Science.gov

Sample records for adversary action sequences

  1. Adversary Sequence Interruption Model

    1985-11-15

    PC EASI is an IBM personal computer or PC-compatible version of an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. PC EASI utilizes a methodology called Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) which evaluates the probability of interruption (PI) for a given sequence of adversary tasks. Probability of interruption is defined as the probability that the response force will arrive before the adversary force has completed its task. The EASI methodology is amore » probabilistic approach that analytically evaluates basic functions of the physical security system (detection, assessment, communications, and delay) with respect to response time along a single adversary path. It is important that the most critical scenarios for each target be identified to ensure that vulnerabilities have not been overlooked. If the facility is not overly complex, this can be accomplished by examining all paths. If the facility is complex, a global model such as Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) may be used to identify the most vulnerable paths. PC EASI is menu-driven with screen forms for entering and editing the basic scenarios. In addition to evaluating PI for the basic scenario, the sensitivities of many of the parameters chosen in the scenario can be analyzed. These sensitivities provide information to aid the analyst in determining the tradeoffs for reducing the probability of interruption. PC EASI runs under the Micro Data Base Systems'' proprietary database management system Knowledgeman. KMAN provides the user environment and file management for the specified basic scenarios, and KGRAPH the graphical output of the sensitivity calculations. This software is not included. Due to errors in release 2 of KMAN, PC EASI will not execute properly; release 1.07 of KMAN is required.« less

  2. Adversarial reasoning: challenges and approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, Alexander; Ownby, Michael

    2005-05-01

    This paper defines adversarial reasoning as computational approaches to inferring and anticipating an enemy's perceptions, intents and actions. It argues that adversarial reasoning transcends the boundaries of game theory and must also leverage such disciplines as cognitive modeling, control theory, AI planning and others. To illustrate the challenges of applying adversarial reasoning to real-world problems, the paper explores the lessons learned in the CADET -- a battle planning system that focuses on brigade-level ground operations and involves adversarial reasoning. From this example of current capabilities, the paper proceeds to describe RAID -- a DARPA program that aims to build capabilities in adversarial reasoning, and how such capabilities would address practical requirements in Defense and other application areas.

  3. NUCRAC: a code for the estimation of adversary-action consequences in the nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, D.C.; Ritzman, R.L.; Roberts, J.A.; Sachs, E.S.

    1986-02-01

    A program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and designed to estimate the potential consequences of adversary actions in the nuclear power fuel cycle has been completed. So that the results of this consequence analysis would be comparable to that of the reactor Safety Study (RSS), the methodology described in the RSS and implemented in the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences (CRAC) code served as the baseline for consequence evaluation in this study. Four portions of the RSS methodology were modified for use in this study: the atmospheric dispersion model, the inhalation dose factors, the criterion for early mortality from lung dose, and the model for chronic pathways to man. Implementation of these modifications to the CRAC code resulted in the preparation and application of a revised code termed NUCRAC. These modifications are described in detail. Detailed instructions for the operation of NUCRAC are presented in the form of a user-manual. Inputs and outputs for an example calculation are also presented.

  4. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  5. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  6. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  7. From Movements to Actions: Two Mechanisms for Learning Action Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…

  8. Action sequencing deficit following frontal lobe lesion.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Shallice, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Frontal lobe patients carried out temporal sequencing tasks related to actions that differed in terms of their abstractness using both verbal and pictorial presentations. A generalized impairment was found: neither a type of action effect nor a modality of item presentation effect was present. The patients also carried out a corresponding action production task and produced actions quickly and without errors. The frontal lobe patients were also spared in generating verbal descriptions of actions: they were as accurate as normal controls both in terms of the details reported and in maintaining the temporal sequence. It has been argued that the difficulty in processing the temporal dimensions of actions following frontal lobe lesions is due to some form of disruption of the action representation. However, no action representational deficits were present in our frontal lobe patients. Thus, they cannot account for our findings. On the contrary, we suggest that the action sequencing deficit was a consequence of the difficulties patients experienced in rejecting wrong alternatives presented by the stimulus situation. PMID:11997488

  9. Potential criminal adversaries of nuclear programs: a portrait

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1980-07-01

    This paper examines the possibility that terrorists or other kinds of criminals might attempt to seize or sabotage a nuclear facility, steal nuclear material, or carry out other criminal activities in the nuclear domain which has created special problems for the security of nuclear programs. This paper analyzes the potential threat. Our tasks was to describe the potential criminal adversary, or rather the spectrum of potential adversaries who conceivably might carry out malevolent criminal actions against nuclear programs and facilities. We were concerned with both the motivations as well as the material and operational capabilities likely to be displayed by various categories of potential nuclear adversaries.

  10. Intelligent adversary risk analysis: a bioterrorism risk management model.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Gregory S; Smith, Christopher M; Moxley, Frederick I

    2010-01-01

    The tragic events of 9/11 and the concerns about the potential for a terrorist or hostile state attack with weapons of mass destruction have led to an increased emphasis on risk analysis for homeland security. Uncertain hazards (natural and engineering) have been successfully analyzed using probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Unlike uncertain hazards, terrorists and hostile states are intelligent adversaries who can observe our vulnerabilities and dynamically adapt their plans and actions to achieve their objectives. This article compares uncertain hazard risk analysis with intelligent adversary risk analysis, describes the intelligent adversary risk analysis challenges, and presents a probabilistic defender-attacker-defender model to evaluate the baseline risk and the potential risk reduction provided by defender investments. The model includes defender decisions prior to an attack; attacker decisions during the attack; defender actions after an attack; and the uncertainties of attack implementation, detection, and consequences. The risk management model is demonstrated with an illustrative bioterrorism problem with notional data. PMID:20002893

  11. Modeling Opponents in Adversarial Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rios Insua, David; Banks, David; Rios, Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Adversarial risk analysis has been introduced as a framework to deal with risks derived from intentional actions of adversaries. The analysis supports one of the decisionmakers, who must forecast the actions of the other agents. Typically, this forecast must take account of random consequences resulting from the set of selected actions. The solution requires one to model the behavior of the opponents, which entails strategic thinking. The supported agent may face different kinds of opponents, who may use different rationality paradigms, for example, the opponent may behave randomly, or seek a Nash equilibrium, or perform level-k thinking, or use mirroring, or employ prospect theory, among many other possibilities. We describe the appropriate analysis for these situations, and also show how to model the uncertainty about the rationality paradigm used by the opponent through a Bayesian model averaging approach, enabling a fully decision-theoretic solution. We also show how as we observe an opponent's decision behavior, this approach allows learning about the validity of each of the rationality models used to predict his decision by computing the models' (posterior) probabilities, which can be understood as a measure of their validity. We focus on simultaneous decision making by two agents. PMID:26133501

  12. Adversarial Contests or Respectful Alliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2003-01-01

    Schools can become islands of stability or fields of battle for students with emotional and behavioral problems. Research on positive school climate and positive therapeutic outcomes points to the importance of replacing adversarial encounters with respectful relationships. This article discusses how this positive transformation can be achieved.…

  13. Optimal Online Prediction in Adversarial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Peter L.

    In many prediction problems, including those that arise in computer security and computational finance, the process generating the data is best modelled as an adversary with whom the predictor competes. Even decision problems that are not inherently adversarial can be usefully modeled in this way, since the assumptions are sufficiently weak that effective prediction strategies for adversarial settings are very widely applicable.

  14. Adversarial Risk Analysis for Urban Security Resource Allocation.

    PubMed

    Gil, César; Rios Insua, David; Rios, Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Adversarial risk analysis (ARA) provides a framework to deal with risks originating from intentional actions of adversaries. We show how ARA may be used to allocate security resources in the protection of urban spaces. We take into account the spatial structure and consider both proactive and reactive measures, in that we aim at both trying to reduce criminality as well as recovering as best as possible from it, should it happen. We deal with the problem by deploying an ARA model over each spatial unit, coordinating the models through resource constraints, value aggregation, and proximity. We illustrate our approach with an example that uncovers several relevant policy issues. PMID:26927388

  15. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  16. Skeleton-based human action recognition using multiple sequence alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenwen; Liu, Kai; Cheng, Fei; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2015-05-01

    Human action recognition and analysis is an active research topic in computer vision for many years. This paper presents a method to represent human actions based on trajectories consisting of 3D joint positions. This method first decompose action into a sequence of meaningful atomic actions (actionlets), and then label actionlets with English alphabets according to the Davies-Bouldin index value. Therefore, an action can be represented using a sequence of actionlet symbols, which will preserve the temporal order of occurrence of each of the actionlets. Finally, we employ sequence comparison to classify multiple actions through using string matching algorithms (Needleman-Wunsch). The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on datasets captured by commodity depth cameras. Experiments of the proposed method on three challenging 3D action datasets show promising results.

  17. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  18. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  19. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  20. Action sequence for layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pepe, P E; Gay, M; Cobb, L A; Handley, A J; Zaritsky, A; Hallstrom, A; Hickey, R W; Jacobs, I; Berg, R A; Bircher, N G; Zideman, D A; de Vos, R; Callanan, V

    2001-04-01

    Although some minor modifications were forged, the general consensus was to maintain most of the current guidelines for phone first/phone fast, no-assisted-ventilation CPR, the A-B-C (vs C-A-B) sequence of CPR, and the recovery position. The decisions to leave these guidelines as they are were based on a lack of evidence to justify the proposed changes, coupled with a reluctance to make revisions that would require major changes in worldwide educational practices without such evidence.Nonetheless, some major changes were made. The time-honored procedure ol pulse check by lay rescuers was eliminated altogether and replaced with an assessment for other signs of circulation. Likewise, it was recommended that even the professional rescuer now check for these other signs of circulation. Although professional rescuers may simultaneously check for a pulse, they should do so only for a short period of time (within 10 seconds). There was also enthusiasm for deleting the ventilation aspect of EMS dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions that are provided to rescuers at the scene who are inexperienced in CPR. lt was made clear, though, that the data are applicable only to adult patients who are receiving CPR and that the data are appropriate most for EMS systems with rapid response times. PMID:11290966

  1. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection. PMID:25910268

  2. Capturing the uncertainty in adversary attack simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Brooks, Traci N.; Berry, Robert Bruce

    2008-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive uncertainty technique to evaluate uncertainty, resulting in a more realistic evaluation of PI, thereby requiring fewer resources to address scenarios and allowing resources to be used across more scenarios. For a given set of dversary resources, two types of uncertainty are associated with PI for a scenario: (1) aleatory (random) uncertainty for detection probabilities and time delays and (2) epistemic (state of knowledge) uncertainty for the adversary resources applied during an attack. Adversary esources consist of attributes (such as equipment and training) and knowledge about the security system; to date, most evaluations have assumed an adversary with very high resources, adding to the conservatism in the evaluation of PI. The aleatory uncertainty in PI is ddressed by assigning probability distributions to detection probabilities and time delays. A numerical sampling technique is used to evaluate PI, addressing the repeated variable dependence in the equation for PI.

  3. Modeling adversarial intent for interactive simulation and gaming: the fused intent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; McQueary, Bruce; Krause, Lee

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the intent of today's enemy necessitates changes in intelligence collection, processing, and dissemination. Unlike cold war antagonists, today's enemies operate in small, agile, and distributed cells whose tactics do not map well to established doctrine. This has necessitated a proliferation of advanced sensor and intelligence gathering techniques at level 0 and level 1 of the Joint Directors of Laboratories fusion model. The challenge is in leveraging modeling and simulation to transform the vast amounts of level 0 and level 1 data into actionable intelligence at levels 2 and 3 that include adversarial intent. Currently, warfighters are flooded with information (facts/observables) regarding what the enemy is presently doing, but provided inadequate explanations of adversarial intent and they cannot simulate 'what-if' scenarios to increase their predictive situational awareness. The Fused Intent System (FIS) aims to address these deficiencies by providing an environment that answers 'what' the adversary is doing, 'why' they are doing it, and 'how' they will react to coalition actions. In this paper, we describe our approach to FIS which includes adversarial 'soft-factors' such as goals, rationale, and beliefs within a computational model that infers adversarial intent and allows the insertion of assumptions to be used in conjunction with current battlefield state to perform what-if analysis. Our approach combines ontological modeling for classification and Bayesian-based abductive reasoning for explanation and has broad applicability to the operational, training, and commercial gaming domains.

  4. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, William H. Jr.

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  5. Silver nanoparticles -- allies or adversaries?

    PubMed

    Bartłomiejczyk, Teresa; Lankoff, Anna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Szumiel, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are structures with at least one dimension of less than 100 nanometers (nm) and unique properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), due to their bactericidal action, have found practical applications in medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and other fields. Nevertheless, their less advantageous properties which make AgNP potentially harmful to public health or the environment should also be taken into consideration. These nanoparticles are cyto- and genotoxic and accumulate in the environment, where their antibacterial properties may be disadvantageous for agriculture and waste management. The presented study reviews data concerning the biological effects of AgNP in mammalian cells in vitro: cellular uptake and excretion, localization in cellular compartments, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The mechanism of nanoparticle action consists on induction of the oxidative stress resulting in a further ROS generation, DNA damage and activation of signaling leading to various, cell type-specific pathways to inflammation, apoptotic or necrotic death. In order to assure a safe application of AgNP, further detailed studies are needed on the mechanisms of the action of AgNP on mammalian cells at the molecular level. PMID:23540211

  6. Recognizing surgeon's actions during suture operations from video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Ohya, Jun; Chiba, Toshio; Xu, Rong; Yamashita, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Because of the shortage of nurses in the world, the realization of a robotic nurse that can support surgeries autonomously is very important. More specifically, the robotic nurse should be able to autonomously recognize different situations of surgeries so that the robotic nurse can pass necessary surgical tools to the medical doctors in a timely manner. This paper proposes and explores methods that can classify suture and tying actions during suture operations from the video sequence that observes the surgery scene that includes the surgeon's hands. First, the proposed method uses skin pixel detection and foreground extraction to detect the hand area. Then, interest points are randomly chosen from the hand area so that their 3D SIFT descriptors are computed. A word vocabulary is built by applying hierarchical K-means to these descriptors, and the words' frequency histogram, which corresponds to the feature space, is computed. Finally, to classify the actions, either SVM (Support Vector Machine), Nearest Neighbor rule (NN) for the feature space or a method that combines "sliding window" with NN is performed. We collect 53 suture videos and 53 tying videos to build the training set and to test the proposed method experimentally. It turns out that the NN gives higher than 90% accuracies, which are better recognition than SVM. Negative actions, which are different from either suture or tying action, are recognized with quite good accuracies, while "Sliding window" did not show significant improvements for suture and tying and cannot recognize negative actions.

  7. Clinical actionability enhanced through deep targeted sequencing of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Zhao, Hao; Zhang, Qingxiu; Ezzeddine, Nader; Tang, Lin-ya; Qi, Yuan; Mao, Yong; Chen, Tenghui; Chong, Zechen; Zhou, Wanding; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Johnson, Amber; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Routbort, Mark J.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; de Groot, John; Moulder, Stacy; Vinod, Ravi; Farhangfar, Carol J.; Shaw, Kenna Mills; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.; Eterovic, Agda Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Further advances of targeted cancer therapy require comprehensive in-depth profiling of somatic mutations that are present in subpopulations of tumor cells in a clinical tumor sample. However, it is unclear to what extent such intra-tumor heterogeneity is present and whether it may affect clinical decision making. To unravel this challenge, we established a deep targeted sequencing platform to identify potentially actionable DNA alterations in tumor samples. Methods We assayed 515 FFPE tumor samples and matched germline (475 patients) from 11 disease sites by capturing and sequencing all the exons in 201 cancer related genes. Mutations, indels and copy number data were reported. Results We obtained a 1000-fold average sequencing depth and identified 4794 non-synonymous mutations in the samples analyzed, which 15.2% were present at less than 10% allele frequency. Most of these low level mutations occurred at known oncogenic hotspots and are likely functional. Identifying low level mutations improved identification of mutations in actionable genes in 118 (24.84%) patients, among which 47 (9.8%) would otherwise be unactionable. In addition, acquiring ultra-high depth also ensured a low false discovery rate (less than 2.2%) from FFPE samples. Conclusion Our results were as accurate as a commercially available CLIA-compliant hotspot panel, but allowed the detection of a higher number of mutations in actionable genes. Our study revealed the critical importance of acquiring and utilizing high depth in profiling clinical tumor samples and presented a very useful platform for implementing routine sequencing in a cancer care institution. PMID:25626406

  8. Predicting terrorist actions using sequence learning and past events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, Harald; Das, Subrata K.; Zacharias, Greg L.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the application of sequence learning to the domain of terrorist group actions. The goal is to make accurate predictions of future events based on learning from past history. The past history of the group is represented as a sequence of events. Well-established sequence learning approaches are used to generate temporal rules from the event sequence. In order to represent all the possible events involving a terrorist group activities, an event taxonomy has been created that organizes the events into a hierarchical structure. The event taxonomy is applied when events are extracted, and the hierarchical form of the taxonomy is especially useful when only scant information is available about an event. The taxonomy can also be used to generate temporal rules at various levels of abstraction. The generated temporal rules are used to generate predictions that can be compared to actual events for evaluation. The approach was tested on events collected for a four-year period from relevant newspaper articles and other open-source literature. Temporal rules were generated based on the first half of the data, and predictions were generated for the second half of the data. Evaluation yielded a high hit rate and a moderate false-alarm rate.

  9. Learning Sequences of Actions in Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.

  10. Extended defense systems :I. adversary-defender modeling grammar for vulnerability analysis and threat assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2006-03-01

    Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes. The adversary-defender modeling (ADM) grammar employs classical set theory and notation. It is designed to incorporate contributions from subject matter experts in all relevant disciplines, without bias. The Attack Scenario Space U{sub S} is the set universe of all scenarios possible under physical laws. An attack scenario is a postulated event consisting of the active engagement of at least one adversary with at least one defended target. Target Information Space I{sub S} is the universe of information about targets and defenders. Adversary and defender groups are described by their respective Character super-sets, (A){sub P} and (D){sub F}. Each super-set contains six elements: Objectives, Knowledge, Veracity, Plans, Resources, and Skills. The Objectives are the desired end-state outcomes. Knowledge is comprised of empirical and theoretical a priori knowledge and emergent knowledge (learned during an attack), while Veracity is the correspondence of Knowledge with fact or outcome. Plans are ordered activity-task sequences (tuples) with logical contingencies. Resources are the a priori and opportunistic physical assets and intangible attributes applied to the execution of associated Plans elements. Skills for both adversary and defender include the assumed general and task competencies for the associated plan set, the realized value of competence in execution or exercise, and the opponent's planning assumption of the task competence.

  11. Basal Ganglia Subcircuits Distinctively Encode the Parsing and Concatenation of Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task where mice learn rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. Besides start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These results have important implications for understanding the functional organization of basal ganglia during the learning and execution of action sequences. PMID:24464039

  12. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  13. The influence of action possibility and end-state comfort on motor imagery of manual action sequences.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2015-12-01

    It has been proposed that the preparation of goal-direct actions involves internal movement simulation, or motor imagery. Evidence suggests that motor imagery is critically involved in the prediction of action consequences and contributes heavily to movement planning processes. The present study examined whether the sensitivity towards end-state comfort and the possibility/impossibility to perform an action sequence are considered during motor imagery. Participants performed a mental rotation task in which two images were simultaneously presented. The image on the left depicted the start posture of a right hand when grasping a bar, while the right image depicted the hand posture at the end of the action sequence. The right image displayed the bar in a vertical orientation with the hand in a comfortable (thumb-up) or in an uncomfortable (thumb-down) posture, while the bar in the left image was rotated in picture plane in steps of 45°. Crucially, the two images formed either a physically possible or physically impossible to perform action sequence. Results revealed strikingly different response time patterns for the two action sequence conditions. In general, response times increased almost monotonically with increasing angular disparity for the possible to perform action sequences. However, slight deviations from this monotonicity were apparent when the sequences contained an uncomfortable as opposed to a comfortable final posture. In contrast, for the impossible sequences, response times did not follow a typical mental rotation function, but instead were uniformly very slow. These findings suggest that both biomechanical constraints (i.e., end-state comfort) and the awareness of the possibility/impossibility to perform an action sequence are considered during motor imagery. We conclude that motor representations contain information about the spatiotemporal movement organization and the possibility of performing an action, which are crucially involved in

  14. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  15. AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

  16. Constructing adversarial models for threat/enemy intent prediction and inferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Negri, Allesandro

    2004-08-01

    We examine an adversary model that captures goals, intentions, biases, beliefs, and perceptions based on a dynamic cognitive architecture that evolves over time. The model manages the uncertainty surrounding the adversary using probabilistic networks. In particular, we consider the challenges of constructing such adversaries and provide solutions towards more effective and efficient engineering of such adversaries. We present the AII Template Generator tool which enables the rapid deployment of adversary models as well as on-demand construction of new adversary components.

  17. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  18. d-Dimensional quantum state sharing with adversary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-04-01

    A quantum secret sharing scheme with adversary structure is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the secret is a d-dimensional quantum state. The dealer can distribute the private keys according to the adversary structure and encode the quantum state through the d-dimensional Pauli unitary operation. The legitimate participants perform the unitary operations on the encrypted quantum state according to their private keys and recover the original quantum state. Compared to the existing QSS schemes, our scheme can be more efficient when only the adversary structure is given.

  19. Children's Imitation of Causal Action Sequences Is Influenced by Statistical and Pedagogical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Shafto, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Children are ubiquitous imitators, but how do they decide which actions to imitate? One possibility is that children rationally combine multiple sources of information about which actions are necessary to cause a particular outcome. For instance, children might learn from contingencies between action sequences and outcomes across repeated…

  20. Trial of an Adversary Hearing: Public Policy in Weather Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairley, William; Mosteller, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    The organization, presentation, and results of a mock adversary hearing on a topic involving the use of simple and complex statistics is described. The use of this format as a teaching technique for mathematics and statistics classes is discussed. (DT)

  1. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Do, Quang; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  2. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  3. Dynamic mesolimbic dopamine signaling during action sequence learning and expectation violation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne L; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Bye, Jeffrey K; Linker, Kay E; Wang, Alice S; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075

  4. Dynamic mesolimbic dopamine signaling during action sequence learning and expectation violation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Anne L.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Bye, Jeffrey K.; Linker, Kay E.; Wang, Alice S.; Wassum, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075

  5. Neural Bases of Sequence Processing in Action and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carota, Francesca; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Real-time estimation of what we will do next is a crucial prerequisite of purposive behavior. During the planning of goal-oriented actions, for instance, the temporal and causal organization of upcoming subsequent moves needs to be predicted based on our knowledge of events. A forward computation of sequential structure is also essential for…

  6. Splicing in action: assessing disease causing sequence changes

    PubMed Central

    Baralle, D; Baralle, M

    2005-01-01

    Variations in new splicing regulatory elements are difficult to identify exclusively by sequence inspection and may result in deleterious effects on precursor (pre) mRNA splicing. These mutations can result in either complete skipping of the exon, retention of the intron, or the introduction of a new splice site within an exon or intron. Sometimes mutations that do not disrupt or create a splice site activate pre-existing pseudo splice sites, consistent with the proposal that introns contain splicing inhibitory sequences. These variants can also affect the fine balance of isoforms produced by alternatively spliced exons and in consequence cause disease. Available genomic pathology data reveal that we are still partly ignorant of the basic mechanisms that underlie the pre-mRNA splicing process. The fact that human pathology can provide pointers to new modulatory elements of splicing should be exploited. PMID:16199547

  7. Time-dependent accident sequences including human actions

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, G.; Chu, T.L.

    1984-02-01

    During an accident, transitions between plant states can occur due to operator intervention and the failure of systems while running. The latter cause of transition is much less likely than the first, which includes errors of commission and omission as well as recovery of lost functions. A methodology has been developed to model these transitions in the time domain. As an example, it is applied to the analysis of Three-Mile-Island-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open power-operated relief valves at Babcock and Wilcox plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident, i.e., turning off and on the high-pressure injection system and closing the block valves.

  8. When what's inside counts: Sequence of demonstrated actions affects preschooler's categorization by nonobvious properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue-the sequence of demonstrated actions and events-in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property was revealed before (shake-first) or after (shake-last) categorization. Four experiments (N = 150) showed that both 4-year-olds (M(age) = 4.5 years) and 3-year-olds (M(age) = 3.5 years) shifted toward categorizing by nonobvious property after the shake-first sequence compared with the shake-last sequence (Experiment 1 and 4); 4-year-olds also generalized their categorization strategy to new objects (Experiment 2) and objects that were both labeled and categorized (Experiment 3). Results are discussed with regard to preschooler's ability to integrate social and pedagogical cues in category learning. PMID:26689759

  9. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  10. Terrorism and Perspectivist Philosophy: Understanding Adversarial News Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Perspective realism, particularly as modified into the special case of adversarial perspectivism, and the analogy of reciprocal concave and convex world views, is an important and neglected component in accounting for the widespread discrepancies in the reporting of so-called "terrorist" events. However, the tendencies toward cooperation between…

  11. Frequency of the first feature in action sequences influences feature binding.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Paul S; Fournier, Lisa R; Behmer, Lawrence P

    2012-10-01

    We investigated whether binding among perception and action feature codes is a preliminary step toward creating a more durable memory trace of an action event. If so, increasing the frequency of a particular event (e.g., a stimulus requiring a movement with the left or right hand in an up or down direction) should increase the strength and speed of feature binding for this event. The results from two experiments, using a partial-repetition paradigm, confirmed that feature binding increased in strength and/or occurred earlier for a high-frequency (e.g., left hand moving up) than for a low-frequency (e.g., right hand moving down) event. Moreover, increasing the frequency of the first-specified feature in the action sequence alone (e.g., "left" hand) increased the strength and/or speed of action feature binding (e.g., between the "left" hand and movement in an "up" or "down" direction). The latter finding suggests an update to the theory of event coding, as not all features in the action sequence equally determine binding strength. We conclude that action planning involves serial binding of features in the order of action feature execution (i.e., associations among features are not bidirectional but are directional), which can lead to a more durable memory trace. This is consistent with physiological evidence suggesting that serial order is preserved in an action plan executed from memory and that the first feature in the action sequence may be critical in preserving this serial order. PMID:22777733

  12. Infants Use Social Context to Bind Actions into a Collaborative Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking was used to show that 18-month-old infants are sensitive to social context as a sign that others' actions are bound together as a collaborative sequence based on a joint goal. Infants observed five identical demonstrations in which Actor 1 moved a block to one location and Actor 2 moved the same block to a new location, creating…

  13. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    SciTech Connect

    HARLAN, CHARLENE P.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualties to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.

  14. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualtiesmore » to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.« less

  15. Synchronous imitation of continuous action sequences: The role of spatial and topological mapping.

    PubMed

    Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2015-10-01

    What are the mapping mechanisms that enable people to synchronously imitate continuous action sequences observed in others? We investigated this question in 4 experiments that used a tapping task where participants synchronously performed alternating bimanual hand movements with a model presented in an egocentric or allocentric orientation. Their task was to tap in synchrony, with each hand matching the movements of the ipsilateral model hand as closely as possible. The results show that automatic establishment of topological mappings, where the performer's hand is mapped onto the model's anatomically matching hand even if the 2 are spatially misaligned, can interfere with maintaining spatial mappings (Experiments 1 and 2). The interference was particularly strong in musicians who have expertise in establishing topological mappings in continuous performance (Experiment 4). Adopting an unusual body posture greatly interfered with establishing spatial as well as topological mappings (Experiment 3). Together, the results suggest that synchronous imitation of continuous action sequences depends on flexible predictive models that simultaneously apply spatial and topological mapping constraints to enable an actor to act in synchrony with observed action sequences. PMID:26052697

  16. An Action Sequence Withheld in Memory Can Delay Execution of Visually Guided Actions: The Generalization of Response Compatibility Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiediger, Matthew D.; Fournier, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Withholding an action plan in memory for later execution can delay execution of another action, if the actions share a similar (compatible) action feature (i.e., response hand). This phenomenon, termed compatibility interference (CI), was found for identity-based actions that do not require visual guidance. The authors examined whether CI can…

  17. An Efficient Protocol for Secure Two-Party Computation in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindell, Yehuda; Pinkas, Benny

    We show an efficient secure two-party protocol, based on Yao's construction, which provides security against malicious adversaries. Yao's original protocol is only secure in the presence of semi-honest adversaries. Security against malicious adversaries can be obtained by applying the compiler of Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson (the "GMW compiler"). However, this approach does not seem to be very practical as it requires using generic zero-knowledge proofs.

  18. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Clinically Actionable Mutations in Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeck, William R.; Parker, Joel; Carson, Craig C.; Shields, Janiel M.; Sambade, Maria J.; Peters, Eldon C.; Burd, Christin E.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Liu, Wenjin; Eberhard, David A.; Ollila, David; Grilley-Olson, Juneko; Moschos, Stergios; Hayes, D. Neil; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic sequencing of cancers has produced new insight into tumorigenesis, tumor heterogeneity, and disease progression, but the vast majority of genetic events identified are of indeterminate clinical significance. Here we describe a NextGen sequencing approach to fully analyze 248 genes, including all those of known clinical significance in melanoma. This strategy features solution capture of DNA followed by multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing, and was evaluated in 31 melanoma cell lines and 18 tumor tissues from patients with metastatic melanoma. Mutations in melanoma cell lines correlated with their sensitivity to corresponding small molecule inhibitors, confirming, for example, lapatinib sensitivity in ERBB4 mutant lines and identifying a novel activating mutation of BRAF. The latter event would not have been identified by clinical sequencing and was associated with responsiveness to a BRAF kinase inhibitor. This approach identified focal copy number changes of PTEN not found by standard methods, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Actionable mutations were found in 89% of the tumor tissues analyzed, 56% of which would not be identified by standard-of-care approaches. This work shows that targeted sequencing is an attractive approach for clinical use in melanoma. PMID:24628946

  19. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  20. Quantifying Adversary Capabilities to Inform Defensive Resource Allocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Bier, Vicki M

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian Stackelberg game capable of analyzing the joint effects of both attacker intent and capabilities on optimal defensive strategies. The novel feature of our model is the use of contest success functions from economics to capture the extent to which the success of an attack is attributable to the adversary's capability (as well as the level of defensive investment), rather than pure luck. Results of a two-target example suggest that precise assessment of attacker intent may not be necessary if we have poor estimates of attacker capability. PMID:25929274

  1. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “American Adversaries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Copley in a Transatlantic World'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... Adversaries: West and Copley in a Transatlantic World,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  2. Adversarial intent modeling using embedded simulation and temporal Bayesian knowledge bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Melhuish, James; Seidel, Andy; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Li, Deqing; Gorniak, Mark

    2009-05-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness among air strategy planners, BAE Systems has developed Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment for authoring, integration, validation, and debugging of models relating multiple domains, including political, military, social, economic and information. CMIST provides a unified graphical user interface for such systems of systems modeling, spanning several disparate modeling paradigms. Here, we briefly review the CMIST architecture and then compare modeling results using two approaches to intent modeling. The first uses reactive agents with simplified behavior models that apply rule-based triggers to initiate actions based solely on observations of the external world at the current time in the simulation. The second method models proactive agents running an embedded CMIST simulation representing their projection of how events may unfold in the future in order to take early preventative action. Finally, we discuss a recent extension to CMIST that incorporates Temporal Bayesian Knowledge Bases for more sophisticated models of adversarial intent that are capable of inferring goals and future actions given evidence of current actions at particular times.

  3. Entrainment and task co-representation effects for discrete and continuous action sequences.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Fu, En

    2015-12-01

    A large body of work has established an influence of other people's actions on our own actions. For example, actors entrain to the movements of others, in studies that typically employ continuous movements. Likewise, studies on co-representation have shown that people automatically co-represent a co-actor's task, in studies that typically employ discrete actions. Here we examined entrainment and co-representation within a single task paradigm. Participants sat next to a confederate while simultaneously moving their right hand back and forth between two targets. We crossed whether or not the participant and the confederate moved over an obstacle and manipulated whether participants generated discrete or continuous movement sequences, while varying the space between the actors and whether the actors could see each other's movements. Participants moved higher when the confederate cleared an obstacle than when he did not. For continuous movements, this effect depended on the availability of visual information, as would be expected on the basis of entrainment. In contrast, the co-actor's task modulated the height of discrete movements, regardless of the availability of visual information, which is consistent with co-representation. Space did not have an effect. These results provide new insights into the interplay between co-representation and entrainment for discrete- and continuous-action tasks. PMID:25911443

  4. Chemical genomic profiling via barcode sequencing to predict compound mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Simpkins, Scott W.; Li, Sheena C.; Deshpande, Raamesh; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charlie; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chemical genomics is an unbiased, whole-cell approach to characterizing novel compounds to determine mode of action and cellular target. Our version of this technique is built upon barcoded deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has been adapted to a high-throughput methodology using next-generation sequencing. Here we describe the steps to generate a chemical genomic profile from a compound of interest, and how to use this information to predict molecular mechanism and targets of bioactive compounds. PMID:25618354

  5. Living in an Adversarial Society. Concept Paper No. 11. NCTE Concept Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Denny

    Suggesting that U.S. society is an adversarial one that makes sure that certain groups of people fail, this paper explores the ascription of failure in the adversarial contexts of the family, the school, and the workplace. The paper argues that if Americans continue to ascribe pariah status to large segments of the society, then the United States…

  6. Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability during Acquisition of Action Sequences by Observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Moriyama, Noriyoshi; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Excitability of the corticospinal pathway increases during observation of an action. However, how corticospinal excitability changes during observation of sequential actions in the course of acquiring novel skills (observational learning) remains unexplored. To investigate this, we used a previously unpracticed sequence of ten hand postures. Participants were asked to repeat observation and replication of the sequence. This block of observation and replication was repeated 5 times. During observation of a given hand posture (OK sign), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand muscles. In experiment 1, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position of the sequence. Almost all participants could replicate the OK sign only at the 5th block of the experiment. MEP amplitude was greater than that in the control, and decreased with the stages. This suggested that during observational learning of sequential hand postures MEP changed with the progress of the learning. To evaluate this idea, we performed two additional experiments. In experiment 2, the OK sign appeared in the 2nd position. Almost all participants replicated the OK sign even in the 1st block. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. In experiment 3, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position, but the order of other signs was randomized in every stage. Many participants were not able to replicate the OK sign even during the 5th block of the experiment. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. These results suggest that: (1) During observational learning modulation of corticospinal excitability is associated with the learning process. (2) Corticospinal excitability decreases as learning progresses. PMID:22615889

  7. 'Meatball searching' - The adversarial approach to online information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the different styles of online searching can be described as either formal (highly precise) or informal with the needs of the client dictating which is most applicable at a particular moment. The background and personality of the searcher also come into play. Particular attention is focused on meatball searching which is a form of online searching characterized by deliberate vagueness. It requires generally comprehensive searches, often on unusual topics and with tight deadlines. It is most likely to occur in search centers serving many different disciplines and levels of client information sophistication. Various information needs are outlined as well as the laws of meatball searching and the adversarial approach. Traits and characteristics important to sucessful searching include: (1) concept analysis, (2) flexibility of thinking, (3) ability to think in synonyms and (4) anticipation of variant word forms and spellings.

  8. Adaptation of a multi-resolution adversarial model for asymmetric warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Brad; Gonsalves, Paul G.

    2006-05-01

    Recent military operations have demonstrated the use by adversaries of non-traditional or asymmetric military tactics to offset US military might. Rogue nations with links to trans-national terrorists have created a highly unpredictable and potential dangerous environment for US military operations. Several characteristics of these threats include extremism in beliefs, global in nature, non-state oriented, and highly networked and adaptive, thus making these adversaries less vulnerable to conventional military approaches. Additionally, US forces must also contend with more traditional state-based threats that are further evolving their military fighting strategies and capabilities. What are needed are solutions to assist our forces in the prosecution of operations against these diverse threat types and their atypical strategies and tactics. To address this issue, we present a system that allows for the adaptation of a multi-resolution adversarial model. The developed model can then be used to support both training and simulation based acquisition requirements to effectively respond to such an adversary. The described system produces a combined adversarial model by merging behavior modeling at the individual level with aspects at the group and organizational level via network analysis. Adaptation of this adversarial model is performed by means of an evolutionary algorithm to build a suitable model for the chosen adversary.

  9. Human collective dynamics: Two groups in adversarial encounter. [melete code

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.L.; Harlow, F.H.; Genin, K.E.

    1988-04-01

    The behavior of a group of people depends strongly on the interaction of personal (individual) traits with the collective moods of the group as a whole. We have developed a computer program to model circumstances of this nature with recognition of the crucial role played by such psychological properties as fear, excitement, peer pressure, moral outrage, and anger, together with the distribution among participants of intrinsic susceptibilities to these emotions. This report extends previous work to consider two groups of people in adversarial encounter, for example, two platoons in battle, a SWAT team against rioting prisoners, or opposing mobs of different ethnic backgrounds. Closely related applications of the modeling include prowling groups of predatory animals interacting with herds of prey, and even the ''slow-mob'' behavior of social or political units in their response to legislative or judicial activities. Examples in this present study emphasize battlefield encounters, with each group characterizzed by its susceptibilities, skills, and other manifestions of both intentional and accidental circumstances. Specifically, we investigate the relative importance of leadership, camaraderie, training level (i.e. skill in firing weapons), bravery, excitability, and dedication in the battle performance of personnel with random or specified distributions of capabilities and susceptibilities in these various regards. The goal is to exhibit the probable outcome of these encounters in circumstances involving specified battle goals and distributions of terrain impediments. A collateral goal is to provide a real-time hands-on battle simulator into which a leadership trainee can insert his own interactive command.

  10. Satisfiability-unsatisfiability transition in the adversarial satisfiability problem.

    PubMed

    Bardoscia, Marco; Nagaj, Daniel; Scardicchio, Antonello

    2014-03-01

    Adversarial satisfiability (AdSAT) is a generalization of the satisfiability (SAT) problem in which two players try to make a Boolean formula true (resp. false) by controlling their respective sets of variables. AdSAT belongs to a higher complexity class in the polynomial hierarchy than SAT, and therefore the nature of the critical region and the transition are not easily parallel to those of SAT and worthy of independent study. AdSAT also provides an upper bound for the transition threshold of the quantum satisfiability problem (QSAT). We present a complete algorithm for AdSAT, show that 2-AdSAT is in P, and then study two stochastic algorithms (simulated annealing and its improved variant) and compare their performances in detail for 3-AdSAT. Varying the density of clauses α we claim that there is a sharp SAT-UNSAT transition at a critical value whose upper bound is αc≲1.5, suggesting a much stricter upper bound for the QSAT transition than those previously found. PMID:24730811

  11. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  12. 29 CFR 102.143 - “Adversary adjudication” defined; entitlement to award; eligibility for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at any time after October 1, 1984. (b) A respondent in an adversary adjudication who prevails in that... control. Part-time employees shall be included on a proportional basis. (g) The net worth and number...

  13. 29 CFR 102.143 - “Adversary adjudication” defined; entitlement to award; eligibility for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at any time after October 1, 1984. (b) A respondent in an adversary adjudication who prevails in that... control. Part-time employees shall be included on a proportional basis. (g) The net worth and number...

  14. 29 CFR 102.143 - “Adversary adjudication” defined; entitlement to award; eligibility for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at any time after October 1, 1984. (b) A respondent in an adversary adjudication who prevails in that... control. Part-time employees shall be included on a proportional basis. (g) The net worth and number...

  15. 29 CFR 102.143 - “Adversary adjudication” defined; entitlement to award; eligibility for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at any time after October 1, 1984. (b) A respondent in an adversary adjudication who prevails in that... control. Part-time employees shall be included on a proportional basis. (g) The net worth and number...

  16. 29 CFR 102.143 - “Adversary adjudication” defined; entitlement to award; eligibility for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at any time after October 1, 1984. (b) A respondent in an adversary adjudication who prevails in that... control. Part-time employees shall be included on a proportional basis. (g) The net worth and number...

  17. Collaborative effects-based planning using adversary models and target set optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Daniels, Troy; Pielech, Bradford

    2004-08-01

    The Strategy Development Tool (SDT), sponsored by AFRL-IFS, supports effects-based planning at multiple levels of war through three core capabilities: plan authoring, center of gravity (COG) modeling and analysis, and target system analysis. This paper describes recent extensions to all three of these capabilities. The extended plan authoring subsystem supports collaborative planning in which a user delegates elaboration of objectives to other registered users. A suite of collaboration tools allows planners to assign planning tasks, submit plan fragments, and review submitted plans, while a collaboration server transparently handles message routing and persistence. The COG modeling subsystem now includes an enhanced adversary modeling tool that provides a lightweight ontology for building temporal causal models relating enemy goals, beliefs, actions, and resources across multiple types of COGs. Users may overlay friendly interventions, analyze their impact on enemy COGs, and automatically incorporate the causal chains stemming from the best interventions into the current plan. Finally, the target system analysis subsystem has been extended with option generation tools that use network-based optimization algorithms to select candidate target set options to achieve specified effects.

  18. Next-Gen Sequencing Exposes Frequent MED12 Mutations and Actionable Therapeutic Targets in Phyllodes Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Andi K.; Hovelson, Daniel H.; McDaniel, Andrew S.; Sadis, Seth; Haller, Michaela J.; Yadati, Venkata; Amin, Anmol M.; Bratley, Jarred; Bandla, Santhoshi; Williams, Paul D.; Rhodes, Kate; Liu, Chia-Jen; Quist, Michael J.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Grasso, Catherine S.; Kleer, Celina G.; Tomlins, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors with variable clinical behavior accounting for a small subset of all breast neoplasms, yet little is known about the genetic alterations that drive tumor initiation and/or progression. Here targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify somatic alterations in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) patient specimens from malignant, borderline and benign cases. NGS revealed mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) affecting the G44 hotspot residue in the majority (67%) of cases spanning all three histological grades. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in p53 (TP53) as well as deleterious mutations in the tumor suppressors retinoblastoma (RB1) and neurofibromin 1 (NF1) were identified exclusively in malignant tumors. High-level copy number alterations (CNAs) were nearly exclusively confined to malignant tumors, including potentially clinically actionable gene amplifications in IGF1R and EGFR. Taken together, this study defines the genomic landscape underlying phyllodes tumor development, suggests potential molecular correlates to histologic grade, expands the spectrum of human tumors with frequent recurrent MED12 mutations, and identifies IGF1R and EGFR as potential therapeutic targets in malignant cases. PMID:25593300

  19. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    PubMed

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for. PMID:24222405

  20. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  1. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  2. Adversarial reasoning and resource allocation: the LG approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    Many existing automated tools purporting to model the intelligent enemy utilize a fixed battle plan for the enemy while using flexible decisions of human players for the friendly side. According to the Naval Studies Board, "It is an open secret and a point of distress ... that too much of the substantive content of such M&S has its origin in anecdote, ..., or a narrow construction tied to stereotypical current practices of 'doctrinally correct behavior.'" Clearly, such runs lack objectivity by being heavily skewed in favor of the friendly forces. Presently, the military branches employ a variety of game-based simulators and synthetic environments, with manual (i.e., user-based) decision-making, for training and other purposes. However, without an ability to automatically generate the best strategies, tactics, and COA, the games serve mostly to display the current situation rather than form a basis for automated decision-making and effective training. We solve the problem of adversarial reasoning as a gaming problem employing Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new type of game theory demonstrating significant increase in size in gaming problems solvable in real and near-real time. It appears to be a viable approach for solving such practical problems as mission planning and battle management. Essentially, LG may be structured into two layers: game construction and game solving. Game construction includes construction of a game called an LG hypergame based on a hierarchy of Abstract Board Games (ABG). Game solving includes resource allocation for constructing an advantageous initial game state and strategy generation to reach a desirable final game state in the course of the game.

  3. Economic evidence on identifying clinically actionable findings with whole-genome sequencing: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Michael P; Ladabaum, Uri; Pletcher, Mark J; Marshall, Deborah A; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2016-02-01

    The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommends that mutations in 56 genes for 24 conditions are clinically actionable and should be reported as secondary findings after whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Our aim was to identify published economic evaluations of detecting mutations in these genes among the general population or among targeted/high-risk populations and conditions and identify gaps in knowledge. A targeted PubMed search from 1994 through November 2014 was performed, and we included original, English-language articles reporting cost-effectiveness or a cost-to-utility ratio or net benefits/benefit-cost focused on screening (not treatment) for conditions and genes listed by the ACMG. Articles were screened, classified as targeting a high-risk or general population, and abstracted by two reviewers. General population studies were evaluated for actual cost-effectiveness measures (e.g., incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER)), whereas studies of targeted populations were evaluated for whether at least one scenario proposed was cost-effective (e.g., ICER of ≤$100,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained). A total of 607 studies were identified, and 32 relevant studies were included. Identified studies addressed fewer than one-third (7 of 24; 29%) of the ACMG conditions. The cost-effectiveness of screening in the general population was examined for only 2 of 24 conditions (8%). The cost-effectiveness of most genetic findings that the ACMG recommends for return has not been evaluated in economic studies or in the context of screening in the general population. The individual studies do not directly address the cost-effectiveness of WGS. PMID:25996638

  4. Bi-Exact Groups, Strongly Ergodic Actions and Group Measure Space Type III Factors with No Central Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdayer, Cyril; Isono, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the asymptotic structure of (possibly type III) crossed product von Neumann algebras {M = B rtimes Γ} arising from arbitrary actions {Γ &ucedil;rvearrowright B} of bi-exact discrete groups (e.g. free groups) on amenable von Neumann algebras. We prove a spectral gap rigidity result for the central sequence algebra {N' \\cap M^ω} of any nonamenable von Neumann subalgebra with normal expectation {N subset M} . We use this result to show that for any strongly ergodic essentially free nonsingular action {Γ &ucedil;rvearrowright (X, μ)} of any bi-exact countable discrete group on a standard probability space, the corresponding group measure space factor {L^∞(X) rtimes Γ} has no nontrivial central sequence. Using recent results of Boutonnet et al. (Local spectral gap in simple Lie groups and applications, 2015), we construct, for every {0 < λ ≤ 1} , a type {III_λ} strongly ergodic essentially free nonsingular action F_∞ &ucedil;rvearrowright (X_λ, μ_λ) of the free group F_∞ on a standard probability space so that the corresponding group measure space type {III_λ} factor {L^∞(X_λ, μ_λ) rtimes F_∞ has no nontrivial central sequence by our main result. In particular, we obtain the first examples of group measure space type {III} factors with no nontrivial central sequence.

  5. High-Throughput Detection of Actionable Genomic Alterations in Clinical Tumor Samples by Targeted, Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wagle, Nikhil; Berger, Michael F.; Davis, Matthew J.; Blumenstiel, Brendan; DeFelice, Matthew; Pochanard, Panisa; Ducar, Matthew; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E.; Hahn, William C.; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of “actionable” somatic genomic alterations present in each tumor (e.g., point mutations, small insertions/deletions, and copy number alterations that direct therapeutic options) should facilitate individualized approaches to cancer treatment. However, clinical implementation of systematic genomic profiling has rarely been achieved beyond limited numbers of oncogene point mutations. To address this challenge, we utilized a targeted, massively parallel sequencing approach to detect tumor genomic alterations in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor samples. Nearly 400-fold mean sequence coverage was achieved, and single nucleotide sequence variants, small insertions/deletions, and chromosomal copy number alterations were detected simultaneously with high accuracy compared to other methods in clinical use. Putatively actionable genomic alterations, including those that predict sensitivity or resistance to established and experimental therapies, were detected in each tumor sample tested. Thus, targeted deep sequencing of clinical tumor material may enable mutation-driven clinical trials and, ultimately, ”personalized” cancer treatment. PMID:22585170

  6. A semiquantitative metric for evaluating clinical actionability of incidental or secondary findings from genome-scale sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jonathan S.; Foreman, Ann Katherine M.; O'Daniel, Julianne M.; Booker, Jessica K.; Boshe, Lacey; Carey, Timothy; Crooks, Kristy R.; Jensen, Brian C.; Juengst, Eric T.; Lee, Kristy; Nelson, Daniel K.; Powell, Bradford C.; Powell, Cynthia M.; Roche, Myra I.; Skrzynia, Cecile; Strande, Natasha T.; Weck, Karen E.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Evans, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As genome-scale sequencing is increasingly applied in clinical scenarios, a wide variety of genomic findings will be discovered as secondary or incidental findings, and there is debate about how they should be handled. The clinical actionability of such findings varies, necessitating standardized frameworks for a priori decision making about their analysis. Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. Methods: We established a semiquantitative metric to assess five elements of actionability: severity and likelihood of the disease outcome, efficacy and burden of intervention, and knowledge base, with a total score from 0 to 15. Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. Results: The semiquantitative metric was applied to a list of putative actionable conditions, the list of genes recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) for return when deleterious variants are discovered as secondary/incidental findings, and a random sample of 1,000 genes. Scores from the list of putative actionable conditions (median = 12) and the ACMG list (median = 11) were both statistically different than the randomly selected genes (median = 7) (P < 0.0001, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test). Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. Conclusion: Gene–disease pairs having a score of 11 or higher represent the top quintile of actionability. The semiquantitative metric effectively assesses clinical actionability, promotes transparency, and may facilitate assessments of clinical actionability by various groups and in diverse contexts. Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. PMID:26270767

  7. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  8. Exome Sequencing of Cell-Free DNA from Metastatic Cancer Patients Identifies Clinically Actionable Mutations Distinct from Primary Disease.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy M; Johnson-Camacho, Katherine; Peto, Myron; Wang, Nicholas J; Macey, Tara A; Korkola, James E; Koppie, Theresa M; Corless, Christopher L; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the molecular drivers of cancer by sequencing is the backbone of precision medicine and the basis of personalized therapy; however, biopsies of primary tumors provide only a snapshot of the evolution of the disease and may miss potential therapeutic targets, especially in the metastatic setting. A liquid biopsy, in the form of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing, has the potential to capture the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity present in metastatic disease, and, through serial blood draws, track the evolution of the tumor genome. In order to determine the clinical utility of cfDNA sequencing we performed whole-exome sequencing on cfDNA and tumor DNA from two patients with metastatic disease; only minor modifications to our sequencing and analysis pipelines were required for sequencing and mutation calling of cfDNA. The first patient had metastatic sarcoma and 47 of 48 mutations present in the primary tumor were also found in the cell-free DNA. The second patient had metastatic breast cancer and sequencing identified an ESR1 mutation in the cfDNA and metastatic site, but not in the primary tumor. This likely explains tumor progression on Anastrozole. Significant heterogeneity between the primary and metastatic tumors, with cfDNA reflecting the metastases, suggested separation from the primary lesion early in tumor evolution. This is best illustrated by an activating PIK3CA mutation (H1047R) which was clonal in the primary tumor, but completely absent from either the metastasis or cfDNA. Here we show that cfDNA sequencing supplies clinically actionable information with minimal risks compared to metastatic biopsies. This study demonstrates the utility of whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA from patients with metastatic disease. cfDNA sequencing identified an ESR1 mutation, potentially explaining a patient's resistance to aromatase inhibition, and gave insight into how metastatic lesions differ from the primary tumor. PMID:26317216

  9. Exome Sequencing of Cell-Free DNA from Metastatic Cancer Patients Identifies Clinically Actionable Mutations Distinct from Primary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Timothy M.; Johnson-Camacho, Katherine; Peto, Myron; Wang, Nicholas J.; Macey, Tara A.; Korkola, James E.; Koppie, Theresa M.; Corless, Christopher L.; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the molecular drivers of cancer by sequencing is the backbone of precision medicine and the basis of personalized therapy; however, biopsies of primary tumors provide only a snapshot of the evolution of the disease and may miss potential therapeutic targets, especially in the metastatic setting. A liquid biopsy, in the form of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing, has the potential to capture the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity present in metastatic disease, and, through serial blood draws, track the evolution of the tumor genome. In order to determine the clinical utility of cfDNA sequencing we performed whole-exome sequencing on cfDNA and tumor DNA from two patients with metastatic disease; only minor modifications to our sequencing and analysis pipelines were required for sequencing and mutation calling of cfDNA. The first patient had metastatic sarcoma and 47 of 48 mutations present in the primary tumor were also found in the cell-free DNA. The second patient had metastatic breast cancer and sequencing identified an ESR1 mutation in the cfDNA and metastatic site, but not in the primary tumor. This likely explains tumor progression on Anastrozole. Significant heterogeneity between the primary and metastatic tumors, with cfDNA reflecting the metastases, suggested separation from the primary lesion early in tumor evolution. This is best illustrated by an activating PIK3CA mutation (H1047R) which was clonal in the primary tumor, but completely absent from either the metastasis or cfDNA. Here we show that cfDNA sequencing supplies clinically actionable information with minimal risks compared to metastatic biopsies. This study demonstrates the utility of whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA from patients with metastatic disease. cfDNA sequencing identified an ESR1 mutation, potentially explaining a patient’s resistance to aromatase inhibition, and gave insight into how metastatic lesions differ from the primary tumor. PMID:26317216

  10. Conformational selection underpins recognition of multiple DNA sequences by proteins and consequent functional actions.

    PubMed

    Naiya, Gitashri; Raha, Paromita; Mondal, Manas Kumar; Pal, Uttam; Saha, Rajesh; Chaudhuri, Susobhan; Batabyal, Subrata; Kumar Pal, Samir; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Maiti, Nakul C; Roy, Siddhartha

    2016-08-21

    Recognition of multiple functional DNA sequences by a DNA-binding protein occurs widely in nature. The physico-chemical basis of this phenomenon is not well-understood. The E. coli gal repressor, a gene regulatory protein, binds two homologous but non-identical sixteen basepair sequences in the gal operon and interacts by protein-protein interaction to regulate gene expression. The two sites have nearly equal affinities for the Gal repressor. Spectroscopic studies of the Gal repressor bound to these two different DNA sequences detected significant conformational differences between them. Comprehensive single base-substitution and binding measurements were carried out on the two sequences to understand the nature of the two protein-DNA interfaces. Magnitudes of basepair-protein interaction energy show significant variation between homologous positions of the two DNA sequences. Magnitudes of variation are such that when summed over the whole sequence they largely cancel each other out, thus producing nearly equal net affinity. Modeling suggests significant alterations in the protein-DNA interface in the two complexes, which are consistent with conformational adaptation of the protein to different DNA sequences. The functional role of the two sequences was studied by substitution of one site by the other and vice versa. In both cases, substitution reduces repression in vivo. This suggests that naturally occurring DNA sequence variations play functional roles beyond merely acting as high-affinity anchoring points. We propose that two different pre-existing conformations in the conformational ensemble of the free protein are selected by two different DNA sequences for efficient sequence read-out and the conformational difference of the bound proteins leads to different functional roles. PMID:27426617

  11. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    PubMed

    Neal, Tess M S

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  12. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the “allegiance effect” in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  13. Criminal defectors lead to the emergence of cooperation in an experimental, adversarial game.

    PubMed

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Kendall, Ryan; McBride, Michael; Short, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    While the evolution of cooperation has been widely studied, little attention has been devoted to adversarial settings wherein one actor can directly harm another. Recent theoretical work addresses this issue, introducing an adversarial game in which the emergence of cooperation is heavily reliant on the presence of "Informants," actors who defect at first-order by harming others, but who cooperate at second-order by punishing other defectors. We experimentally study this adversarial environment in the laboratory with human subjects to test whether Informants are indeed critical for the emergence of cooperation. We find in these experiments that, even more so than predicted by theory, Informants are crucial for the emergence and sustenance of a high cooperation state. A key lesson is that successfully reaching and maintaining a low defection society may require the cultivation of criminals who will also aid in the punishment of others. PMID:23630591

  14. Criminal Defectors Lead to the Emergence of Cooperation in an Experimental, Adversarial Game

    PubMed Central

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.; Kendall, Ryan; McBride, Michael; Short, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    While the evolution of cooperation has been widely studied, little attention has been devoted to adversarial settings wherein one actor can directly harm another. Recent theoretical work addresses this issue, introducing an adversarial game in which the emergence of cooperation is heavily reliant on the presence of “Informants,” actors who defect at first-order by harming others, but who cooperate at second-order by punishing other defectors. We experimentally study this adversarial environment in the laboratory with human subjects to test whether Informants are indeed critical for the emergence of cooperation. We find in these experiments that, even more so than predicted by theory, Informants are crucial for the emergence and sustenance of a high cooperation state. A key lesson is that successfully reaching and maintaining a low defection society may require the cultivation of criminals who will also aid in the punishment of others. PMID:23630591

  15. Ensuring Adversarial Process in the FISA Court Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Schiff, Adam B. [D-CA-28

    2013-09-20

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Adolescents' preferences regarding disclosure of incidental findings in genomic sequencing that are not medically actionable in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, Sophia B; Martin, Lisa J; Cassedy, Amy; Hopkin, Robert J; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny

    2016-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing has challenged the consensus that predictive testing should not be performed on asymptomatic minors for conditions that are not medically actionable in childhood. While the available literature suggests that most parents want access to incidental findings discovered in genomic sequencing, there is little information regarding adolescents' views. This study's goal is to determine adolescent views regarding the disclosure of incidental findings for adult onset conditions that are not medically actionable in childhood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in 7-12th grade science classes in three Cincinnati public schools. Most (235 of 282, 83%) students wanted access to non-actionable incidental findings. These participants most frequently (38%) endorsed future planning as the reason for disclosure. Seventy-two percent of students believed they should participate in the decision making process. Seventy-three percent of students believed that parents of children less than 12 years old should have access to this information. Adolescents want to have access to and participate in decisions about incidental findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149544

  17. Managing Quality, Identity and Adversaries in Public Discourse with Machine Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Automation can mitigate issues when scaling and managing quality and identity in public discourse on the web. Discourse needs to be curated and filtered. Anonymous speech has to be supported while handling adversaries. Reliance on human curators or analysts does not scale and content can be missed. These scaling and management issues include the…

  18. Fostering Non-Adversarial Family/School Relationships through the Evaluation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissmann, Lenore R.; Harding, Carol Gibb

    Traditionally, when an "outside evaluation" concerning a child's problems in school is sought by families, schools anticipate that the results will be reported in the context of an adversarial relationship, and their experiences have often borne out this expectation. A multidisciplinary Learning Evaluation Center (LEC) based within a university…

  19. News Media Adversary and Consensus Roles, and Legislator Use of News Media for Job Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffe, Daniel

    A study examined how Alabama legislators' ratings of news media for job-relevant information correlate with their views on news media adversary and consensus agent roles. Eighty-two questionnaires (out of 140 mailed) were completed by Alabama state representatives and senators for a return rate of 59%. Results suggested that lawmakers who believe…

  20. Procedural Justice in Family Court: Does the Adversary Model Make Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Gary B.; Lind, E. Allan

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research and theory on procedural justice concerning family disputes, and discusses existing proposals for reform of family court procedures. Holds that adversary proceedings in custody disputes may be more beneficial to older children and disputing parents than nonadversary procedures. Identifies areas for needed research in procedural…

  1. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yixi; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides. PMID:25923714

  2. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides. PMID:25923714

  3. Causal Perception of Action-and-Reaction Sequences in 8- to 10-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Surian, Luca; Ray, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments with 202 8- to 10-month-old infants studied their sensitivity to causation-at-a-distance in schematic events seen as goal-directed action and reaction by adults and whether this depends on attributes associated with animate agents. In Experiment 1, a red square moved toward a blue square without making contact; in "reaction"…

  4. Preservice Teachers' Reflectivity on the Sequence and Consequences of Teaching Actions in a Microteaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amobi, Funmi A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study inquired into the varying kinds and degrees of reflectivity that ensued as first-semester secondary education preservice teachers' revisited their teaching actions and confronted peers' evaluation of their performance in a microteaching experience. The study sought to ascertain: (1) the recurring themes of reflectivity in the…

  5. Identifying Learning Behaviors by Contextualizing Differential Sequence Mining with Action Features and Performance Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Our learning-by-teaching environment, Betty's Brain, captures a wealth of data on students' learning interactions as they teach a virtual agent. This paper extends an exploratory data mining methodology for assessing and comparing students' learning behaviors from these interaction traces. The core algorithm employs sequence mining techniques to…

  6. Seeing Chinese Characters in Action: An fMRI Study of the Perception of Writing Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Lanyun; Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese character is composed of a finite set of strokes whose order in writing follows consensual principles and is learnt through school education. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigates the neural activity associated with the perception of writing sequences by asking participants to observe…

  7. Action of a mammalian AP-endonuclease on DNAs of defined sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Haukanes, B I; Helland, D E; Kleppe, K

    1989-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) specific endonuclease from mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11), was observed to cleave apurinic sites in oligonucleotides 9, 11, 12, 39 and 40 nucleotides in length. However, the enzyme failed to cleave AP-sites in two oligonucleotides 7 nucleotides in length. The maximum rates of digestion observed on these short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments were approximately 1/30 of the rates observed on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In studies using the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing analysis, apurinic sites in purine-rich regions were preferentially cleaved in dsDNA but not in ssDNA, indicating that the enzyme has a sequence preference on dsDNA. These results suggest that some sites on DNA might be more efficiently repaired than others. Images PMID:2466239

  8. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. PMID:24913946

  9. With God on our side: Religious primes reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a menacing adversary.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T; Pollack, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The imagined support of benevolent supernatural agents attenuates anxiety and risk perception. Here, we extend these findings to judgments of the threat posed by a potentially violent adversary. Conceptual representations of bodily size and strength summarize factors that determine the relative threat posed by foes. The proximity of allies moderates the envisioned physical formidability of adversaries, suggesting that cues of access to supernatural allies will reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a threatening target. Across two studies, subtle cues of both supernatural and earthly social support reduced the envisioned physical formidability of a violent criminal. These manipulations had no effect on the perceived likelihood of encountering non-conflictual physical danger, raising the possibility that imagined supernatural support leads participants to view themselves not as shielded from encountering perilous situations, but as protected should perils arise. PMID:26524139

  10. The effect of horizontal eye movements on free recall: a preregistered adversarial collaboration.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Dora; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; van Rijn, Hedderik; Slagter, Heleen A; van der Molen, Maurits W; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that horizontal saccadic eye movements facilitate the retrieval of episodic memories in free recall and recognition memory tasks. Nevertheless, a minority of studies have failed to replicate this effect. This article attempts to resolve the inconsistent results by introducing a novel variant of proponent-skeptic collaboration. The proposed approach combines the features of adversarial collaboration and purely confirmatory preregistered research. Prior to data collection, the adversaries reached consensus on an optimal research design, formulated their expectations, and agreed to submit the findings to an academic journal regardless of the outcome. To increase transparency and secure the purely confirmatory nature of the investigation, the 2 parties set up a publicly available adversarial collaboration agreement that detailed the proposed design and all foreseeable aspects of the data analysis. As anticipated by the skeptics, a series of Bayesian hypothesis tests indicated that horizontal eye movements did not improve free recall performance. The skeptics suggested that the nonreplication may partly reflect the use of suboptimal and questionable research practices in earlier eye movement studies. The proponents countered this suggestion and used a p curve analysis to argue that the effect of horizontal eye movements on explicit memory did not merely reflect selective reporting. PMID:25621378

  11. Cooperation and punishment in an adversarial game: How defectors pave the way to a peaceful society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, M. B.; Brantingham, P. J.; D'Orsogna, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of human cooperation has been the subject of much research, especially within the framework of evolutionary public goods games, where several mechanisms have been proposed to account for persistent cooperation. Yet, in addressing this issue, little attention has been given to games of a more adversarial nature, in which defecting players, rather than simply free riding, actively seek to harm others. Here, we develop an adversarial evolutionary game using the specific example of criminal activity, recasting the familiar public goods strategies of punishers, cooperators, and defectors in this light. We then introduce a strategy—the informant—with no clear analog in public goods games and show that individuals employing this strategy are a key to the emergence of systems where cooperation dominates. We also find that a defection-dominated regime may be transitioned to one that is cooperation-dominated by converting an optimal number of players into informants. We discuss these findings, the role of informants, and possible intervention strategies in extreme adversarial societies, such as those marred by wars and insurgencies.

  12. Superselective Particle Embolization Enhances Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation: Effects of Particle Size and Sequence of Action

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till Westphal, Saskia; Woitok, Anna; Penzkofer, Tobias Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of particle size and course of action of superselective bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) on the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods. Twenty pigs were divided into five groups: group 1a, 40-{mu}m bland TAE before RFA; group 1b, 40-{mu}m bland TAE after RFA; group 2a, 250-{mu}m bland TAE before RFA; group 2b, 250-{mu}m bland TAE after RFA and group 3, RFA alone. A total of 40 treatments were performed with a combined CT and angiography system. The sizes of the treated zones were measured from contrast-enhanced CTs on days 1 and 28. Animals were humanely killed, and the treated zones were examined pathologically. Results. There were no complications during procedures and follow-up. The short-axis diameter of the ablation zone in group 1a (mean {+-} standard deviation, 3.19 {+-} 0.39 cm) was significantly larger than in group 1b (2.44 {+-} 0.52 cm; P = 0.021), group 2a (2.51 {+-} 0.32 cm; P = 0.048), group 2b (2.19 {+-} 0.44 cm; P = 0.02), and group 3 (1.91 {+-} 0.55 cm; P < 0.001). The greatest volume of ablation was achieved by performing embolization with 40-{mu}m particles before RFA (group 1a; 20.97 {+-} 9.65 cm{sup 3}). At histology, 40-{mu}m microspheres were observed to occlude smaller and more distal arteries than 250-{mu}m microspheres. Conclusion. Bland TAE is more effective before RFA than postablation embolization. The use of very small 40-{mu}m microspheres enhances the efficacy of RFA more than the use of larger particles.

  13. Purification, amino acid sequence and mode of action of bifidocin B produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum NCFB 1454.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Z; Winters, D K; Johnson, M G

    1999-01-01

    Bifidocin B produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum NCFB 1454 was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and simple three step purification procedure which included freeze drying, Micro-Cel adsorption/desorption and cation exchange chromatography. The purification resulted in 18% recovery and an approximately 1900-fold increase in the specific activity and purity of bifidocin B. Treatment with bifidocin B caused sensitive cells to lose high amounts of intracellular K+ ions and u.v.-absorbing materials, and to become more permeable to ONPG. Bifidocin B adsorbed to the Gram-positive bacteria but not the Gram-negative bacteria tested. Its adsorption was pH-dependent but not time-dependent. For sensitive cells, the adsorption and lethal action of bifidocin B was very rapid. In 5 min, 95% of bifidocin B adsorbed onto sensitive cells. Several salts inhibited the binding of bifidocin B, which could be overcome by increasing the amount of bifidocin B added. Pre-treatment of sensitive cells and cell walls with detergents, organic solvents or enzymes did not cause a reduction in subsequent cellular binding of bifidocin B, but cell wall preparations treated with methanol:chloroform and hot 20% (w/v) TCA lost the ability to adsorb bifidocin B. Also, the addition of purified heterologous lipoteichoic acid to sensitive cells completely blocked the adsorption of bifidocin B. The amino acid sequence indicated that the bacteriocin contained 36 residues. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis yielded a sequence of KYYGNGVTCGLHDCRVDRGKATCGIINNGGMWGDIG. Curing experiments with 20 micrograms ml-1 acriflavine yielded cell derivatives that no longer produced bifidocin B but retained immunity to bifidocin B. Production of bifidocin B, but not immunity to bifidocin B, was associated with a plasmid of about 8 kb in this strain. PMID:10030011

  14. Next-generation sequencing identifies high frequency of mutations in potentially clinically actionable genes in sebaceous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, Michael T; Singh, Rajesh R; Seviour, Elena G; Curry, Jonathan L; Hudgens, Courtney W; Bell, Diana; Wimmer, Daniel A; Ning, Jing; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Zhang, Li; Davies, Michael A; Prieto, Victor G; Broaddus, Russell R; Ram, Prahlad; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Esmaeli, Bita

    2016-09-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy with frequent recurrence and metastases. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy, but effective systemic therapies are lacking because the molecular alterations driving SC remain poorly understood. To identify these, we performed whole-exome next-generation sequencing of 409 cancer-associated genes on 27 SCs (18 primary/locally recurrent ocular, 5 paired metastatic ocular, and 4 primary extraocular) from 20 patients. In ocular SC, we identified 139 non-synonymous somatic mutations (median/lesion 3; range 0-23). Twenty-five of 139 mutations (18%) occurred in potentially clinically actionable genes in 6 of 16 patients. The most common mutations were mutations in TP53 (n = 9), RB1 (n = 6), PIK3CA (n = 2), PTEN (n = 2), ERBB2 (n = 2), and NF1 (n = 2). TP53 and RB1 mutations were restricted to ocular SC and correlated with aberrant TP53 and RB protein expression. Systematic pathway analyses demonstrated convergence of these mutations to activation of the PI3K signalling cascade, and PI3K pathway activation was confirmed in tumours with PTEN and/or PIK3CA mutations. Considerable inter-tumoural heterogeneity was observed between paired primary and metastatic ocular SCs. In primary extraocular SC, we identified 77 non-synonymous somatic mutations (median/lesion 22.5; range 3-29). This overall higher mutational load was attributed to a microsatellite instability phenotype in three of four patients and somatically acquired mutations in mismatch repair genes in two of four patients. Eighteen of 77 mutations (23%) were in potentially clinically actionable genes in three of four patients, including BTK, FGFR2, PDGFRB, HRAS, and NF1 mutations. Identification of potentially clinically actionable mutations in 9 of 20 SC patients (45%) underscores the importance of next-generation sequencing to expand the spectrum of genotype-matched targeted therapies. Frequent activation of PI3K signalling pathways provides a strong

  15. Effect of activation sequence on transmural patterns of repolarization and action potential duration in rabbit ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Rachel C.; Bernus, Olivier; Burton, Francis L.; Cobbe, Stuart M.

    2010-01-01

    Although transmural heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD) is established in single cells isolated from different tissue layers, the extent to which it produces transmural gradients of repolarization in electrotonically coupled ventricular myocardium remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contribution of intrinsic cellular gradients of APD and electrotonic influences to transmural repolarization in rabbit ventricular myocardium. Transmural optical mapping was performed in left ventricular wedge preparations from eight rabbits. Transmural patterns of activation, repolarization, and APD were recorded during endocardial and epicardial stimulation. Experimental results were compared with modeled data during variations in electrotonic coupling. A transmural gradient of APD was evident during endocardial stimulation, which reflected differences previously seen in isolated cells, with the longest APD at the endocardium and the shortest at the epicardium (endo: 165 ± 5 vs. epi: 147 ± 4 ms; P < 0.05). During epicardial stimulation, this gradient reversed (epi: 162 ± 4 vs. endo: 148 ± 6 ms; P < 0.05). In both activation sequences, transmural repolarization followed activation and APD shortened along the activation path such that significant transmural gradients of repolarization did not occur. This correlation between transmural activation time and APD was recapitulated in simulations and varied with changes in intercellular coupling, confirming that it is mediated by electrotonic current flow between cells. These data suggest that electrotonic influences are important in determining the transmural repolarization sequence in rabbit ventricular myocardium and that they are sufficient to overcome intrinsic differences in the electrophysiological properties of the cells across the ventricular wall. PMID:20889843

  16. Semantic policy and adversarial modeling for cyber threat identification and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFrancesco, Anton; McQueary, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Today's enterprise networks undergo a relentless barrage of attacks from foreign and domestic adversaries. These attacks may be perpetrated with little to no funding, but may wreck incalculable damage upon the enterprises security, network infrastructure, and services. As more services come online, systems that were once in isolation now provide information that may be combined dynamically with information from other systems to create new meaning on the fly. Security issues are compounded by the potential to aggregate individual pieces of information and infer knowledge at a higher classification than any of its constituent parts. To help alleviate these challenges, in this paper we introduce the notion of semantic policy and discuss how it's use is evolving from a robust approach to access control to preempting and combating attacks in the cyber domain, The introduction of semantic policy and adversarial modeling to network security aims to ask 'where is the network most vulnerable', 'how is the network being attacked', and 'why is the network being attacked'. The first aspect of our approach is integration of semantic policy into enterprise security to augment traditional network security with an overall awareness of policy access and violations. This awareness allows the semantic policy to look at the big picture - analyzing trends and identifying critical relations in system wide data access. The second aspect of our approach is to couple adversarial modeling with semantic policy to move beyond reactive security measures and into a proactive identification of system weaknesses and areas of vulnerability. By utilizing Bayesian-based methodologies, the enterprise wide meaning of data and semantic policy is applied to probability and high-level risk identification. This risk identification will help mitigate potential harm to enterprise networks by enabling resources to proactively isolate, lock-down, and secure systems that are most vulnerable.

  17. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  18. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  19. Game Theoretic Evaluation of Threat Detection Problems-The Central Role of the Adversary

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of security problems hinge on the detection of threats and discrimination of threats from innocuous objects. The theory that frames these problems is common among medical diagnostics, radar and sonar imaging, and detection of radiological, chemical, and biological agents. In many of these problems, the nature of the threat is subject to control by a malicious adversary, and the choice of a reference (or "design basis") threat is a very diffcult, and often intractable, aspect of the problem. It is this class of problems that this report considers.

  20. The Role of Human Parietal Area 7A as a Link between Sequencing in Hand Actions and in Overt Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Stefan; Amunts, Katrin; Hensel, Tanja; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focused on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca’s region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions has yet to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether motor sequencing of hand vs. speech actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable “po” once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (“po-pi-po”). Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca’s region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45). In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of) speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a previously underspecified role of the SPL in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the motor system. PMID:23227016

  1. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  2. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. PMID:27428585

  3. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  4. Insider adversary study for the Office of Safeguards and Security: US Department of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, R.H.

    1983-06-24

    This study provides the Department of Energy (DOE) with a comprehensive description of insider adversary activity at its nuclear facilities and those nuclear facilities operated for DOE by its contractors. The description is based on DOE's violation records from 1965 to 1982. Files were reviewed and data were collected from DOE Headquarters, field offices, and selected laboratory and contractor records. The quality and completeness of the study's data are somewhat limited due to inconsistencies in the organization, content, and availability of Headquarters and field office case reports. File organization and retention periods as well as reporting standards vary among DOE offices, facilities, and contractors. The range of crime reviewed was extensive and included major as well as minor levels of crimes. The criterion used for inclusion of crimes in this study was that they were committed by an insider who exhibited wrongful intent in the commission of the crime.

  5. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Eli J; Norton, Michael I; Reis, Harry T; Ariely, Dan; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Frost, Jeana H; Maniaci, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our conceptualizations of the familiarity-attraction link, as well as the limitations of prior research, were masking a set of higher order principles capable of integrating these diverse conceptualizations. This realization led us to adopt a broader perspective, which focuses on three distinct relationship stages-awareness, surface contact, and mutuality-and suggests that the influence of familiarity on attraction depends on both the nature and the stage of the relationship between perceivers and targets. This article introduces the framework that emerged from our discussions and suggests directions for research to investigate its validity. PMID:25910379

  6. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others. PMID:24552075

  7. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    PubMed

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  8. Molecular target sequence similarity as a basis for species extrapolation to assess the ecological risk of chemicals with known modes of action.

    PubMed

    Lalone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Burgoon, Lyle D; Russom, Christine L; Helgen, Henry W; Berninger, Jason P; Tietge, Joseph E; Severson, Megan N; Cavallin, Jenna E; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-15

    It is not feasible to conduct toxicity tests with all species that may be impacted by chemical exposures. Therefore, cross-species extrapolation is fundamental to environmental risk assessment. Recognition of the impracticality of generating empirical, whole organism, toxicity data for the extensive universe of chemicals in commerce has been an impetus driving the field of predictive toxicology. We describe a strategy that leverages expanding databases of molecular sequence information together with identification of specific molecular chemical targets whose perturbation can lead to adverse outcomes to support predictive species extrapolation. This approach can be used to predict which species may be more (or less) susceptible to effects following exposure to chemicals with known modes of action (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides). Primary amino acid sequence alignments are combined with more detailed analyses of conserved functional domains to derive the predictions. This methodology employs bioinformatic approaches to automate, collate, and calculate quantitative metrics associated with cross-species sequence similarity of key molecular initiating events (MIEs). Case examples focused on the actions of (a) 17α-ethinyl estradiol on the human (Homo sapiens) estrogen receptor; (b) permethrin on the mosquito (Aedes aegypti) voltage-gated para-like sodium channel; and (c) 17β-trenbolone on the bovine (Bos taurus) androgen receptor are presented to demonstrate the potential predictive utility of this species extrapolation strategy. The examples compare empirical toxicity data to cross-species predictions of intrinsic susceptibility based on analyses of sequence similarity relevant to the MIEs of defined adverse outcome pathways. Through further refinement, and definition of appropriate domains of applicability, we envision practical and routine utility for the molecular target similarity-based predictive method in chemical risk assessment, particularly where testing

  9. Vulnerability and vigilance: threat awareness and perceived adversary intent moderate the impact of mortality salience on intergroup violence.

    PubMed

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Pyszczynski, Thomas; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2009-05-01

    Three studies examined whether perceived adversary intent and personal vulnerability moderate the effects of mortality salience (MS) on violent solutions to conflict. In Study 1, following MS, Israeli participants read a description of de-escalating or escalating Iranian rhetoric. In Study 2, following MS, Israeli participants read about tensions with Iran and reflected on the personal ramifications of the conflict or on the content of the passage. In Study 3, Israeli participants with direct war exposure were compared to participants with no war exposure, and following MS, read a description of escalating or de-escalating Hezbollah rhetoric. Results revealed that MS increased support of violence under escalating conditions and low perceived vulnerability. However, for persons with direct war exposure, MS induced support of violence contingent on adversary rhetoric. Thus, direct experience with war leads to a more nuanced contingent response to existential threat not present among those without direct war experience. PMID:19208903

  10. Modeling multiple communities of interest for interactive simulation and gaming: the dynamic adversarial gaming algorithm project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Zhao, Qunhua; Pratto, Felicia; Pearson, Adam R.; McQueary, Bruce; Breeden, Andy; Krause, Lee

    2007-04-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for the military to conduct operations that are beyond traditional warfare. In these operations, analyzing and understanding those who are involved in the situation, how they are going to behave, and why they behave in certain ways is critical for success. The challenge lies in that behavior does not simply follow universal/fixed doctrines; it is significantly influenced by soft factors (i.e. cultural factors, societal norms, etc.). In addition, there is rarely just one isolated enemy; the behaviors and responses of all groups in the region, and the dynamics of the interaction among them composes an important part of the whole picture. The Dynamic Adversarial Gaming Algorithm (DAGA) project aims to provide a wargaming environment for automation of simulating dynamics of geopolitical crisis and eventually be applied to military simulation and training domain, and/or commercial gaming arena. The focus of DAGA is on modeling communities of interest (COIs), where various individuals, groups, and organizations as well as their interactions are captured. The framework should provide a context for COIs to interact with each other and influence others' behaviors. These behaviors must incorporate soft factors by modeling cultural knowledge. We do so by representing cultural variables and their influence on behavior using probabilistic networks. In this paper, we describe our COI modeling, the development of cultural networks, the interaction architecture, and a prototype of DAGA.

  11. Static-99R reporting practices in sexually violent predator cases: Does norm selection reflect adversarial allegiance?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Caroline S; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Murrie, Daniel C; Varela, Jorge G

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed experts (N = 109) who conduct sexually violent predator (SVP) evaluations to obtain information about their Static-99R score reporting and interpretation practices. Although most evaluators reported providing at least 1 normative sample recidivism rate estimate, there were few other areas of consensus. Instead, reporting practices differed depending on the side for which evaluators typically performed evaluations. Defense evaluators were more likely to endorse reporting practices that convey the lowest possible level of risk (e.g., routine sample recidivism rates, 5-year recidivism rates) and the highest level of uncertainty (e.g., confidence intervals, classification accuracy), whereas prosecution evaluators were more likely to endorse practices suggesting the highest possible level of risk (e.g., high risk/need sample recidivism rates, 10-year recidivism rates). Reporting practices from state-agency evaluators tended to be more consistent with those of prosecution evaluators than defense evaluators, although state-agency evaluators were more likely than other evaluators to report that it was at least somewhat difficult to choose an appropriate normative comparison group. Overall, findings provide evidence for adversarial allegiance in Static-99R score reporting and interpretation practices. PMID:25495715

  12. Cutting out the middleman: physicians can contract directly with employers--a viable alternative to adversarial managed care agreements.

    PubMed

    Lester, Howard

    2002-01-01

    HMOs, PPOs, and other managed care "middlemen" control the means by which most physicians do business with employers. As physicians face dwindling reimbursements, greater practice restrictions, and increased pressure to sign adversarial middleman contracts, interest in direct contracting has grown. This article introduces direct contracting as an important alternative to commercial managed care agreements; cites the key advantages and process of direct contracting; and offers practical recommendations for helping physician practices successfully negotiate direct physician/employer agreements. PMID:12534262

  13. Next-generation sequencing in routine brain tumor diagnostics enables an integrated diagnosis and identifies actionable targets.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Felix; Schrimpf, Daniel; Jones, David T W; Meyer, Jochen; Kratz, Annekathrin; Reuss, David; Capper, David; Koelsche, Christian; Korshunov, Andrey; Wiestler, Benedikt; Buchhalter, Ivo; Milde, Till; Selt, Florian; Sturm, Dominik; Kool, Marcel; Hummel, Manuela; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Mawrin, Christian; Schüller, Ulrich; Jungk, Christine; Wick, Antje; Witt, Olaf; Platten, Michael; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Wick, Wolfgang; von Deimling, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    With the number of prognostic and predictive genetic markers in neuro-oncology steadily growing, the need for comprehensive molecular analysis of neuropathology samples has vastly increased. We therefore developed a customized enrichment/hybrid-capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panel comprising the entire coding and selected intronic and promoter regions of 130 genes recurrently altered in brain tumors, allowing for the detection of single nucleotide variations, fusions, and copy number aberrations. Optimization of probe design, library generation and sequencing conditions on 150 samples resulted in a 5-workday routine workflow from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sample to neuropathological report. This protocol was applied to 79 retrospective cases with established molecular aberrations for validation and 71 prospective cases for discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Concordance of NGS compared to established, single biomarker methods was 98.0 %, with discrepancies resulting from one case where a TERT promoter mutation was not called by NGS and three ATRX mutations not being detected by Sanger sequencing. Importantly, in samples with low tumor cell content, NGS was able to identify mutant alleles that were not detectable by traditional methods. Information derived from NGS data identified potential targets for experimental therapy in 37/47 (79 %) glioblastomas, 9/10 (90 %) pilocytic astrocytomas, and 5/14 (36 %) medulloblastomas in the prospective target discovery cohort. In conclusion, we present the settings for high-throughput, adaptive next-generation sequencing in routine neuropathology diagnostics. Such an approach will likely become highly valuable in the near future for treatment decision making, as more therapeutic targets emerge and genetic information enters the classification of brain tumors. PMID:26671409

  14. Technical Validation of a Next-Generation Sequencing Assay for Detecting Actionable Mutations in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sophie R; Malik, Simeen; Tan, Iain B; Chan, Yang Sun; Hoi, Qiangze; Ow, Jack L; He, Cassandra Z; Ching, Cindy E; Poh, Dianne Y S; Seah, Hui Maan; Cheung, Katie H T; Perumal, Dharuman; Devasia, Arun G; Pan, Lu; Ang, Shimin; Lee, Seow Eng; Ten, Rachel; Chua, Clarinda; Tan, Daniel S W; Qu, James Z Z; Bylstra, Yasmin M; Lim, Lionel; Lezhava, Alexander; Ng, Pauline C; Wong, Christopher W; Lim, Tony; Tan, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Targeted next-generation sequencing is becoming increasingly common as a clinical diagnostic and prognostic test for patient- and tumor-specific genetic profiles as well as to optimally select targeted therapies. Here, we describe a custom-developed, next-generation sequencing test for detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and short insertions and deletions (indels) in 93 genes related to gastrointestinal cancer from routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded clinical specimens. We implemented a validation strategy, based on the College of American Pathologists requirements, using reference DNA mixtures from cell lines with known genetic variants, which model a broad range of allele frequencies. Test sensitivity achieved >99% for both SNVs and indels, with allele frequencies >10%, with high specificity (97.4% for SNVs and 93.6% for indels). We further confirmed test accuracies using primary formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer specimens characterized by alternative and conventional clinical diagnostic technologies. Robust performance was observed on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens: sensitivity was 97.2% and specificity was 99.2%. We also observed high intrarun and inter-run reproducibility, as well as a low cross-contamination rate. Overall assessment using cell line samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples showed that our custom next-generation sequencing assay has consistent detection sensitivity down to 10% variant frequency. PMID:26970585

  15. Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Chad; Jana, Suman; Ray, Baishakhi; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Modern network security rests on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. Distributed systems, mobile and desktop applications, embedded devices, and all of secure Web rely on SSL/TLS for protection against network attacks. This protection critically depends on whether SSL/TLS clients correctly validate X.509 certificates presented by servers during the SSL/TLS handshake protocol. We design, implement, and apply the first methodology for large-scale testing of certificate validation logic in SSL/TLS implementations. Our first ingredient is "frankencerts," synthetic certificates that are randomly mutated from parts of real certificates and thus include unusual combinations of extensions and constraints. Our second ingredient is differential testing: if one SSL/TLS implementation accepts a certificate while another rejects the same certificate, we use the discrepancy as an oracle for finding flaws in individual implementations. Differential testing with frankencerts uncovered 208 discrepancies between popular SSL/TLS implementations such as OpenSSL, NSS, CyaSSL, GnuTLS, PolarSSL, MatrixSSL, etc. Many of them are caused by serious security vulnerabilities. For example, any server with a valid X.509 version 1 certificate can act as a rogue certificate authority and issue fake certificates for any domain, enabling man-in-the-middle attacks against MatrixSSL and GnuTLS. Several implementations also accept certificate authorities created by unauthorized issuers, as well as certificates not intended for server authentication. We also found serious vulnerabilities in how users are warned about certificate validation errors. When presented with an expired, self-signed certificate, NSS, Safari, and Chrome (on Linux) report that the certificate has expired-a low-risk, often ignored error-but not that the connection is insecure against a man-in-the-middle attack. These results demonstrate that automated adversarial testing with frankencerts

  16. Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Chad; Jana, Suman; Ray, Baishakhi; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Modern network security rests on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. Distributed systems, mobile and desktop applications, embedded devices, and all of secure Web rely on SSL/TLS for protection against network attacks. This protection critically depends on whether SSL/TLS clients correctly validate X.509 certificates presented by servers during the SSL/TLS handshake protocol. We design, implement, and apply the first methodology for large-scale testing of certificate validation logic in SSL/TLS implementations. Our first ingredient is “frankencerts,” synthetic certificates that are randomly mutated from parts of real certificates and thus include unusual combinations of extensions and constraints. Our second ingredient is differential testing: if one SSL/TLS implementation accepts a certificate while another rejects the same certificate, we use the discrepancy as an oracle for finding flaws in individual implementations. Differential testing with frankencerts uncovered 208 discrepancies between popular SSL/TLS implementations such as OpenSSL, NSS, CyaSSL, GnuTLS, PolarSSL, MatrixSSL, etc. Many of them are caused by serious security vulnerabilities. For example, any server with a valid X.509 version 1 certificate can act as a rogue certificate authority and issue fake certificates for any domain, enabling man-in-the-middle attacks against MatrixSSL and GnuTLS. Several implementations also accept certificate authorities created by unauthorized issuers, as well as certificates not intended for server authentication. We also found serious vulnerabilities in how users are warned about certificate validation errors. When presented with an expired, self-signed certificate, NSS, Safari, and Chrome (on Linux) report that the certificate has expired—a low-risk, often ignored error—but not that the connection is insecure against a man-in-the-middle attack. These results demonstrate that automated adversarial testing with

  17. Self-Organization of Spatio-Temporal Hierarchy via Learning of Dynamic Visual Image Patterns on Action Sequences.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns. PMID:26147887

  18. Self-Organization of Spatio-Temporal Hierarchy via Learning of Dynamic Visual Image Patterns on Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns. PMID:26147887

  19. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  20. Habit Learning by Naive Macaques Is Marked by Response Sharpening of Striatal Neurons Representing the Cost and Outcome of Acquired Action Sequences.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Theresa M; Amemori, Ken-ichi; Graybiel, Ann M

    2015-08-19

    Over a century of scientific work has focused on defining the factors motivating behavioral learning. Observations in animals and humans trained on a wide range of tasks support reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms as accounting for the learning. Still unknown, however, are the signals that drive learning in naive, untrained subjects. Here, we capitalized on a sequential saccade task in which macaque monkeys acquired repetitive scanning sequences without instruction. We found that spike activity in the caudate nucleus after each trial corresponded to an integrated cost-benefit signal that was highly correlated with the degree of naturalistic untutored learning by the monkeys. Across learning, neurons encoding both cost and outcome gradually acquired increasingly sharp phasic trial-end responses that paralleled the development of the habit-like, repetitive saccade sequences. Our findings demonstrate an integrated cost-benefit signal by which RL and its neural correlates could drive naturalistic behaviors in freely behaving primates. PMID:26291166

  1. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about “off-target” effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme—dubbed mCAL for “Multiplexing of Cas9 at Artificial Loci”—can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  2. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about "off-target" effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme-dubbed mCAL for " M: ultiplexing of C: as9 at A: rtificial L: oci"-can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  3. Adversaries or Allies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Describes a role-playing simulation of a public meeting where community members are concerned about toxic material dumping. Use of the simulation in postgraduate management courses to emphasize the importance of trust between people and between groups in work situations is discussed. (four references) (LRW)

  4. Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing for Precision Medicine: A Comprehensive Analysis of Five Actionable Pharmacogenomic Genes Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing and a Customized CYP2D6 Genotyping Cascade.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuan; Skierka, Jennifer M; Blommel, Joseph H; Moore, Brenda E; VanCuyk, Douglas L; Bruflat, Jamie K; Peterson, Lisa M; Veldhuizen, Tamra L; Fadra, Numrah; Peterson, Sandra E; Lagerstedt, Susan A; Train, Laura J; Baudhuin, Linnea M; Klee, Eric W; Ferber, Matthew J; Bielinski, Suzette J; Caraballo, Pedro J; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Black, John L

    2016-05-01

    Significant barriers, such as lack of professional guidelines, specialized training for interpretation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) data, and insufficient evidence to support clinical utility, prevent preemptive PGx testing from being widely clinically implemented. The current study, as a pilot project for the Right Drug, Right Dose, Right Time-Using Genomic Data to Individualize Treatment Protocol, was designed to evaluate the impact of preemptive PGx and to optimize the workflow in the clinic setting. We used an 84-gene next-generation sequencing panel that included SLCO1B1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 together with a custom-designed CYP2D6 testing cascade to genotype the 1013 subjects in laboratories approved by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act. Actionable PGx variants were placed in patient's electronic medical records where integrated clinical decision support rules alert providers when a relevant medication is ordered. The fraction of this cohort carrying actionable PGx variant(s) in individual genes ranged from 30% (SLCO1B1) to 79% (CYP2D6). When considering all five genes together, 99% of the subjects carried an actionable PGx variant(s) in at least one gene. Our study provides evidence in favor of preemptive PGx testing by identifying the risk of a variant being present in the population we studied. PMID:26947514

  5. Coordinate action of distinct sequence elements localizes checkpoint kinase Hsl1 to the septin collar at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Sterling, Sarah M; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N; Sargsyan, Aspram; Garcia, Galo; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-07-15

    Passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle requires processes that are tightly regulated both spatially and temporally. Surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) exert quality control and impose order on the timing and organization of downstream events by impeding cell cycle progression until the necessary components are available and undamaged and have acted in the proper sequence. In budding yeast, a checkpoint exists that does not allow timely execution of the G2/M transition unless and until a collar of septin filaments has properly assembled at the bud neck, which is the site where subsequent cytokinesis will occur. An essential component of this checkpoint is the large (1518-residue) protein kinase Hsl1, which localizes to the bud neck only if the septin collar has been correctly formed. Hsl1 reportedly interacts with particular septins; however, the precise molecular determinants in Hsl1 responsible for its recruitment to this cellular location during G2 have not been elucidated. We performed a comprehensive mutational dissection and accompanying image analysis to identify the sequence elements within Hsl1 responsible for its localization to the septins at the bud neck. Unexpectedly, we found that this targeting is multipartite. A segment of the central region of Hsl1 (residues 611-950), composed of two tandem, semiredundant but distinct septin-associating elements, is necessary and sufficient for binding to septin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. However, in addition to 611-950, efficient localization of Hsl1 to the septin collar in the cell obligatorily requires generalized targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, a function normally provided by the C-terminal phosphatidylserine-binding KA1 domain (residues 1379-1518) in Hsl1 but that can be replaced by other, heterologous phosphatidylserine-binding sequences. PMID:27193302

  6. Massively parallel sequencing of phyllodes tumours of the breast reveals actionable mutations, and TERT promoter hotspot mutations and TERT gene amplification as likely drivers of progression.

    PubMed

    Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Murray, Melissa; Burke, Kathleen A; Edelweiss, Marcia; Geyer, Felipe C; Macedo, Gabriel S; Inagaki, Akiko; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Martelotto, Luciano G; Marchio, Caterina; Lim, Raymond S; Ioris, Rafael A; Nahar, Pooja K; Bruijn, Ino De; Smyth, Lillian; Akram, Muzaffar; Ross, Dara; Petrini, John H; Norton, Larry; Solit, David B; Baselga, Jose; Brogi, Edi; Ladanyi, Marc; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-03-01

    Phyllodes tumours (PTs) are breast fibroepithelial lesions that are graded based on histological criteria as benign, borderline or malignant. PTs may recur locally. Borderline PTs and malignant PTs may metastasize to distant sites. Breast fibroepithelial lesions, including PTs and fibroadenomas, are characterized by recurrent MED12 exon 2 somatic mutations. We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in PTs and whether these may assist in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. We collected 100 fibroadenomas, 40 benign PTs, 14 borderline PTs and 22 malignant PTs; six, six and 13 benign, borderline and malignant PTs, respectively, and their matched normal tissue, were subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) using the MSK-IMPACT sequencing assay. Recurrent MED12 mutations were found in 56% of PTs; in addition, mutations affecting cancer genes (eg TP53, RB1, SETD2 and EGFR) were exclusively detected in borderline and malignant PTs. We found a novel recurrent clonal hotspot mutation in the TERT promoter (-124 C>T) in 52% and TERT gene amplification in 4% of PTs. Laser capture microdissection revealed that these mutations were restricted to the mesenchymal component of PTs. Sequencing analysis of the entire cohort revealed that the frequency of TERT alterations increased from benign (18%) to borderline (57%) and to malignant PTs (68%; p < 0.01), and TERT alterations were associated with increased levels of TERT mRNA (p < 0.001). No TERT alterations were observed in fibroadenomas. An analysis of TERT promoter sequencing and gene amplification distinguished PTs from fibroadenomas with a sensitivity and a positive predictive value of 100% (CI 95.38-100%) and 100% (CI 85.86-100%), respectively, and a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 39% (CI 28.65-51.36%) and 68% (CI 60.21-75.78%), respectively. Our results suggest that TERT alterations may drive the progression of PTs, and may assist in the differential diagnosis

  7. Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet…

  8. Emerging perception of causality in action-and-reaction sequences from 4 to 6 months of age: is it domain-specific?

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D; Surian, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a distance. Primarily, our study sought to determine from what age infants see the causal structure of this reaction event. In addition, we looked at whether this causal percept depends on an animate style of motion and whether it correlates with tasks assessing goal perception and goal-directed action. Infants saw either causal reactions or noncausal delayed control events in which blue started some time after red stopped. These events involved squares that moved either rigidly or nonrigidly in an apparently animate manner. After habituation to one of the four events, infants were tested on reversal of the habituation event. Spatiotemporal features reversed for all events, but causal roles changed only in reversed reactions. The 6-month-olds dishabituated significantly more to reversal of causal reaction events than to noncausal delay events, whereas younger infants reacted similarly to reversal of both. Thus, perceptual causality for reaction events emerges by 6 months of age, a younger age than previously reported but, crucially, the same age at which perceptual causality for launch events has emerged in prior research. On our second question, animate/inanimate motion had no effect at any age, nor did significant correlations emerge with our additional tasks assessing goal perception or goal-directed object retrieval. Available evidence, here and elsewhere, is as compatible with a view that infants initially see A affecting B, without differentiation into physical or psychological causality, as with the standard assumption of distinct physical/psychological causal perception. PMID:22417922

  9. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  10. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  11. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  12. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  13. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  14. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  15. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  16. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  17. Repetitive Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repetitive sequences, or repeats, account for a substantial portion of the eukaryotic genomes. These sequences include very different types of DNA with respect to mode of origin, function, structure, and genomic distribution. Two large families of repetitive sequences can be readily recognized, ta...

  18. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  19. Using adversary text to detect adversary phase changes.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to help develop a research roadmap and small proof ofconcept for addressing key problems and gaps from the perspective of using text analysis methods as a primary tool for detecting when a group is undergoing a phase change. Self- rganizing map (SOM) techniques were used to analyze text data obtained from the tworld-wide web. Statistical studies indicate that it may be possible to predict phase changes, as well as detect whether or not an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  20. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  1. Segmenting dynamic human action via statistical structure.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith

    2008-03-01

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet little is currently known about mechanisms that may subserve action segmentation. The present research documents that adults can register statistical regularities providing clues to action segmentation. This finding provides new evidence that structural knowledge gained by mechanisms such as statistical learning can play a role in action segmentation, and highlights a striking parallel between processing of action and processing in other domains, such as language. PMID:18035346

  2. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  3. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  4. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  5. Motor Timing and the Preparation for Sequential Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortoletto, Marta; Cook, Alana; Cunnington, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Motor timing is essential for performing self-initiated movement sequences. Here, we investigated how sequence rhythm, or the timing for co-ordinating movements within a sequence, contributes to action preparation, compared with other processes occurring during sequence planning. First, we recorded the readiness potential (RP) in a condition of…

  6. Human action recognition by extracting motion trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuwen; Yang, Shangpeng

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel human action recognition framework named Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Hybrid Event Probability Sequence (HEPS), which can recognize unlabeled actions from videos. First, motion trajectories are effectively extracted using the centers of moving objects. Secondly, the HEPS is constructed using the trajectories and represents different human actions. Finally, the improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with inertia weight is introduced to recognize human actions using HMM. The proposed methods are evaluated on UCF Human Action Dataset and achieve 76.67% accurate rate. The comparative experiments results demonstrate that the HMM got superior results with HEPS and PSO.

  7. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  8. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  9. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  10. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  11. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures must include a copy of the sequence listing in accordance with the requirements in 37 CFR...

  12. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  13. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  14. Default processing of event sequences.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Alicia; Levin, Daniel T; Baker, Lewis J

    2016-02-01

    In a wide range of circumstances, it is important to perceive and represent the sequence of events. For example, sequence perception is necessary to learn statistical contingencies between events, and to generate predictions about events when segmenting actions. However, viewer's awareness of event sequence is rarely tested, and at least some means of encoding event sequence are likely to be resource-intensive. Therefore, previous research may have overestimated the degree to which viewers are aware of specific event sequences. In the experiments reported here, we tested viewers' ability to detect anomalies during visual event sequences. Participants viewed videos containing events that either did or did not contain an out-of-order action. Participants were unable to consistently detect the misordered events, and performance on the task decreased significantly to very low levels when performing a secondary task. In addition, participants almost never detected misorderings in an incidental version of the task, and performance increased when videos ended immediately after the misordering, We argue that these results demonstrate that viewers can effectively perceive the elements of events, but do not consistently test their expectations about the specific sequence of natural events unless bidden to do so by task-specific demands. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348070

  15. [Sequencing babies?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    An extension of newborn screening to genome sequencing is now feasible but raises a number of scientific, organisational and ethical issues. This is being explored in discussions and in several funded trials, in order to maximize benefits and avoid some identified risks. As some companies are already offering such a service, this is quite an urgent matter. PMID:26481033

  16. MSLICE Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Morris, John R.

    2011-01-01

    MSLICE Sequencing is a graphical tool for writing sequences and integrating them into RML files, as well as for producing SCMF files for uplink. When operated in a testbed environment, it also supports uplinking these SCMF files to the testbed via Chill. This software features a free-form textural sequence editor featuring syntax coloring, automatic content assistance (including command and argument completion proposals), complete with types, value ranges, unites, and descriptions from the command dictionary that appear as they are typed. The sequence editor also has a "field mode" that allows tabbing between arguments and displays type/range/units/description for each argument as it is edited. Color-coded error and warning annotations on problematic tokens are included, as well as indications of problems that are not visible in the current scroll range. "Quick Fix" suggestions are made for resolving problems, and all the features afforded by modern source editors are also included such as copy/cut/paste, undo/redo, and a sophisticated find-and-replace system optionally using regular expressions. The software offers a full XML editor for RML files, which features syntax coloring, content assistance and problem annotations as above. There is a form-based, "detail view" that allows structured editing of command arguments and sequence parameters when preferred. The "project view" shows the user s "workspace" as a tree of "resources" (projects, folders, and files) that can subsequently be opened in editors by double-clicking. Files can be added, deleted, dragged-dropped/copied-pasted between folders or projects, and these operations are undoable and redoable. A "problems view" contains a tabular list of all problems in the current workspace. Double-clicking on any row in the table opens an editor for the appropriate sequence, scrolling to the specific line with the problem, and highlighting the problematic characters. From there, one can invoke "quick fix" as described

  17. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  18. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  19. Reconstructing of a Sequence Using Similar Sequences

    1995-11-28

    SIMSEQ reconstructs sequences from oligos. Similar known sequences are used as a reference. At present, simulated data are being used to develop the algorithm. SIMSEQ generates an initial random sequence, then generates a second sequence that is 60 to 90 percent similar to the first. Next, the second sequence is chopped into its appropriate oligos. All possible sequences are reconstructed to determine the most similar. Those with the highest similarity are printed as output.

  20. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  1. Human action classification using procrustes shape theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sangkyoon; Park, Soonyoung; Lee, Myungeun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose new method that can classify a human action using Procrustes shape theory. First, we extract a pre-shape configuration vector of landmarks from each frame of an image sequence representing an arbitrary human action, and then we have derived the Procrustes fit vector for pre-shape configuration vector. Second, we extract a set of pre-shape vectors from tanning sample stored at database, and we compute a Procrustes mean shape vector for these preshape vectors. Third, we extract a sequence of the pre-shape vectors from input video, and we project this sequence of pre-shape vectors on the tangent space with respect to the pole taking as a sequence of mean shape vectors corresponding with a target video. And we calculate the Procrustes distance between two sequences of the projection pre-shape vectors on the tangent space and the mean shape vectors. Finally, we classify the input video into the human action class with minimum Procrustes distance. We assess a performance of the proposed method using one public dataset, namely Weizmann human action dataset. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method performs very good on this dataset.

  2. Are judgments for action verbs and point-light human actions equivalent?

    PubMed

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Toussaint, Lucette

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ability to judge action words and the ability to judge human actions share common mechanisms. With this purpose in mind, we proposed both a lexical and an action decision task to twenty-four healthy participants. For both tasks, the participants had to judge whether the stimulus that was presented (a letter string or a point-light sequence) was valid or not (i.e. a word vs. a pseudo-word, an action vs. a pseudo-action). The data analysis showed that the action decision task has common characteristics with the lexical decision task. As for verbal material, judgements of pseudo-actions were slower than judgements for actions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ability to judge an action verb was positively correlated with the ability to judge a point-light human action, whereas no significant correlation appeared between nouns and point-light judgements abilities. This dissociation supports the argument that the judgement of action words and the judgement of human actions share a common but specific basis through the involvement of motor representations. PMID:25238900

  3. Emergence of Cognition from Action

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input–output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed “cognition.” Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform “what if” scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions. PMID:25752314

  4. Human action recognition using integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yang; Lin, Yikun

    2013-07-01

    A novel action recognition framework based on integrated model is proposed in the paper. First, the covariance descriptor is utilized to extract features from video sequences, and then each class specific codebook is constructed and appended to the global codebook. A static model applying the template matching technique and a dynamic model employing the trigram model are learned to capture complementary information in an action. And lastly, an integrated model is used to estimate the confidence of the static and dynamic models and produces a reliable result. Comparative experiments show that our presented method achieves superior results over other state-of-the-art approaches. Keywords: human action recognition, covariance descriptor, integrated model

  5. Integration of Temporal and Ordinal Information During Serial Interception Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gobel, Eric W.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Reber, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of expert motor skills typically involves learning to perform a precisely timed sequence of movements (e.g., language production, music performance, athletic skills). Research examining incidental sequence learning has previously relied on a perceptually-cued task that gives participants exposure to repeating motor sequences but does not require timing of responses for accuracy. Using a novel perceptual-motor sequence learning task, learning a precisely timed cued sequence of motor actions is shown to occur without explicit instruction. Participants learned a repeating sequence through practice and showed sequence-specific knowledge via a performance decrement when switched to an unfamiliar sequence. In a second experiment, the integration of representation of action order and timing sequence knowledge was examined. When either action order or timing sequence information was selectively disrupted, performance was reduced to levels similar to completely novel sequences. Unlike prior sequence-learning research that has found timing information to be secondary to learning action sequences, when the task demands require accurate action and timing information, an integrated representation of these types of information is acquired. These results provide the first evidence for incidental learning of fully integrated action and timing sequence information in the absence of an independent representation of action order, and suggest that this integrative mechanism may play a material role in the acquisition of complex motor skills. PMID:21417511

  6. Integration of temporal and ordinal information during serial interception sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Gobel, Eric W; Sanchez, Daniel J; Reber, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    The expression of expert motor skills typically involves learning to perform a precisely timed sequence of movements. Research examining incidental sequence learning has relied on a perceptually cued task that gives participants exposure to repeating motor sequences but does not require timing of responses for accuracy. In the 1st experiment, a novel perceptual-motor sequence learning task was used, and learning a precisely timed cued sequence of motor actions was shown to occur without explicit instruction. Participants learned a repeating sequence through practice and showed sequence-specific knowledge via a performance decrement when switched to an unfamiliar sequence. In the 2nd experiment, the integration of representation of action order and timing sequence knowledge was examined. When either action order or timing sequence information was selectively disrupted, performance was reduced to levels similar to completely novel sequences. Unlike prior sequence-learning research that has found timing information to be secondary to learning action sequences, when the task demands require accurate action and timing information, an integrated representation of these types of information is acquired. These results provide the first evidence for incidental learning of fully integrated action and timing sequence information in the absence of an independent representation of action order and suggest that this integrative mechanism may play a material role in the acquisition of complex motor skills. PMID:21417511

  7. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  8. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  9. Jointly Learning Multiple Sequential Dynamics for Human Action Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An-An; Su, Yu-Ting; Nie, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Zhao-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Discovering visual dynamics during human actions is a challenging task for human action recognition. To deal with this problem, we theoretically propose the multi-task conditional random fields model and explore its application on human action recognition. For visual representation, we propose the part-induced spatiotemporal action unit sequence to represent each action sample with multiple partwise sequential feature subspaces. For model learning, we propose the multi-task conditional random fields (MTCRFs) model to discover the sequence-specific structure and the sequence-shared relationship. Specifically, the multi-chain graph structure and the corresponding probabilistic model are designed to represent the interaction among multiple part-induced action unit sequences. Moreover we propose the model learning and inference methods to discover temporal context within individual action unit sequence and the latent correlation among different body parts. Extensive experiments are implemented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method on two popular RGB human action datasets, KTH & TJU, and the depth dataset in MSR Daily Activity 3D. PMID:26147979

  10. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  11. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  12. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  13. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  14. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  15. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  16. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  17. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way. PMID:26554401

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Whole Genome Sequencing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... the full story, click here . What is whole genome sequencing? Whole genome sequencing is the mapping out ...

  19. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  20. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  1. Science sequence design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Bollman, W. E.; Freeman, J. E.; Helton, M. R.; Reichert, R. J.; Travers, E. S.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The activities of the following members of the Navigation Team are recorded: the Science Sequence Design Group, responsible for preparing the final science sequence designs; the Advanced Sequence Planning Group, responsible for sequence planning; and the Science Recommendation Team (SRT) representatives, responsible for conducting the necessary sequence design interfaces with the teams during the mission. The interface task included science support in both advance planning and daily operations. Science sequences designed during the mission are also discussed.

  2. Detection of M-sequences from spike sequence in neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime; Tamura, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In circuit theory, it is well known that a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) circuit generates pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS), including an M-sequence with the maximum period of length. In this study, we tried to detect M-sequences known as a pseudorandom sequence generated by the LFSR circuit from time series patterns of stimulated action potentials. Stimulated action potentials were recorded from dissociated cultures of hippocampal neurons grown on a multielectrode array. We could find several M-sequences from a 3-stage LFSR circuit (M3). These results show the possibility of assembling LFSR circuits or its equivalent ones in a neuronal network. However, since the M3 pattern was composed of only four spike intervals, the possibility of an accidental detection was not zero. Then, we detected M-sequences from random spike sequences which were not generated from an LFSR circuit and compare the result with the number of M-sequences from the originally observed raster data. As a result, a significant difference was confirmed: a greater number of "0-1" reversed the 3-stage M-sequences occurred than would have accidentally be detected. This result suggests that some LFSR equivalent circuits are assembled in neuronal networks. PMID:22851966

  3. Detection of M-Sequences from Spike Sequence in Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime; Tamura, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In circuit theory, it is well known that a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) circuit generates pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS), including an M-sequence with the maximum period of length. In this study, we tried to detect M-sequences known as a pseudorandom sequence generated by the LFSR circuit from time series patterns of stimulated action potentials. Stimulated action potentials were recorded from dissociated cultures of hippocampal neurons grown on a multielectrode array. We could find several M-sequences from a 3-stage LFSR circuit (M3). These results show the possibility of assembling LFSR circuits or its equivalent ones in a neuronal network. However, since the M3 pattern was composed of only four spike intervals, the possibility of an accidental detection was not zero. Then, we detected M-sequences from random spike sequences which were not generated from an LFSR circuit and compare the result with the number of M-sequences from the originally observed raster data. As a result, a significant difference was confirmed: a greater number of “0–1” reversed the 3-stage M-sequences occurred than would have accidentally be detected. This result suggests that some LFSR equivalent circuits are assembled in neuronal networks. PMID:22851966

  4. 32 CFR 179.7 - Sequencing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... influence or change the MRS priority, but may influence the sequencing for action. Examples of factors that... of long-term liabilities. (4) Findings of health, safety, or ecological risk assessments or... administration. (12) Established program goals and initiatives. (13) Short-term and long-term ecological...

  5. Dynamical model for DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, P.; Barbi, M.; Grigolini, P.; West, B. J.

    1995-11-01

    We address the problem of DNA sequences, developing a ``dynamical'' method based on the assumption that the statistical properties of DNA paths are determined by the joint action of two processes, one deterministic with long-range correlations, and the other random and δ-function correlated. The generator of the deterministic evolution is a nonlinear map, belonging to a class of maps recently tailored to mimic the processes of weak chaos that are responsible for the birth of anomalous diffusion. It is assumed that the deterministic process corresponds to unknown biological rules that determine the DNA path, whereas the noise mimics the influence of an infinite-dimensional environment on the biological process under study. We prove that the resulting diffusion process, if the effect of the random process is neglected, is an α-stable Lévy process with 1<α<2. We also show that, if the diffusion process is determined by the joint action of the deterministic and the random process, the correlation effects of the ``deterministic dynamics'' are cancelled on the short-range scale, but show up in the long-range one. We denote our prescription to generate statistical sequences as the copying mistake map (CMM). We carry out our analysis of several DNA sequences and their CMM realizations with a variety of techniques, and we especially focus on a method of regression to equilibrium, which we call the Onsager analysis. With these techniques we establish the statistical equivalence of the real DNA sequences with their CMM realizations. We show that long-range correlations are present in exons as well as in introns, but are difficult to detect, since the exon ``dynamics'' is shown to be determined by the entanglement of three distinct and independent CMM's.

  6. Continuous human action recognition using depth-MHI-HOG and a spotter model.

    PubMed

    Eum, Hyukmin; Yoon, Changyong; Lee, Heejin; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for spotting and recognizing continuous human actions using a vision sensor. The method is comprised of depth-MHI-HOG (DMH), action modeling, action spotting, and recognition. First, to effectively separate the foreground from background, we propose a method called DMH. It includes a standard structure for segmenting images and extracting features by using depth information, MHI, and HOG. Second, action modeling is performed to model various actions using extracted features. The modeling of actions is performed by creating sequences of actions through k-means clustering; these sequences constitute HMM input. Third, a method of action spotting is proposed to filter meaningless actions from continuous actions and to identify precise start and end points of actions. By employing the spotter model, the proposed method improves action recognition performance. Finally, the proposed method recognizes actions based on start and end points. We evaluate recognition performance by employing the proposed method to obtain and compare probabilities by applying input sequences in action models and the spotter model. Through various experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for recognizing continuous human actions in real environments. PMID:25742172

  7. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  8. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  9. The generalized quaternion sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we define the recurrence sequence by using the relation matrix of the generalized quaternion group and then, we obtain miscellaneous properties of this sequence. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups which are produced by generating matrix of the sequence defined when read modulo m. Furthermore, we study this sequence modulo m, and then we derive the relationship among the order the cyclic groups obtained and the periods of the sequence defined.

  10. Toxic action/toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    Some six or so physiological systems, essential to normal mammalian life, are involved in poisoning; an intoxication that causes severe injury to any one of them could be life threatening. Reversible chemical reactions showing Scatchard-type binding are exemplified by CO, CN- and cyclodiene neurotoxin insecticide intoxications, and by antigen-antibody complex formation. Haemoglobin (Hb) molecular biology accounts for the allosteric co-operativity and other characteristics of CO poisoning, CN- acts as a powerful cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, and antigen binding in a deep antibody cleft between two domains equipped with epitopes for antigen-binding groups explains hapten-specific immune reactions. Covalent chemical reactions with second-order (SN2) kinetics characterize Hg and Cd poisonings, the reactions of organophosphates and phosphonates with acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase and the reaction sequence whereby Paraquat accepts electrons and generates superoxide under aerobic conditions. Indirect carcinogens require cytochrome P450 activation to form DNA adducts in target-organ DNA and cause cancer, but a battery of detoxifying enzymes clustered with the P450 system must be overcome. Thus, S-metabolism competes ineffectively with target DNA for reactive vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites, epoxide hydrolase is important to the metabolism and carcinogenicity of alfatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, etc.), and the non-toxic 2-naphthylhydroxylamine N-glucuronide acts as a transport form in 2-naphthylamine bladder cancer. VC liver-cancer pathogenesis is explicable in terms of the presence of the glutathione S-transferase detoxifying system in hepatocytes and its absence from the fibroblastic elements, and of the VC concentrations reaching the liver by different administrative routes. In VC carcinogenicity, chemical reactions give imidazo-cyclization products with nucleoside residues of target DNA, and in benzene leukaemia, Z

  11. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  12. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  13. Affirmative Action in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Natan

    This paper examines issues of equality, discrimination, affirmative action, and preferential treatment in Israel. An introduction provides a broad outline of topics addressed in the paper: the status of the Jewish sector, with treatment of Jewish immigrants to serve as an example of affirmative action; the policies of the state in relation to the…

  14. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  15. Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  16. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  17. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  18. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  19. Affirmative Action Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    All campuses and units of the University and Community College System of Nevada annually submit data to the Chancellor's Office on affirmative action. This report provides tables of affirmative action data for students enrolled during fall 1992 and professional and classified staff employed during 1992. First, student data is provided on gender…

  20. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1995-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation needs to be known in order to assess the carcinogenic risks of various UV sources, most notably the different solar UV spectra at ground level under depleting stratospheric ozone. This wavelength dependence cannot be extracted from human data (e.g., from epidemiology); it can, however, be directly obtained from animal experiments. Precise information on the wavelength dependence, the so-called action spectrum, was not available until recently: erythemal or mutagenic action spectra have been used as substitutes. However, experimental data on skin tumors induced in hairless mice (Skh:HR1) with various polychromatic sources have been building up. Our group has found that none of the substitute action spectra yield a statistically acceptable description of our data, and we have, therefore, derived a new action spectrum, dubbed the SCUP action spectrum (SCUP stands for Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia, because the action spectrum also fits experimental data from the former Skin and Cancer Hospital in Philadelphia). The SCUP action spectrum has a maximum at 293 nm, and in the UVA region above 340 nm the relative carcinogenicity per J/m2 drops to about 10(-4) of this maximum. The effects of an ozone depletion on solar UV doses weighted with these different action spectra are compared: the erythemal and SCUP weighted dose come out as least sensitive with a 1.3% and 1.4% increase, respectively, for every 1% decrease in ozone. PMID:7597292

  1. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  2. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  3. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  4. Teachers Unions as Partners, Not Adversaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catone, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Chicago has long been one of the national epicenters for public school reform. In many ways the reform efforts of the past decade in the Windy City have served as the blueprint for the current focus of federal education priorities. In particular, federal policy for school turnaround and transformation takes clear cues from the efforts that current…

  5. The adversary process in technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    An Agency which would act as a responsible technological ombudsman is proposed for inclusion in the technology assessment mechanism. The agency would be charged solely with the function and responsibility to probe and identify the negative factors and present them to Congress and the public. It is felt that in the development of technology in private sectors there are assessments and controls exerted by the public. However, in governmental technology, the agencies involved tend to emphasize the useful and beneficial aspects, and it is pointed out that the administrative agencies also tend to develop unwholesome affinities to the industries they regulate. It is also felt that scientific and engineering experts have a bias in favor of accomplishing what they think can be accomplished. The proposed devil's advocate agency would investigate the areas of hazards and potential hazards, and would subject Congress to the pressures of public opinion.

  6. Autophagy and Viruses: Adversaries or Allies?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The autophagy pathway is an essential component of host defense against viral infection, orchestrating pathogen degradation (xenophagy), innate immune signaling, and certain aspects of adaptive immunity. Single autophagy proteins or cassettes of the core autophagy machinery can also function as antiviral factors independently of the canonical autophagy pathway. Moreover, to survive and propagate within the host, viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to evade autophagic attack and manipulate the autophagy machinery for their own benefit. This Review summarizes recent advances in understanding the antiviral and proviral roles of autophagy and previously unappreciated autophagy-independent functions of autophagy-related genes. PMID:23391695

  7. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  8. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed “reads” are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions. PMID:24681819

  9. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-03-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

  10. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  11. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences. PMID:27265133

  12. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  13. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  14. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  15. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  16. Sequence information signal processor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Waterman, Michael S.; Hunkapillar, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is used to compare two sequences, such as genetic sequences, to determine which alignment of the sequences produces the greatest similarity. The circuit includes a linear array of series-connected processors, each of which stores a single element from one of the sequences and compares that element with each successive element in the other sequence. For each comparison, the processor generates a scoring parameter that indicates which segment ending at those two elements produces the greatest degree of similarity between the sequences. The processor uses the scoring parameter to generate a similar scoring parameter for a comparison between the stored element and the next successive element from the other sequence. The processor also delivers the scoring parameter to the next processor in the array for use in generating a similar scoring parameter for another pair of elements. The electronic circuit determines which processor and alignment of the sequences produce the scoring parameter with the highest value.

  17. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  18. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  19. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  20. Corrective Action Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The glossary of technical terms was prepared to facilitate the use of the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) issued by OSWER on November 14, 1986. The CAP presents model scopes of work for all phases of a corrective action program, including the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI), Corrective Measures Study (CMS), Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI), and interim measures. The Corrective Action Glossary includes brief definitions of the technical terms used in the CAP and explains how they are used. In addition, expected ranges (where applicable) are provided. Parameters or terms not discussed in the CAP, but commonly associated with site investigations or remediations are also included.

  1. Career Academy Course Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Thom; Lenz, Robert

    This career academy course sequence guide is designed to give teachers a quick overview of the course sequences of well-known career academy and career pathway programs from across the country. The guide presents a variety of sample course sequences for the following academy themes: (1) arts and communication; (2) business and finance; (3)…

  2. T. cacao Transcriptome Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compliment the T. cacao genome sequencing initiative and to build a reference set of expressed genes for functional studies, a broad and state-of-the-art approach to transcriptome sequencing is underway. Using newly optimized methods, transcriptome sequencing libraries were prepared from RNA of o...

  3. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Herter, Brandi N.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications. PMID:26395152

  4. The Effect of Action Experience on Sensorimotor EEG Rhythms during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent line of inquiry has examined how an observer’s experience with action changes the neural processing of similar actions when they are subsequently observed. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that giving participants different types and amounts of experience with specific objects would lead to differential patterns of sensorimotor rhythms during the observation of similar actions on those objects. While EEG was recorded, three groups of participants (n = 20 in each group; mean age = 22.0 years, SD = 2.7) watched video clips of an actor reaching, grasping, and lifting two objects. Participants then received information about differences in weight between the two objects. One group gained this information through extended sensorimotor experience with the objects, a second group received much briefer sensorimotor experience with the objects, and the third group read written information about the objects’ weights. Participants then viewed the action sequences again. For participants who had sensorimotor experience with the objects, the EEG response to viewing the actions was differentially sensitive to the anticipated weight of the objects. We conclude that this sensitivity was based on the participant’s prior sensorimotor experience with the objects. The participants who only received semantic information about the objects showed no such effects. The primary conclusion is that even brief experience with actions affects sensorimotor cortex activity during the subsequent observation of similar actions. PMID:24568874

  5. The effect of action experience on sensorimotor EEG rhythms during action observation.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Lorna C; Marshall, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    A recent line of inquiry has examined how an observer׳s experience with action changes the neural processing of similar actions when they are subsequently observed. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that giving participants different types and amounts of experience with specific objects would lead to differential patterns of sensorimotor rhythms during the observation of similar actions on those objects. While EEG was recorded, three groups of participants (n=20 in each group; mean age=22.0 years, SD=2.7) watched video clips of an actor reaching, grasping, and lifting two objects. Participants then received information about differences in weight between the two objects. One group gained this information through extended sensorimotor experience with the objects, a second group received much briefer sensorimotor experience with the objects, and the third group read written information about the objects׳ weights. Participants then viewed the action sequences again. For participants who had sensorimotor experience with the objects, the EEG response to viewing the actions was differentially sensitive to the anticipated weight of the objects. We conclude that this sensitivity was based on the participant׳s prior sensorimotor experience with the objects. The participants who only received semantic information about the objects showed no such effects. The primary conclusion is that even brief experience with actions affects sensorimotor cortex activity during the subsequent observation of similar actions. PMID:24568874

  6. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  7. Delving into Egocentric Actions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Ye, Zhefan; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the challenging problem of recognizing the camera wearer's actions from videos captured by an egocentric camera. Egocentric videos encode a rich set of signals regarding the camera wearer, including head movement, hand pose and gaze information. We propose to utilize these mid-level egocentric cues for egocentric action recognition. We present a novel set of egocentric features and show how they can be combined with motion and object features. The result is a compact representation with superior performance. In addition, we provide the first systematic evaluation of motion, object and egocentric cues in egocentric action recognition. Our benchmark leads to several surprising findings. These findings uncover the best practices for egocentric actions, with a significant performance boost over all previous state-of-the-art methods on three publicly available datasets. PMID:26973427

  8. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Caregiver Action Network Toggle navigation Toolbox Forum Volunteers Donate About Us Join National Family Caregivers ... for caring for a loved one Family Caregiver Forum Share and talk with other caregivers Rare Disease ...

  9. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  10. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  11. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  12. Galileons from Lovelock actions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Van Doorsselaere, Jos

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate how, for an arbitrary number of dimensions, the Galileon actions and their covariant generalizations can be obtained through a standard Kaluza-Klein compactification of higher-dimensional Lovelock gravity. In this setup, the dilaton takes on the role of the Galileon. In addition, such compactifications uncover other more general Galilean actions, producing purely second-order equations in the weak-field limit, now both for the Galileon and the metric perturbations.

  13. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  14. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  15. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system. PMID:10858918

  16. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  17. Uncorrectable sequences and telecommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekroot, Laura; Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Swanson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of a tail sequence for command link transmission units is to fail to decode, so that the command decoder will begin searching for the start of the next unit. A tail sequence used by several missions and recommended for this purpose by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Standards is analyzed. A single channel error can cause the sequence to decode. An alternative sequence requiring at least two channel errors before it can possibly decode is presented. (No sequence requiring more than two channel errors before it can possibly decode exists for this code.)

  18. Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tatsuo S; Mackevicius, Emily L; Payne, Hannah L; Lynch, Galen F; Fee, Michale S

    2015-12-17

    Neural sequences are a fundamental feature of brain dynamics underlying diverse behaviours, but the mechanisms by which they develop during learning remain unknown. Songbirds learn vocalizations composed of syllables; in adult birds, each syllable is produced by a different sequence of action potential bursts in the premotor cortical area HVC. Here we carried out recordings of large populations of HVC neurons in singing juvenile birds throughout learning to examine the emergence of neural sequences. Early in vocal development, HVC neurons begin producing rhythmic bursts, temporally locked to a 'prototype' syllable. Different neurons are active at different latencies relative to syllable onset to form a continuous sequence. Through development, as new syllables emerge from the prototype syllable, initially highly overlapping burst sequences become increasingly distinct. We propose a mechanistic model in which multiple neural sequences can emerge from the growth and splitting of a common precursor sequence. PMID:26618871

  19. Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Tatsuo S.; Mackevicius, Emily L.; Payne, Hannah L.; Lynch, Galen F.; Fee, Michale S.

    2015-01-01

    Neural sequences are a fundamental feature of brain dynamics underlying diverse behaviors, but the mechanisms by which they develop during learning remain unknown. Songbirds learn vocalizations composed of syllables; in adult birds, each syllable is produced by a different sequence of action potential bursts in the premotor cortical area HVC. Here we carried out recordings of large populations of HVC neurons in singing juvenile birds throughout learning to examine the emergence of neural sequences. Early in vocal development, HVC neurons begin producing rhythmic bursts, temporally locked to a ‘prototype’ syllable. Different neurons are active at different latencies relative to syllable onset to form a continuous sequence. Through development, as new syllables emerge from the prototype syllable, initially highly overlapping burst sequences become increasingly distinct. We propose a mechanistic model in which multiple neural sequences can emerge from the growth and splitting of a common precursor sequence. PMID:26618871

  20. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  1. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  2. Use of an automated capillary DNA sequencer to investigate the interaction of cisplatin with telomeric DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moumita; Murray, Vincent

    2012-03-01

    The determination of the sequence selectivity of DNA-damaging agents is very important in elucidating the mechanism of action of anti-tumour drugs. The development of automated capillary DNA sequencers with fluorescent labelling has enabled a more precise method for DNA sequence specificity analysis. In this work we utilized the ABI 3730 capillary sequencer with laser-induced fluorescence to examine the sequence selectivity of cisplatin with purified DNA sequences. The use of this automated machine enabled a higher degree of precision of both position and intensity of cisplatin-DNA adducts than previously possible with manual and automated slab gel procedures. A problem with artefact bands was overcome by ethanol precipitation. It was found that cisplatin strongly formed adducts with telomeric DNA sequences. PMID:21678458

  3. Unlocking hidden genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Jonathan M.; Cochran, Duncan A. E.; Lala, Gita H.; Adams, Peter; Bryant, Darryn; Mitchelson, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the success of conventional Sanger sequencing, significant regions of many genomes still present major obstacles to sequencing. Here we propose a novel approach with the potential to alleviate a wide range of sequencing difficulties. The technique involves extracting target DNA sequence from variants generated by introduction of random mutations. The introduction of mutations does not destroy original sequence information, but distributes it amongst multiple variants. Some of these variants lack problematic features of the target and are more amenable to conventional sequencing. The technique has been successfully demonstrated with mutation levels up to an average 18% base substitution and has been used to read previously intractable poly(A), AT-rich and GC-rich motifs. PMID:14973330

  4. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  5. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  6. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  7. Characterizing Genetic Variants for Clinical Action

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Erin M.; Din-Lovinescu, Corina; Berg, Jonathan S.; Brooks, Lisa D.; Duncanson, Audrey; Dunn, Michael; Good, Peter; Hubbard, Tim; Jarvik, Gail P.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Sherry, Stephen T.; Aronson, Naomi; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Blumberg, Bruce; Calonge, Ned; Colhoun, Helen M.; Epstein, Robert S.; Flicek, Paul; Gordon, Erynn S.; Green, Eric D.; Green, Robert C.; Hurles, Matthew; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Knaus, William; Ledbetter, David H.; Levy, Howard P.; Lyon, Elaine; Maglott, Donna; McLeod, Howard L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Wicklund, Catherine; Manolio, Teri A.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Williams, Marc S.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies, DNA sequencing studies, and other genomic studies are finding an increasing number of genetic variants associated with clinical phenotypes that may be useful in developing diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategies for individual patients. However, few common variants have been integrated into routine clinical practice. The reasons for this are several, but two of the most significant are limited evidence about the clinical implications of the variants and a lack of a comprehensive knowledge base that captures genetic variants, their phenotypic associations, and other pertinent phenotypic information that is openly accessible to clinical groups attempting to interpret sequencing data. As the field of medicine begins to incorporate genome-scale analysis into clinical care, approaches need to be developed for collecting and characterizing data on the clinical implications of variants, developing consensus on their actionability, and making this information available for clinical use. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Wellcome Trust thus convened a workshop to consider the processes and resources needed to: 1) identify clinically valid genetic variants; 2) decide whether they are actionable and what the action should be; and 3) provide this information for clinical use. This commentary outlines the key discussion points and recommendations from the workshop. PMID:24634402

  8. Improving Learning and Teaching through Action Learning and Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skeriit, Ortrun

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical framework for action learning and action research is presented, as a basis for better understanding college instruction and learning. Action research is viewed as a philosophy, theory of learning, research methodology, and teaching technique. It is argued that action research both increases knowledge and improves teaching.…

  9. Multiplexed Fragaria Chloroplast Genome Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to sequence multiple chloroplast genomes that uses the sequencing depth of ultra high throughput sequencing technologies was recently described. Sequencing complete chloroplast genomes can resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels and identify point mutations and indels tha...

  10. Action perception in infancy: the plasticity of 7-month-olds' attention to grasping actions.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Wronski, Caroline; Harms, Annekatrin; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigates the plasticity of 7-month-old infants' orienting of attention during their perception of grasping actions. Previous research has shown that when infants observe a grasping hand, they shift their attention in line with the grasping direction, which is indicated by a reliable priming effect in this direction. The mechanisms behind this priming effect are largely unknown, and it is unclear how malleable this priming effect is with respect to a brief exposure to novel action-target contingencies. In a spatial-cueing paradigm, we presented a series of training trials prior to a series of test trials. These training sequences significantly modulated infants' attention. This suggests that action perception, when assessed through shifts of attention, is not solely based on the infants' grasping experience but quickly adapts to context-specific observed regularities. PMID:27093869

  11. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  12. Conclusions and Federal actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Findings regarding fluorocarbon production, the roles of ozone and fluorocarbons in atmospheric chemistry, the depletion of stratospheric ozone by fluorocarbons, and various effects of this depletion are outlined. Research into these areas is described and recommendations are given for governmental action to reduce the release of fluorocarbons to the environment.

  13. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  14. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  15. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  16. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  17. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  18. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  19. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  20. Community Action Curriculum Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Karen

    This compendium contains descriptions of 59 community action projects that receive academic credit from 48 colleges and universities. Brief descriptions are given of the diverse institutions offering such field work for credit, including information on enrollment and type (i.e., public, private, etc.). Although the characteristics of the programs…

  1. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  2. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  3. Early Childhood Action Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Nina Sazer

    In response to requests for information from people and organizations all over the United States on how to contribute to the healthy development of young children, the Families and Work Institute has gathered concrete suggestions from leaders in diverse fields into this booklet of action tips. This effort was undertaken to support the "I Am Your…

  4. Quick action clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  5. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  6. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  7. ACTION. Annual Report 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1978. The introduction notes a continued growth in programs and comments on new developments. Older American Volunteer Programs are discussed in the next section, specifically the Retired Senior Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and…

  8. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  9. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  10. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  11. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  12. From Intuition to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of principals intuitively believe that the arts belong in schools and in every child's life. Now is the time to take action on your intuition--and become an instructional leader for the arts, just as you are for every core subject. Arts-engaged principals share strategies for becoming instructional leaders for the arts.

  13. Action Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  14. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  15. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  16. Promoting Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, John

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a lesson on the extinction process allowing students to better understand why and how species become endangered before they attempt to take action on this problem. Provides background information and describes several suggested methodologies, evaluation and enrichment ideas, six resources, and two references. (LZ)

  17. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  18. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  19. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  20. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  1. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    As mandated by law, this 1983 revision describes the Oklahoma State Department of Education's Affirmative Action Plan and analyzes the employment patterns of the department's work force for that year in light of equal employment opportunity goals. Following a brief policy statement, the development, dissemination, and implementation of the plan…

  2. Conjugate flow action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  3. Gaze Following Is Modulated by Expectations Regarding Others’ Action Goals

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Osorio, Jairo; Müller, Hermann J.; Wiese, Eva; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others’ behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others’ mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants’ expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gaze-cueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an action-incongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent. PMID:26606534

  4. Action Capture: A VR-Based Method for Character Animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Bernhard; Amor, Heni Ben; Heumer, Guido; Vitzthum, Arnd

    This contribution describes a Virtual Reality (VR) based method for character animation that extends conventional motion capture by not only tracking an actor's movements but also his or her interactions with the objects of a virtual environment. Rather than merely replaying the actor's movements, the idea is that virtual characters learn to imitate the actor's goal-directed behavior while interacting with the virtual scene. Following Arbib's equation action = movement + goal we call this approach Action Capture. For this, the VR user's body movements are analyzed and transformed into a multi-layered action representation. Behavioral animation techniques are then applied to synthesize animations which closely resemble the demonstrated action sequences. As an advantage, captured actions can often be naturally applied to virtual characters of different sizes and body proportions, thus avoiding retargeting problems of motion capture.

  5. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  6. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  7. M&m Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Harris S.; Shiflett, Ray C.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a sequence recursively formed as follows: Start with three real numbers, and then when k are known, let the (k +1)st be such that the mean of all k +1 equals the median of the first k. The authors conjecture that every such sequence eventually becomes stable. This article presents results related to their conjecture.

  8. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  9. Twin Mitochondrial Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Yosr; Martinez, Selena; Gong, Henry; Dumas, Kevin; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2013-09-01

    When applying genome-wide sequencing technologies to disease investigation, it is increasingly important to resolve sequence variation in regions of the genome that may have homologous sequences. The human mitochondrial genome challenges interpretation given the potential for heteroplasmy, somatic variation, and homologous nuclear mitochondrial sequences (numts). Identical twins share the same mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from early life, but whether the mitochondrial sequence remains similar is unclear. We compared an adult monozygotic twin pair using high throughput-sequencing and evaluated variants with primer extension and mitochondrial pre-enrichment. Thirty-seven variants were shared between the twin individuals, and the variants were verified on the original genomic DNA. These studies support highly identical genetic sequence in this case. Certain low-level variant calls were of high quality and homology to the mitochondrial DNA, and they were further evaluated. When we assessed calls in pre-enriched mitochondrial DNA templates, we found that these may represent numts, which can be differentiated from mtDNA variation. We conclude that twin identity extends to mitochondrial DNA, and it is critical to differentiate between numts and mtDNA in genome sequencing, particularly since significant heteroplasmy could influence genome interpretation. Further studies on mtDNA and numts will aid in understanding how variation occurs and persists. PMID:24040623

  10. Sequences for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…

  11. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  12. Protein sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Bairoch, Amos; Wu, Cathy H

    2004-02-01

    A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases will play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. Several the leading protein sequence databases are discussed here, with special emphasis on the databases now provided by the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProt) consortium. PMID:15036160

  13. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  14. Nucleosome dynamics: Sequence matters.

    PubMed

    Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schiessel, Helmut; van Noort, John

    2016-06-01

    About three quarter of all eukaryotic DNA is wrapped around protein cylinders, forming nucleosomes. Even though the histone proteins that make up the core of nucleosomes are highly conserved in evolution, nucleosomes can be very different from each other due to posttranslational modifications of the histones. Another crucial factor in making nucleosomes unique has so far been underappreciated: the sequence of their DNA. This review provides an overview of the experimental and theoretical progress that increasingly points to the importance of the nucleosomal base pair sequence. Specifically, we discuss the role of the underlying base pair sequence in nucleosome positioning, sliding, breathing, force-induced unwrapping, dissociation and partial assembly and also how the sequence can influence higher-order structures. A new view emerges: the physical properties of nucleosomes, especially their dynamical properties, are determined to a large extent by the mechanical properties of their DNA, which in turn depends on DNA sequence. PMID:26896338

  15. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. PMID:24268321

  16. Infants' Enumeration of Actions: Numerical Discrimination and Its Signature Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2005-01-01

    Are abstract representations of number--representations that are independent of the particular type of entities that are enumerated--a product of human language or culture, or do they trace back to human infancy? To address this question, four experiments investigated whether human infants discriminate between sequences of actions (jumps of a…

  17. Perceiving Goals and Actions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyère, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to parse familiar sequences of action into meaningful events in young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as compared to young individuals with typical development (TD) and young individuals with moderate mental retardation or learning disabilities (MLDs). While viewing two…

  18. Action-perception coupling in violinists.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Takafumi; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Sparks, Joseph; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates auditory-motor coupling in musically trained participants using a Stroop-type task that required the execution of simple finger sequences according to aurally presented number sequences (e.g., "2," "4," "5," "3," "1"). Digital remastering was used to manipulate the pitch contour of the number sequences such that they were either congruent or incongruent with respect to the resulting action sequence. Conservatoire-level violinists showed a strong effect of congruency manipulation (increased response time for incongruent vs. congruent trials), in comparison to a control group of non-musicians. In Experiment 2, this paradigm was used to determine whether pedagogical background would influence this effect in a group of young violinists. Suzuki trained violinists differed significantly from those with no musical background, while traditionally trained violinists did not. The findings extend previous research in this area by demonstrating that obligatory audio-motor coupling is directly related to a musicians' expertise on their instrument of study and is influenced by pedagogy. PMID:23908612

  19. Action-perception coupling in violinists

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Takafumi; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Sparks, Joseph; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates auditory-motor coupling in musically trained participants using a Stroop-type task that required the execution of simple finger sequences according to aurally presented number sequences (e.g., “2,” “4,” “5,” “3,” “1”). Digital remastering was used to manipulate the pitch contour of the number sequences such that they were either congruent or incongruent with respect to the resulting action sequence. Conservatoire-level violinists showed a strong effect of congruency manipulation (increased response time for incongruent vs. congruent trials), in comparison to a control group of non-musicians. In Experiment 2, this paradigm was used to determine whether pedagogical background would influence this effect in a group of young violinists. Suzuki trained violinists differed significantly from those with no musical background, while traditionally trained violinists did not. The findings extend previous research in this area by demonstrating that obligatory audio-motor coupling is directly related to a musicians' expertise on their instrument of study and is influenced by pedagogy. PMID:23908612

  20. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian Thomas; Leitner, Thomas Kenneth; Apetrei, Cristian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette Tina Marie

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  1. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  2. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  3. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  4. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  5. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements. PMID:12346441

  6. Automated DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Yvonne; Morrell, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent cycle sequencing of PCR products is a multistage process and several methodologies are available to perform each stage. This chapter will describe the more commonly utilised dye-terminator cycle sequencing approach using BigDye® terminator chemistry (Applied Biosystems) ready for analysis on a 3730 DNA genetic analyzer. Even though DNA sequencing is one of the most common and robust techniques performed in molecular laboratories it may not always produce desirable results. The causes of the most common problems will also be discussed in this chapter. PMID:20938839

  7. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  8. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  9. Compact rotary sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Rotary sequencer is assembled from conventional planetary differential gearset and latching mechanism utilizing inputs and outputs which are coaxial. Applications include automated production-line equipment in home appliances and in vehicles.

  10. Sequencing Complex Genomic Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, Evan

    2009-05-28

    Evan Eichler, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator at the University of Washington, gives the May 28, 2009 keynote speech at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM. Part 1 of 2

  11. Sequencing Complex Genomic Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, Evan

    2009-05-28

    Evan Eichler, Howard Hughes Medical Investigator at the University of Washington, gives the May 28, 2009 keynote speech at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM. Part 2 of 2

  12. Authentication of byte sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1991-06-01

    Algorithms for the authentication of byte sequences are described. The algorithms are designed to authenticate data in the Storage, Retrieval, Analysis, and Display (SRAD) Test Data Archive of the Radiation Effects and Testing Directorate (9100) at Sandia National Laboratories, and may be used in similar situations where authentication of stored data is required. The algorithms use a well-known error detection method called the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). When a byte sequence is authenticated and stored, CRC bytes are generated and attached to the end of the sequence. When the authenticated data is retrieved, the authentication check consists of processing the entire sequence, including the CRC bytes, and checking for a remainder of zero. The error detection properties of the CRC are extensive and result in a reliable authentication of SRAD data.

  13. SINGLE CELL GENOME SEQUENCING

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing of single cells has become a powerful approach for studying uncultivated microorganisms that represent 90–99 % of all environmental microbes. Single cell sequencing enables not only the identification of microbes but also linking of functions to species, a feat not achievable by metagenomic techniques. Moreover, it allows the analysis of low abundance species that may be missed in community-based analyses. It has also proved very useful in complementing metagenomics in the assembly and binning of single genomes. With the advent of drastically cheaper and higher throughput sequencing technologies, it is expected that single cell sequencing will become a standard tool in studying the genome and transcriptome of microbial communities. PMID:22154471

  14. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  15. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  16. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Leitner, Thomas; Apetrei, Christian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  17. Burst diaphragm sequence valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisneskie, Bradley D.; Hyman, Sheldon; Hallum, Charles E.

    1991-11-01

    A burst diaphragm sequence valve which effectively combines the structure of a burst diaphragm with that of an ordinary swing check valve, the pivot of the ordinary swing check valve being replaced by an integral flexural hinge. The sequence valve provides a way to sequentially burn solid propellant hot gas generators which exit into a common gas manifold, thereby enabling gas-powered devices to operate for a longer time than the duration of one gas generator burn.

  18. Hierarchical processing in music, language, and action: Lashley revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-05-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized "syntax of action" necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion-that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions-is consistent with considerable experimental data. PMID:24697242

  19. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  20. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  1. Nanapore Sequencing with MSPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Jens H.

    2011-10-01

    Nanopore sequencing is the simplest concept of converting the sequence of a single DNA molecule directly into an electronic signal. We introduced the protein pore MspA. derived from Mycobacterium smegmatis, to nanpore sequencing [1]. MspA has a single, narrow (-1.2nm) and short (<1nm) constriction, ideal to identify single nucleotides. Compared to solid state devices, MspA is reproducible with sub-nanometer precision and is engineerable using genetic mutations. DNA moves through the pore at rates exceeding 1nt/microsec. too fast to observe the passage of each nucleotide. However, when DNA is held with double stranded DNA sections or an avidin anchor, single nucleotides resident in MspA's constriction can be identified with highly resolved current differences. We have provided proof of principle of a nanopore sequencing method [2] in which we use DNA modified by inserting double stranded DNA-sections between every nucleotide. The double stranded sections are designed to halt translocation for long enough to sequentially read the sequence of the original DNA molecule. Prospects and developments to sequence unmodified native DNA using MspA will be discussed.[4pt] [1] T.Z. Butler, et al, PNAS 105 20647 (2008)[0pt] [2] I.M. Derrington, et al, PNAS 107 16060 (2010).

  2. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  3. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  4. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  5. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  6. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  7. The Concept of Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on classic and emerging international literature, action learning is defined as learning form concrete experience and critical reflection on experience, focused on problem solving and change. Facilitators of action learning do not impose solutions but guide action learning teams through the process. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  8. Must Affirmative Action Be Divisive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Solomon Andhil

    1975-01-01

    Affirmative action is seen as causing dissension and cleavages in the civil rights coalition. Requisites suggested for winning support for affirmative action are thorough knowledge of its rationale and components, assuring whites they will not be pushed out of jobs, and a continued emphasis on the urgency for affirmative action. (Author/AM)

  9. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  10. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  11. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  12. Improvement of HMM-based action classification by using state transition probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Yuka; Aruga, Haruki; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2015-04-01

    We propose a method to classify multiple similar actions which are contained in human behaviors by considering a weak-constrained order of "actions". The proposed method regards the human behavior as a combination of "action" patterns which have order constrained weakly. In this method, actions are classified by using not only image features but also consistency of transitions between an action and next action. By considering such an action transition, our method can recognize human behavior even if image features of different action are similar to each other. Based on this idea, we have improved the previous HMM-based algorithm effectively. Through some experiments using test image sequences of human behavior appeared in a bathroom, we have confirmed that the average classification success rate is 97 %, which is about 53 % higher than the previous method.

  13. Linking differences in action perception with differences in action execution

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, A.; Bose, S.; Ricciardi, L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Successful human social interactions depend upon the transmission of verbal and non-verbal signals from one individual to another. Non-verbal social communication is realized through our ability to read and understand information present in other people’s actions. It has been proposed that employing the same motor programs, we use to execute an action when observing the same action underlies this action understanding. The main prediction of this framework is that action perception should be strongly correlated with parameters of action execution. Here, we demonstrate that subjects’ sensitivity to observed movement speeds is dependent upon how quickly they themselves executed the observed action. This result is consistent with the motor theory of social cognition and suggests that failures in non-verbal social interactions between individuals may in part result from differences in how those individuals move. PMID:25691777

  14. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  15. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  16. Ovarian actions of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Israel; Duleba, Antoni J

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in grapes, berries, and medicinal plants, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and has been proposed to be a longevity-prolonging agent. There is also growing evidence that resveratrol has cardioprotective properties and beneficial effects on both glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, several studies have examined the use of resveratrol as a therapeutic agent to treat numerous pathological and metabolic disorders. Herein, we present insights into the mechanisms of action, biological effects, and current evidence of actions of resveratrol on the ovary. In vitro, resveratrol inhibits proliferation and androgen production by theca-interstitial cells. Resveratrol also exerts a cytostatic, but not cytotoxic, effect on granulosa cells, while decreasing aromatization and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. In vivo, resveratrol treatment reduced the size of adipocytes and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, resveratrol increased the ovarian follicular reserve and prolonged the ovarian life span in rats. Taken together, resveratrol emerges as a potential therapeutic agent to treat conditions associated with androgen excess, such as PCOS. The efficacy of resveratrol in the treatment of gynecological conditions requires further investigation. PMID:26315293

  17. Neuroprotective Actions of Neurosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Borowicz, Kinga K.; Piskorska, Barbara; Banach, Monika; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J.

    2011-01-01

    Neurosteroids were initially defined as steroid hormones locally synthesized within the nervous tissue. Subsequently, they were described as steroid hormone derivatives that devoid hormonal action but still affect neuronal excitability through modulation of ionotropic receptors. Neurosteroids are further subdivided into natural (produced in the brain) and synthetic. Some authors distinguish between hormonal and regular neurosteroids in the group of natural ones. The latter group, including hormone metabolites like allopregnanolone or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, is devoid of hormonal activity. Both hormones and their derivatives share, however, most of the physiological functions. It is usually very difficult to distinguish the effects of hormones and their metabolites. All these substances may influence seizure phenomena and exhibit neuroprotective effects. Neuroprotection offered by steroid hormones may be realized in both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms and involve regulation of the pro- and anti-apoptotic factors expression, intracellular signaling pathways, neurotransmission, oxidative, and inflammatory processes. Since regular neurosteroids show no affinity for steroid receptors, they may act only in a non-genomic mode. Multiple studies have been conducted so far to show efficacy of neurosteroids in the treatment of the central and peripheral nervous system injury, ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases, or seizures. In this review we focused primarily on neurosteroid mechanisms of action and their role in the process of neurodegeneration. Most of the data refers to results obtained in experimental studies. However, it should be realized that knowledge about neuroactive steroids remains still incomplete and requires confirmation in clinical conditions. PMID:22649375

  18. Controlled processing during sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6) in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region’s activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations. PMID:26578941

  19. Move Your Audience to Action: Using YouTube to Teach Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 75 years, instructors have taught students to use Monroe's (1935) Motivated Sequence (MMS) when organizing speeches designed to move audiences to action. However, modern approaches to teaching the sequence are needed to help instructors remain relevant and effective. This activity advocates the use of constructivist pedagogical…

  20. Human action recognition using motion energy template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yanhua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Human action recognition is an active and interesting research topic in computer vision and pattern recognition field that is widely used in the real world. We proposed an approach for human activity analysis based on motion energy template (MET), a new high-level representation of video. The main idea for the MET model is that human actions could be expressed as the composition of motion energy acquired in a three-dimensional (3-D) space-time volume by using a filter bank. The motion energies were directly computed from raw video sequences, thus some problems, such as object location and segmentation, etc., are definitely avoided. Another important competitive merit of this MET method is its insensitivity to gender, hair, and clothing. We extract MET features by using the Bhattacharyya coefficient to measure the motion energy similarity between the action template video and the tested video, and then the 3-D max-pooling. Using these features as input to the support vector machine, extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets, Weizmann and KTH, were carried out. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, such as variation energy image, dynamic templates and local motion pattern descriptors, the experimental results demonstrate that our MET model is competitive and promising.

  1. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  2. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    PubMed

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  3. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  4. DNA sequencing: chemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, B.J.B.; Pless, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Limited base-specific or base-selective cleavage of a defined DNA fragment yields polynucleotide products, the length of which correlates with the positions of the particular base (or bases) in the original fragment. Sverdlov and co-workers recognized the possibility of using this principle for the determination of DNA sequences. In 1977 a fully elaborated method was introduced based on this principle, which allowed routine analysis of DNA sequences over distances greater than 100 nucleotide unite from a defined, radiolabeled terminus. Six procedures for partial cleavage were described. Simultaneous parallel resolution of an appropriate set of partial cleavage mixtures by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by visualization of the radioactive bands by autoradiography, allows the deduction of nucleotide sequence.

  5. Sequencing the Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Zador, Anthony M.; Dubnau, Joshua; Oyibo, Hassana K.; Zhan, Huiqing; Cao, Gang; Peikon, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Connectivity determines the function of neural circuits. Historically, circuit mapping has usually been viewed as a problem of microscopy, but no current method can achieve high-throughput mapping of entire circuits with single neuron precision. Here we describe a novel approach to determining connectivity. We propose BOINC (“barcoding of individual neuronal connections”), a method for converting the problem of connectivity into a form that can be read out by high-throughput DNA sequencing. The appeal of using sequencing is that its scale—sequencing billions of nucleotides per day is now routine—is a natural match to the complexity of neural circuits. An inexpensive high-throughput technique for establishing circuit connectivity at single neuron resolution could transform neuroscience research. PMID:23109909

  6. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  7. Ranking and Sequencing Model

    2009-08-13

    This database application (commonly called the Supermodel) provides a repository for managing critical facility/project information, allows the user to subjectively an objectively assess key criteria , quantify project risks, develop ROM cost estimates, determine facility/project end states, ultimately performing risk-based modeling to rank facilities/project based on risk, sequencing project schedules and provides an optimized recommended sequencing/scheduling of these projects which maximize the S&M cost savings to perform closure projects which benefit all stakeholders.

  8. Microchips for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrangelo, Carlos H.; Palaniappan, S.; Man, Piu Francis; Burns, Mark A.; Burke, David T.

    1999-08-01

    Genetic information is vital for understanding features and response of an organism. In humans, genetic errors are linked to the development of major diseases such as cancer and diabetes. In order to maximally exploit this information it is necessary to develop miniature sequencing assays that are rapid and inexpensive. In this paper we show how this could be attained with microfluidic chips that contain integrated assays. To date simple silicon/glass chips aimed for sequencing purpose have been realized; but these chips are not yet practical. Some of the solutions that are used to bring these devices closer to commercial applications are discussed.

  9. Testing fractional action cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  10. The Quench Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  11. Guam Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  12. Cardiovascular actions of berberine.

    PubMed

    Lau, C W; Yao, X Q; Chen, Z Y; Ko, W H; Huang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Berberine, is an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Chinese herb Huanglian, and many other plants. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as an antimicrobial in the treatment of dysentery and infectious diarrhea. This manuscript describes cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives, tetrahydroberberine and 8-oxoberberine. Berberine has positive inotropic, negative chronotropic, antiarrhythmic, and vasodilator properties. Both derivatives of berberine have antiarrhythmic activity. Some cardiovascular effects of berberine and its derivatives are attributed to the blockade of K+ channels (delayed rectifier and K(ATP)) and stimulation of Na+ -Ca(2+) exchanger. Berberine has been shown to prolong the duration of ventricular action potential. Its vasodilator activity has been attributed to multiple cellular mechanisms. The cardiovascular effects of berberine suggest its possible clinical usefulness in the treatment of arrhythmias and/or heart failure. PMID:11607041

  13. Control for stochastic sampling variation and qualitative sequencing error in next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Thomas; Crawford, Erin L.; Yeo, Jiyoun; Zhang, Xiaolu; Willey, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical implementation of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is challenged by poor control for stochastic sampling, library preparation biases and qualitative sequencing error. To address these challenges we developed and tested two hypotheses. Methods Hypothesis 1: Analytical variation in quantification is predicted by stochastic sampling effects at input of (a) amplifiable nucleic acid target molecules into the library preparation, (b) amplicons from library into sequencer, or (c) both. We derived equations using Monte Carlo simulation to predict assay coefficient of variation (CV) based on these three working models and tested them against NGS data from specimens with well characterized molecule inputs and sequence counts prepared using competitive multiplex-PCR amplicon-based NGS library preparation method comprising synthetic internal standards (IS). Hypothesis 2: Frequencies of technically-derived qualitative sequencing errors (i.e., base substitution, insertion and deletion) observed at each base position in each target native template (NT) are concordant with those observed in respective competitive synthetic IS present in the same reaction. We measured error frequencies at each base position within amplicons from each of 30 target NT, then tested whether they correspond to those within the 30 respective IS. Results For hypothesis 1, the Monte Carlo model derived from both sampling events best predicted CV and explained 74% of observed assay variance. For hypothesis 2, observed frequency and type of sequence variation at each base position within each IS was concordant with that observed in respective NTs (R2 = 0.93). Conclusion In targeted NGS, synthetic competitive IS control for stochastic sampling at input of both target into library preparation and of target library product into sequencer, and control for qualitative errors generated during library preparation and sequencing. These controls enable accurate clinical diagnostic reporting of

  14. Simulation of Accident Sequences Including Emergency Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Queral, Cesar; Exposito, Antonio; Hortal, Javier

    2004-07-01

    Operator actions play an important role in accident sequences. However, design analysis (Safety Analysis Report, SAR) seldom includes consideration of operator actions, although they are required by compulsory Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) to perform some checks and actions from the very beginning of the accident. The basic aim of the project is to develop a procedure validation system which consists of the combination of three elements: a plant transient simulation code TRETA (a C based modular program) developed by the CSN, a computerized procedure system COPMA-III (Java technology based program) developed by the OECD-Halden Reactor Project and adapted for simulation with the contribution of our group and a software interface that provides the communication between COPMA-III and TRETA. The new combined system is going to be applied in a pilot study in order to analyze sequences initiated by secondary side breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plant. (authors)

  15. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  16. Infants learn enduring functions of novel tools from action demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Hernik, Mikołaj; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    According to recent theoretical proposals, one function of infant goal attribution is to support early social learning of artifact functions from instrumental actions, and one function of infant sensitivity to communication is to support early acquisition of generic knowledge about enduring, kind-relevant properties of the referents. The present study tested two hypotheses, derived from these proposals, about the conditions that facilitate the acquisition of enduring functions for novel tools in human infancy. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we show that 13.5-months-old infants encode arbitrary end-states of action-sequences in relation to the novel tools employed to bring them about. These mappings are not formed if the same end states of action sequences cannot be interpreted as action goals. Moreover, the tool-goal mappings acquired from infant-directed communicative demonstrations are more resilient to counter-evidence than those acquired from non-infant-directed presentations, and thus show similarities to generic rather than episodic representations. These findings suggest that the acquisition of tool functions in infancy is guided by both teleological action interpretation mechanisms and the expectation that communicative demonstrations reveal enduring dispositional properties of tools. PMID:25462040

  17. The Compliment Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Anntarie L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes and examines 150 tape-recorded compliment sequences. Reports that the course and outcome of compliments and compliment responses are affected by: (1) the way a compliment is worded; (2) the type of statement that precedes or follows the compliment; and (3) the status and sex of the compliment participants. (RAE)

  18. A Sequence of Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Hoping to develop in her students an understanding of mathematics as a way of thinking more than a way of doing, the author of this article describes how her students worked on a spatial reasoning problem stemming from an iteratively constructed sequence of cylinders. She presents an activity of making cylinders out of paper models, and for every…

  19. Sequences show rapid motor transfer and spatial translation in the oculomotor system.

    PubMed

    Stainer, Matthew J; Carpenter, R H S; Brotchie, Peter; Anderson, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Every day we perform learnt sequences of actions that seem to happen almost without awareness. It has been argued that for learning such sequences parallel learning networks exist - one using spatial coordinates and one using motor coordinates - with sequence acquisition involving a progressive shift from the former to the latter as a sequence is rehearsed. When sequences are interrupted by an out-of-sequence target, there is a delay in the response to the target, and so here we transiently interrupt oculomotor sequences to probe the influence of oculomotor rehearsal and spatial coordinates in sequence acquisition. For our main experiments, we used a repeating sequences of eight targets in length that was first learnt either using saccadic eye movements (left/right), manual responses (left/right or up/down) or as a sequence of colour (blue/red) requiring no motor response. The sequence was immediately repeated for saccadic eye movements, during which the influence of on out-of-sequence target (an interruption) was assessed. When a sequence is learnt beforehand in an abstract way (for example, as a sequence of colours or of orthogonally mapped manual responses), interruptions are immediately disruptive to latency, suggesting neither motor rehearsal nor specific spatial coordinates are essential for encoding sequences of actions and that sequences - no matter how they are encoded - can be rapidly translated into oculomotor coordinates. The magnitude of a disruption does, however, correspond to how well a sequence is learnt: introducing an interruption to an extended sequence before it was reliably learnt reduces the magnitude of the latency disruption. PMID:27317977

  20. On "action language" in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Calogeras, R C; Alston, T M

    1980-10-01

    The main tenets of action language are summarized in an attempt to discern the direction in which psychoanalysis might go if action language becomes the "new metapsychology." The principal roots of action language are traced to the different linguistic/language and personality-and-culture models of anthropology and to the neobehaviorist currents of academic psychology. The authors' findings support the hypothesis that action language is a form os psychoanalytic behaviorism having idealism, logical positivism, and radical empiricism as its philosophical underpinnings. Its adoption would confound the entire motivational aspect of psychoanalysis. Specifically, the authors suggest that action language falls under the aegis of Wittgenstein's family of language games. When the action language game is said to be brought to a successful resolution, the language game disappears and, supposedly, so do the patient's conflicts. PMID:7422749

  1. 22 CFR 223.11 - Appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriate action. 223.11 Section 223.11...-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.11 Appropriate action. The Administrator may take appropriate action in the... action....

  2. Representing actions through their sound.

    PubMed

    Aglioti, Salvatore M; Pazzaglia, Mariella

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of 'mirror neurons' in the monkey premotor and parietal cortex, an increasing body of evidence in animals and humans alike has supported the notion of the inextricable link between action execution and action perception. Although research originally focused on the relationship between performed and viewed actions, more recent studies highlight the importance of representing the actions of others through audition. In the first part of this article, we discuss animal studies, which provide direct evidence that action is inherently linked to multi-sensory cues, as well as the studies carried out on healthy subjects by using state-of-the-art cognitive neuroscience techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), event-related potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In the second section, we review the lesion analysis studies in brain-damaged patients demonstrating the link between 'resonant' fronto-parieto-temporal networks and the ability to represent an action by hearing its sound. Moreover, we examine the evidence in favour of somatotopy as a possible representational rule underlying the auditory mapping of actions and consider the links between language and audio-motor action mapping. We conclude with a discussion of some outstanding questions for future research on the link between actions and the sounds they produce. PMID:20602092

  3. Numbers in Action

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL. PMID:27524965

  4. Pharmacogenetics of FSH action

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Maris; Grigorova, Marina; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the review To review the current knowledge of genetic variants in the two genes affecting the individual responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action—the FSH beta-subunit (FSHB) and the FSH receptor (FSHR), as well as the pharmacogenetic ramifications of the findings. Recent findings Four common variants in FSHB/FSHR were shown to exhibit significant effect on FSH action: linked FSHR variants Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser determining common receptorisoforms, andgene expression affecting polymorphisms FSHR –29G/A and FSHB–211G/T. In women, the FSHR Thr307Ala/Asn680Ser polymorphisms show consistent predictive value for estimating the most optimal rFSH dosage in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation(COH).The same variants exhibit a potential for the pharmacogenetic assessment of the treatment ofPCOS. The FSHR–29G/A variant was also shown to contribute to ovarian response to COH. Pilot studies have suggestedthe FSHB–211TT-homozygous oligozoospermicmen with genetically determined low concentration of FSH, as potentially the best responders to FSH treatment; furthermore, modulation of this response by FSHR polymorphisms is possible. Summary Genetic variants in FSHB/FSHRexhibit a potential for pharmacogenetic applications in selecting appropriate treatment options (timing and dosage) in male and female conditions requiring or benefitting from FSH therapy. PMID:22499219

  5. Nonclassical Vitamin D Action

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Gummert, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5-15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L). PMID:22254030

  6. Less chalk more action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  7. Mobilizing grassroots action.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Zero Population Growth, Inc. (ZPG), was very busy in 1994 spreading its message about the dangers of rapid population growth. ZPG's Field and Outreach Program is vital to the success of the organization. Organization activists staffed tables at more than 170 events in 1994, while the Speakers Network gave 159 presentations. ZPG was represented on Earth Day, World Population Day, during World Population Awareness Week, and at Cairo town meetings, as well as at the HORDE rock festival and the 25th anniversary of the Woodstock Music Festival. Campus contacts developed at these latter two concerts formed the basic for ZPG's Campus Outreach Project. In 1994, the Field department focused upon the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo, Egypt. ZPG encouraged people to get involved in conference preparations by helping to plan and implement town meetings in eleven major US cities. Members were contacted by ZPG via flyers and phone calls about meetings in their areas. ZPG activists and chapters then provided leadership for many of the meetings which drew thousands of participants and were widely praised by national leaders. Throughout 1994, ZPG's 21 chapters provided members with a vehicle for collective action and a source of information about the population conference, population growth, and wasteful consumption. Chapter activists also helped secure the signatures of thousands of people on Population Priority Petitions; the final list of names was delivered to US Vice President Al Gore in November. PMID:12289955

  8. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  9. Action selection and action value in frontal-striatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Moonsang; Lee, Eunjeong; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The role that frontal-striatal circuits play in normal behavior remains unclear. Two of the leading hypotheses suggest that these circuits are important for action selection or reinforcement learning. To examine these hypotheses we carried out an experiment in which monkeys had to select actions in two different task conditions. In the first (random) condition actions were selected on the basis of perceptual inference. In the second (fixed) condition the animals used reinforcement from previous trials to select actions. Examination of neural activity showed that the representation of the selected action was stronger in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and occurred earlier in the lPFC than it did in the dorsal striatum (dSTR). In contrast to this, the representation of action values, in both the random and fixed conditions was stronger in the dSTR. Thus, the dSTR contains an enriched representation of action value, but it followed frontal cortex in action selection. PMID:22681697

  10. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Huis In ‘t Veld, Elisabeth M. J.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity. PMID:25294993

  11. Higher-order action planning for individual and joint object manipulations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Hunnius, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Many actions involve multiple action steps, which raises the question how far ahead people plan when they perform such actions. Here, we examined higher-order planning for action sequences and whether people planned similarly or differently when acting individually or together with an action partner. For individual performances, participants picked up an object with one hand and passed it to their other hand before placing it onto a target location. For joint performances, they picked up the object and handed it to their action partner, who placed it onto the target location. Each object could be grasped at only two possible grasping positions, implying that the first selected grasp on the object determined the postures for the rest of the action sequence. By varying the height of the target shelf, we tested whether people planned ahead and modulated their grasp choices to avoid uncomfortable end postures. Our results indicated that participants engaged in higher-order planning, but needed task experience before demonstrating such planning during both individual and joint performances. The rate of learning was similar in the two conditions, and participants transferred experience from individual to joint performance. Our results indicate similarity in mechanisms underlying individual and joint action sequence planning. PMID:23361302

  12. Transposon facilitated DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Berg, C.M.; Huang, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods that exploit the power of bacterial transposable elements for large scale DNA sequencing: Our premise is that the use of transposons to put primer binding sites randomly in target DNAs should provide access to all portions of large DNA fragments, without the inefficiencies of methods involving random subcloning and attendant repetitive sequencing, or of sequential synthesis of many oligonucleotide primers that are used to match systematically along a DNA molecule. Two unrelated bacterial transposons, Tn5 and {gamma}{delta}, are being used because they have both proven useful for molecular analyses, and because they differ sufficiently in mechanism and specificity of transposition to merit parallel development.

  13. RNA Sequencing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Teng, Shaolei

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a serious psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of general population and places a heavy burden worldwide. The underlying genetic mechanism of SCZ remains unknown, but studies indicate that the disease is associated with a global gene expression disturbance across many genes. Next-generation sequencing, particularly of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), provides a powerful genome-scale technology to investigate the pathological processes of SCZ. RNA-Seq has been used to analyze the gene expressions and identify the novel splice isoforms and rare transcripts associated with SCZ. This paper provides an overview on the genetics of SCZ, the advantages of RNA-Seq for transcriptome analysis, the accomplishments of RNA-Seq in SCZ cohorts, and the applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and RNA-Seq in SCZ research. PMID:27053919

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. HIV sequence compendium 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Freed, Eric; Hahn, Beatrice; Marx, Preston; McCutchan, Francine; Mellors, John; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2002-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Traditionally, we present the sequence data themselves in the form of alignments: Section II, an alignment of a selection of HIV-1/SIVcpz full-length genomes (a lot of LAI-like sequences, for example, have been omitted because they are so similar that they bias the alignment); Section III, a combined HIV-1/HIV-2/SIV whole genome alignment; Sections IV–VI, amino acid alignments for HIV-1/SIV-cpz, HIV-2/SIV, and SIVagm. The HIV-2/SIV and SIVagm amino acid alignments are separate because the genetic distances between these groups are so great that presenting them in one alignment would make it very elongated because of the large number of gaps that have to be inserted. As always, tables with extensive background information gathered from the literature accompany the whole genome alignments. The collection of whole-gene sequences in the database is now large enough that we have abundant representation of most subtypes. For many subtypes, and especially for subtype B, a large number of sequences that span entire genes were not included in the printed alignments to conserve space. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/ALIGN_CURRENT/ALIGN-INDEX.html. Importantly, all these alignments have been edited to include only one sequence per person, based on phylogenetic trees that were created for all of them, as well as on the literature. Because of the number of sequences available, we have decided to use a different selection principle this year, based on the epidemiological importance of the subtypes. Subtypes A–D and CRFs 01 and 02 are by far the most widespread variants, and for these (when available) we have included 8–10 representatives in the alignments. The other

  16. Identification of antimicrobial peptides from teleosts and anurans in expressed sequence tag databases using conserved signal sequences.

    PubMed

    Tessera, Valentina; Guida, Filomena; Juretić, Davor; Tossi, Alessandro

    2012-03-01

    The problem of multidrug resistance requires the efficient and accurate identification of new classes of antimicrobial agents. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides produced by most organisms are a promising source of such molecules. We have exploited the high conservation of signal sequences in teleost and anuran antimicrobial peptides to search cDNA (expressed sequence tag) databases for likely candidates. Subject sequences were then analysed for the presence of potential antimicrobial peptides based on physicochemical properties (amphipathic helical structure, cationicity) and use of the D-descriptor model to predict the therapeutic index (relation between the minimum inhibitory concentration and the concentration giving 50% haemolysis). This analysis also suggested mutations to probe the role of the primary structure in determining potency and selectivity. Selected sequences were chemically synthesized and the antimicrobial activity of the peptides was confirmed. In particular, a short (21-residue) sequence, likely of sticklefish origin, showed potent activity and it was possible to tune the spectrum of action and/or selectivity by combining three directed mutations. Membrane permeabilization studies on both bacterial and host cells indicate that the mode of action was prevalently membranolytic. This method opens up the possibility for more effective searching of the vast and continuously growing expressed sequence tag databases for novel antimicrobial peptides, which are likely abundant, and the efficient identification of the most promising candidates among them. PMID:22188679

  17. 24 CFR 984.201 - Action Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action Plan. 984.201 Section 984... § 984.201 Action Plan. (a) Requirement for Action Plan. A PHA must have a HUD-approved Action Plan that... program is a mandatory or voluntary program. (b) Development of Action Plan. The Action Plan shall...

  18. 24 CFR 984.201 - Action Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action Plan. 984.201 Section 984... § 984.201 Action Plan. (a) Requirement for Action Plan. A PHA must have a HUD-approved Action Plan that... program is a mandatory or voluntary program. (b) Development of Action Plan. The Action Plan shall...

  19. 40 CFR 66.81 - Final action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final action. 66.81 Section 66.81... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Final Action § 66.81 Final action. (a) A final Agency action... State action pursuant to part 67. (b) The actions listed in paragraph (a) of this section...

  20. 40 CFR 265.303 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....301(a) must develop and keep on site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of...

  1. 40 CFR 264.304 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow...

  2. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 265.254 must develop and keep on-site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of...

  3. 40 CFR 264.223 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 264.221 (c) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section....

  4. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 265.254 must develop and keep on-site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of...

  5. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 265.254 must develop and keep on-site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of...

  6. 40 CFR 264.253 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the...

  7. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 265.254 must develop and keep on-site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of...

  8. 40 CFR 264.223 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 264.221 (c) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section....

  9. 40 CFR 264.304 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow...

  10. 40 CFR 264.304 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow...

  11. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the...

  12. 40 CFR 264.223 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 264.221 (c) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section....

  13. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the...

  14. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the...

  15. 40 CFR 265.259 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 265.254 must develop and keep on-site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of...

  16. 40 CFR 264.304 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow...

  17. 40 CFR 264.304 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow...

  18. Sequencing BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d {N}=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  19. Multiview image sequence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Luong, Hiêp; Ružic, Tijana; Philips, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    Realistic visualization is crucial for more intuitive representation of complex data, medical imaging, simulation and entertainment systems. Multiview autostereoscopic displays are great step towards achieving complete immersive user experience. However, providing high quality content for this type of displays is still a great challenge. Due to the different characteristics/settings of the cameras in the multivew setup and varying photometric characteristics of the objects in the scene, the same object may have different appearance in the sequences acquired by the different cameras. Images representing views recorded using different cameras in practice have different local noise, color and sharpness characteristics. View synthesis algorithms introduce artefacts due to errors in disparity estimation/bad occlusion handling or due to erroneous warping function estimation. If the input multivew images are not of sufficient quality and have mismatching color and sharpness characteristics, these artifacts may become even more disturbing. The main goal of our method is to simultaneously perform multiview image sequence denoising, color correction and the improvement of sharpness in slightly blurred regions. Results show that the proposed method significantly reduces the amount of the artefacts in multiview video sequences resulting in a better visual experience.

  20. The developing cognitive substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: evidence for concurrent activation models.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, S A; Paulus, M; Spapé, M; Biro, S; Hommel, B

    2015-05-01

    Nine-month-olds start to perform sequential actions. Yet, it remains largely unknown how they acquire and control such actions. We studied infants' sequential-action control by employing a novel gaze-contingent eye tracking paradigm. Infants experienced occulo-motor action sequences comprising two elementary actions. To contrast chaining, concurrent and integrated models of sequential-action control, we then selectively activated secondary actions to assess interactions with the primary actions. Behavioral and pupillometric results suggest 12-month-olds acquire sequential action without elaborate strategy through exploration. Furthermore, the inhibitory mechanisms ensuring ordered performance develop between 9 and 12 months of age, and are best captured by concurrent models. PMID:25704583

  1. Sequence logos: a new way to display consensus sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, T D; Stephens, R M

    1990-01-01

    A graphical method is presented for displaying the patterns in a set of aligned sequences. The characters representing the sequence are stacked on top of each other for each position in the aligned sequences. The height of each letter is made proportional to its frequency, and the letters are sorted so the most common one is on top. The height of the entire stack is then adjusted to signify the information content of the sequences at that position. From these 'sequence logos', one can determine not only the consensus sequence but also the relative frequency of bases and the information content (measured in bits) at every position in a site or sequence. The logo displays both significant residues and subtle sequence patterns. PMID:2172928

  2. A vision for ubiquitous sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Genomics has recently celebrated reaching the $1000 genome milestone, making affordable DNA sequencing a reality. With this goal successfully completed, the next goal of the sequencing revolution can be sequencing sensors—miniaturized sequencing devices that are manufactured for real-time applications and deployed in large quantities at low costs. The first part of this manuscript envisions applications that will benefit from moving the sequencers to the samples in a range of domains. In the second part, the manuscript outlines the critical barriers that need to be addressed in order to reach the goal of ubiquitous sequencing sensors. PMID:26430149

  3. High-Throughput Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Jason A.; Spacek, Damek; Snyder, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The human genome sequence has profoundly altered our understanding of biology, human diversity and disease. The path from the first draft sequence to our nascent era of personal genomes and genomic medicine has been made possible only because of the extraordinary advancements in DNA sequencing technologies over the past ten years. Here, we discuss commonly used high-throughput sequencing platforms, the growing array of sequencing assays developed around them as well as the challenges facing current sequencing platforms and their clinical application. PMID:26000844

  4. A Toolkit for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This book facilitates the completion of action research studies by providing a series of tasks that guide action researchers from the beginning of a project and selecting a topic for study, to completion of the project and editing final reports. All too often, students and practicing professionals in professional development schools are…

  5. Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Ike

    1996-01-01

    Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites. (GR)

  6. Action Research Empowers School Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…

  7. Action Research: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Renée N.

    2014-01-01

    Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…

  8. Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Bird, Geoffrey; Walsh, Eamonn; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a potential discontinuity between monkey and human ventral premotor-parietal mirror systems, namely that monkey mirror systems process only transitive (object-directed) actions, whereas human mirror systems may also process intransitive (non-object-directed) actions. The present study investigated this discontinuity…

  9. Community Action for Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    For citizens who want to participate in practical action to make their communities better places for living, this guide considers numerous approaches for community involvement. It stresses not only comprehensive planning but also the importance of getting action started. A rough order of business is suggested. First, considered are the various…

  10. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  11. Action Research and Teacher Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Karel; Ponte, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on a case study into the influence and impact of action research carried out by teachers in a special school. The action research was an important component of the two-year, post-initial, in-service course in special educational needs, provided by Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Department of Inclusive and…

  12. Thought and Action in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  13. Action Learning in the BBC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eversley; Keevill, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This account tells the story of the development of an action learning culture in the BBC between 2002 and 2007. From its early beginnings as a sporadic, unsystematic intervention with a small number of leaders scattered throughout the organisation, action learning has now become embedded in our approach to the way we develop our leaders. In this…

  14. Integrating CHAT and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…

  15. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  16. Action Understanding as Inverse Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…

  17. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  18. Taking Action with Teacher Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Ellen; Rust, Frances O'Connell

    This collection of papers presents examples of teacher research in action. Each study grew out of teachers' questions regarding the implementation of some aspect of education policy in their schools and classrooms. After "Introduction" (Frances O'Connell Rust and Ellen Meyers), the eight papers focus on: (1) "How We Do Action Research" (Frances…

  19. Over-imitation is not automatic: context sensitivity in children's overimitation and action interpretation of causally irrelevant actions.

    PubMed

    Keupp, Stefanie; Behne, Tanya; Zachow, Joanna; Kasbohm, Alina; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has documented the robust tendency of children to "over-imitate," that is, to copy causally irrelevant action elements in goal-directed action sequences. Different explanations for over-imitation have been proposed. Causal accounts claim that children mistakenly perceive such action elements as causally relevant and, therefore, imitate them. Affiliation accounts claim that children over-imitate to affiliate with the model. Normative accounts claim that children conceive of causally irrelevant actions as essential parts of an overarching conventional activity. These different accounts generally hold the same predictions regarding children's imitative response. However, it is possible to distinguish between them when one considers additional parameters. The normative account predicts wide-ranging flexibility with regard to action interpretation and the occurrence of over-imitation. First, it predicts spontaneous protest against norm violators who omit the causally irrelevant actions. Second, children should perform the causally irrelevant actions less frequently, and criticize others less frequently for omitting them, when the actions take place in a different context from the one of the initial demonstration. Such flexibility is not predicted by causal accounts and is predicted for only a limited range of contexts by affiliation accounts. Study 1 investigated children's own imitative response and found less over-imitation when children acted in a different context from when they acted in the same context as the initial demonstration. In Study 2, children criticized a puppet less frequently for omitting irrelevant actions when the puppet acted in a different context. The results support the notion that over-imitation is not an automatic and inflexible phenomenon. PMID:25462039

  20. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons' discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons' discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  1. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons’ discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons’ discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  2. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit

    PubMed Central

    Plata, Víctor; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús; Hernández-Martinez, Ricardo; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colín, René; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    The question to solve in the present work is: what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs) in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA) such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non-specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA. PMID:24223538

  3. The development of action planning in a joint action context.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus. Their task was to hand the experimenter a tool with which she could activate 1 of 2 different effects on the apparatus. The elicitation of each effect required participants to grasp and insert the tool in a particular orientation. We assessed whether participants planned their grasping and reaching action in such a way that it enabled the partner to efficiently handle the tool, that is, anticipating the final end state of the joint activity. We found that 3-year-old children did not adjust their behavior to accommodate the other's action and that they did not increase their performance over multiple trials. Five- and 7-year-old children initially showed a tendency to plan their action in an egocentric manner (i.e., showed a form of egocentrism), but improved their joint action performance over time. Adult participants demonstrated joint action planning from the beginning. Interestingly, 3- and 5-year-old children were able to plan their grasp efficiently when acting alone on the apparatus. Yet, having first-hand experience with the task before acting with a partner did not facilitate performance in the joint action task for younger children. Overall, the study informs current approaches on the psychological basis and ontogenetic origins of joint action in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337512

  4. Conscious vision for action versus unconscious vision for action?

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2011-08-01

    David Milner and Melvyn Goodale's dissociation hypothesis is commonly taken to state that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in striate (V1) cortex: a dorsal, action-related "unconscious" stream and a ventral, perception-related "conscious" stream. As Milner and Goodale acknowledge, findings from blindsight studies suggest a more sophisticated picture that replaces the distinction between unconscious vision for action and conscious vision for perception with a tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. The combination excluded by the tripartite division is the possibility of conscious vision for action. But are there good grounds for concluding that there is no conscious vision for action? There is now overwhelming evidence that illusions and perceived size can have a significant effect on action (Bruno & Franz, 2009; Dassonville & Bala, 2004; Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008; McIntosh & Lashley, 2008). There is also suggestive evidence that any sophisticated visual behavior requires collaboration between the two visual streams at every stage of the process (Schenk & McIntosh, 2010). I nonetheless want to make a case for the tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. My aim here is not to refute the evidence showing that conscious vision can affect action but rather to argue (a) that we cannot gain cognitive access to action-guiding dorsal stream representations, and (b) that these representations do not correlate with phenomenal consciousness. This vindicates the semi-conservative view that the dissociation hypothesis is best understood as a tripartite division. PMID:21790744

  5. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  6. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.

  7. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations. PMID:27044118

  8. Volumetric spatial feature representation for view-invariant human action recognition using a depth camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Lee, A.-Reum; Suk, Heung-Il; Park, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2015-03-01

    The problem of viewpoint variations is a challenging issue in vision-based human action recognition. With the richer information provided by three-dimensional (3-D) point clouds thanks to the advent of 3-D depth cameras, we can effectively analyze spatial variations in human actions. In this paper, we propose a volumetric spatial feature representation (VSFR) that measures the density of 3-D point clouds for view-invariant human action recognition from depth sequence images. Using VSFR, we construct a self-similarity matrix (SSM) that can graphically represent temporal variations in the depth sequence. To obtain an SSM, we compute the squared Euclidean distance of VSFRs between a pair of frames in a video sequence. In this manner, an SSM represents the dissimilarity between a pair of frames in terms of spatial information in a video sequence captured at an arbitrary viewpoint. Furthermore, due to the use of a bag-of-features method for feature representations, the proposed method efficiently handles the variations of action speed or length. Hence, our method is robust to both variations in viewpoints and lengths of action sequences. We evaluated the proposed method by comparing with state-of-the-art methods in the literature on three public datasets of ACT42, MSRAction3D, and MSRDailyActivity3D, validating the superiority of our method by achieving the highest accuracies.

  9. Sequencing the Unrearranged Human Immunoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Rene

    2010-06-03

    Rene Warren from Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre discusses sequencing and finishing the IgH heavy chain locus on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-06-01

    Automated DNA sequencing instruments embody an elegant interplay among chemistry, engineering, software, and molecular biology and have built upon Sanger's founding discovery of dideoxynucleotide sequencing to perform once-unfathomable tasks. Combined with innovative physical mapping approaches that helped to establish long-range relationships between cloned stretches of genomic DNA, fluorescent DNA sequencers produced reference genome sequences for model organisms and for the reference human genome. New types of sequencing instruments that permit amazing acceleration of data-collection rates for DNA sequencing have been developed. The ability to generate genome-scale data sets is now transforming the nature of biological inquiry. Here, I provide an historical perspective of the field, focusing on the fundamental developments that predated the advent of next-generation sequencing instruments and providing information about how these instruments work, their application to biological research, and the newest types of sequencers that can extract data from single DNA molecules.

  11. Music Sequencing and Printing Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    States that sequencing and printing software eliminates the barriers to students composing music. Describes "Master Tracks Pro," a sequencing program, and "Rhapsody," a printing program. Includes a lesson plan for setting pentatonic music to a poem. (CMK)

  12. Sequence repeats and protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh X.; Trovato, Antonio; Seno, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

    2012-11-01

    Repeats are frequently found in known protein sequences. The level of sequence conservation in tandem repeats correlates with their propensities to be intrinsically disordered. We employ a coarse-grained model of a protein with a two-letter amino acid alphabet, hydrophobic (H) and polar (P), to examine the sequence-structure relationship in the realm of repeated sequences. A fraction of repeated sequences comprises a distinct class of bad folders, whose folding temperatures are much lower than those of random sequences. Imperfection in sequence repetition improves the folding properties of the bad folders while deteriorating those of the good folders. Our results may explain why nature has utilized repeated sequences for their versatility and especially to design functional proteins that are intrinsically unstructured at physiological temperatures.

  13. Marks of Change in Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgensen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Given a sequence of events, how does one recognize that a change has occurred? We explore potential definitions of the concept of change in a sequence and propose that words in relativized solid codes might serve as indicators of change.

  14. Cement sequence stratigraphy in carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, C.J.R. )

    1993-03-01

    Conventional paragenesis analysis commonly fails to describe the subtleties of regional variation found in carbonate cement sequences. Application of the concept of sequence stratigraphy to diagenetic studies allows grouping of the products of depositional (precipitation or crystallization) events into sequences. The boundaries to these sequences are surfaces reflecting erosion (dissolution), non-deposition (renucleation), compaction or imposed fracture events. The pattern of chemical changes within a diagenetic sequence provides a fingerprint which allows that sequence to be recognized among others. Diagenetic sequences may be grouped into temporal series to provide an overall view of the diagenesis of the unit which takes account of local unconformities. The belief that lateral stratigraphical equivalence can serve as a proxy for diagenetic time equivalence is evidently mistaken; diagenetic boundaries may cross stratigraphic boundaries. The application of sequence stratigraphy concepts provides a valuable tool for interpreting regional diagenesis in carbonates and potentially offers insight into the pathways of hydrocarbon or ore fluid migration.

  15. [Biological actions of acetaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Ijiri, I

    1999-11-01

    Acetaldehyde (AcH), the first metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), is a chemically reactive and pharmacologically active compound. The author has been engaged in the study of AcH in cooperation with many researchers for three decades. We have found many biological actions of AcH which cause cardiovascular symptoms after drinking and also inhibited EtOH absorption via the canine and rat intestinal tract. This report covers the following five points. 1. The subjects were classified into a non-flushing group and a flushing group, according to the degree of facial flushing after drinking 200 ml of Sake (Japanese rice wire) at a rate of 100 ml per 5 min. Blood EtOH profile was much the same in both groups, yet peak blood AcH concentration in the flushing group was significantly higher than that in the non-flushing group. All subjects in the flushing group showed marked flushing and an increase in pulse rate after drinking, but these symptoms were not apparent in the non-flushing group. These results suggested that cardiovascular symptoms were caused by AcH itself. 2. Urinary excretions of both norepinephrine and epinephrine increased in the flushing cases after drinking Sake in comparison with those who drank the same volume of water. However, these catecholamines did not change in the non-flushing group. These results suggested that it is catecholamines released from the sympathetic nerve end or the adrenal medulla by AcH which caused an increase in pulse rate. 3. Bradykinin is released from high molecular kininogen by activated kallikrein and acts to dilate distal blood vessels and raise permeability in tissues. On the other hand, kallidin is released from low molecular kininogen by activated glandular kallikrein and its action is weaker than that of bradykinin. Blood low molecular kininogen levels in the flushing group decreased gradually after drinking and were mutually related to the blood AcH concentrations. But levels in the non-flushing group showed no difference

  16. The WLC principle for action-oriented perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Fortuna, Luigi; Lombardo, Davide; Patané, Luca; Velarde, Manuel G.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper a new methodology for action-oriented perception will be introduced. It is based on a previous method that used Turing Patterns in CNNs for the arousal of "perceptual states" as representation of the environmental condition. The emerging patterns were associated to codes which gave rise to learnable actions on a moving robot. Recently the new paradigm of Winnerless Competition (WLC) was taken into consideration to represent a suitable, bioinspired and efficient method to generate sequences of neural activations, strictly related to the spatial-temporal activity of input sensors. This fascinating property was recently peculiarly measured in the olfactory system, in particular in groups of neurons belonging to the insects' Antennal Lobe and to the mammalians' Olfactory Bulb. Taking inspiration from these experimental results and from the analytical model of the WLC, a cellular nonlinear model generating sequences of cell activation, representing the input pattern at the sensory level, will be used in an action-oriented perception framework. In fact simulation results showed the potentiality of the WLC approach to design dynamic networks for discrimination and classification, with a potentially huge memory capacity. In the present manuscript the WLC principle, implemented in a network of FitzHugh Nagumo neurons will be used within the whole framework for action-oriented perception, and the results will be applied to a roving robot.

  17. "Wuwei" (Non-Action) Philosophy and Actions: Rethinking "Actions" in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry aims to enrich conversation regarding school reform. The author asks about what other discourses are possible when the action-oriented question of how to "act" is a major approach to "fix" current educational problems. Drawing from Taoist philosophy of "wuwei" (non-action), the author provides a frame to…

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  19. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  20. Correspondence: Searching sequence space

    SciTech Connect

    Youvan, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    This correspondence debates the efficiency and application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to search protein sequence space. The important experimental point is that such sparse searches utilize physically realistic syntheses. In this regard, all GA-based technologies are very similar; they {open_quotes}learn{close_quotes} from their initial sparse search and then generate interesting new proteins within a few iterations. Which GA-based technology is best? That probably depends on the protein and the specific engineering goal. Given the fact that the field of combinatorial chemistry is still in its infancy, it is probably wise to consider all of the proven mutagenesis methods. 19 refs.

  1. Nucleotide sequences 1986/1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    These eight volumes are the third annual published compendium of nucleic acid sequences included in the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Data Library and the GenBank Genetic Sequences Data Bank. Each volume surveys one or more subdivisions of the database. The volume subtitles are: Primates; Rodents; Other Vertebrates and Invertebrates, Plants and Organelles, Bacteria and Bacteriophage, Viruses, Structural RNA, Synthetic and Unannotated Sequences, and Database Directory and Master Indices.

  2. Loss of DHR sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One - accident-sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.H.; Grene, S.R.; Harrington, R.M.; Hodge, S.A.

    1983-05-01

    This study describes the predicted response of Unit One at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to a postulated loss of decay heat removal (DHR) capability following scram from full power with the power conversion system unavailable. In accident sequences without DHR capability, the residual heat removal (RHR) system functions of pressure suppression pool cooling and reactor vessel shutdown cooling are unavailable. Consequently, all decay heat energy is stored in the pressure suppression pool with a concomitant increase in pool temperature and primary containment pressure. With the assumption that DHR capability is not regained during the lengthy course of this accident sequence, the containment ultimately fails by overpressurization. Although unlikely, this catastrophic failure might lead to loss of the ability to inject cooling water into the reactor vessel, causing subsequent core uncovery and meltdown. The timing of these events and the effective mitigating actions that might be taken by the operator are discussed in this report.

  3. Sequencing Technologies Panel at SFAF

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Steve; Fiske, Haley; Knight, Jim; Rhodes, Michael; Vander Horn, Peter

    2010-06-02

    From left to right: Steve Turner of Pacific Biosciences, Haley Fiske of Illumina, Jim Knight of Roche, Michael Rhodes of Life Technologies and Peter Vander Horn of Life Technologies' Single Molecule Sequencing group discuss new sequencing technologies and applications on June 2, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  4. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  5. Automated Identification of Nucleotide Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osman, Shariff; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Fox, George; Zhu, Dian-Hui

    2007-01-01

    STITCH is a computer program that processes raw nucleotide-sequence data to automatically remove unwanted vector information, perform reverse-complement comparison, stitch shorter sequences together to make longer ones to which the shorter ones presumably belong, and search against the user s choice of private and Internet-accessible public 16S rRNA databases. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] In STITCH, a template 16S rRNA sequence is used to position forward and reverse reads. STITCH then automatically searches known 16S rRNA sequences in the user s chosen database(s) to find the sequence most similar to (the sequence that lies at the smallest edit distance from) each spliced sequence. The result of processing by STITCH is the identification of the most similar well-described bacterium. Whereas previously commercially available software for analyzing genetic sequences operates on one sequence at a time, STITCH can manipulate multiple sequences simultaneously to perform the aforementioned operations. A typical analysis of several dozen sequences (length of the order of 103 base pairs) by use of STITCH is completed in a few minutes, whereas such an analysis performed by use of prior software takes hours or days.

  6. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K.; Meyne, Julianne

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  7. Natural protein sequences are more intrinsically disordered than random sequences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-Feng; Cao, Zanxia; Yang, Yuedong; Wang, Chun-Ling; Su, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Ya-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-08-01

    Most natural protein sequences have resulted from millions or even billions of years of evolution. How they differ from random sequences is not fully understood. Previous computational and experimental studies of random proteins generated from noncoding regions yielded inclusive results due to species-dependent codon biases and GC contents. Here, we approach this problem by investigating 10,000 sequences randomized at the amino acid level. Using well-established predictors for protein intrinsic disorder, we found that natural sequences have more long disordered regions than random sequences, even when random and natural sequences have the same overall composition of amino acid residues. We also showed that random sequences are as structured as natural sequences according to contents and length distributions of predicted secondary structure, although the structures from random sequences may be in a molten globular-like state, according to molecular dynamics simulations. The bias of natural sequences toward more intrinsic disorder suggests that natural sequences are created and evolved to avoid protein aggregation and increase functional diversity. PMID:26801222

  8. Sequence Maneuverer: tool for sequence extraction from genomes

    PubMed Central

    Yasmin, Tayyaba; Rehman, Inayat Ur; Ansari, Adnan Ahmad; liaqat, Khurrum; khan, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The availability of genomic sequences of many organisms has opened new challenges in many aspects particularly in terms of genome analysis. Sequence extraction is a vital step and many tools have been developed to solve this issue. These tools are available publically but have limitations with reference to the sequence extraction, length of the sequence to be extracted, organism specificity and lack of user friendly interface. We have developed a java based software package having three modules which can be used independently or sequentially. The tool efficiently extracts sequences from large datasets with few simple steps. It can efficiently extract multiple sequences of any desired length from a genome of any organism. The results are crosschecked by published data. Availability URL 1: http://ww3.comsats.edu.pk/bio/ResearchProjects.aspx URL 2: http://ww3.comsats.edu.pk/bio/SequenceManeuverer.aspx PMID:23275734

  9. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  10. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Scott; Esterly, Sean; Herdrich, David; Bodell, Tim; Visser, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  11. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, L.; Catenacci, R.; Grassi, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  12. Do good actions inspire good actions in others?

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Marcelletti, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Actions such as sharing food and cooperating to reach a common goal have played a fundamental role in the evolution of human societies. Despite the importance of such good actions, little is known about if and how they can spread from person to person to person. For instance, does being recipient of an altruistic act increase your probability of being cooperative with a third party? We have conducted an experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk to test this mechanism using economic games. We have measured willingness to be cooperative through a standard Prisoner's dilemma and willingness to act altruistically using a binary Dictator game. In the baseline treatments, the endowments needed to play were given by the experimenters, as usual; in the control treatments, they came from a good action made by someone else. Across four different comparisons and a total of 572 subjects, we have never found a significant increase of cooperation or altruism when the endowment came from a good action. We conclude that good actions do not necessarily inspire good actions in others. While this is consistent with the theoretical prediction, it challenges the majority of other experimental studies. PMID:25502617

  13. Sequence to Medical Phenotypes: A Framework for Interpretation of Human Whole Genome DNA Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Frederick E; Grove, Megan E; Priest, James R; Waggott, Daryl; Batra, Prag; Miller, Clint L; Wheeler, Matthew; Zia, Amin; Pan, Cuiping; Karzcewski, Konrad J; Miyake, Christina; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Klein, Teri E; Datta, Somalee; Altman, Russ B; Snyder, Michael; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A

    2015-10-01

    High throughput sequencing has facilitated a precipitous drop in the cost of genomic sequencing, prompting predictions of a revolution in medicine via genetic personalization of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. There are significant barriers to realizing this goal that are related to the difficult task of interpreting personal genetic variation. A comprehensive, widely accessible application for interpretation of whole genome sequence data is needed. Here, we present a series of methods for identification of genetic variants and genotypes with clinical associations, phasing genetic data and using Mendelian inheritance for quality control, and providing predictive genetic information about risk for rare disease phenotypes and response to pharmacological therapy in single individuals and father-mother-child trios. We demonstrate application of these methods for disease and drug response prognostication in whole genome sequence data from twelve unrelated adults, and for disease gene discovery in one father-mother-child trio with apparently simplex congenital ventricular arrhythmia. In doing so we identify clinically actionable inherited disease risk and drug response genotypes in pre-symptomatic individuals. We also nominate a new candidate gene in congenital arrhythmia, ATP2B4, and provide experimental evidence of a regulatory role for variants discovered using this framework. PMID:26448358

  14. Sequence to Medical Phenotypes: A Framework for Interpretation of Human Whole Genome DNA Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Frederick E.; Grove, Megan E.; Priest, James R.; Waggott, Daryl; Batra, Prag; Miller, Clint L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Zia, Amin; Pan, Cuiping; Karzcewski, Konrad J.; Miyake, Christina; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Klein, Teri E.; Datta, Somalee; Altman, Russ B.; Snyder, Michael; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High throughput sequencing has facilitated a precipitous drop in the cost of genomic sequencing, prompting predictions of a revolution in medicine via genetic personalization of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. There are significant barriers to realizing this goal that are related to the difficult task of interpreting personal genetic variation. A comprehensive, widely accessible application for interpretation of whole genome sequence data is needed. Here, we present a series of methods for identification of genetic variants and genotypes with clinical associations, phasing genetic data and using Mendelian inheritance for quality control, and providing predictive genetic information about risk for rare disease phenotypes and response to pharmacological therapy in single individuals and father-mother-child trios. We demonstrate application of these methods for disease and drug response prognostication in whole genome sequence data from twelve unrelated adults, and for disease gene discovery in one father-mother-child trio with apparently simplex congenital ventricular arrhythmia. In doing so we identify clinically actionable inherited disease risk and drug response genotypes in pre-symptomatic individuals. We also nominate a new candidate gene in congenital arrhythmia, ATP2B4, and provide experimental evidence of a regulatory role for variants discovered using this framework. PMID:26448358

  15. Third Generation Sequencing Techniques and Applications to Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ozsolak, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is an immediate need for functional and molecular studies to decipher differences between disease and “normal” settings to identify large quantities of validated targets with the highest therapeutic utilities. Furthermore, drug mechanism of action and biomarkers to predict drug efficacy and safety need to be identified for effective design of clinical trials, decreasing attrition rates, regulatory agency approval process and drug repositioning. By expanding the power of genetics and pharmacogenetics studies, next generation nucleic acid sequencing technologies have started to play an important role in all stages of drug discovery. Areas covered This article reviews the first and second generation sequencing technologies (SGSTs) and challenges they pose to biomedicine. The article then focuses on the emerging third generation sequencing technologies (TGSTs), their technological foundations and potential contributions to drug discovery. Expert Opinion Despite the scientific and commercial success of SGSTs, the goal of rapid, comprehensive and unbiased sequencing of nucleic acids has not been achieved. TGSTs promise to increase sequencing throughput and read lengths, decrease costs, run times and error rates, eliminate biases inherent in SGSTs, and offer capabilities beyond nucleic acid sequencing. Such changes will have positive impact in all sequencing applications to drug discovery. PMID:22468954

  16. Distinct brain signatures of content and structure violation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Sammler, D; Kölsch, S; Campus, C; Olivier, E; Fadiga, L; D'Ausilio, A

    2015-08-01

    Sentences, musical phrases and goal-directed actions are composed of elements that are linked by specific rules to form meaningful outcomes. In goal-directed actions including a non-canonical element or scrambling the order of the elements alters the action's content and structure, respectively. In the present study we investigated event-related potentials of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during observation of both alterations of the action content (obtained by violating the semantic components of an action, e.g. making coffee with cola) and alterations of the action structure (obtained by inverting the order of two temporally adjacent pictures of sequences depicting daily life actions) interfering with the normal flow of the motor acts that compose an action. Action content alterations elicited a bilateral posterior distributed EEG negativity, peaking at around 400 ms after stimulus onset similar to the ERPs evoked by semantic violations in language studies. Alteration of the action structure elicited an early left anterior negativity followed by a late left anterior positivity, which closely resembles the ERP pattern found in language syntax violation studies. Our results suggest a functional dissociation between the processing of action content and structure, reminiscent of a similar dissociation found in the language or music domains. Importantly, this study provides further support to the hypothesis that some basic mechanisms, such as the rule-based structuring of sequential events, are shared between different cognitive domains. PMID:26004058

  17. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  18. Eicosanoid actions in insect immunology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter we review eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. Eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids. Groups of eicosanoids include prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. These ...

  19. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  20. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Cancer.gov

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  1. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  2. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... flow meters. Action plans use symptoms, peak flow readings, or both to help you determine the zone ...

  3. The Concept of Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Kemmis, Stephen; McTaggart, Robin; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2002-01-01

    Explains why definition of action research is problematic and presents working definitions developed internationally that indicate its nature, philosophy, and methodology. Suggests that pragmatic approaches to definition serve communication purposes without narrowly confining the concept. (SK)

  4. REMEDIAL ACTION COSTING PROCEDURES MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual provides specific procedures for the cost estimating and economic analysis steps required for preparing engineering cost estimates for selecting remedial action alternatives in response to the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and ...

  5. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  6. The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, G; Tuli, M A; Lopez, R; Sterk, P

    1999-01-01

    The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl.html) constitutes Europe's primary nucleotide sequence resource. Main sources for DNA and RNA sequences are direct submissions from individual researchers, genome sequencing projects and patent applications. While automatic procedures allow incorporation of sequence data from large-scale genome sequencing centres and from the European Patent Office (EPO), the preferred submission tool for individual submitters is Webin (WWW). Through all stages, dataflow is monitored by EBI biologists communicating with the sequencing groups. In collaboration with DDBJ and GenBank the database is produced, maintained and distributed at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). Database releases are produced quarterly and are distributed on CD-ROM. Network services allow access to the most up-to-date data collection via Internet and World Wide Web interface. EBI's Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) is a Network Browser for Databanks in Molecular Biology, integrating and linking the main nucleotide and protein databases, plus many specialised databases. For sequence similarity searching a variety of tools (e.g. Blitz, Fasta, Blast etc) are available for external users to compare their own sequences against the most currently available data in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database and SWISS-PROT. PMID:9847133

  7. Sequence analysis on microcomputers.

    PubMed

    Cannon, G C

    1987-10-01

    Overall, each of the program packages performed their tasks satisfactorily. For analyses where there was a well-defined answer, such as a search for a restriction site, there were few significant differences between the program sets. However, for tasks in which a degree of flexibility is desirable, such as homology or similarity determinations and database searches, DNASTAR consistently afforded the user more options in conducting the required analysis than did the other two packages. However, for laboratories where sequence analysis is not a major effort and the expense of a full sequence analysis workstation cannot be justified, MicroGenie and IBI-Pustell offer a satisfactory alternative. MicroGenie is a polished program system. Many may find that its user interface is more "user friendly" than the standard menu-driven interfaces. Its system of filing sequences under individual passwords facilitates use by more than one person. MicroGenie uses a hardware device for software protection that occupies a card slot in the computer on which it is used. Although I am sympathetic to the problem of software piracy, I feel that a less drastic solution is in order for a program likely to be sharing limited computer space with other software packages. The IBI-Pustell package performs the required analysis functions as accurately and quickly as MicroGenie but it lacks the clearness and ease of use. The menu system seems disjointed, and new or infrequent users often find themselves at apparent "dead-end menus" where the only clear alternative is to restart the entire program package. It is suggested from published accounts that the user interface is going to be upgraded and perhaps when that version is available, use of the system will be improved. The documentation accompanying each package was relatively clear as to how to run the programs, but all three packages assumed that the user was familiar with the computational techniques employed. MicroGenie and IBI-Pustell further

  8. The evolution of nanopore sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Yang, Qiuping; Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    The "$1000 Genome" project has been drawing increasing attention since its launch a decade ago. Nanopore sequencing, the third-generation, is believed to be one of the most promising sequencing technologies to reach four gold standards set for the "$1000 Genome" while the second-generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a revolution in life sciences, particularly in genome sequencing-based personalized medicine. Both of protein and solid-state nanopores have been extensively investigated for a series of issues, from detection of ionic current blockage to field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors. A newly released protein nanopore sequencer has shown encouraging potential that nanopore sequencing will ultimately fulfill the gold standards. In this review, we address advances, challenges, and possible solutions of nanopore sequencing according to these standards. PMID:25610451

  9. The evolution of nanopore sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Yang, Qiuping; Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    The “$1000 Genome” project has been drawing increasing attention since its launch a decade ago. Nanopore sequencing, the third-generation, is believed to be one of the most promising sequencing technologies to reach four gold standards set for the “$1000 Genome” while the second-generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a revolution in life sciences, particularly in genome sequencing-based personalized medicine. Both of protein and solid-state nanopores have been extensively investigated for a series of issues, from detection of ionic current blockage to field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors. A newly released protein nanopore sequencer has shown encouraging potential that nanopore sequencing will ultimately fulfill the gold standards. In this review, we address advances, challenges, and possible solutions of nanopore sequencing according to these standards. PMID:25610451

  10. ISHAN: sequence homology analysis package.

    PubMed

    Shil, Pratip; Dudani, Niraj; Vidyasagar, Pandit B

    2006-01-01

    Sequence based homology studies play an important role in evolutionary tracing and classification of proteins. Various methods are available to analyze biological sequence information. However, with the advent of proteomics era, there is a growing demand for analysis of huge amount of biological sequence information, and it has become necessary to have programs that would provide speedy analysis. ISHAN has been developed as a homology analysis package, built on various sequence analysis tools viz FASTA, ALIGN, CLUSTALW, PHYLIP and CODONW (for DNA sequences). This JAVA application offers the user choice of analysis tools. For testing, ISHAN was applied to perform phylogenetic analysis for sets of Caspase 3 DNA sequences and NF-kappaB p105 amino acid sequences. By integrating several tools it has made analysis much faster and reduced manual intervention. PMID:17274766

  11. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOEpatents

    Cantor, Charles; Koster, Hubert

    2010-09-28

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include DNA or RNA in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  12. 36 CFR 72.13 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action plan. 72.13 Section 72... AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Local Recovery Action Programs § 72.13 Action plan. The purpose of the Assessment is to provide background and justification for an Action Plan. The Action Plan,...

  13. 36 CFR 72.13 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action plan. 72.13 Section 72... AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Local Recovery Action Programs § 72.13 Action plan. The purpose of the Assessment is to provide background and justification for an Action Plan. The Action Plan,...

  14. 36 CFR 72.13 - Action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action plan. 72.13 Section 72... AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Local Recovery Action Programs § 72.13 Action plan. The purpose of the Assessment is to provide background and justification for an Action Plan. The Action Plan,...

  15. Seeking Conceptual Clarity in the Action Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with the presumption that action learning has not made as deep an impact in promoting participatory social change as its supporters may have hoped for, but nor has its cousin action modalities, such as action research and action science. These action strategies have evolved separately along distinct traditions and, rather than…

  16. 12 CFR 272.4 - Committee actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Committee actions. 272.4 Section 272.4 Banks....4 Committee actions. (a) Actions at meetings. Actions are taken at meetings of the Committee except as described below. (b) Actions between meetings. Special circumstances may make it desirable in...

  17. 45 CFR 1225.19 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrective action. 1225.19 Section 1225.19 Public... Corrective action. (a) When discrimination is found, Peace Corps or ACTION must take appropriate action to... corrective action to the agent and other class members in accordance with § 1225.10 of this part. (b)...

  18. Incongruent Imagery Interferes with Action Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard; Cumming, Jennifer; Eastough, Daniel; Edwards, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action…

  19. 12 CFR 272.4 - Committee actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Committee actions. 272.4 Section 272.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE RULES OF PROCEDURE § 272.4 Committee actions. (a) Actions at meetings. Actions are taken at meetings of the Committee except as described below. (b) Actions between...

  20. Complexity, action, and black holes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-18

    In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.