplines by grade level. (LRW)

  11. Pierre Robin sequence

    MedlinePlus

    Pierre Robin syndrome; Pierre Robin complex; Pierre Robin anomaly ... The exact causes of Pierre Robin sequence are unknown. It may be part of many genetic syndromes. The lower jaw develops slowly before birth, but ...

  12. SINGLE CELL GENOME SEQUENCING

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing of single cells has become a powerful approach for studying uncultivated microorganisms that represent 90–99 % of all environmental microbes. Single cell sequencing enables not only the identification of microbes but also linking of functions to species, a feat not achievable by metagenomic techniques. Moreover, it allows the analysis of low abundance species that may be missed in community-based analyses. It has also proved very useful in complementing metagenomics in the assembly and binning of single genomes. With the advent of drastically cheaper and higher throughput sequencing technologies, it is expected that single cell sequencing will become a standard tool in studying the genome and transcriptome of microbial communities. PMID:22154471

  13. Sequencing Complex Genomic Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, Evan

    2009-05-28

    Evan Eichler, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator at the University of Washington, gives the May 28, 2009 keynote speech at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM. Part 2 of 2

  14. Sequencing Complex Genomic Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, Evan

    2009-05-28

    Evan Eichler, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator at the University of Washington, gives the May 28, 2009 keynote speech at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM. Part 1 of 2

  15. Authentication of byte sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1991-06-01

    Algorithms for the authentication of byte sequences are described. The algorithms are designed to authenticate data in the Storage, Retrieval, Analysis, and Display (SRAD) Test Data Archive of the Radiation Effects and Testing Directorate (9100) at Sandia National Laboratories, and may be used in similar situations where authentication of stored data is required. The algorithms use a well-known error detection method called the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). When a byte sequence is authenticated and stored, CRC bytes are generated and attached to the end of the sequence. When the authenticated data is retrieved, the authentication check consists of processing the entire sequence, including the CRC bytes, and checking for a remainder of zero. The error detection properties of the CRC are extensive and result in a reliable authentication of SRAD data.

  16. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Leitner, Thomas; Apetrei, Christian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  17. Genome sequencing conference II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Genome Sequencing Conference 2 was held September 30 to October 30, 1990. 26 speaker abstracts and 33 poster presentations were included in the program report. New and improved methods for DNA sequencing and genetic mapping were presented. Many of the papers were concerned with accuracy and speed of acquisition of data with computers and automation playing an increasing role. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  18. Capillary action liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Bergström, Edmund T; Goodall, David M; Myers, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Capillary action LC (caLC) is introduced as a technique using capillary action as the driving force to perform LC in capillary columns packed with HPLC type microparticulate materials. A dry packing method with centrifugal force was developed to prepare capillary columns in parallel (10 columns per 3 min) to support their disposable use in caLC. Using a digital microscope for real-time imaging and recording separations of components in a dye mixture, caLC was found to have flow characteristics similar to TLC. Based on the investigation of microparticulate HPLC silica gels of different size (1.5-10 microm) and a typical TLC grade irregular medium, Merck 60G silica, the van Deemter curves suggested molecular diffusion as the major contribution to band broadening in caLC. With Waters Xbridge 2.6 microm silica, plate heights down to 8.8 microm were obtained, comparable to those achievable in HPLC. Assisted by an image-processing method, the visual caLC separation was converted to a classical chromatogram for further data analysis and such a facility confirmed the observation of highly efficient bands.

  19. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  20. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  1. Nanapore Sequencing with MSPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Jens H.

    2011-10-01

    Nanopore sequencing is the simplest concept of converting the sequence of a single DNA molecule directly into an electronic signal. We introduced the protein pore MspA. derived from Mycobacterium smegmatis, to nanpore sequencing [1]. MspA has a single, narrow (-1.2nm) and short (<1nm) constriction, ideal to identify single nucleotides. Compared to solid state devices, MspA is reproducible with sub-nanometer precision and is engineerable using genetic mutations. DNA moves through the pore at rates exceeding 1nt/microsec. too fast to observe the passage of each nucleotide. However, when DNA is held with double stranded DNA sections or an avidin anchor, single nucleotides resident in MspA's constriction can be identified with highly resolved current differences. We have provided proof of principle of a nanopore sequencing method [2] in which we use DNA modified by inserting double stranded DNA-sections between every nucleotide. The double stranded sections are designed to halt translocation for long enough to sequentially read the sequence of the original DNA molecule. Prospects and developments to sequence unmodified native DNA using MspA will be discussed.[4pt] [1] T.Z. Butler, et al, PNAS 105 20647 (2008)[0pt] [2] I.M. Derrington, et al, PNAS 107 16060 (2010).

  2. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  3. Improvement of HMM-based action classification by using state transition probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Yuka; Aruga, Haruki; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to classify multiple similar actions which are contained in human behaviors by considering a weak-constrained order of "actions". The proposed method regards the human behavior as a combination of "action" patterns which have order constrained weakly. In this method, actions are classified by using not only image features but also consistency of transitions between an action and next action. By considering such an action transition, our method can recognize human behavior even if image features of different action are similar to each other. Based on this idea, we have improved the previous HMM-based algorithm effectively. Through some experiments using test image sequences of human behavior appeared in a bathroom, we have confirmed that the average classification success rate is 97 %, which is about 53 % higher than the previous method.

  4. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  5. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  6. Human action recognition using motion energy template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yanhua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Human action recognition is an active and interesting research topic in computer vision and pattern recognition field that is widely used in the real world. We proposed an approach for human activity analysis based on motion energy template (MET), a new high-level representation of video. The main idea for the MET model is that human actions could be expressed as the composition of motion energy acquired in a three-dimensional (3-D) space-time volume by using a filter bank. The motion energies were directly computed from raw video sequences, thus some problems, such as object location and segmentation, etc., are definitely avoided. Another important competitive merit of this MET method is its insensitivity to gender, hair, and clothing. We extract MET features by using the Bhattacharyya coefficient to measure the motion energy similarity between the action template video and the tested video, and then the 3-D max-pooling. Using these features as input to the support vector machine, extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets, Weizmann and KTH, were carried out. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, such as variation energy image, dynamic templates and local motion pattern descriptors, the experimental results demonstrate that our MET model is competitive and promising.

  7. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  8. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    PubMed

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-09-18

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  9. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  10. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    PubMed

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  11. Where is the action? Action sentence processing in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential view of conceptual representation, action concepts are understood through motoric simulations, involving motor networks of the brain. A stronger version of this embodied account suggests that even figurative uses of action words (e.g., grasping the concept) are understood through motoric simulations. We investigated these claims by assessing whether Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder affecting the motor system, is associated with selective deficits in comprehending action-related sentences. Twenty PD patients and 21 age-matched controls performed a sentence comprehension task, where sentences belonged to one of four conditions: literal action, non-idiomatic metaphoric action, idiomatic action, and abstract. The same verbs (referring to hand/arm actions) were used in the three action-related conditions. Patients, but not controls, were slower to respond to literal and idiomatic action than to abstract sentences. These results indicate that sensory-motor systems play a functional role in semantic processing, including processing of figurative action language. PMID:23624313

  12. Guam Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  13. Testing fractional action cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  14. Action potential in charophytes.

    PubMed

    Beilby, Mary Jane

    2007-01-01

    The plant action potential (AP) has been studied for more than half a century. The experimental system was provided mainly by the large charophyte cells, which allowed insertion of early large electrodes, manipulation of cell compartments, and inside and outside media. These early experiments were inspired by the Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) work on the squid axon and its voltage clamp techniques. Later, the patch clamping technique provided information about the ion transporters underlying the excitation transient. The initial models were also influenced by the HH picture of the animal AP. At the turn of the century, the paradigm of the charophyte AP shifted to include several chemical reactions, second messenger-activated channel, and calcium ion liberation from internal stores. Many aspects of this new model await further clarification. The role of the AP in plant movements, wound signaling, and turgor regulation is now well documented. Involvement in invasion by pathogens, chilling injury, light, and gravity sensing are under investigation.

  15. [Neuroprotective actions of lithium].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Fujimaki, Koichiro; Jeong, Mi Ra; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Christ, Lori; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has long been one of the primary drugs used to treat bipolar mood disorder. However, neither the etiology of this disease nor the therapeutic mechanism(s) of this drug is well understood. Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that lithium has neurotrophic actions. For example chronic lithium treatment increases the volume of gray matter and the content of N-acetyl-aspartate, a cell survival marker, in bipolar mood disorder patients (Moore et al., 2000). Moreover, treatment with this mood-stabilizer suppresses the decrease in the volume of the subgenual pre-frontal cortex found in bipolar patients (Drevets, 2001). To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of lithium, we employed a preparation of cultured cortical neurons prepared form embryonic rats. We found that treatment with therapeutic doses (0.2-1.2 mM) of lithium robustly protects cortical neurons from multiple insults, notably glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. The neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is time-dependent, requiring treatment for 5-6 days for maximal effect, and is associated with a reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. The latter is correlated with a decrease in Tyrosine 1472 phosphorylation levels in the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors and a loss of Src kinase activity which is involved in NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Neither the activity of total tyrosine protein kinase nor that of tyrosine protein phosphatase is affected by this drug, indicating the selectivity of the modulation. Lithium neuroprotection against excitotoxicity is inhibited by a BDNF-neutralizing antibody and K252a, a Trk antagonist. Lithium treatment time-dependently increases the intracellular level of BDNF in cortical neurons and activates its receptor, TrkB. The neuroprotection can be completely blocked by either heterozygous or homozygous knockout of the BDNF gene. These results suggest a central role of BDNF and TrkB in mediating the

  16. The Quench Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  17. Move Your Audience to Action: Using YouTube to Teach Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 75 years, instructors have taught students to use Monroe's (1935) Motivated Sequence (MMS) when organizing speeches designed to move audiences to action. However, modern approaches to teaching the sequence are needed to help instructors remain relevant and effective. This activity advocates the use of constructivist pedagogical…

  18. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  19. Controlled processing during sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6) in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region’s activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations. PMID:26578941

  20. Controlled processing during sequencing.

    PubMed

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6) in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region's activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations.

  1. Generations of sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Erik; Lundeberg, Joakim; Ahmadian, Afshin

    2009-02-01

    Advancements in the field of DNA sequencing are changing the scientific horizon and promising an era of personalized medicine for elevated human health. Although platforms are improving at the rate of Moore's Law, thereby reducing the sequencing costs by a factor of two or three each year, we find ourselves at a point in history where individual genomes are starting to appear but where the cost is still too high for routine sequencing of whole genomes. These needs will be met by miniaturized and parallelized platforms that allow a lower sample and template consumption thereby increasing speed and reducing costs. Current massively parallel, state-of-the-art systems are providing significantly improved throughput over Sanger systems and future single-molecule approaches will continue the exponential improvements in the field.

  2. Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A; Holmes, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning. PMID:24068996

  3. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  4. On signal sequence polymorphisms and diseases of distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, J S; Gilula, N B; Lerner, R A

    1996-01-01

    We report a previously unappreciated property of the signals that target organelle-specific proteins to their subcellular sites of action. Such targeting sequences are shown to be polymorphic. We discovered this polymorphism when we cloned the mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from cell lines of normal individuals and patients with genetic diseases of premature aging and compared their sequences to each other and to those previously reported. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide change in the region of the DNA that encodes the signal sequence such that either an alanine or valine is present. Subsequently, eight cell lines were analyzed and all three possible combinations of the two signal sequences were observed. Such signal sequence polymorphisms could result in diseases of distribution, where essential proteins are not properly targeted, thereby leading to absolute or relative deficiencies of critical enzymes within specific cellular compartments. Progeria and related syndromes may be diseases of distribution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8633092

  5. Ranking and Sequencing Model

    2009-08-13

    This database application (commonly called the Supermodel) provides a repository for managing critical facility/project information, allows the user to subjectively an objectively assess key criteria , quantify project risks, develop ROM cost estimates, determine facility/project end states, ultimately performing risk-based modeling to rank facilities/project based on risk, sequencing project schedules and provides an optimized recommended sequencing/scheduling of these projects which maximize the S&M cost savings to perform closure projects which benefit all stakeholders.

  6. Microchips for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrangelo, Carlos H.; Palaniappan, S.; Man, Piu Francis; Burns, Mark A.; Burke, David T.

    1999-08-01

    Genetic information is vital for understanding features and response of an organism. In humans, genetic errors are linked to the development of major diseases such as cancer and diabetes. In order to maximally exploit this information it is necessary to develop miniature sequencing assays that are rapid and inexpensive. In this paper we show how this could be attained with microfluidic chips that contain integrated assays. To date simple silicon/glass chips aimed for sequencing purpose have been realized; but these chips are not yet practical. Some of the solutions that are used to bring these devices closer to commercial applications are discussed.

  7. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  8. On "action language" in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Calogeras, R C; Alston, T M

    1980-10-01

    The main tenets of action language are summarized in an attempt to discern the direction in which psychoanalysis might go if action language becomes the "new metapsychology." The principal roots of action language are traced to the different linguistic/language and personality-and-culture models of anthropology and to the neobehaviorist currents of academic psychology. The authors' findings support the hypothesis that action language is a form os psychoanalytic behaviorism having idealism, logical positivism, and radical empiricism as its philosophical underpinnings. Its adoption would confound the entire motivational aspect of psychoanalysis. Specifically, the authors suggest that action language falls under the aegis of Wittgenstein's family of language games. When the action language game is said to be brought to a successful resolution, the language game disappears and, supposedly, so do the patient's conflicts. PMID:7422749

  9. Simulation of Accident Sequences Including Emergency Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Queral, Cesar; Exposito, Antonio; Hortal, Javier

    2004-07-01

    Operator actions play an important role in accident sequences. However, design analysis (Safety Analysis Report, SAR) seldom includes consideration of operator actions, although they are required by compulsory Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) to perform some checks and actions from the very beginning of the accident. The basic aim of the project is to develop a procedure validation system which consists of the combination of three elements: a plant transient simulation code TRETA (a C based modular program) developed by the CSN, a computerized procedure system COPMA-III (Java technology based program) developed by the OECD-Halden Reactor Project and adapted for simulation with the contribution of our group and a software interface that provides the communication between COPMA-III and TRETA. The new combined system is going to be applied in a pilot study in order to analyze sequences initiated by secondary side breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plant. (authors)

  10. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Huis In ‘t Veld, Elisabeth M. J.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity. PMID:25294993

  11. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; van Boxtel, Geert J M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity.

  12. Numbers in Action

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL. PMID:27524965

  13. Action as ejection.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daisy

    2006-01-01

    The systematic analysis of acting-out episodes can be used in assessing analytic progress. Variables to be considered are the nature of the wish, the type of defense, and the degree of concreteness (versus symbolization) of the mental processes used in attempting actualization (as distinct from the resort to action). Two acting-out episodes of a borderline patient who acted out as a character trait, both occurring outside the analytic setting, are presented as illustrations. In the first one, occurring relatively early in the analysis, when split-off negative and positive self-images had to be rigidly maintained, ejection of the negative self-image was actualized via the regressive use of a symbolic equation and the mechanism of displacement, obliterating the distinction between an internal feeling and an external thing that here was literally thrown out. The later episode, occurring after the split was healed and within the context of a frustrating heterosexual involvement, contained an acted-out allusion to identification and competition with the mother. As in a dream, via associations, an unconscious wish for oedipal victory was revealed. Whereas in the first episode the goal of ejection was central, with splitting and denial the underlying defenses, it was absent from the second, in which an attempt was made to actualize a repressed infantile wish and made greater use of symbolization. It is concluded that acting-out episodes at different periods of the analysis, when systematically analyzed, can serve in assessing a patient's progress.

  14. Less chalk more action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  15. Nonclassical Vitamin D Action

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Gummert, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5-15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L). PMID:22254030

  16. Antimicrobial action of sanguinarine.

    PubMed

    Godowski, K C

    1989-01-01

    Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived from rhizomes of Sanguinaria canadensis L. (bloodroot). It is a cationic molecule which converts from an iminium ion form at pH less than 6 to an alkanolamine form at pH greater than 7. Sanguinaria extract is composed of sanguinarine and five other closely related alkaloids. The safety profile of both sanguinarine and sanguinaria extract provide a broad margin for their safe use in oral health products. Sanguinarine has broad antimicrobial activity as well as antiinflammatory properties. In vitro studies indicate that the anti-plaque action of sanguinaria is due to its ability to inhibit bacterial adherence to newly formed pellicle, its retention in plaque being 10-100 times its saliva concentration, and due to its antimicrobic properties. The MIC of sanguinarine ranges from 1 to 32 micrograms/mL for most species of plaque bacteria. Long term use of sanguinaria-containing toothpaste and oral rinse products does not predispose users to detrimental shifts in oral flora. Electron microscopic studies of bacteria exposed to sanguinarine demonstrate that bacteria aggregate and become morphologically irregular. Sanguinarine-containing slow release polymer systems are currently being developed for use in periodontitis treatment applications.

  17. Mobilizing grassroots action.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Zero Population Growth, Inc. (ZPG), was very busy in 1994 spreading its message about the dangers of rapid population growth. ZPG's Field and Outreach Program is vital to the success of the organization. Organization activists staffed tables at more than 170 events in 1994, while the Speakers Network gave 159 presentations. ZPG was represented on Earth Day, World Population Day, during World Population Awareness Week, and at Cairo town meetings, as well as at the HORDE rock festival and the 25th anniversary of the Woodstock Music Festival. Campus contacts developed at these latter two concerts formed the basic for ZPG's Campus Outreach Project. In 1994, the Field department focused upon the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo, Egypt. ZPG encouraged people to get involved in conference preparations by helping to plan and implement town meetings in eleven major US cities. Members were contacted by ZPG via flyers and phone calls about meetings in their areas. ZPG activists and chapters then provided leadership for many of the meetings which drew thousands of participants and were widely praised by national leaders. Throughout 1994, ZPG's 21 chapters provided members with a vehicle for collective action and a source of information about the population conference, population growth, and wasteful consumption. Chapter activists also helped secure the signatures of thousands of people on Population Priority Petitions; the final list of names was delivered to US Vice President Al Gore in November. PMID:12289955

  18. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  19. Lining up Arithmetic Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Most future teachers are familiar with number patterns that represent an arithmetic sequence, and most are able to determine the general representation of the "n"th number in the pattern. However, when they are given a visual representation instead of the numbers in the pattern, it is not always easy for them to make the connection between the…

  20. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  1. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  2. Images in Action: Preservice Teachers' Action Researcher Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the gap that exists in the knowledge base for understanding the repertoire of images that preservice teachers gain as they engage in action research. Data were collected using a variety of qualitative methods: journals, metaphors, narratives, action research reports, and focus group interviews. Data were…

  3. The Action in Action Research: Mediating and Developing Inclusive Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Andrew; Frankham, Jo; Ainscow, Mel; Farrell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors of this article reflect on their experiences as facilitators of an action research network aiming to provide a context for participating schools to identify and address barriers to pupils' learning and participation. Within the network, action research is seen to have different meanings for individuals within and between schools in…

  4. Emancipatory Education and Action Research. Action Research Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Sue, Ed.; And Others

    This book is the result of a seminar on emancipatory education and the action research projects in the Department of Didactics at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The book starts with questions regarding the nature of action research. This first chapter discusses the meaning of some crucial organizing concepts, asks questions…

  5. Sequences show rapid motor transfer and spatial translation in the oculomotor system.

    PubMed

    Stainer, Matthew J; Carpenter, R H S; Brotchie, Peter; Anderson, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Every day we perform learnt sequences of actions that seem to happen almost without awareness. It has been argued that for learning such sequences parallel learning networks exist - one using spatial coordinates and one using motor coordinates - with sequence acquisition involving a progressive shift from the former to the latter as a sequence is rehearsed. When sequences are interrupted by an out-of-sequence target, there is a delay in the response to the target, and so here we transiently interrupt oculomotor sequences to probe the influence of oculomotor rehearsal and spatial coordinates in sequence acquisition. For our main experiments, we used a repeating sequences of eight targets in length that was first learnt either using saccadic eye movements (left/right), manual responses (left/right or up/down) or as a sequence of colour (blue/red) requiring no motor response. The sequence was immediately repeated for saccadic eye movements, during which the influence of on out-of-sequence target (an interruption) was assessed. When a sequence is learnt beforehand in an abstract way (for example, as a sequence of colours or of orthogonally mapped manual responses), interruptions are immediately disruptive to latency, suggesting neither motor rehearsal nor specific spatial coordinates are essential for encoding sequences of actions and that sequences - no matter how they are encoded - can be rapidly translated into oculomotor coordinates. The magnitude of a disruption does, however, correspond to how well a sequence is learnt: introducing an interruption to an extended sequence before it was reliably learnt reduces the magnitude of the latency disruption. PMID:27317977

  6. 24 CFR 984.201 - Action Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action Plan. 984.201 Section 984... § 984.201 Action Plan. (a) Requirement for Action Plan. A PHA must have a HUD-approved Action Plan that... program is a mandatory or voluntary program. (b) Development of Action Plan. The Action Plan shall...

  7. 24 CFR 984.201 - Action Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action Plan. 984.201 Section 984... § 984.201 Action Plan. (a) Requirement for Action Plan. A PHA must have a HUD-approved Action Plan that... program is a mandatory or voluntary program. (b) Development of Action Plan. The Action Plan shall...

  8. RANK-ORDER-SELECTIVE NEURONS FORM A TEMPORAL BASIS SET FOR THE GENERATION OF MOTOR SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Many behaviors are composed of a series of elementary motor actions that must occur in a specific order, but the neuronal mechanisms by which such motor sequences are generated are poorly understood. In particular, if a sequence consists of a few motor actions, a primate can learn to replicate it from memory after practicing it for just a few trials. How do the motor and premotor areas of the brain assemble motor sequences so fast? The network model presented here reveals part of the solution to this problem. The model is based on experiments showing that, during the performance of motor sequences, some cortical neurons are always activated at specific times, regardless of which motor action is being executed. In the model, a population of such rank-order-selective (ROS) cells drives a layer of downstream motor neurons so that these generate specific movements at different times in different sequences. A key ingredient of the model is that the amplitude of the ROS responses must be modulated by sequence identity. Because of this modulation, which is consistent with experimental reports, the network is able not only to produce multiple sequences accurately but also to learn a new sequence with minimal changes in connectivity. The ROS neurons modulated by sequence identity thus serve as a basis set for constructing arbitrary sequences of motor responses downstream. The underlying mechanism is analogous to the mechanism described in parietal areas for generating coordinate transformations in the spatial domain. PMID:19357265

  9. Higher-order action planning for individual and joint object manipulations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Hunnius, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Many actions involve multiple action steps, which raises the question how far ahead people plan when they perform such actions. Here, we examined higher-order planning for action sequences and whether people planned similarly or differently when acting individually or together with an action partner. For individual performances, participants picked up an object with one hand and passed it to their other hand before placing it onto a target location. For joint performances, they picked up the object and handed it to their action partner, who placed it onto the target location. Each object could be grasped at only two possible grasping positions, implying that the first selected grasp on the object determined the postures for the rest of the action sequence. By varying the height of the target shelf, we tested whether people planned ahead and modulated their grasp choices to avoid uncomfortable end postures. Our results indicated that participants engaged in higher-order planning, but needed task experience before demonstrating such planning during both individual and joint performances. The rate of learning was similar in the two conditions, and participants transferred experience from individual to joint performance. Our results indicate similarity in mechanisms underlying individual and joint action sequence planning. PMID:23361302

  10. Taking Action with Teacher Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Ellen; Rust, Frances O'Connell

    This collection of papers presents examples of teacher research in action. Each study grew out of teachers' questions regarding the implementation of some aspect of education policy in their schools and classrooms. After "Introduction" (Frances O'Connell Rust and Ellen Meyers), the eight papers focus on: (1) "How We Do Action Research" (Frances…

  11. Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Ike

    1996-01-01

    Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites. (GR)

  12. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  13. Action Research and Teacher Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Karel; Ponte, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on a case study into the influence and impact of action research carried out by teachers in a special school. The action research was an important component of the two-year, post-initial, in-service course in special educational needs, provided by Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Department of Inclusive and…

  14. Thought and Action in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  15. Action Learning in the BBC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eversley; Keevill, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This account tells the story of the development of an action learning culture in the BBC between 2002 and 2007. From its early beginnings as a sporadic, unsystematic intervention with a small number of leaders scattered throughout the organisation, action learning has now become embedded in our approach to the way we develop our leaders. In this…

  16. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  17. Semantic Activation in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Stenneken, Prisca; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments investigated activation of semantic information in action preparation. Participants either prepared to grasp and use an object (e.g., to drink from a cup) or to lift a finger in association with the object's position following a go/no-go lexical-decision task. Word stimuli were consistent to the action goals of the object use…

  18. Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Bird, Geoffrey; Walsh, Eamonn; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a potential discontinuity between monkey and human ventral premotor-parietal mirror systems, namely that monkey mirror systems process only transitive (object-directed) actions, whereas human mirror systems may also process intransitive (non-object-directed) actions. The present study investigated this discontinuity…

  19. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  20. Integrating CHAT and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…

  1. Action Understanding as Inverse Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…

  2. Action Research Empowers School Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…

  3. Action Research: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Renée N.

    2014-01-01

    Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…

  4. Adaptive neural models of queuing and timing in fluent action.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    In biological cognition, specialized representations and associated control processes solve the temporal problems inherent in skilled action. Recent data and neural circuit models highlight three distinct levels of temporal structure: sequence preparation, velocity scaling, and state-sensitive timing. Short sequences of actions are prepared collectively in prefrontal cortex, then queued for performance by a cyclic competitive process that operates on a parallel analog representation. Successful acts like ball-catching depend on coordinated scaling of effector velocities, and velocity scaling, mediated by the basal ganglia, may be coupled to perceived time-to-contact. Making acts accurate at high speeds requires state-sensitive and precisely timed activations of muscle forces in patterns that accelerate and decelerate the effectors. The cerebellum may provide a maximally efficient representational basis for learning to generate such timed activation patterns.

  5. Methods for comparing a DNA sequence with a protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Zhang, J

    1996-12-01

    We describe two methods for constructing an optimal global alignment of, and an optimal local alignment between, a DNA sequence and a protein sequence. The alignment model of the methods addresses the problems of frameshifts and introns in the DNA sequence. The methods require computer memory proportional to the sequence lengths, so they can rigorously process very huge sequences. The simplified versions of the methods were implemented as computer programs named NAP and LAP. The experimental results demonstrate that the programs are sensitive and powerful tools for finding genes by DNA-protein sequence homology.

  6. HIV sequence compendium 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Freed, Eric; Hahn, Beatrice; Marx, Preston; McCutchan, Francine; Mellors, John; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2002-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Traditionally, we present the sequence data themselves in the form of alignments: Section II, an alignment of a selection of HIV-1/SIVcpz full-length genomes (a lot of LAI-like sequences, for example, have been omitted because they are so similar that they bias the alignment); Section III, a combined HIV-1/HIV-2/SIV whole genome alignment; Sections IV–VI, amino acid alignments for HIV-1/SIV-cpz, HIV-2/SIV, and SIVagm. The HIV-2/SIV and SIVagm amino acid alignments are separate because the genetic distances between these groups are so great that presenting them in one alignment would make it very elongated because of the large number of gaps that have to be inserted. As always, tables with extensive background information gathered from the literature accompany the whole genome alignments. The collection of whole-gene sequences in the database is now large enough that we have abundant representation of most subtypes. For many subtypes, and especially for subtype B, a large number of sequences that span entire genes were not included in the printed alignments to conserve space. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/ALIGN_CURRENT/ALIGN-INDEX.html. Importantly, all these alignments have been edited to include only one sequence per person, based on phylogenetic trees that were created for all of them, as well as on the literature. Because of the number of sequences available, we have decided to use a different selection principle this year, based on the epidemiological importance of the subtypes. Subtypes A–D and CRFs 01 and 02 are by far the most widespread variants, and for these (when available) we have included 8–10 representatives in the alignments. The other

  7. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  8. RNA Sequencing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Teng, Shaolei

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a serious psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of general population and places a heavy burden worldwide. The underlying genetic mechanism of SCZ remains unknown, but studies indicate that the disease is associated with a global gene expression disturbance across many genes. Next-generation sequencing, particularly of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), provides a powerful genome-scale technology to investigate the pathological processes of SCZ. RNA-Seq has been used to analyze the gene expressions and identify the novel splice isoforms and rare transcripts associated with SCZ. This paper provides an overview on the genetics of SCZ, the advantages of RNA-Seq for transcriptome analysis, the accomplishments of RNA-Seq in SCZ cohorts, and the applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and RNA-Seq in SCZ research. PMID:27053919

  9. Transposon facilitated DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Berg, C.M.; Huang, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods that exploit the power of bacterial transposable elements for large scale DNA sequencing: Our premise is that the use of transposons to put primer binding sites randomly in target DNAs should provide access to all portions of large DNA fragments, without the inefficiencies of methods involving random subcloning and attendant repetitive sequencing, or of sequential synthesis of many oligonucleotide primers that are used to match systematically along a DNA molecule. Two unrelated bacterial transposons, Tn5 and {gamma}{delta}, are being used because they have both proven useful for molecular analyses, and because they differ sufficiently in mechanism and specificity of transposition to merit parallel development.

  10. Rod sequence advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.M. ); Lu, Yi ); Furia, R.V.; Thompson, R.J. ); Lin, Ching-lu )

    1992-01-01

    During startup and power shaping maneuvers of boiling water reactors (BWR's), control rods are sequentially withdrawn from the reactor core. The withdrawal sequences determine the overall reactor power and the local core power density and are based on the knowledge of station engineers. It is important that the control rods are withdrawn in such a manner that the local power level does not become excessive while the desired reactor power is generated. Rules that constrain the relative positions of control rod groups have been developed to do this. While these rules are relatively simple, applying them to all possible movements of the 17 control rod groups in a typical BWR is complex and time consuming. SMARTRODS, is a rule based pilot expert system, was developed in LISP for the determination of the rod sequences.

  11. The development of action planning in a joint action context.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus. Their task was to hand the experimenter a tool with which she could activate 1 of 2 different effects on the apparatus. The elicitation of each effect required participants to grasp and insert the tool in a particular orientation. We assessed whether participants planned their grasping and reaching action in such a way that it enabled the partner to efficiently handle the tool, that is, anticipating the final end state of the joint activity. We found that 3-year-old children did not adjust their behavior to accommodate the other's action and that they did not increase their performance over multiple trials. Five- and 7-year-old children initially showed a tendency to plan their action in an egocentric manner (i.e., showed a form of egocentrism), but improved their joint action performance over time. Adult participants demonstrated joint action planning from the beginning. Interestingly, 3- and 5-year-old children were able to plan their grasp efficiently when acting alone on the apparatus. Yet, having first-hand experience with the task before acting with a partner did not facilitate performance in the joint action task for younger children. Overall, the study informs current approaches on the psychological basis and ontogenetic origins of joint action in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337512

  12. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.

  13. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  14. Motor cognition-motor semantics: action perception theory of cognition and communication.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Moseley, Rachel L; Egorova, Natalia; Shebani, Zubaida; Boulenger, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    A new perspective on cognition views cortical cell assemblies linking together knowledge about actions and perceptions not only as the vehicles of integrated action and perception processing but, furthermore, as a brain basis for a wide range of higher cortical functions, including attention, meaning and concepts, sequences, goals and intentions, and even communicative social interaction. This article explains mechanisms relevant to mechanistic action perception theory, points to concrete neuronal circuits in brains along with artificial neuronal network simulations, and summarizes recent brain imaging and other experimental data documenting the role of action perception circuits in cognition, language and communication. PMID:24333695

  15. Motor cognition-motor semantics: action perception theory of cognition and communication.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Moseley, Rachel L; Egorova, Natalia; Shebani, Zubaida; Boulenger, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    A new perspective on cognition views cortical cell assemblies linking together knowledge about actions and perceptions not only as the vehicles of integrated action and perception processing but, furthermore, as a brain basis for a wide range of higher cortical functions, including attention, meaning and concepts, sequences, goals and intentions, and even communicative social interaction. This article explains mechanisms relevant to mechanistic action perception theory, points to concrete neuronal circuits in brains along with artificial neuronal network simulations, and summarizes recent brain imaging and other experimental data documenting the role of action perception circuits in cognition, language and communication.

  16. Over-imitation is not automatic: context sensitivity in children's overimitation and action interpretation of causally irrelevant actions.

    PubMed

    Keupp, Stefanie; Behne, Tanya; Zachow, Joanna; Kasbohm, Alina; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has documented the robust tendency of children to "over-imitate," that is, to copy causally irrelevant action elements in goal-directed action sequences. Different explanations for over-imitation have been proposed. Causal accounts claim that children mistakenly perceive such action elements as causally relevant and, therefore, imitate them. Affiliation accounts claim that children over-imitate to affiliate with the model. Normative accounts claim that children conceive of causally irrelevant actions as essential parts of an overarching conventional activity. These different accounts generally hold the same predictions regarding children's imitative response. However, it is possible to distinguish between them when one considers additional parameters. The normative account predicts wide-ranging flexibility with regard to action interpretation and the occurrence of over-imitation. First, it predicts spontaneous protest against norm violators who omit the causally irrelevant actions. Second, children should perform the causally irrelevant actions less frequently, and criticize others less frequently for omitting them, when the actions take place in a different context from the one of the initial demonstration. Such flexibility is not predicted by causal accounts and is predicted for only a limited range of contexts by affiliation accounts. Study 1 investigated children's own imitative response and found less over-imitation when children acted in a different context from when they acted in the same context as the initial demonstration. In Study 2, children criticized a puppet less frequently for omitting irrelevant actions when the puppet acted in a different context. The results support the notion that over-imitation is not an automatic and inflexible phenomenon. PMID:25462039

  17. Multiview image sequence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Luong, Hiêp; Ružic, Tijana; Philips, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    Realistic visualization is crucial for more intuitive representation of complex data, medical imaging, simulation and entertainment systems. Multiview autostereoscopic displays are great step towards achieving complete immersive user experience. However, providing high quality content for this type of displays is still a great challenge. Due to the different characteristics/settings of the cameras in the multivew setup and varying photometric characteristics of the objects in the scene, the same object may have different appearance in the sequences acquired by the different cameras. Images representing views recorded using different cameras in practice have different local noise, color and sharpness characteristics. View synthesis algorithms introduce artefacts due to errors in disparity estimation/bad occlusion handling or due to erroneous warping function estimation. If the input multivew images are not of sufficient quality and have mismatching color and sharpness characteristics, these artifacts may become even more disturbing. The main goal of our method is to simultaneously perform multiview image sequence denoising, color correction and the improvement of sharpness in slightly blurred regions. Results show that the proposed method significantly reduces the amount of the artefacts in multiview video sequences resulting in a better visual experience.

  18. Sequencing BPS spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explainmore » from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.« less

  19. Sequencing BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d {N}=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  20. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations.

  1. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons' discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons' discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  2. Hebbian learning for olfactory sequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew J; Cauchi, Laura; Miles, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The present paper explores the generality of the Hebb repetition effect to the learning of olfactory sequences in order to assess commonality of memory functioning across sensory modalities. Participants completed a serial-order reconstruction task comprising sequences of four olfactory stimuli. Following presentation of each sequence, participants were re-presented with the odours and were required to reconstruct their order of presentation. Surreptitious re-presentation of the repeated sequence occurred on every third trial. This order reconstruction task produced a serial-position function comprising recency only for both the non-repeated and the repeated sequences. Importantly, serial-order reconstruction for the repeated odour sequence produced improved performance for that sequence compared to the non-repeated sequences. This observation of a Hebb repetition effect for olfactory sequences further supports the proposition that sequential learning can operate amodally.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  4. "Wuwei" (Non-Action) Philosophy and Actions: Rethinking "Actions" in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry aims to enrich conversation regarding school reform. The author asks about what other discourses are possible when the action-oriented question of how to "act" is a major approach to "fix" current educational problems. Drawing from Taoist philosophy of "wuwei" (non-action), the author provides a frame to…

  5. A vision for ubiquitous sequencing.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Yaniv

    2015-10-01

    Genomics has recently celebrated reaching the $1000 genome milestone, making affordable DNA sequencing a reality. With this goal successfully completed, the next goal of the sequencing revolution can be sequencing sensors--miniaturized sequencing devices that are manufactured for real-time applications and deployed in large quantities at low costs. The first part of this manuscript envisions applications that will benefit from moving the sequencers to the samples in a range of domains. In the second part, the manuscript outlines the critical barriers that need to be addressed in order to reach the goal of ubiquitous sequencing sensors.

  6. A vision for ubiquitous sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Genomics has recently celebrated reaching the $1000 genome milestone, making affordable DNA sequencing a reality. With this goal successfully completed, the next goal of the sequencing revolution can be sequencing sensors—miniaturized sequencing devices that are manufactured for real-time applications and deployed in large quantities at low costs. The first part of this manuscript envisions applications that will benefit from moving the sequencers to the samples in a range of domains. In the second part, the manuscript outlines the critical barriers that need to be addressed in order to reach the goal of ubiquitous sequencing sensors. PMID:26430149

  7. High-Throughput Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Jason A.; Spacek, Damek; Snyder, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The human genome sequence has profoundly altered our understanding of biology, human diversity and disease. The path from the first draft sequence to our nascent era of personal genomes and genomic medicine has been made possible only because of the extraordinary advancements in DNA sequencing technologies over the past ten years. Here, we discuss commonly used high-throughput sequencing platforms, the growing array of sequencing assays developed around them as well as the challenges facing current sequencing platforms and their clinical application. PMID:26000844

  8. Spatio-temporal Laplacian pyramid coding for action recognition.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ling; Zhen, Xiantong; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel descriptor, called spatio-temporal Laplacian pyramid coding (STLPC), for holistic representation of human actions. In contrast to sparse representations based on detected local interest points, STLPC regards a video sequence as a whole with spatio-temporal features directly extracted from it, which prevents the loss of information in sparse representations. Through decomposing each sequence into a set of band-pass-filtered components, the proposed pyramid model localizes features residing at different scales, and therefore is able to effectively encode the motion information of actions. To make features further invariant and resistant to distortions as well as noise, a bank of 3-D Gabor filters is applied to each level of the Laplacian pyramid, followed by max pooling within filter bands and over spatio-temporal neighborhoods. Since the convolving and pooling are performed spatio-temporally, the coding model can capture structural and motion information simultaneously and provide an informative representation of actions. The proposed method achieves superb recognition rates on the KTH, the multiview IXMAS, the challenging UCF Sports, and the newly released HMDB51 datasets. It outperforms state of the art methods showing its great potential on action recognition.

  9. The WLC principle for action-oriented perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Fortuna, Luigi; Lombardo, Davide; Patané, Luca; Velarde, Manuel G.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper a new methodology for action-oriented perception will be introduced. It is based on a previous method that used Turing Patterns in CNNs for the arousal of "perceptual states" as representation of the environmental condition. The emerging patterns were associated to codes which gave rise to learnable actions on a moving robot. Recently the new paradigm of Winnerless Competition (WLC) was taken into consideration to represent a suitable, bioinspired and efficient method to generate sequences of neural activations, strictly related to the spatial-temporal activity of input sensors. This fascinating property was recently peculiarly measured in the olfactory system, in particular in groups of neurons belonging to the insects' Antennal Lobe and to the mammalians' Olfactory Bulb. Taking inspiration from these experimental results and from the analytical model of the WLC, a cellular nonlinear model generating sequences of cell activation, representing the input pattern at the sensory level, will be used in an action-oriented perception framework. In fact simulation results showed the potentiality of the WLC approach to design dynamic networks for discrimination and classification, with a potentially huge memory capacity. In the present manuscript the WLC principle, implemented in a network of FitzHugh Nagumo neurons will be used within the whole framework for action-oriented perception, and the results will be applied to a roving robot.

  10. Learning to understand others' actions

    PubMed Central

    Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia; Kilner, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research on mirror neurons, there is still much debate about what they do. The most enduring hypothesis is that they enable ‘action understanding’. However, recent critical reviews have failed to find compelling evidence in favour of this view. Instead, these authors argue that mirror neurons are produced by associative learning and therefore that they cannot contribute to action understanding. The present opinion piece suggests that this argument is flawed. We argue that mirror neurons may both develop through associative learning and contribute to inferences about the actions of others. PMID:21084333

  11. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Scott; Esterly, Sean; Herdrich, David; Bodell, Tim; Visser, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  12. Do good actions inspire good actions in others?

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Marcelletti, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Actions such as sharing food and cooperating to reach a common goal have played a fundamental role in the evolution of human societies. Despite the importance of such good actions, little is known about if and how they can spread from person to person to person. For instance, does being recipient of an altruistic act increase your probability of being cooperative with a third party? We have conducted an experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk to test this mechanism using economic games. We have measured willingness to be cooperative through a standard Prisoner's dilemma and willingness to act altruistically using a binary Dictator game. In the baseline treatments, the endowments needed to play were given by the experimenters, as usual; in the control treatments, they came from a good action made by someone else. Across four different comparisons and a total of 572 subjects, we have never found a significant increase of cooperation or altruism when the endowment came from a good action. We conclude that good actions do not necessarily inspire good actions in others. While this is consistent with the theoretical prediction, it challenges the majority of other experimental studies. PMID:25502617

  13. Purification and sequence of rat oxyntomodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Collie, N L; Walsh, J H; Wong, H C; Shively, J E; Davis, M T; Lee, T D; Reeve, J R

    1994-01-01

    Structural information about rat enteroglucagon, intestinal peptides containing the pancreatic glucagon sequence, has been based previously on cDNA, immunologic, and chromatographic data. Our interests in testing the physiological actions of synthetic enteroglucagon peptides in rats required that we identify precisely the forms present in vivo. From knowledge of the proglucagon gene sequence, we synthesized an enteroglucagon C-terminal octapeptide common to both proposed enteroglucagon forms, glicentin and oxyntomodulin, but sharing no sequence overlap with glucagon. We then developed a radioimmunoassay using antibodies raised against the octapeptide that was specific for enteroglucagon peptides without cross-reacting with glucagon. Rat intestine was extracted, and one presumptive enteroglucagon form was purified by following the enteroglucagon C-terminal octapeptide-like immunoreactivity through several HPLC purification steps. Structural characterization of the material by amino acid composition, microsequence, and mass spectral analyses identified the peptide as rat oxyntomodulin. The 37-residue peptide consists of pancreatic glucagon plus the C-terminal extension, Lys-Arg-Asn-Arg-Asn-Asn-Ile-Ala. This now permits synthesis of an unambiguous duplicate of endogenous rat oxyntomodulin for physiological studies. Images PMID:7937770

  14. Correspondence: Searching sequence space

    SciTech Connect

    Youvan, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    This correspondence debates the efficiency and application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to search protein sequence space. The important experimental point is that such sparse searches utilize physically realistic syntheses. In this regard, all GA-based technologies are very similar; they {open_quotes}learn{close_quotes} from their initial sparse search and then generate interesting new proteins within a few iterations. Which GA-based technology is best? That probably depends on the protein and the specific engineering goal. Given the fact that the field of combinatorial chemistry is still in its infancy, it is probably wise to consider all of the proven mutagenesis methods. 19 refs.

  15. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  16. Sequencing the Unrearranged Human Immunoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Rene

    2010-06-03

    Rene Warren from Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre discusses sequencing and finishing the IgH heavy chain locus on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  17. Marks of Change in Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgensen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Given a sequence of events, how does one recognize that a change has occurred? We explore potential definitions of the concept of change in a sequence and propose that words in relativized solid codes might serve as indicators of change.

  18. Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-06-01

    Automated DNA sequencing instruments embody an elegant interplay among chemistry, engineering, software, and molecular biology and have built upon Sanger's founding discovery of dideoxynucleotide sequencing to perform once-unfathomable tasks. Combined with innovative physical mapping approaches that helped to establish long-range relationships between cloned stretches of genomic DNA, fluorescent DNA sequencers produced reference genome sequences for model organisms and for the reference human genome. New types of sequencing instruments that permit amazing acceleration of data-collection rates for DNA sequencing have been developed. The ability to generate genome-scale data sets is now transforming the nature of biological inquiry. Here, I provide an historical perspective of the field, focusing on the fundamental developments that predated the advent of next-generation sequencing instruments and providing information about how these instruments work, their application to biological research, and the newest types of sequencers that can extract data from single DNA molecules.

  19. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  20. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Cancer.gov

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  1. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  2. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  3. Taking Action for Healthy Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research on relationship between physical activity, good nutrition, and academic performance. Offers several recommendations for how schools can take action to improve the nutrition and fitness of students. (PKP)

  4. On extending actions of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, Sergei M; Repovs, Dusan

    2010-02-28

    Problems of dense and closed extension of actions of compact transformation groups are solved. The method developed in the paper is applied to problems of extension of equivariant maps and of construction of equivariant compactifications. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  5. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  6. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... flow meters. Action plans use symptoms, peak flow readings, or both to help you determine the zone ...

  7. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  8. Sanger dideoxy sequencing of DNA.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah E; Lorsch, Jon

    2013-01-01

    While the ease and reduced cost of automated DNA sequencing has largely obviated the need for manual dideoxy sequencing for routine purposes, specific applications require manual DNA sequencing. For instance, in studies of enzymes or proteins that bind or modify DNA, a DNA ladder is often used to map the site at which an enzyme is bound or a modification occurs. In these cases, the Sanger method for dideoxy sequencing provides a rapid and facile method for producing a labeled DNA ladder.

  9. Affirmative action: what's really fair?

    PubMed

    Thayer, R

    1979-04-16

    The concept of affirmative action has been the subject of much controversy in the past. Opponents of the concept believe that it provides preferential treatment for minorities and females based upon factors of race and sex that are both unconstitutional and illegal. Proponents believe the concept is needed to make up for past abuses. In this article, the author attempts to illustrate how an objective affirmative action program can enhance a hospital's personnel development system.

  10. Tactile perception during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution. PMID:27161552

  11. TACT: The Action Computation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Binney, James

    2015-12-01

    The Action Computation Tool (TACT) tests methods for estimating actions, angles and frequencies of orbits in both axisymmetric and triaxial potentials, including general spherical potentials, analytic potentials (Isochrone and Harmonic oscillator), axisymmetric Stackel fudge, average generating function from orbit (AvGF), and others. It is written in C++; code is provided to compile the routines into a Python library. TM (ascl:1512.014) and LAPACK are required to access some features.

  12. Complexity, action, and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  13. Complexity, action, and black holes

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-18

    In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  14. Goals Influence Memory and Imitation for Dynamic Human Action in 36-month-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Jeff; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2012-01-01

    Adults’ memory for action is organized according to a hierarchy of goals. Little previous research has examined whether goals also play a crucial role young children’s memory for action, and particularly whether goal information is privileged over veridical sequential order information. The current experiment investigated 3-year-old children’s (N = 40) memory for naturally occurring interleaved action sequences: Sequences in which an actor switched back and forth between carrying out actions related to two distinct goals. Such sequences allowed a test of whether children’s action representations prioritize a goal interpretation over veridical sequential information. Children’s memory for the action events was assessed by deferred imitation, 5-min after the demonstration had ceased. Results indicated that children’s memory prioritizes goals over veridical sequential order – even to the extent that the actual sequential order is distorted in memory. These findings deepen our understanding of action processing and memory with implications for social-cognitive development. PMID:23121600

  15. Seeking Conceptual Clarity in the Action Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with the presumption that action learning has not made as deep an impact in promoting participatory social change as its supporters may have hoped for, but nor has its cousin action modalities, such as action research and action science. These action strategies have evolved separately along distinct traditions and, rather than…

  16. 36 CFR 72.13 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action plan. 72.13 Section 72... AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Local Recovery Action Programs § 72.13 Action plan. The purpose of the Assessment is to provide background and justification for an Action Plan. The Action Plan,...

  17. Incongruent Imagery Interferes with Action Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard; Cumming, Jennifer; Eastough, Daniel; Edwards, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action…

  18. 40 CFR 265.303 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded... section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump... notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the...

  19. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate... leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must: (1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of... notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the...

  20. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate... leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must: (1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of... notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the...

  1. 40 CFR 264.223 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a...) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the... action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the...

  2. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded... section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak determination system exceeds the action leakage rate for any... notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the...

  3. 40 CFR 265.303 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded... section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump... notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the...

  4. 40 CFR 264.223 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a...) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the... action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the...

  5. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded... section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak determination system exceeds the action leakage rate for any... notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the...

  6. Distinct brain signatures of content and structure violation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Sammler, D; Kölsch, S; Campus, C; Olivier, E; Fadiga, L; D'Ausilio, A

    2015-08-01

    Sentences, musical phrases and goal-directed actions are composed of elements that are linked by specific rules to form meaningful outcomes. In goal-directed actions including a non-canonical element or scrambling the order of the elements alters the action's content and structure, respectively. In the present study we investigated event-related potentials of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during observation of both alterations of the action content (obtained by violating the semantic components of an action, e.g. making coffee with cola) and alterations of the action structure (obtained by inverting the order of two temporally adjacent pictures of sequences depicting daily life actions) interfering with the normal flow of the motor acts that compose an action. Action content alterations elicited a bilateral posterior distributed EEG negativity, peaking at around 400 ms after stimulus onset similar to the ERPs evoked by semantic violations in language studies. Alteration of the action structure elicited an early left anterior negativity followed by a late left anterior positivity, which closely resembles the ERP pattern found in language syntax violation studies. Our results suggest a functional dissociation between the processing of action content and structure, reminiscent of a similar dissociation found in the language or music domains. Importantly, this study provides further support to the hypothesis that some basic mechanisms, such as the rule-based structuring of sequential events, are shared between different cognitive domains.

  7. Temporal prediction restores the evaluative processing of delayed action feedback: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro

    2016-09-28

    The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback. With a typical gambling task in which the participant chose one of two cards and received an action feedback indicating monetary gain or loss, the present study showed that FRN/RewP was significantly elicited even when the action-feedback interval was 6000 ms, when an auditory stimulus sequence was additionally presented during the action-feedback interval as a temporal cue. This result suggests that the undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback can be restored by increasing the accuracy of the prediction on the timing of the action feedback.

  8. Temporal prediction restores the evaluative processing of delayed action feedback: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro

    2016-09-28

    The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback. With a typical gambling task in which the participant chose one of two cards and received an action feedback indicating monetary gain or loss, the present study showed that FRN/RewP was significantly elicited even when the action-feedback interval was 6000 ms, when an auditory stimulus sequence was additionally presented during the action-feedback interval as a temporal cue. This result suggests that the undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback can be restored by increasing the accuracy of the prediction on the timing of the action feedback. PMID:27513200

  9. Distinct brain signatures of content and structure violation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Sammler, D; Kölsch, S; Campus, C; Olivier, E; Fadiga, L; D'Ausilio, A

    2015-08-01

    Sentences, musical phrases and goal-directed actions are composed of elements that are linked by specific rules to form meaningful outcomes. In goal-directed actions including a non-canonical element or scrambling the order of the elements alters the action's content and structure, respectively. In the present study we investigated event-related potentials of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during observation of both alterations of the action content (obtained by violating the semantic components of an action, e.g. making coffee with cola) and alterations of the action structure (obtained by inverting the order of two temporally adjacent pictures of sequences depicting daily life actions) interfering with the normal flow of the motor acts that compose an action. Action content alterations elicited a bilateral posterior distributed EEG negativity, peaking at around 400 ms after stimulus onset similar to the ERPs evoked by semantic violations in language studies. Alteration of the action structure elicited an early left anterior negativity followed by a late left anterior positivity, which closely resembles the ERP pattern found in language syntax violation studies. Our results suggest a functional dissociation between the processing of action content and structure, reminiscent of a similar dissociation found in the language or music domains. Importantly, this study provides further support to the hypothesis that some basic mechanisms, such as the rule-based structuring of sequential events, are shared between different cognitive domains. PMID:26004058

  10. Automated Identification of Nucleotide Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osman, Shariff; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Fox, George; Zhu, Dian-Hui

    2007-01-01

    STITCH is a computer program that processes raw nucleotide-sequence data to automatically remove unwanted vector information, perform reverse-complement comparison, stitch shorter sequences together to make longer ones to which the shorter ones presumably belong, and search against the user s choice of private and Internet-accessible public 16S rRNA databases. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] In STITCH, a template 16S rRNA sequence is used to position forward and reverse reads. STITCH then automatically searches known 16S rRNA sequences in the user s chosen database(s) to find the sequence most similar to (the sequence that lies at the smallest edit distance from) each spliced sequence. The result of processing by STITCH is the identification of the most similar well-described bacterium. Whereas previously commercially available software for analyzing genetic sequences operates on one sequence at a time, STITCH can manipulate multiple sequences simultaneously to perform the aforementioned operations. A typical analysis of several dozen sequences (length of the order of 103 base pairs) by use of STITCH is completed in a few minutes, whereas such an analysis performed by use of prior software takes hours or days.

  11. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K.; Meyne, Julianne

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  12. Novel sequences propel familiar folds.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Zahra; Paoli, Massimo

    2002-04-01

    Recent structure determinations have made new additions to a set of strikingly different sequences that give rise to the same topology. Proteins with a beta propeller fold are characterized by extreme sequence diversity despite the similarity in their three-dimensional structures. Several fold predictions, based in part on sequence repeats thought to match modular beta sheets, have been proved correct.

  13. Sequencing Technologies Panel at SFAF

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Steve; Fiske, Haley; Knight, Jim; Rhodes, Michael; Vander Horn, Peter

    2010-06-02

    From left to right: Steve Turner of Pacific Biosciences, Haley Fiske of Illumina, Jim Knight of Roche, Michael Rhodes of Life Technologies and Peter Vander Horn of Life Technologies' Single Molecule Sequencing group discuss new sequencing technologies and applications on June 2, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  14. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  15. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  16. Sequence to Medical Phenotypes: A Framework for Interpretation of Human Whole Genome DNA Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Frederick E.; Grove, Megan E.; Priest, James R.; Waggott, Daryl; Batra, Prag; Miller, Clint L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Zia, Amin; Pan, Cuiping; Karzcewski, Konrad J.; Miyake, Christina; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Klein, Teri E.; Datta, Somalee; Altman, Russ B.; Snyder, Michael; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High throughput sequencing has facilitated a precipitous drop in the cost of genomic sequencing, prompting predictions of a revolution in medicine via genetic personalization of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. There are significant barriers to realizing this goal that are related to the difficult task of interpreting personal genetic variation. A comprehensive, widely accessible application for interpretation of whole genome sequence data is needed. Here, we present a series of methods for identification of genetic variants and genotypes with clinical associations, phasing genetic data and using Mendelian inheritance for quality control, and providing predictive genetic information about risk for rare disease phenotypes and response to pharmacological therapy in single individuals and father-mother-child trios. We demonstrate application of these methods for disease and drug response prognostication in whole genome sequence data from twelve unrelated adults, and for disease gene discovery in one father-mother-child trio with apparently simplex congenital ventricular arrhythmia. In doing so we identify clinically actionable inherited disease risk and drug response genotypes in pre-symptomatic individuals. We also nominate a new candidate gene in congenital arrhythmia, ATP2B4, and provide experimental evidence of a regulatory role for variants discovered using this framework. PMID:26448358

  17. Third Generation Sequencing Techniques and Applications to Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ozsolak, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is an immediate need for functional and molecular studies to decipher differences between disease and “normal” settings to identify large quantities of validated targets with the highest therapeutic utilities. Furthermore, drug mechanism of action and biomarkers to predict drug efficacy and safety need to be identified for effective design of clinical trials, decreasing attrition rates, regulatory agency approval process and drug repositioning. By expanding the power of genetics and pharmacogenetics studies, next generation nucleic acid sequencing technologies have started to play an important role in all stages of drug discovery. Areas covered This article reviews the first and second generation sequencing technologies (SGSTs) and challenges they pose to biomedicine. The article then focuses on the emerging third generation sequencing technologies (TGSTs), their technological foundations and potential contributions to drug discovery. Expert Opinion Despite the scientific and commercial success of SGSTs, the goal of rapid, comprehensive and unbiased sequencing of nucleic acids has not been achieved. TGSTs promise to increase sequencing throughput and read lengths, decrease costs, run times and error rates, eliminate biases inherent in SGSTs, and offer capabilities beyond nucleic acid sequencing. Such changes will have positive impact in all sequencing applications to drug discovery. PMID:22468954

  18. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  1. 78 FR 18420 - Special Permit Applications Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Special Permit Applications Actions AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on special... processing of, special permits from the Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49...

  2. Recognition of Manual Actions Using Vector Quantization and Dynamic Time Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Marcel; Maycock, Jonathan; Schmidt, Florian Paul; Kramer, Oliver

    The recognition of manual actions, i.e., hand movements, hand postures and gestures, plays an important role in human-computer interaction, while belonging to a category of particularly difficult tasks. Using a Vicon system to capture 3D spatial data, we investigate the recognition of manual actions in tasks such as pouring a cup of milk and writing into a book. We propose recognizing sequences in multidimensional time-series by first learning a smooth quantization of the data, and then using a variant of dynamic time warping to recognize short sequences of prototypical motions in a long unknown sequence. An experimental analysis validates our approach. Short manual actions are successfully recognized and the approach is shown to be spatially invariant. We also show that the approach speeds up processing while not decreasing recognition performance.

  3. Viewing Instructions Accompanying Action Observation Modulate Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; McCormick, Sheree A.; Williams, Jacqueline; Holmes, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Action observation interventions may have the potential to contribute to improved motor function in motor (re)learning settings by promoting functional activity and plasticity in the motor regions of the brain. Optimal methods for delivering such interventions, however, have yet to be established. This experiment investigated the effect on corticospinal excitability of manipulating the viewing instructions provided to participants (N = 21) prior to action observation. Specifically, motor evoked potential responses measured from the right hand muscles following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left motor cortex were compared when participants were instructed to observe finger-thumb opposition movement sequences: (i) passively; (ii) with the intent to imitate the observed movement; or (iii) whilst simultaneously and actively imagining that they were performing the movement as they observed it. All three action observation viewing instructions facilitated corticospinal excitability to a greater extent than did observation of a static hand. In addition, the extent to which corticospinal excitability was facilitated was greater during combined observation and imagery, compared to passive observation. These findings have important implications for the design of action observation interventions in motor (re)learning settings, where instructions that encourage observers to simultaneously imagine themselves performing the observed movement may offer the current optimal method for improving motor function through action observation. PMID:26869901

  4. A Step Towards Identification of Surgical Actions in Mastoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Uttama; Labadie, Robert F.; Liu, Changchun; Balachandran, Ramya; Majdani, Omid; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2016-01-01

    Mastoidectomy is a core surgical procedure in otologic surgery. It is believed that the procedure is performed by different surgeons with some variability. However, it is also believed that all surgeons use a finite number of fundamental surgical actions to complete the procedure. To determine how a surgeon performs a mastoidectomy, we sought to identify the fundamental surgical actions (called Action Primitives, APs) and determine the transition boundaries between those APs. Our motivation for this work is both to delineate the APs necessary to complete a mastoidectomy and to optimize and potentially automate the surgical process. In this paper, we present a new approach to developing methods for parsing raw data (position and orientation of the surgical tool and end-effector force) into a sequence of surgical tasks. The overall objective is to deconstruct the surgical procedure into a series of Action Primitives (APs). This paper presents results from our initial investigation on detecting transition boundaries and identifying action primitives involved in mastoidectomy. PMID:19770082

  5. The evolution of nanopore sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Yang, Qiuping; Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    The “$1000 Genome” project has been drawing increasing attention since its launch a decade ago. Nanopore sequencing, the third-generation, is believed to be one of the most promising sequencing technologies to reach four gold standards set for the “$1000 Genome” while the second-generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a revolution in life sciences, particularly in genome sequencing-based personalized medicine. Both of protein and solid-state nanopores have been extensively investigated for a series of issues, from detection of ionic current blockage to field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors. A newly released protein nanopore sequencer has shown encouraging potential that nanopore sequencing will ultimately fulfill the gold standards. In this review, we address advances, challenges, and possible solutions of nanopore sequencing according to these standards. PMID:25610451

  6. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOEpatents

    Cantor, Charles; Koster, Hubert

    2010-09-28

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include DNA or RNA in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  7. ISHAN: sequence homology analysis package.

    PubMed

    Shil, Pratip; Dudani, Niraj; Vidyasagar, Pandit B

    2006-01-01

    Sequence based homology studies play an important role in evolutionary tracing and classification of proteins. Various methods are available to analyze biological sequence information. However, with the advent of proteomics era, there is a growing demand for analysis of huge amount of biological sequence information, and it has become necessary to have programs that would provide speedy analysis. ISHAN has been developed as a homology analysis package, built on various sequence analysis tools viz FASTA, ALIGN, CLUSTALW, PHYLIP and CODONW (for DNA sequences). This JAVA application offers the user choice of analysis tools. For testing, ISHAN was applied to perform phylogenetic analysis for sets of Caspase 3 DNA sequences and NF-kappaB p105 amino acid sequences. By integrating several tools it has made analysis much faster and reduced manual intervention. PMID:17274766

  8. Asteroid Ida Rotation Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This montage of 14 images (the time order is right to left, bottom to top) shows Ida as it appeared in the field of view of Galileo's camera on August 28, 1993. Asteroid Ida rotates once every 4 hours, 39 minutes and clockwise when viewed from above the north pole; these images cover about one Ida 'day.' This sequence has been used to create a 3-D model that shows Ida to be almost croissant shaped. The earliest view (lower right) was taken from a range of 240,000 kilometers (150,000 miles), 5.4 hours before closest approach. The asteroid Ida draws its name from mythology, in which the Greek god Zeus was raised by the nymph Ida.

  9. Efficient computation of optimal actions.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-07-14

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress--as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant.

  10. Efficient computation of optimal actions

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress—as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant. PMID:19574462

  11. Understanding disintegrant action by visualization.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to utilize high-speed video imaging for understanding the disintegrability of compacts and disintegrant action upon wetting. High-speed video imaging was used to visualize the disintegration of compacts and effect of wetting on free disintegrant particles. Acquired images were processed using MATLAB, and changes in the compact area and instantaneous motion of compacted particles on contact with water were analyzed. The capillary action of compacts was also determined for various disintegrants. Finally, the breakdown behavior of compacts prepared with selected disintegrants was analyzed at different compression forces to evaluate recovery of compaction strain. Water-insoluble inert diluent, dicalcium phosphate, was used as a comparator. The results from this visualization study provided an in-depth understanding of the disintegrant behavior of free and compacted disintegrant particles upon wetting. The mechanisms of swelling, capillary action, disruption of particle-particle bonds and strain recovery were successfully monitored by video imaging. The disintegration of compacts containing crospovidone appeared to be less influenced by swelling or wicking action. The influence of compression force on the disintegration of selected disintegrants confirmed that strain recovery is the dominant mechanism for the disintegrant action of crospovidone.

  12. Quantum-Sequencing: Fast electronic single DNA molecule sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free, high-throughput and cost-effective, single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the first demonstration of unique ``electronic fingerprint'' of all nucleotides (A, G, T, C), with single-molecule DNA sequencing, using Quantum-tunneling Sequencing (Q-Seq) at room temperature. We show that the electronic state of the nucleobases shift depending on the pH, with most distinct states identified at acidic pH. We also demonstrate identification of single nucleotide modifications (methylation here). Using these unique electronic fingerprints (or tunneling data), we report a partial sequence of beta lactamase (bla) gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, with over 95% success rate. These results highlight the potential of Q-Seq as a robust technique for next-generation sequencing.

  13. Advances in nanopore sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Liu, Ruoyu; Xie, Haiqiang; Hui, Yanting; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Zhang, Yiyu

    2013-07-01

    Much tremendous break through have been obtained in recent years for nanopore sequencing to achieve the goal of $1000 genome. As a method of single molecule sequencing, nanopore sequencing can discriminate the individual molecules of the target DNA strand rapidly due to the current blockages by translocating the nucleotides through a nano-scale pore. Both the protein-pores and solid-state nanopore channels which called single nanopore sequencing have been studied widely for the application of nanopore sequencing technology. This review will give a detail representation to protein nanopore and solid-state nanopore sequencing. For protein nanopore sequencing technology, we will introduce different nanopore types, device assembly and some challenges still exist at present. We will focus on more research fields for solid-state nanopore sequencing in terms of materials, device assembly, fabricated methods, translocation process and some specific challenges. The review also covers some of the technical advances in the union nanopore sequencing, which include nanopore sequencing combine with exonuclease, hybridization, synthesis and design polymer.

  14. Mechanisms of Action of Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Awate, Sunita; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Mutwiri, George

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvants are used in many vaccines, but their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Studies from the past decade on adjuvant mechanisms are slowly revealing the secrets of adjuvant activity. In this review, we have summarized the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of action of adjuvants. Adjuvants may act by a combination of various mechanisms including formation of depot, induction of cytokines and chemokines, recruitment of immune cells, enhancement of antigen uptake and presentation, and promoting antigen transport to draining lymph nodes. It appears that adjuvants activate innate immune responses to create a local immuno-competent environment at the injection site. Depending on the type of innate responses activated, adjuvants can alter the quality and quantity of adaptive immune responses. Understanding the mechanisms of action of adjuvants will provide critical information on how innate immunity influences the development of adaptive immunity, help in rational design of vaccines against various diseases, and can inform on adjuvant safety. PMID:23720661

  15. Mechanism of action of memantine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jon W; Kotermanski, Shawn E

    2006-02-01

    Memantine is a clinically useful drug in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. The principal mechanism of action of memantine is believed to be the blockade of current flow through channels of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors--a glutamate receptor subfamily broadly involved in brain function. Surprisingly, other drugs that block NMDA receptor channels, such as ketamine, exhibit serious deleterious effects. The unusual therapeutic utility of memantine probably results from inhibitory mechanisms shared with ketamine, combined with actions specific to memantine. These potentially important differences between memantine and ketamine include effects on gating of blocked channels and binding of memantine to two sites on NMDA receptors. Because modulation of NMDA receptor activity can increase or decrease excitability of neuronal circuits, subtle differences in the mechanisms of action of NMDA receptor antagonists can strongly impact on their clinical effects.

  16. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  17. Humans but Not Chimpanzees Vary Face-Scanning Patterns Depending on Contexts during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Yoshida, Chisato; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates comprehend the actions of other individuals by detecting social cues, including others’ goal-directed motor actions and faces. However, little is known about how this information is integrated with action understanding. Here, we present the ontogenetic and evolutionary foundations of this capacity by comparing face-scanning patterns of chimpanzees and humans as they viewed goal-directed human actions within contexts that differ in whether or not the predicted goal is achieved. Human adults and children attend to the actor’s face during action sequences, and this tendency is particularly pronounced in adults when observing that the predicted goal is not achieved. Chimpanzees rarely attend to the actor’s face during the goal-directed action, regardless of whether the predicted action goal is achieved or not. These results suggest that in humans, but not chimpanzees, attention to actor’s faces conveying referential information toward the target object indicates the process of observers making inferences about the intentionality of an action. Furthermore, this remarkable predisposition to observe others’ actions by integrating the prediction of action goals and the actor’s intention is developmentally acquired. PMID:26535901

  18. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  19. Its All Action, Its All Learning: Action Learning in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…

  20. Knowledge Producing, Its Management and Action and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on a "think piece" produced as a resource for action researchers working within networks of schools. The original article considered the utility of key ideas within knowledge management to practitioner researchers attempting to share their research outcomes with other teachers in their network. This article, rather than…