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Sample records for adverse behavioral conditions

  1. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  2. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  3. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    PubMed Central

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of learning algorithms that rely on prediction error signals and discuss specific neural structures that are likely to contribute to such learning. To this end, we review behavioral studies, computational accounts, and neuroimaging findings related to adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Already, a few studies have alluded to a potential role of these mechanisms in adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Furthermore, we consider research topics in neuroscience that offer insight into how perception can be adaptively tuned to short-term deviations while balancing the need to maintain stability in the perception of learned long-term regularities. Consideration of the application and limitations of these algorithms in characterizing flexible speech perception under adverse conditions promises to inform theoretical models of speech. PMID:24427119

  4. Modelling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Jørgensen and Dau (J Acoust Soc Am 130:1475-1487, 2011) proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech. Instead of considering the reduction of the temporal modulation energy as the intelligibility metric, as assumed in the STI, the sEPSM applies the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv). This metric was shown to be the key for predicting the intelligibility of reverberant speech as well as noisy speech processed by spectral subtraction. The key role of the SNRenv metric is further supported here by the ability of a short-term version of the sEPSM to predict speech masking release for different speech materials and modulated interferers. However, the sEPSM cannot account for speech subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of the intelligibility of speech signal is strongly affected, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast, the effects of this distortion can be predicted -successfully by the spectro-temporal modulation index (STMI) (Elhilali et al., Speech Commun 41:331-348, 2003), which assumes an explicit analysis of the spectral "ripple" structure of the speech signal. However, since the STMI applies the same decision metric as the STI, it fails to account for spectral subtraction. The results from this study suggest that the SNRenv might reflect a powerful decision metric, while some explicit across-frequency analysis seems crucial in some conditions. How such across-frequency analysis is "realized" in the auditory system remains unresolved.

  5. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-07-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  6. Flight data recovery under adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, E. J.

    1981-11-01

    Methods for overcoming data loss, including bit dump, bit shift, forward and reverse readout, time displacement compensation (TDC), wideband TDC, and supersynchronization are discussed. Supersynchronization systems recognize acquisition of any one sync word as an in-sync condition and process accordingly. They open a window prior to the end of the subframe which enables the circuit to look for the next sync work up to 8 bits early. A feedback loop enables one shot timing methods to track the average bit rate automatically. A time duration equal to 70.7% of the average bit period is recommended. A digital bit averaging technique, in which the bit decision time is determined by the average of the two previous bits, gives excellent results. With forward and reverse processing, data are processed in the usual way through the engineering conversion process. Valid data, prior to the out of sync area, look normal. The computer then goes to the end of the subframe and processes data from this point backwards toward the sync loss area.

  7. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress.

  8. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  9. Quality of whey powders stored under adverse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate powder (WPC) is exported by the U.S. and is included in emergency aid foods, but the bags sent overseas are usually stored without refrigeration and under elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH). The shelf life of WPC under adverse conditions must be known to preven...

  10. Extinction of CO2 Laser Radiation Under Adverse Weather Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    81-1280 B0 91,a 4 TITLE (and Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EXTINCTION OF CO2 LASER RADIATION UNDER FINAL Oct 78 Oct 81 ADVERSE WEATHER...CONDITIONS 6 PERFORMING O0G r_ r NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( s ) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( s ) Dr. Vincent Chimelis ŝ PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10...number) Laser Propagation Rain Laser Extinction CO2 Lasers Adverse Weather Aerosol s - 20 RACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by

  11. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2016-11-21

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  13. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  14. Perceptual Learning of Speech under Optimal and Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) vs. clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) vs. two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a & 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and non-learning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PMID:23815478

  15. Assurance of Fault Management: Risk-Significant Adverse Condition Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Fault Management (FM) systems are ranked high in risk-based assessment of criticality within flight software, emphasizing the importance of establishing highly competent domain expertise to provide assurance for NASA projects, especially as spaceflight systems continue to increase in complexity. Insight into specific characteristics of FM architectures seen embedded within safety- and mission-critical software systems analyzed by the NASA Independent Verification Validation (IVV) Program has been enhanced with an FM Technical Reference (TR) suite. Benefits are aimed beyond the IVV community to those that seek ways to efficiently and effectively provide software assurance to reduce the FM risk posture of NASA and other space missions. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IVV techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. The role FM has with regard to overall asset protection of flight software systems is being addressed with the development of an adverse condition (AC) database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities.Identification of potential off-nominal conditions and analysis to determine how a system responds to these conditions are important aspects of hazard analysis and fault management. Understanding what ACs the mission may face, and ensuring they are prevented or addressed is the responsibility of the assurance team, which necessarily should have insight into ACs beyond those defined by the project itself. Research efforts sponsored by NASAs Office of Safety and Mission Assurance defined terminology, categorized data fields, and designed a baseline repository that centralizes and compiles a comprehensive listing of ACs and correlated data relevant across many NASA missions. This prototype tool helps projects improve analysis by tracking ACs, and allowing queries based on project, mission

  16. Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults' Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2017-01-31

    Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.

  17. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  18. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  19. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  20. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  1. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: implications for health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, William R

    2013-10-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes.

  2. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  3. Childhood adversity, mental disorder comorbidity, and suicidal behavior in schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Vanessa; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M

    2010-11-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a serious and relatively common psychiatric disorder, yet remains understudied among the personality disorders. The current study examines the psychiatric correlates of SPD in a representative epidemiologic sample, utilizing data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Multiple logistic regression compared people with SPD to the general population across a broad range of childhood adversities, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and suicidal behavior. SPD was strongly associated with many adverse childhood experiences. After adjusting for confounding factors, SPD was independently associated with major depression and several anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Interestingly, SPD was more strongly associated with borderline and narcissistic personality disorders than cluster A personality disorders. Individuals with SPD were also more likely to attempt suicide. As a whole, these results suggest that individuals with SPD experience significant morbidity and may be at increased risk of mortality.

  4. 75 FR 8353 - Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Waiver of Filing Deadline Due to Adverse Weather Conditions February 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Due to adverse weather conditions, the Federal Communications..., February 11, 2010. In recognition of the numerous closings and disruptions caused by the weather in...

  5. Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, High-Risk Behaviors, and Morbidity in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with early mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the association among ACEs, high-risk health behaviors, and comorbid conditions, as well as the independent effect of ACE components. Methods Data were analyzed on 48,526 U.S. adults from five states in the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Exposures included psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse as well as household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, violence, and incarceration. Main outcome measures included risky behaviors and morbidity measures, including binge drinking, heavy drinking, current smoking, high-risk HIV behavior, obesity, diabetes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, disability due to poor health, and use of special equipment due to disability. Multiple logistic regression assessed the independent relationship between ACE score categories and risky behaviors/comorbidities in adulthood, and assessed the independent relationship between individual ACE components and risky behaviors/comorbid conditions in adulthood controlling for covariates. Results A total of 55.4% of respondents reported at least one ACE and 13.7% reported four or more ACEs. ACE score of ≥ 4 was associated with increased odds for binge drinking, heavy drinking, smoking, risky HIV behavior, diabetes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, disability due to health, and use of special equipment due to disability. In addition, the individual components had different effects on risky behavior and comorbidities. Conclusions In addition to having a cumulative effect, individual ACE components have differential relationships with risky behaviors, morbidity, and disability in adulthood after controlling for important confounders. PMID:26474668

  6. Family Adversity in DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes and Associated Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carla A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Stawicki, Julie Ann; Rappley, Marsha D.; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between a family adversity index and DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and associated behavior problems. The relationship of family adversity to symptoms and subtypes of ADHD was examined. Method: Parents and 206 children aged 7-13 completed diagnostic interviews and…

  7. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  8. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  9. ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The University at Albany Police and the University at Albany Athletics Department have teamed together to implement a ground breaking program aimed at identifying, addressing and managing negative behavior among student athletes. ATLAS stands for: Athletics, Team Building, Leadership Development, And Mentoring for Student Athletes. The program was…

  10. Suffering and compassion: The links among adverse life experiences, empathy, compassion, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Lim, Daniel; DeSteno, David

    2016-03-01

    Experiencing past adversity traditionally has been linked to negative life outcomes. However, emerging evidence suggests that heterogeneity exists with respect to links between adversity and resilience, with adversity often enhancing cooperation in the face of joint suffering. Here, the authors present 2 studies designed to examine if the severity of past adversity is associated with an enduring propensity for empathy-mediated compassion, and, if so, whether the resulting compassion directly is, in turn, linked to behavior meant to relieve the suffering of others. Using both MTurk and laboratory-based paradigms, the authors find that increasing severity of past adversity predicts increased empathy, which in turn, is linked to a stable tendency to feel compassion for others in need. In addition, they demonstrate that the resulting individual differences in compassion appear to engender behavioral responses meant to assist others (i.e., charitable giving, helping a stranger).

  11. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Other Adversities to Adult Health Risks: The Role of Adult Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks – depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions— marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status—mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15–20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  12. Controlling Anxiety Mediates the Influence of Childhood Adversities on Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Chan, Claudia Kor-Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2017-02-14

    Relatively little research has assessed the exposure-response relationship of childhood adversities on engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Also, no previous research has examined the interrelationship among childhood adversities, adult anxiety and depressive symptoms, and risky sexual behaviors. This study aimed to investigate their interrelationships. We used data from a multisite survey of emerging adults aged 18 to 29 studying at four universities in Hong Kong between September and December 2015. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the pathways from childhood adversities to risky sexual behaviors. Participants who had higher childhood adversity scores reported more severe adult anxiety symptoms (β = 0.20, p = 0.002); and adult anxiety symptoms were associated with significantly more risky sexual behaviors (β = 0.46, p < 0.0001). The model with adult anxiety symptoms as the mediator between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors showed good fit (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.04, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.96, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.94 and standardized root mean square residual [SRMSR] = 0.04). However, adult depressive symptoms failed to mediate between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors. This study demonstrates the link between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors via adult anxiety but not adult depressive symptoms. It is essential to reduce anxious symptoms in dealing with emerging adults who have risky sexual behaviors to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy.

  13. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  14. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2016-09-29

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p < 0.001) and parental violence (β = -0.0002; p = 0.012). Among men, IPV perpetration fully mediated sexual abuse (β = -0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  15. Classroom-level adversity: Associations with children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors across elementary school.

    PubMed

    Abry, Tashia; Bryce, Crystal I; Swanson, Jodi; Bradley, Robert H; Fabes, Richard A; Corwyn, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    Concerns regarding the social-behavioral maladjustment of U.S. youth have spurred efforts among educators and policymakers to identify and remedy educational contexts that exacerbate children's anxiety, depression, aggression, and misconduct. However, investigations of the influence of collective classroom student characteristics on individuals' social-behavioral functioning are few. The present study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between adversity factors facing the collective classroom student group and levels of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors across the elementary school years, and whether the pattern of relations differed for girls and boys. First-, third-, and fifth-grade teachers reported on the extent to which adversity-related factors (e.g., home/family life, academic readiness, social readiness, English proficiency, tardiness/absenteeism, student mobility, health) presented a challenge in their classrooms (i.e., classroom-level adversity [CLA]). Mothers reported on their child's internalizing and externalizing behavior at each grade. Autoregressive, lagged panel models controlled for prior levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior, mothers' education, family income-to-needs, and class size. For all children at each grade, CLA was concurrently and positively associated with externalizing behavior. For first-grade girls, but not boys, CLA was also concurrently and positively associated with internalizing behavior. Indirect effects suggested CLA influenced later internalizing and externalizing behavior through its influence on maladjustment in a given year. Discussion highlights possible methods of intervention to reduce CLA or the negative consequences associated with being in a higher-adversity classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and development in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E. K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions and social development among young children in the child welfare system. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, using a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008–2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children age 18–71 months who were not in out-of-home care (N=912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale), in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53), and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40). Among children 36–71 months, for every additional reported ACE there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78). Conclusion and Relevance ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children age 3–5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children’s outcomes. PMID:26183001

  17. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the heat transfer behavior with adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, B. F.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat transfer behavior of the near equilibrium transpired turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradient has been carried out. Stanton numbers were measured by an energy balance on electrically heated plates that form the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. Two adverse pressure gradients were studied. Two types of transpiration boundary conditions were investigated. The concept of an equilibrium thermal boundary layer was introduced. It was found that Stanton number as a function of enthalpy thickness Reynolds number is essentially unaffected by adverse pressure gradient with no transpiration. Shear stress, heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number profiles were computed from mean temperature and velocity profiles. It was concluded that the turbulent Prandtl number is greater than unity in near the wall and decreases continuously to approximately 0.5 at the free stream.

  18. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  19. Adverse Pregnancy Conditions, Infertility, and Future Cardiovascular Risk: Implications for Mother and Child

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki; Wei, Janet; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy conditions in women are common and have been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. As risk stratification in women is often suboptimal, recognition of non-traditional risk factors such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and premature delivery has become increasingly important. Additionally, such conditions may also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the children of afflicted women. In this review, we aim to highlight these conditions, along with infertility, and the association between such conditions and various cardiovascular outcomes and related maternal risk along with potential translation of risk to offspring. We will also discuss proposed mechanisms driving these associations as well as potential opportunities for screening and risk modification. PMID:26037616

  20. The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

  1. Mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Parenting Behaviors: Connecting Mothers' Difficult Pasts to Present Parenting Behavior via Reflective Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomeyer, Ellen; Renk, Kimberly; Cunningham, Annelise; Lowell, Amanda; Khan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have supported a connection between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative outcomes in adulthood. Fewer studies have examined the connection between ACEs and parenting behaviors, however. The study described in this article examined the relationships among ACEs, reflective functioning, and negative parenting behaviors…

  2. Early Adversity, Hypocortisolism, and Behavior Problems at School Entry: A Study of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Mliner, Shanna B.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children’s cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  3. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  4. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  5. Behavior systems, associationism, and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, W

    1994-12-01

    Associative and behavior systems accounts of Pavlovian conditioning have different emphases. The traditional associative account has focused on the role of the unconditional stimulus (US) in strengthening stimulus associations according to a set of general laws. The behavior systems account has focused on the relation of conditional responding to the preorganized perceptual, motor, and motivational organization engaged by the US. Knowledge of a behavior system enables successful prediction of the form and ease of conditioning as a function of the type of conditional stimulus (CS), US, and the CS-US relation. At the same time, Pavlovian manipulations act as a window on how a behavior system works. Both associative and behavior systems accounts can be criticized as incomplete and idiosyncratic. A comprehensive account of Pavlovian conditioning could profit from their integration.

  6. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  7. Algorithms for contours depicting static electric fields during adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A flexible and functional analytical tool is developed for the study of electric fields during adverse weather conditions. This tool is designed for use by members of the Atmospheric Science Group as part of their overall effort to appraise environmental conditions during these situations. It is also used to illustrate approaches open to those interested in the study of the physics of ambient electric field phenomena. Computer resources of KSC are coordinated with original software to produce contour interpretations of electric field data available from a grid of field mills spanning the region. Three model algorithms are presented and examples are given illustrating the system design, flexibility, and utility.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Mindfulness-Based Approaches: Common Denominator Issues for Children with Emotional, Mental, or Behavioral Problems.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina; Gombojav, Narangerel; Solloway, Michele; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    US children with emotional, mental, or behavioral conditions (EMB) have disproportionate exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). There are theoretic and empirical explanations for early and lifelong physical, mental, emotional, educational, and social impacts of the resultant trauma and chronic stress. Using mindfulness-based, mind-body approaches (MBMB) may strengthen families and promote child resilience and success. This paper examines associations between EMB, ACEs, and protective factors, such as child resilience, parental coping/stress, and parent-child engagement. Findings encourage family-centered and mindfulness-based approaches to address social and emotional trauma and potentially interrupt cycles of ACEs and prevalence of EMB.

  9. Significance of frailty for predicting adverse clinical outcomes in different patient groups with specific medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ritt, Martin; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Sieber, Cornel Christian

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a major health burden in an aging society. It constitutes a clinical state of reduced physiological reserves that is associated with a diminished ability to withstand internal and external stressors. Frail patients have an increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes, such as mortality, readmission to hospital, institutionalization and falls. Of further clinical interest, frailty might be at least in part reversible in some patients and subject to preventive strategies. In daily clinical practice older patients with a complex health status, who are mostly frail or at least at risk of developing frailty, are frequently cared for by geriatricians. Recently, clinicians and scientists from other medical disciplines, such as cardiology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, endocrinology, rheumatology, surgery and critical care medicine also discovered frailty to be an interesting instrument for risk stratification of patients, including younger patients. In this review we highlight the results of recent studies that demonstrated the significance of frailty to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with specific medical conditions, such as cardiac, lung, liver and kidney diseases as well as diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, trauma patients, patients undergoing surgery and critically ill patients. Multiple studies in patients with the aforementioned specific medical conditions could be identified demonstrating a predictive role of frailty for several adverse clinical outcomes. The association between frailty and adverse clinical outcomes reported in these studies was in part independent of several major potential confounder factors, such as age, sex, race, comorbidities and disabilities and were also detected in younger patients.

  10. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and minor psychiatric disorders among bank workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In most countries, the financial service sector has undergone great organizational changes in the past decades, with potential negative impact on bank workers' mental health. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among Brazilian bank workers and to investigate whether they are associated with an adverse psychosocial working environment. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 2,500 workers in a Brazilian state bank in 2008. The presence of MPD was determined by the General Health Questionnaire.(GHQ). Psychosocial work conditions were assessed by means of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The presence and magnitude of the independent associations between MPD and adverse psychosocial working conditions were determined by Prevalence Ratios, obtained by Poisson regression. Results From 2,337 eligible workers, 88% participated. The prevalence of MPD was greater among women (45% vs. 41%; p > 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of MPD was twice as high among bank workers exposed to high psychological demand and low control at work and under high effort and low reward working conditions. The lack of social support at work and the presence of over-commitment were also associated with higher prevalence of MPD. A negative interaction effect was found between over-commitment and effort-reward imbalance. Conclusion The prevalence of MPD is high among bank workers. The results reinforce the association between MPD and adverse psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the JCQ and ERI models. The direction of the interaction observed between over-commitment and ERI was contrary to what was expected. PMID:21062496

  11. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antillón, Marina; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24 hour time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 minutes of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as “sleeplessness” (marginal effect = 0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. PMID:24958451

  12. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    PubMed

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend.

  13. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Childhood adversity increases vulnerability for behavioral symptoms and immune dysregulation in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Witek Janusek, Linda; Tell, Dina; Albuquerque, Kevin; Mathews, Herbert L

    2013-03-01

    Women respond differentially to the stress-associated with breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, with some women experiencing more intense and/or sustained behavioral symptoms and immune dysregulation than others. Childhood adversity has been identified to produce long-term dysregulation of stress response systems, increasing reactivity to stressors encountered during adulthood. This study determined whether childhood adversity increased vulnerability for more intense and sustained behavioral symptoms (fatigue, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms), poorer quality of life, and greater immune dysregulation in women (N=40) with breast cancer. Evaluation was after breast surgery and through early survivorship. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine intra-individual and inter-individual differences with respect to initial status and to the pattern of change (i.e. trajectory) of outcomes. At initial assessment, women exposed to childhood emotional neglect/abuse had greater perceived stress, fatigue, depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life, as well as lower natural killer cell activity (NKCA). Although these outcomes improved over time, women with greater childhood emotional neglect/abuse exhibited worse outcomes through early survivorship. No effect was observed on the pattern of change for these outcomes. In contrast, childhood physical neglect predicted sustained trajectories of greater perceived stress, worse quality of life, and elevated plasma IL-6; with no effect observed at initial assessment. Thus, childhood adversity leaves an enduring imprint, increasing vulnerability for behavioral symptoms, poor quality of life, and elevations in IL-6 in women with breast cancer. Further, childhood adversity predisposes to lower NKCA at a critical time when this immune-effector mechanism is most effective at halting nascent tumor seeding.

  15. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  16. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  17. Conditioning and sexual behavior: a review.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, J G; Kippin, T E; Centeno, S

    2001-09-01

    Sexual behavior is directed by a sophisticated interplay between steroid hormone actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousability and experience with sexual reward that gives rise to expectations of competent sexual activity, sexual desire, arousal, and performance. Sexual experience allows animals to form instrumental associations between internal or external stimuli and behaviors that lead to different sexual rewards. Furthermore, Pavlovian associations between internal and external stimuli allow animals to predict sexual outcomes. These two types of learning build upon instinctual mechanisms to create distinctive, and seemingly "automated," patterns of sexual response. This article reviews the literature on conditioning and sexual behavior with a particular emphasis on incentive sequences of sexual behavior that move animals from distal to proximal with regard to sexual stimuli during appetitive phases of behavior and ultimately result in copulatory interaction and mating during consummatory phases of behavior. Accordingly, the role of learning in sexual excitement, in behaviors that bring about the opportunity to mate, in courtship and solicitation displays, in sexual arousal and copulatory behaviors, in sexual partner preferences, and the short- and long-term influence of copulatory experience on sexual and reproductive function is examined. Although hormone actions set the stage for sexual activity by generating the ability of animals to become sexually excited and aroused, it is each animal's unique experience with sexual behavior and sexual reward that molds the strength of responses made toward sexual incentives.

  18. Wear of novel ceramic-on-ceramic bearings under adverse and clinically relevant hip simulator conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Jennings, Louise M; Begand, Sabine; Oberbach, Thomas; Delfosse, Daniel; Fisher, John

    2013-11-01

    Further development of ceramic materials for total hip replacement aim to increase fracture toughness and further reduce the incidence of bearing fracture. Edge loading due to translational mal positioning (microseparation) has replicated stripe wear, wear rates, and bimodal wear debris observed on retrievals. This method has replicated the fracture of early zirconia ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. This has shown the necessity of introducing microseparation conditions to the gait cycle when assessing the tribological performance of new hip replacement bearings. Two novel ceramic matrix composite materials, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) and alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ), were developed by Mathys Orthopädie GmbH. In this study, ATZ-on-ATZ and ZTA-on-ZTA bearing combinations were tested and compared with alumina-on-alumina (Al2O3-on-Al2O3) bearings under adverse microseparation and edge loading conditions using the Leeds II physiological anatomical hip joint simulator. The wear rate (±95% confidence limit) of ZTA-on-ZTA was 0.14 ± 0.10 mm(3)/million cycles and that of ATZ-on-ATZ was 0.06 ± 0.004 mm(3)/million cycles compared with a wear rate of 0.74 ± 1.73 mm(3)/million cycles for Al2O3-on-Al2O3 bearings. Stripe wear was evident on all bearing combinations; however, the stripe formed on the ATZ and ZTA femoral heads was thinner and shallower that that formed on the Al2O3 heads. Posttest phase composition measurements for both ATZ and ZTA materials showed no significant change in the monoclinic zirconia content. ATZ-on-ATZ and ZTA-on-ZTA showed superior wear resistance properties when compared with Al2O3-on-Al2O3 under adverse edge loading conditions.

  19. A Ground-Based Array to Observe Geospace Electrodynamics During Adverse Space Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2004-05-01

    Geomagnetic Storms occur with surprising frequency and create adverse space weather conditions. During these periods, our knowledge and ability to specify or forecast in adequate detail for user needs is negligible. Neither experimental observations nor theoretical developments have made a significant new impact on the problem for over two decades. Although we can now map Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere over a continent with sufficient resolution to see coherent long-lived structures, these do not provide constraints on the geospace electrodynamics that is at the heart of our lack of understanding. We present arguments for the need of a continental deployment of ground-based sensors to stepwise advance our understanding of the geospace electrodynamics when it is most adverse from a space weather perspective and also most frustrating from an understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling. That a continental-scale deployment is more productive at addressing the problem than a realizable global distribution is shown. Each measurement is discussed from the point-of-view of either providing new knowledge or becoming a key for future real-time specification and forecasting for user applications. An example of a storm database from one mid-latitude station for the 31 March 2002 is used as a conceptual point in a ground-based array. The presentation focuses on scientific questions that have eluded a quantitative solution for over three decades and view a ground-based array as an "IGY" type of catalyst for answering these questions.

  20. Determination and representation of electric charge distributions associated with adverse weather conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for determining the size and location of electric charges which model storm systems and lightning strikes. The analysis utilizes readings from a grid of ground level field mills and geometric constraints on parameters to arrive at a representative set of charges. This set is used to generate three dimensional graphical depictions of the set as well as contour maps of the ground level electrical environment over the grid. The composite, analytic and graphic package is demonstrated and evaluated using controlled input data and archived data from a storm system. The results demonstrate the packages utility as: an operational tool in appraising adverse weather conditions; a research tool in studies of topics such as storm structure, storm dynamics, and lightning; and a tool in designing and evaluating grid systems.

  1. Probiotics production and alternative encapsulation methodologies to improve their viabilities under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic products are dietary supplements containing live microorganisms producing beneficial health effects on the host by improving intestinal balance and nutrient absorption. Among probiotic microorganisms, those classified as lactic acid bacteria are of major importance to the food and feed industries. Probiotic cells can be produced using alternative carbon and nitrogen sources, such as agroindustrial residues, at the same time contributing to reduce process costs. On the other hand, the survival of probiotic cells in formulated food products, as well as in the host gut, is an essential nutritional aspect concerning health benefits. Therefore, several cell microencapsulation techniques have been investigated as a way to improve cell viability and survival under adverse environmental conditions, such as the gastrointestinal milieu of hosts. In this review, different aspects of probiotic cells and technologies of their related products are discussed, including formulation of culture media, and aspects of cell microencapsulation techniques required to improve their survival in the host.

  2. Cost-sharing, physician utilization, and adverse selection among Medicare beneficiaries with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    Pooled data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Surveys were used to compare the number of self-reported annual physician visits among 36,808 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 in insurance groups with differential cost-sharing. Adjusted for adverse selection and a set of health covariates, Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) only beneficiaries had similar physician utilization compared with HMO enrollees but fewer visits compared with those with supplemental (1.04, p = .001) and Medicaid (1.55, p = .003) coverage. FFS only beneficiaries in very good or excellent health had fewer visits compared with those of similar health status with supplemental (1.30, p = .001) or Medicaid coverage (2.15, p = .002). For subpopulations with several chronic conditions, FFS only beneficiaries also had fewer visits compared with beneficiaries with supplemental or Medicaid coverage. Observed differences in utilization may reflect efficient and necessary physician utilization among those with chronic health needs.

  3. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2015-01-01

    The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO), is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants. PMID:27135326

  4. Global responses of Escherichia coli to adverse conditions determined by microarrays and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moen, Birgitte; Janbu, Astrid Oust; Langsrud, Solveig; Langsrud, Oyvind; Hobman, Jon L; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Kohler, Achim; Rudi, Knut

    2009-06-01

    The global gene expression and biomolecular composition in an Escherichia coli model strain exposed to 10 adverse conditions (sodium chloride, ethanol, glycerol, hydrochloric and acetic acid, sodium hydroxide, heat (46 degrees C), and cold (15 degrees C), as well as ethidium bromide and the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride) were determined using DNA microarrays and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In total, approximately 40% of all investigated genes (1682/4279 genes) significantly changed expression, compared with a nonstressed control. There were, however, only 3 genes (ygaW (unknown function), rmf (encoding a ribosomal modification factor), and ghrA (encoding a glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase)) that significantly changed expression under all conditions (not including benzalkonium chloride). The FT-IR analysis showed an increase in unsaturated fatty acids during ethanol and cold exposure, and a decrease during acid and heat exposure. Cold conditions induced changes in the carbohydrate composition of the cell, possibly related to the upregulation of outer membrane genes (glgAP and rcsA). Although some covariance was observed between the 2 data sets, principle component analysis and regression analyses revealed that the gene expression and the biomolecular responses are not well correlated in stressed populations of E. coli, underlining the importance of multiple strategies to begin to understand the effect on the whole cell.

  5. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  6. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  7. Comparison of Behavioral Treatment Conditions in Buprenorphine Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Jenkins, Jessica; Fahey, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The Controlled Substances Act requires physicians in the United States to provide or refer to behavioral treatment when treating opioid-dependent individuals with buprenorphine; however no research has examined the combination of buprenorphine with different types of behavioral treatments. This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided with buprenorphine and medical management (MM) for the treatment of opioid dependence. Design After a 2-week buprenorphine induction/stabilization phase, participants were randomized to 1 of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided for 16 weeks: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT=53); Contingency Management (CM=49); both CBT and CM (CBT+CM=49); and no additional behavioral treatment (NT=51). Setting Study activities occurred at an outpatient clinical research center in Los Angeles, California, USA. Participants Included were 202 male and female opioid-dependent participants. Measurements Primary outcome was opioid use, measured as a proportion of opioid-negative urine results over the number of tests possible. Secondary outcomes include retention, withdrawal symptoms, craving, other drug use, and adverse events. Findings No group differences in opioid use were found for the behavioral treatment phase (Chi-square=1.25, p=0.75), for a second medication-only treatment phase, or at weeks 40 and 52 follow-ups. Analyses revealed no differences across groups for any secondary outcome. Conclusion There remains no clear evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management reduce opiate use when added to buprenorphine and medical management in opiates users seeking treatment. PMID:23734858

  8. The Relationship between Psychotropic Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior in Japan: Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Takenoshita, S; Taka, F; Nakao, M; Nomura, K

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Very few studies have explored the adverse effect of psychotropic drugs worldwide. Methods: This study analyzed 1 813 suicide-related drug reports involving 553 patients collected from the Japanese National Adverse Drug Report Database between October 2001 and January 2012 to investigate psychotropic drugs associated with completed suicide vs. other suicide-related behaviors, including ideation and self-injury. The drugs investigated included antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and other drugs. Results: These reports referenced 300 (54.2%) individuals who completed suicide. Adjusting for age, sex, and drugs used, the multivariate model revealed that participants who took antipsychotics were 1.70 times (95% CI, 1.11-2.61) more likely to complete suicide compared with those who did not. All other drugs became non-significant. Compared with those who took only one medication, those prescribed more than 4 drugs were more likely to complete suicide (OR 4.44, 95% CI, 2.40-8.20). Discussion: Antipsychotic drugs and polypharmacy may be regarded as predictors of completed suicide.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Nutrient Deficits in Adverse Neurodevelopment and Childhood Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hibbeln, Joseph. R.; Gow, Rachel V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 for treating symptoms of ADHD in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) show sizeable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and in young adult prisoners. Meta-analyses report efficacy for depressive symptoms in adults, and preliminary findings suggest anti-suicidal properties in adults, but studies in youth are insufficient to draw any conclusions regarding mood. Dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations for youth and adults based on general health considerations, while the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatments develops. PMID:24975625

  10. The transgenerational transmission of childhood adversity: behavioral, cellular, and epigenetic correlates.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Nicole; Matas, Emmanuel; Gos, Tomasz; Lesse, Alexandra; Poeggel, Gerd; Braun, Katharina; Bock, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    The view that the functional maturation of the brain is the result of an environmentally driven adaptation of genetically preprogrammed neuronal networks is an important current concept in developmental neuroscience and psychology. This hypothesis proposes that early traumatic experiences or early life stress (ELS) as a negative environmental experience provide a major risk factor for the development of dysfunctional brain circuits and as a consequence for the emergence of behavioral dysfunctions and mental disorders in later life periods. This view is supported by an increasing number of clinical as well as experimental animal studies revealing that early life traumas can induce functional 'scars' in the brain, especially in brain circuits, which are essential for emotional control, learning, and memory functions. Such gene × environment interactions are modulated by specific epigenetic mechanisms, which are suggested to be the key factors of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Indeed, there is increasing evidence for inter- and transgenerational cycles of environmentally driven neuronal and behavioral adaptations mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Finally, recent concepts postulate that, dependent on type, time point, and duration of ELS exposure, also positive functional adaptations may occur in the relevant brain pathways, leading to better stress coping and resilience against adversities later in life.

  11. Biological sensitivity to context: the interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional behavior and school readiness.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Adler, Nancy E; Boyce, W Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional and cognitive development in three hundred and thirty-eight 5- to 6-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenges. Adaptation was assessed using child, parent, and teacher reports of externalizing symptoms, prosocial behaviors, school engagement, and academic competence. Results revealed significant interactions between reactivity and adversity. High stress reactivity was associated with more maladaptive outcomes in the context of high adversity but with better adaption in the context of low adversity. The findings corroborate a reconceptualization of stress reactivity as biological sensitivity to context by showing that high reactivity can both hinder and promote adaptive functioning.

  12. The Formation of Teacher Work Teams under Adverse Conditions: Towards a More Realistic Scenario for Schools in Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Rick; Charles, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Group formation studies are rare in the literature on teacher professional learning communities (PLCs). But they are needed to render realistic scenarios and design interventions for practitioners who work in schools where teachers encounter distress and social adversity. Under these conditions, we may need approaches to PLC development that are…

  13. Potential Climate Change Health Risks from Increases in Heat Waves: Abnormal Birth Outcomes and Adverse Maternal Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cil, Gulcan; Cameron, Trudy Ann

    2017-02-23

    We investigate the risks presented by heat waves for adverse health conditions for babies and expectant mothers when these mothers have been exposed to heat waves during gestation or during the period just prior to conception. Rather than just birth weight and gestational age, we focus on less common metrics such as abnormal conditions in the newborn (fetal distress, reliance on a ventilator, and meconium aspiration) and adverse health conditions in the mother (pregnancy-related hypertension, uterine bleeding during pregnancy, eclampsia, and incompetent cervix). We use monthly panel data for over 3,000 U.S. counties, constructed from the confidential version of the U.S. Natality Files for 1989-2008. Our models control for sociodemographic factors and include county, month, and state-by-year fixed effects to control for unobserved spatial and timewise heterogeneity in the data. Even within the United States, where there is widespread access to air conditioning, heat waves increase the fraction of babies with abnormal conditions related to maternal stress, as well as the fraction of mothers who experience pregnancy-related adverse health conditions. The scope for these risks in developing countries is likely to be even greater.

  14. SOCIAL BEHAVIORISM, MOTIVATION, AND THE CONDITIONING THERAPIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    including an understanding of abnormal behavior in terms of the motivational system, and the present and potential roles of behavior therapy and behavior modification in dealing with personality problems.

  15. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Integration of iconic gestures and speech in left superior temporal areas boosts speech comprehension under adverse listening conditions.

    PubMed

    Holle, Henning; Obleser, Jonas; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Gunter, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Iconic gestures are spontaneous hand movements that illustrate certain contents of speech and, as such, are an important part of face-to-face communication. This experiment targets the brain bases of how iconic gestures and speech are integrated during comprehension. Areas of integration were identified on the basis of two classic properties of multimodal integration, bimodal enhancement and inverse effectiveness (i.e., greater enhancement for unimodally least effective stimuli). Participants underwent fMRI while being presented with videos of gesture-supported sentences as well as their unimodal components, which allowed us to identify areas showing bimodal enhancement. Additionally, we manipulated the signal-to-noise ratio of speech (either moderate or good) to probe for integration areas exhibiting the inverse effectiveness property. Bimodal enhancement was found at the posterior end of the superior temporal sulcus and adjacent superior temporal gyrus (pSTS/STG) in both hemispheres, indicating that the integration of iconic gestures and speech takes place in these areas. Furthermore, we found that the left pSTS/STG specifically showed a pattern of inverse effectiveness, i.e., the neural enhancement for bimodal stimulation was greater under adverse listening conditions. This indicates that activity in this area is boosted when an iconic gesture accompanies an utterance that is otherwise difficult to comprehend. The neural response paralleled the behavioral data observed. The present data extends results from previous gesture-speech integration studies in showing that pSTS/STG plays a key role in the facilitation of speech comprehension through simultaneous gestural input.

  17. Gender differences in adverse childhood experiences, collective violence, and the risk for addictive behaviors among university students in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Lemieux, Andrine; Bouanene, Ines; Ben Salah, Arwa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Ben Salem, Kamel; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-02-16

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to a variety of addictive behaviors. The recent adaptation of the ACE measure by the World Health Organization (WHO) allows for the assessment of the negative role of additional adverse experiences, such as extra-familial violence. To date, the relationship between extra-familial violence and addictive behaviors has not been assessed. We report the contribution of ACEs, including the new scales for extra-familial violence, on the risk for mental health problems and addictive behaviors by gender in a sample of young adults in Tunisia. We conducted a cross sectional study in Tunisia during 2014, where we recruited 1200 young university adults who completed the validated Arabic version of the WHO ACE questionnaire in a university setting. Results indicated that intra-familial adversities were associated with increased risk for addictive behaviors, particularly in males. ACEs were also associated with increased risk for mental health problems with women showing more difficulties than men. Exposure to peer, community and collective violence was higher in males than in females and logistic regression confirms that exposure to extra-familial violence increased the risk for addictive behaviors both in male and females by two to three-fold. Mental health problems were associated with peer violence and substance abuse in males, but not in females. Results demonstrate for the first time the contribution of exposure to extra-familial violence on risk for addictive behaviors. Results highlight the need for addressing mental health and addiction in a community with high burden of adversity and violence.

  18. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  19. Adverse Events of Massage Therapy in Pain-Related Conditions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ping; Gao, Ningyang; Wu, Junyi; Xu, Shifen

    2014-01-01

    Pain-related massage, important in traditional Eastern medicine, is increasingly used in the Western world. So the widening acceptance demands continual safety assessment. This review is an evaluation of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) reported mainly for pain-related massage between 2003 and 2013. Relevant all-languages reports in 6 databases were identified and assessed by two coauthors. During the 11-year period, 40 reports of 138 AEs were associated with massage. Author, year of publication, country of occurrence, participant related (age, sex) or number of patients affected, the details of manual therapy, and clinician type were extracted. Disc herniation, soft tissue trauma, neurologic compromise, spinal cord injury, dissection of the vertebral arteries, and others were the main complications of massage. Spinal manipulation in massage has repeatedly been associated with serious AEs especially. Clearly, massage therapies are not totally devoid of risks. But the incidence of such events is low. PMID:25197310

  20. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  1. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    PubMed Central

    Buades-Rotger, Macià; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. PMID:25114607

  2. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  3. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  4. 30 CFR 585.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 585.816 Section 585.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you must: (a) Submit a plan...

  5. Child Development in the Context of Adversity: Experiential Canalization of Brain and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of poverty-related adversity on child development, drawing upon psychobiological principles of experiential canalization and the biological embedding of experience. They integrate findings from research on stress physiology, neurocognitive function, and self-regulation to consider adaptive processes in response to…

  6. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  7. Environmental Adversity and Children’s Early Trajectories of Problem Behavior: The Role of Harsh Parental Discipline

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.’s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and “telling off” the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children’s trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. PMID:27977229

  8. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Misyura, Maksym; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested.

  9. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

  10. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  12. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR.

  13. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, including, but not limited to, earthquake, excessive..., earthquake, excessive wind, flood, hurricane, tornado, volcanic eruption, and wildfire. To be eligible for a... limited to, an earthquake, flood, hurricane, tidal surge, tornado, and volcanic eruption....

  14. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limited to, earthquake, excessive wind, flood, hurricane, tidal surge, tornado, volcanic eruption, and... limited to, earthquake, excessive wind, flood, hurricane, tornado, volcanic eruption, and wildfire. To be... loss condition as determined by the Deputy Administrator including, but not limited to, an...

  15. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... condition, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, including, but not limited to, earthquake, excessive..., earthquake, excessive wind, flood, hurricane, tornado, volcanic eruption, and wildfire. To be eligible for a... determined by the Deputy Administrator including, but not limited to, an earthquake, flood, hurricane,...

  16. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

  17. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  18. Comparison of Infrared and Millimeter-Wave Imager Performance in Adverse Weather Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    area, which were used as inputs to Acquire, are different than the Johnson criteria default value of 0.75 and the target area used by Wikner † in his MMW...target is 3 × 3 m. 5 2.3 Weather Analysis Method for MMW Systems The results of this section are taken from Wikner [3]. His assumptions are in table...Science and Technology Division, Arlington, VA (1979). 3. D. Wikner , Prediction of 94 GHz Radiometer Performance in Various Environ- mental Condition

  19. Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review.

    PubMed

    Berman, S M; Kuczenski, R; McCracken, J T; London, E D

    2009-02-01

    Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central toxicity and adverse

  20. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions.

  1. Active imaging systems to see through adverse conditions: Light-scattering based models and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere, Nicolas; Ceolato, Romain; Hespel, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Onera, the French aerospace lab, develops and models active imaging systems to understand the relevant physical phenomena affecting these systems performance. As a consequence, efforts have been done on the propagation of a pulse through the atmosphere and on target geometries and surface properties. These imaging systems must operate at night in all ambient illumination and weather conditions in order to perform strategic surveillance for various worldwide operations. We have implemented codes for 2D and 3D laser imaging systems. As we aim to image a scene in the presence of rain, snow, fog or haze, we introduce such light-scattering effects in our numerical models and compare simulated images with measurements provided by commercial laser scanners.

  2. Relationship between Physical Disabilities or Long-Term Health Problems and Health Risk Behaviors or Conditions among US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Lollar, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study explores the relationship between self-reported physical disabilities or long-term health problems and health risk behaviors or adverse health conditions (self-reported engagement in violent behaviors, attempted suicide, cigarette smoking, alcohol and other drug use, sexual activity, physical activity, dietary behaviors,…

  3. Blind spots and adverse conditions of care: screening migrants for tuberculosis in France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kehr, Janina

    2012-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that declined significantly throughout the 20(th) century. Large-scale TB screening of entire populations in France and Germany has thus been replaced by active screening of risk-groups, particularly migrants. The article engages with its problems and practices on three levels: by looking at the way information on migrants as an at-risk group is produced through disease surveillance data; by analysing how such at-risk group data influence local screening practices; and by showing which political and medical problems arise in the field. I overturn the discussion about screening and surveillance of migrants as a risk-group by showing that it is not the stigmatisation of migrants through disease risk that is most at stake, but the invisibility of the most vulnerable among them in disease surveillance data and the way restrictive national immigration policies interfere with and subvert local screening and treatment practices targeting them. The aim of my article is to promote a pragmatic sociology of screening, while paying attention to the practical complexities, political conditions and medical ambivalences of screening and follow-up care, especially when the migrant groups concerned are socially, politically and medically vulnerable.

  4. Influence of weather conditions on hiking behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching; Lin, Shu-Hua

    2012-07-01

    This study determines the major weather factors affecting hiking activity and builds a prediction model to estimate participation. An empirical assessment of hiking participation using weather factors was demonstrated for trails on Kuanyin Mountain, Taiwan. By adapting the concepts of the range of tolerance and the eclectic model, a nonlinear function was used to explain hiking participation with weather factors. Stepwise multiple-regression analysis was carried out to determine the major weather factors affecting hiking participation. The results indicate that not only did participation vary with the season but hiking behavior was affected by different weather factors in each season. The explanation rates for the seasons exceeded 90% except that for spring.

  5. Influence of weather conditions on hiking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ching; Lin, Shu-Hua

    2012-07-01

    This study determines the major weather factors affecting hiking activity and builds a prediction model to estimate participation. An empirical assessment of hiking participation using weather factors was demonstrated for trails on Kuanyin Mountain, Taiwan. By adapting the concepts of the range of tolerance and the eclectic model, a nonlinear function was used to explain hiking participation with weather factors. Stepwise multiple-regression analysis was carried out to determine the major weather factors affecting hiking participation. The results indicate that not only did participation vary with the season but hiking behavior was affected by different weather factors in each season. The explanation rates for the seasons exceeded 90% except that for spring.

  6. Liquid Behavior at Critical and Supercritical Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang; Gross, Klaus W.

    1989-01-01

    At a JANNAF workshop, the issue of fluids at and above the critical point was discussed to obtain a better understanding of similar conditions in combustion chambers of rocket engines. Invited experts from academic, industrial, and government institutions presented the most recent physical, numerical, and experimental advances. During the final discussion period, it was agreed that: (1) no analytical capability exists to simulate subject conditions; (2) mechanisms reflected by opalescence, the solubility of gases, other interfacial phenomena listed, and fluorescence diagnostics are new and important; (3) multicomponent mixtures, radiation, critical fluctuation, and other recorded ones pose unknown effects; and (4) various identified analytical and experimental actions must be initiated in a mutually supporting sequence.

  7. Adverse Life Events, Coping and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Urban African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Yadira M.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-01-01

    African American youth residing in low income urban neighborhoods are at increased risk of experiencing negative life events in multiple domains, increasing their risk for internalizing and externalizing behaviors. However, little is known about youth's differential responses to life event stress, or protective processes and coping strategies for…

  8. Maternal Behavior Under Different Gravitational Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, ten pregnant female rats were launched on the Space Shuttle (STS-70) on Gestational day (G)11 of their 22-day pregnancy as part of the NASA/NIH.Rodent(R)2 Experiment. Following landing on G20, fetuses were harvested from half of the dams, while the remaining five dams underwent birth. Spaceflight did not interrupt pregnancy, alter litter sizes, or affect body weights or gender ratios of the fetuses or neonates. Analyses of rats exposed to Hypergravity (HG) at 2.0-g, HG 1.75-g, HG 1.5-g were also conducted. Dams were exposed to continuous centrifugation from G11 through G20, with brief daily stops for animal health checks and maintenance. For both the G20 and Birth dams, comparable litter sizes and litter gender ratios were observed across gravity conditions. However, centrifugation-exposed (HG and RC) fetuses and neonates showed significantly lower body masses (p<0.05) relative to SC offspring. HG 2.0-g offspring weighed significantly less than those in all other gravity conditions (p<0.05). Changes in the mothers' care of the young will be discussed.

  9. Structural Brain Network Reorganization and Social Cognition Related to Adverse Perinatal Condition from Infancy to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Batalle, Dafnis; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Eixarch, Elisenda; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Gratacós, Eduard; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse conditions during fetal life have been associated to both structural and functional changes in neurodevelopment from the neonatal period to adolescence. In this study, connectomics was used to assess the evolution of brain networks from infancy to early adolescence. Brain network reorganization over time in subjects who had suffered adverse perinatal conditions is characterized and related to neurodevelopment and cognition. Three cohorts of prematurely born infants and children (between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age), including individuals with a birth weight appropriated for gestational age and with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), were evaluated at 1, 6, and 10 years of age, respectively. A common developmental trajectory of brain networks was identified in both control and IUGR groups: network efficiencies of the fractional anisotropy (FA)-weighted and normalized connectomes increase with age, which can be related to maturation and myelination of fiber connections while the number of connections decreases, which can be associated to an axonal pruning process and reorganization. Comparing subjects with or without IUGR, a similar pattern of network differences between groups was observed in the three developmental stages, mainly characterized by IUGR group having reduced brain network efficiencies in binary and FA-weighted connectomes and increased efficiencies in the connectome normalized by its total connection strength (FA). Associations between brain networks and neurobehavioral impairments were also evaluated showing a relationship between different network metrics and specific social cognition-related scores, as well as a higher risk of inattention/hyperactivity and/or executive functional disorders in IUGR children. PMID:28008304

  10. Adverse effects of maternal exposure to bisphenol F on the anxiety- and depression-like behavior of offspring

    PubMed Central

    OHTANI, Naoko; IWANO, Hidetomo; SUDA, Koshi; TSUJI, Erika; TANEMURA, Kentaro; INOUE, Hiroki; YOKOTA, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is metabolized and eliminated rapidly from the body in adult animals. However, many authors have reported that perinatal BPA exposure alters development of the brain, reproductive system and behavior in the next generation. Recently, BPA substitutes, especially bisphenol F (BPF), have been used because of concerns about the influence of BPA on children, although the actual effects on the next generation are unknown. In this study, we observed behavioral adverse effects of the offspring of mice exposed to BPA or BPF in fetal period. Female C57BL/6 mice were given oral BPA or BPF (0 or 10 mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day 11.5 to 18.5. The open field test, the elevated plus maze test and the forced swim test were performed at postnatal week 10. BPF exposure altered offspring behavior significantly, resulting in increases in anxiety and depressive state. The influence of BPF was stronger than that of BPA. We demonstrated novel evidence that BPF influences the behavior of offspring. PMID:28025458

  11. Aftereffects of Lithium-Conditioned Stimuli on Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domjan, Michael; Gillan, Douglas J.

    1977-01-01

    To complement investigations of the direct effects of lithium toxicosis on consummatory behavior, these experiments were designed to determine the aftereffects on drinking of exposure to a conditioned stimulus previously paired with lithium. (Author/RK)

  12. Transplacental Exposure to AZT Induces Adverse Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects in a Mouse Model: Protection by L-Acetylcarnitine

    PubMed Central

    Venerosi Pesciolini, Aldina; Tramutola, Antonella; Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Giovine, Angela; Peluso, Gianfranco; Minghetti, Luisa; Nicolai, Raffaella; Calamandrei, Gemma; Casolini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a mechanistic hypothesis for

  13. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Regina

    2017-02-16

    Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver's presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  14. The use of positive reinforcement in conditioning attending behavior.

    PubMed

    Walker, H M; Buckley, N K

    1968-01-01

    Individual conditioning techniques were applied in a controlled setting to increase attending behavior of an underachieving 9-yr-old male subject. The procedure involved: (1) determining a stable response pattern, (2) introducing a treatment variable to establish a high rate of task-attending behavior, (3) measuring the effect of withdrawal of the treatment variable after attaining criterion performance, and (4) transferring control to the classroom. The interval of attending behavior required for reinforcement was systematically increased from 30 sec to 600 sec as the behavior came under experimental control. Manipulating the reinforcing contingencies measurably changed the proportion of attending behavior and the frequency and duration of non-attending events. Once the behaviors were under experimental control, procedures were established to program generalization and to maintain the behavior outside the experimental setting.

  15. The use of positive reinforcement in conditioning attending behavior1

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hill M.; Buckley, Nancy K.

    1968-01-01

    Individual conditioning techniques were applied in a controlled setting to increase attending behavior of an underachieving 9-yr-old male subject. The procedure involved: (1) determining a stable response pattern, (2) introducing a treatment variable to establish a high rate of task-attending behavior, (3) measuring the effect of withdrawal of the treatment variable after attaining criterion performance, and (4) transferring control to the classroom. The interval of attending behavior required for reinforcement was systematically increased from 30 sec to 600 sec as the behavior came under experimental control. Manipulating the reinforcing contingencies measurably changed the proportion of attending behavior and the frequency and duration of non-attending events. Once the behaviors were under experimental control, procedures were established to program generalization and to maintain the behavior outside the experimental setting. PMID:16795182

  16. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  17. The Cpx system of Escherichia coli, a strategic signaling pathway for confronting adverse conditions and for settling biofilm communities?

    PubMed

    Dorel, Corinne; Lejeune, Philippe; Rodrigue, Agnès

    2006-05-01

    Amongst the thirty or so two-component systems known in Escherichia coli, the Cpx system has been described as being a stress response system the main function of which is to respond to damage to the cell envelope via activation of proteases and folding catalysts. Nevertheless, the size of the Cpx regulon (several dozens of target genes) and the diversity of the physiological functions associated with it (resistance to hostile conditions, mobility, adherence factors, metabolism, etc.) indicate that the role of Cpx in cell physiology is undoubtedly more complex. The range of cellular functions affected by activation of the Cpx pathway corresponds quite closely to the description of the physiological state of cells grown in biofilms. We suggest that Cpx is a strategic signaling pathway for facing adverse conditions and for settling biofilm communities. Current knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the CpxR response (transcriptional and post-transcriptional) and the interactions between CpxR and the other bacterial regulatory systems are presented.

  18. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible.

  19. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12–19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Results Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Conclusions Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring

  20. Clinical profiles of adverse drug reactions spontaneously reported at a single Korean hospital dedicated to children with complex chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bomi; Kim, Sunwha Zara; Lee, Jin; Jung, Ae Hee; Jung, Sun-Hoi; Hahn, Hyeon-Joo; Kang, Hye Ryun

    2017-01-01

    Children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) are presumed to be vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The clinical profiles of ADRs in CCC are not well known. Herein, we aim to describe the ADR profiles in CCC with regard to typical presentations and vulnerable groups. We accessed the ADR yearly reports at a tertiary children's hospital whose practice is mainly dedicated to CCC and descriptively analyzed their clinical profiles according to the presence of a complex chronic condition, ADR severity, and age groups. A total of 1841 cases were analyzed, among which 1258 (68.3%) were mild, 493 (26.8%) moderate, and 90 (4.9%) cases were severe. A total of 1581 (85.9%) cases of complex chronic condition were reported. The proportion of CCC in each severity group increased as the ADR becomes more severe. In CCC, ADRs were most frequently reported by nurses in the adolescent group and in cases where the symptoms involved the gastrointestinal system. The class of antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs was the most commonly suspected of causing an ADR, followed by one of the antibiotics. When we focus on the trend across the age groups, the ratio of severe-to-total ADRs decreased with older age. Among severe cases, the ratio of off-label prescription-related cases was the highest in the infant/toddler group and decreased as the groups aged. In conclusion, ADRs of CCCs admitted to a tertiary children’s hospital have a unique profile. These groups are vulnerable to ADRs and thus they should be monitored closely, especially when they are infants or toddlers, so that severe ADRs can be identified and treated immediately. PMID:28199420

  1. Aggregation of adverse behaviors and its affecting factors among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Der-Min; Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Lai, Hsiang-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of the aggregation in common lifestyle habits, namely, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel-nut chewing and the demographic correlates of individual aggregation in these lifestyle behaviors among young military conscripts in Taiwan. Cross-sectional screening was conducted among conscripts in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan from Aug. 1st to Dec. 31st 2001. Totally, 3913 conscripts who had more than 1 month of service were included in this multistage sampling study. Information on smoking, drinking, and betel-nut chewing habits were ascertained as part of a self-administered questionnaire completed by examinees at the service unit. Aggregation in lifestyle habits was studied by comparing the observed and expected proportions (O/E ratio) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for zero, one, two, and three simultaneously occurring lifestyle habits. The study results showed a significant clustering of lifestyle habits studied; the number of subjects was greater than expected in groups with two (for cigarette smoking and betel-nut chewing, O/E ratio=1.17, 95%CI=1.06-1.28), and three (O/E ratio=5.63, 95%CI=5.06-6.20) lifestyle habits. Determinants for this clustering of lifestyle habits included lower educational levels and residential area in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan. There was a significant individual aggregation in lifestyle habits including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel-nut chewing in the health survey among young military conscripts. In addition, young military conscripts with low educational levels and residential area in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan had an apparent tendency toward the aggregation in these lifestyle habits.

  2. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  3. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions--validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  4. Does the Size of the Effect of Adverse Events at High Ages on Daily-Life Physical Functioning Depend on the Economic Conditions Around Birth?

    PubMed

    Scholte, Robert; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers determinants of physical functional limitations in daily-life activities at high ages. Specifically, we quantify the extent to which the impact of adverse life events on this outcome is larger in case of exposure to adverse economic conditions early in life. Adverse life events include bereavement, severe illness in the family, and the onset of chronic diseases. We use a longitudinal data set of individuals born in the first decades of the 20th century. The business cycle around birth is used as an indicator of economic conditions early in life. We find that the extent to which functional limitations suffer from the onset of chronic diseases is larger if the individual was born in a recession. The long-run effect of economic conditions early in life on functional limitations at high ages runs primarily via this life event. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Conditioning of brain stimulation-induced presleep behavior.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, W; Chase, M H

    1994-11-01

    Experiments were conducted on three chronic unanesthetized, undrugged cats. Electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain area (BFA) resulted in presleep behavior (i.e., the cats would sit or lie down, and EEG spindles would arise). After several sessions (conducted twice a week), two of these cats began to exhibit presleep behavior almost immediately after entering the experimental compartment, even before the application of BFA stimulation. The third cat often ate some food (which was always present in the compartment) before showing presleep behavior. When stimulation was withheld during an extinction procedure, the cats still exhibited presleep behavior in the absence of stimulation during several sessions. We conclude that repeated BFA stimulation led to conditioning of the stimulation effects, that is, the presleep behavior that was evoked by the environmental situation alone, without BFA stimulation or any other intermittent stimulus.

  6. [Effects of microwave radiation on conditioned behavior of rats].

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, L P; Kolganova, O I; Dubovik, B V; Matrënina, V L; Posadskaia, V M

    2003-01-01

    Research has been carried out to investigate the effects of microwave exposure (7 GHz, surface energy density 10-50 mW/cm2, SAR 2.1-10.5 W/kg) on learned behaviors of rats in the paradigm of conditioned avoidance reflex. It was shown that transitory reductions in conditioned behavior after acute microwave exposure occurred at an SAR equal to the intensity of rat basal metabolism. It was found cumulative effects for intermittent exposures of rats at a power density of 10 mW/cm2.

  7. Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5 m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions.

  8. Adverse life events and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: the role of non-verbal cognitive ability and negative cognitive errors.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430 children (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Total difficulties (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems) were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjustment was made for gender, age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, and family socio-economic disadvantage. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191-1200, 1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. Non-verbal cognitive ability was measured with Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus. Non-verbal cognitive ability moderated the effect of adverse life events both on total difficulties and on emotional symptoms. Overgeneralizing mediated the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events and total difficulties. Adverse life events were related to a tendency to overgeneralize which was associated with emotional and behavioral problems, but particularly among those adolescents with lower non-verbal cognitive ability.

  9. Reinforcement learning accounts for moody conditional cooperation behavior: experimental results

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Inukai, Keigo; Kita, Toshimasa; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner’s dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior. We observed MCC behavior in both games, but the MCC that we observed was different from that observed in the past experiments. In the present study, whether or not a focal participant cooperated previously affected the overall level of cooperation, instead of changing the tendency of cooperation in response to cooperation of other participants in the previous time step. We found that, across different conditions, reinforcement learning models were approximately as accurate as a MCC model in describing the experimental results. Consistent with the previous computational studies, the present results suggest that reinforcement learning may be a major proximate mechanism governing MCC behavior. PMID:28071646

  10. Reinforcement learning accounts for moody conditional cooperation behavior: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Inukai, Keigo; Kita, Toshimasa; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-01-10

    In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior. We observed MCC behavior in both games, but the MCC that we observed was different from that observed in the past experiments. In the present study, whether or not a focal participant cooperated previously affected the overall level of cooperation, instead of changing the tendency of cooperation in response to cooperation of other participants in the previous time step. We found that, across different conditions, reinforcement learning models were approximately as accurate as a MCC model in describing the experimental results. Consistent with the previous computational studies, the present results suggest that reinforcement learning may be a major proximate mechanism governing MCC behavior.

  11. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  12. Amplifying Learning through Sites of Pedagogical Practice: A Possible Effect of Working with Disciplinary Technologies in Schools Operating under Adverse Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Schools located within communities experiencing high levels of social dislocation, educational disadvantage and student disengagement from learning are working under "adverse conditions". These schools face particular challenges when it comes to stabilising and sustaining wholeschool change aimed at improving students' learning outcomes.…

  13. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  14. New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Daniele, Teresa; Frantz, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents. PMID:21977221

  15. Role of Steel Object Surface Condition on Behavior During Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'yachenko, S. S.; Ponomarenko, I. V.; Dub, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analysis is provided for specimen mechanical properties of steels 18KhGT and 20Kh with tensile testing in relation to surface treatment: grinding, polishing, nitriding, carburizing, and ion-plasma treatment. It is shown that surface condition has a considerable effect on specimen behavior during deformation. It is established that the most favorable effect applies to ion bombardment with low-energy ions recommended as an effective method for improving component structural strength.

  16. Behavior of Materials Under Conditions of Thermal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S S

    1954-01-01

    A review is presented of available information on the behavior of brittle and ductile materials under conditions of thermal stress and thermal shock. For brittle materials, a simple formula relating physical properties to thermal-shock resistance is derived and used to determine the relative significance of two indices currently in use for rating materials. For ductile materials, thermal-shock resistance depends upon the complex interrelation among several metallurgical variables which seriously affect strength and ductility. These variables are briefly discussed and illustrated from literature sources. The importance of simulating operating conditions in tests for rating materials is especially to be emphasized because of the importance of testing conditions in metallurgy. A number of practical methods that have been used to minimize the deleterious effects of thermal stress and thermal shock are outlined.

  17. Thermomechanical behavior of EUV pellicle under dynamic exposure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Bloomfield, Max O.; Colburn, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of EUV pellicles as protective layers for EUV masks requires the use of refractory materials that can tolerate large temperature excursions due to the non-negligible absorption of EUV radiation during exposure. Additionally, the mechanical stress induced on the EUV pellicle by the thermal load is dependent on the thermal expansion of the material which can be responsible for transient wrinkling. In this study, an ultrathin (20 nm), free-standing membrane based on silicon nitride is utilized as a learning vehicle to understand the material requirements of EUV pellicles under dynamic exposure conditions that are typical of commercial EUV scanners. First, the nanoscale radiative properties (emissivity) and thermo-mechanical failure temperature of the dielectric film under vacuum conditions are experimentally investigated utilizing a pulsed ArF (193 nm) probing laser. The silicon nitride membrane is found to be marginally compatible with an equivalent 80W EUV source power under steady state illumination conditions. Next, the thermal behavior of the EUV pellicle under dynamic exposure conditions is simulated using a finite element solver. The transient temperature profile and stress distribution across the membrane under stationary state conditions are extracted for an equivalent 60W EUV power source and the pellicle wrinkling due to heating and consequent impact on CD uniformity is estimated. The present work provides a generalized methodology to anticipate the thermal response of a EUV pellicle under realistic exposure conditions.

  18. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  19. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N J; Lanning, D D; Panisko, F E

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors.

  20. Friction and Wear Behavior of Silicon Under Conditions of Sliding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpalli, Chandrasekhar Venkata

    Silicon is gaining importance as a material in micromechanical applications such as micromotors and microactuators. Friction and wear can affect the performance of these devices and hence it is important to study the friction and wear behavior of silicon. The deformation behavior of n-type silicon is fundamentally different from p-type. On deformation, n -type silicon may convert to p-type, but p-type silicon does not convert to n-type on deformation. This is related to the effect of dislocations interacting with the electrical charge carriers. Friction and wear behavior of n and p-type silicon was studied under conditions of sliding wear. Sliding was selected because the stress system associated with sliding introduces large plastic strains at the surface. The friction and wear behavior of n and p-type silicon is expected to be different due to the differences in their deformation behavior. Also, the n to p transition may show up in the friction and wear behavior. The samples were tested in air and in vacuum. Diamond was used as the slider. The wear tracks showed evidence of plastic flow. The morphology of this material was similar to that seen in more ductile materials. The coefficient of friction was also high. Other researchers have reported that DC Silicon transforms to a more ductile phase when sufficient pressure is applied. When shear stresses are present, as in sliding wear, the pressure for phase transformation has been reported to be about 8 GPa. The maximum pressure under the slider in the present set of experiments was estimated to be 8.2 GPa. Therefore, it is possible that transformed material extruded during sliding to produce the flow-like features observed at the wear track. The work involved in this phase transformation, as well as the work in deforming DC Silicon and/or the ductile product phase would contribute to the frictional energy. The debris from the air tests was DC silicon (as determined by XRD and TEM). No significant differences were

  1. Biological Sensitivity to Context: The Interactive Effects of Stress Reactivity and Family Adversity on Socioemotional Behavior and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Adler, Nancy E.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional and cognitive development in three hundred and thirty-eight 5- to 6-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and…

  2. Poverty-Related Adversity and Emotion Regulation Predict Internalizing Behavior Problems among Low-Income Children Ages 8–11

    PubMed Central

    Raver, C. Cybele; Roy, Amanda L.; Pressler, Emily; Ursache, Alexandra M.; Charles McCoy, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines the additive and joint roles of chronic poverty-related adversity and three candidate neurocognitive processes of emotion regulation (ER)—including: (i) attention bias to threat (ABT); (ii) accuracy of facial emotion appraisal (FEA); and (iii) negative affect (NA)—for low-income, ethnic minority children’s internalizing problems (N = 338). Children were enrolled in the current study from publicly funded preschools, with poverty-related adversity assessed at multiple time points from early to middle childhood. Field-based administration of neurocognitively-informed assessments of ABT, FEA and NA as well as parental report of internalizing symptoms were collected when children were ages 8–11, 6 years after baseline. Results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty-related adversity from early to middle childhood predicted higher levels of internalizing symptomatology when children are ages 8–11, even after controlling for initial poverty status and early internalizing symptoms in preschool. Moreover, each of the 3 hypothesized components of ER played an independent and statistically significant role in predicting children’s parent-reported internalizing symptoms at the 6-year follow-up, even after controlling for early and chronic poverty-related adversity. PMID:28036091

  3. Poverty-Related Adversity and Emotion Regulation Predict Internalizing Behavior Problems among Low-Income Children Ages 8-11.

    PubMed

    Raver, C Cybele; Roy, Amanda L; Pressler, Emily; Ursache, Alexandra M; Charles McCoy, Dana

    2016-12-29

    The current study examines the additive and joint roles of chronic poverty-related adversity and three candidate neurocognitive processes of emotion regulation (ER)-including: (i) attention bias to threat (ABT); (ii) accuracy of facial emotion appraisal (FEA); and (iii) negative affect (NA)-for low-income, ethnic minority children's internalizing problems (N = 338). Children were enrolled in the current study from publicly funded preschools, with poverty-related adversity assessed at multiple time points from early to middle childhood. Field-based administration of neurocognitively-informed assessments of ABT, FEA and NA as well as parental report of internalizing symptoms were collected when children were ages 8-11, 6 years after baseline. Results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty-related adversity from early to middle childhood predicted higher levels of internalizing symptomatology when children are ages 8-11, even after controlling for initial poverty status and early internalizing symptoms in preschool. Moreover, each of the 3 hypothesized components of ER played an independent and statistically significant role in predicting children's parent-reported internalizing symptoms at the 6-year follow-up, even after controlling for early and chronic poverty-related adversity.

  4. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  5. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Aloisi, Anna M; Barr, Gordon A

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1-2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Irina P.; Mikhailenko, Viktor A.; Vershinina, Elena A.; Aloisi, Anna M.; Barr, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1–2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period. PMID:28184190

  7. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Mo, Kun; Yacout, Abdellatif; Harp, Jason

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  8. Creep behavior of Fe-bearing olivine under hydrous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Miki; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2015-09-01

    To understand the effect of iron content on the creep behavior of olivine, (MgxFe(1 - x))2SiO4, under hydrous conditions, we have conducted tri-axial compressive creep experiments on samples of polycrystalline olivine with Mg contents of x = 0.53, 0.77, 0.90, and 1. Samples were deformed at stresses of 25 to 320 MPa, temperatures of 1050° to 1200°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, and a water fugacity of 300 MPa using a gas-medium high-pressure apparatus. Under hydrous conditions, our results yield the following expression for strain rate as a function of iron content for 0.53 ≤ x ≤ 0.90 in the dislocation creep regime: ɛ˙=ɛ˙0.90((1-x/0.1))1/2exp[226×1030.9-x/RT]. In this equation, the strain rate of San Carlos olivine, ɛ˙0.90, is a function of T, σ, and fH2O. As previously shown for anhydrous conditions, an increase in iron content directly increases creep rate. In addition, an increase in iron content increases hydrogen solubility and therefore indirectly increases creep rate. This flow law allows us to extrapolate our results to a wide range of mantle conditions, not only for Earth's mantle but also for the mantle of Mars.

  9. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  10. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities.

  11. European shags optimize their flight behavior according to wind conditions.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Yukihisa; Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Aerodynamics results in two characteristic speeds of flying birds: the minimum power speed and the maximum range speed. The minimum power speed requires the lowest rate of energy expenditure per unit time to stay airborne and the maximum range speed maximizes air distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. Therefore, if birds aim to minimize the cost of transport under a range of wind conditions, they are predicted to fly at the maximum range speed. Furthermore, take-off is predicted to be strongly affected by wind speed and direction. To investigate the effect of wind conditions on take-off and cruising flight behavior, we equipped 14 European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis with a back-mounted GPS logger to measure position and hence ground speed, and a neck-mounted accelerometer to record wing beat frequency and strength. Local wind conditions were recorded during the deployment period. Shags always took off into the wind regardless of their intended destination and take-off duration was correlated negatively with wind speed. We combined ground speed and direction during the cruising phase with wind speed and direction to estimate air speed and direction. Whilst ground speed was highly variable, air speed was comparatively stable, although it increased significantly during strong head winds, because of stronger wing beats. The increased air speeds in head winds suggest that birds fly at the maximum range speed, not at the minimum power speed. Our study demonstrates that European shags actively adjust their flight behavior to utilize wind power to minimize the costs of take-off and cruising flight.

  12. Associations of job strain and working overtime with adverse health behaviors and obesity: evidence from the Whitehall II Study, Helsinki Health Study, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Laaksonen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Head, Jenny; Brunner, Eric; Mosdol, Annhild; Marmot, Michael; Sekine, Michikazu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2008-04-01

    Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45-60-year-old white-collar employees of the Whitehall II Study from London (n=3,397), Helsinki Health Study (n=6,070), and the Japanese Civil Servants Study (n=2,213). Comparable data from all three cohorts were pooled, and logistic regression analysis was used, stratified by cohort and sex. Models were adjusted for age, occupational class, and marital status. Outcomes were unhealthy food habits, physical inactivity, heavy drinking, smoking, and obesity. In London, men reporting passive work were more likely to be physically inactive. A similar association was repeated among women in Helsinki. Additionally, high job strain was associated with physical inactivity among men in London and women in Helsinki. In London, women reporting passive work were less likely to be heavy drinkers and smokers. In Japan, men working overtime reported less smoking, whereas those with high job strain were more likely to smoke. Among men in Helsinki the association between working overtime and non-smoking was also suggested, but it reached statistical significance in the age-adjusted model only. Obesity was associated with working overtime among women in London. In conclusion, job strain and working overtime had some, albeit mostly weak and inconsistent, associations with adverse health behaviors and obesity in these middle-aged white-collar employee cohorts from Britain, Finland, and Japan.

  13. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  14. Behavioral and neuropharmacological characterization of nicotine as a conditional stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer E.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2007-01-01

    In rats, the pharmacological (interoceptive) effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine can serve as a conditional stimulus in a Pavlovian conditioning task. Nicotine administration is paired with intermittent access to a liquid sucrose unconditional stimulus; sucrose is withheld on saline sessions. An increase in sucrose receptacle entries (goal tracking) on nicotine sessions indicates conditioning. Rats were trained on a nicotine dose ((−)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine; 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg base/kg, s.c.). Generalization was examined using 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine and saline. Some behavioral effects of nicotine have been attributed to dopamine and glutamate. Accordingly, potential blockade of the nicotine cue via the dopamine system was examined by administering (R)-(+)-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH-23390; 0.005, 0.01, and 0.03 mg/kg), 3-Chloro-5-ethyl-N-[[(2S)-1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzamide hydrochloride (eticlopride; 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg), or N-[(1-Butyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-4-cyano-1-methoxy-2-naphthalenecarboxamide (nafadotride; 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) before nicotine. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP; 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) and (5S,10R)-(+)-5-Methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801; 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg; dizocilpine) were used to examine possible glutamatergic components. Substitution tests were conducted with MPEP and nafadotride. Differential conditioned responding was acquired in the 3 groups. Conditioned responding generally decreased as the nicotine test dose moved away from the training dose; responding increased when 0.4 mg/kg trained rats were tested with 0.2 mg/kg. SCH-23390, eticlopride, nafadotride, and MPEP decreased conditioned responding on nicotine at doses that also decreased chamber activity. In contrast, MK-801 decreased goal tracking on nicotine without

  15. Behavioral and neuropharmacological characterization of nicotine as a conditional stimulus.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer E; Bevins, Rick A

    2007-04-30

    In rats, the pharmacological (interoceptive) effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine can serve as a conditional stimulus in a Pavlovian conditioning task. Nicotine administration is paired with intermittent access to a liquid sucrose unconditional stimulus; sucrose is withheld on saline sessions. An increase in sucrose receptacle entries (goal tracking) on nicotine sessions indicates conditioning. Rats were trained on a nicotine dose ((-)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine; 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg base/kg, s.c.). Generalization was examined using 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine and saline. Some behavioral effects of nicotine have been attributed to dopamine and glutamate. Accordingly, potential blockade of the nicotine cue via the dopamine system was examined by administering (R)-(+)-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH-23390; 0.005, 0.01, and 0.03 mg/kg), 3-Chloro-5-ethyl-N-[[(2S)-1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzamide hydrochloride (eticlopride; 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg), or N-[(1-Butyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-4-cyano-1-methoxy-2-naphthalenecarboxamide (nafadotride; 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) before nicotine. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP; 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) and (5S,10R)-(+)-5-Methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801; 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg; dizocilpine) were used to examine possible glutamatergic components. Substitution tests were conducted with MPEP and nafadotride. Differential conditioned responding was acquired in the 3 groups. Conditioned responding generally decreased as the nicotine test dose moved away from the training dose; responding increased when 0.4 mg/kg trained rats were tested with 0.2 mg/kg. SCH-23390, eticlopride, nafadotride, and MPEP decreased conditioned responding on nicotine at doses that also decreased chamber activity. In contrast, MK-801 decreased goal tracking on nicotine without

  16. K, U, and Th behavior in Martian environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. YU.; Krot, T. V.; Moroz, L. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of K, U, and Th content determination from orbit and in situ allows consideration of those elements as geochemical indicators in the planetary studies. In the case of Mars the unambiguous interpretations of such data in terms of igneous rocks are remarkably constrained by the widespread rock alteration and the existence of exogenic deposits. Besides, the terrestrial experience indicates that K, U, and Th contents could be used as indicators of environmental geochemical processes. Thus the determination of K, U, and Th contents in the Martian surface materials could provide the indirect data on the conditions of some exogenic geological processes. The speculations on the K, U, and Th behavior in the Martian environments show that aeolian and aqueous processes leads to the preferential accumulation of K, U, and Th in fine dust material. The separation of K, U, and Th on Mars is smaller in scale to that on Earth.

  17. Behavioral Ecology of Cetaceans: The Relationship of Body Condition with Behavior and Reproductive Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    98% water 1% formic acid to 98% acetonitrile to 1% formic acid was carried out over 10 min (15 min total run time) at a flow of 0.2 ml/min...progesterone and cortisol were made up, and 25 whale blow samples were analyzed (Table 16). Experimental conditions used were water +0.5% formic acid mobile...Behavioral Response Studies of Cetaceans to Navy Sonar Signals in Norwegian Waters ANOVA analysis of variance API atmospheric pressure ionization

  18. Condition-dependent chemosignals in reproductive behavior of lizards.

    PubMed

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many lizards have diverse glands that produce chemosignals used in intraspecific communication and that can have reproductive consequences. For example, information in chemosignals of male lizards can be used in intrasexual competition to identify and assess the fighting potential or dominance status of rival males either indirectly through territorial scent-marks or during agonistic encounters. Moreover, females of several lizard species "prefer" to establish or spend more time on areas scent-marked by males with compounds signaling a better health or body condition or a higher genetic compatibility, which can have consequences for their mating success and inter-sexual selection processes. We review here recent studies that suggest that the information content of chemosignals of lizards may be reliable because several physiological and endocrine processes would regulate the proportions of chemical compounds available for gland secretions. Because chemosignals are produced by the organism or come from the diet, they should reflect physiological changes, such as different hormonal levels (e.g. testosterone or corticosterone) or different health states (e.g. parasitic infections, immune response), and reflect the quality of the diet of an individual. More importantly, some compounds that may function as chemosignals also have other important functions in the organism (e.g. as antioxidants or regulating the immune system), so there could be trade-offs between allocating these compounds to attending physiological needs or to produce costly sexual "chemical ornaments". All these factors may contribute to maintain chemosignals as condition-dependent sexual signals, which can inform conspecifics on the characteristics and state of the sender and allow making behavioral decisions with reproductive consequences. To understand the evolution of chemical secretions of lizards as sexual signals and their

  19. Antagonistic pleiotropy at the human IL6 promoter confers genetic resilience to the pro-inflammatory effects of adverse social conditions in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven W; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2011-07-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene × Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human IL6 promoter (rs1800795; IL6-74 G/C) that interacts with adverse socioenvironmental conditions to promote chronic inflammation in older adults (elevated C-reactive protein). This study identifies a protective effect of the same polymorphism in 17- to 19-year-old adolescents confronting socioeconomic adversity. Over 60% of the environmental risk contribution to the IL6 × Socioeconomic Status interaction could be accounted for by interpersonal stress and adult role burden. Thus, the IL6-174G allele does not represent an undifferentiated risk factor but instead sensitizes inflammatory biology to socioenvironmental conditions, conferring either genetic vulnerability or resilience depending on the developmental "somatic environment" that interacts with social conditions to influence gene expression.

  20. Degradation behavior of sulfadiazine in soils under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Yang, Li-Hua; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Feng; Tao, Ran; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Peng, Ping'an

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the degradation of sulfadiazine in three soils and also determined its sorption and hydrolysis behaviors as well. At the spike concentration of 10 mg/kg, the half-lives for sulfadiazine in the aerobic nonsterile soils ranged from 12 days to 18 days. Sulfadiazine was more persistent in the anoxic soils with the half-lives ranging between 57 days and 237 days and soil microorganisms played little role in the dissipation process under anoxic conditions. The decline in sulfadiazine concentrations was also observed in the sterile soils under aerobic conditions. Hydrolysis could not explain this phenomena as hydrolysis of sulfadiazine was pH dependent. Sulfadiazine only hydrolyzed to a very limited degree at acidic pH. Increased sorption was observed for sulfadiazine in soil 1 (pH 4.3) when the contact time increased to 14 days, but no significant increase in sorption was found for soil 2 (pH 7.2) and soil 3 (pH 8.5).

  1. Behavior of Zr1%Nb Fuel Cladding under Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Fero, E.; Hozer, Z.; Windberg, P.; Nagy, I.; Vimi, A.; Ver, N.; Matus, L.; Kunstar, M.; Novotny, T.; Horvath, M.; Gyori, Cs.

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of the VVER fuel (E110) cladding under accident conditions has been investigated at the AEKI in order to study the role of oxidation and hydrogen uptake on the cladding embrittlement and to understand the phenomena that took place during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident (2003). The test programme covered small scale tests and large scale tests with electrically heated 7-rod bundles in the CODEX (Core Degradation Experiment) facility. Since a hydrogen rich atmosphere could have been formed in the closed tank, the experiments were carried out in hydrogen-steam mixture. According to the results of the small scale tests, a former correlation for the ductile-brittle transitions of E110 in pure steam remained valid in hydrogen rich steam atmosphere as well. During the large scale tests the main conditions of the incident were reconstructed. The test characterized the high temperature oxidation and embrittlement of zirconium in hydrogen rich steam. The observed cladding failure phenomena and the extent of the damage of the test bundle in the quenching phase were very similar to those of the VVER assemblies in the incident. The simulation of the cleaning tank incident provided detailed information on the most probable scenario of the incident. (authors)

  2. Behaviorally inhibited individuals demonstrate significantly enhanced conditioned response acquisition under non-optimal learning conditions.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J L; Allen, M T; Myers, C E; Servatius, R J

    2014-03-15

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an anxiety vulnerability factor associated with hypervigilance to novel stimuli, threat, and ambiguous cues. The progression from anxiety risk to a clinical disorder is unknown, although the acquisition of defensive learning and avoidance may be a critical feature. As the expression of avoidance is also central to anxiety development, the present study examined avoidance acquisition as a function of inhibited temperament using classical eyeblink conditioning. Individuals were classified as behaviorally inhibited (BI) or non-inhibited (NI) based on combined scores from the Adult and Retrospective Measures of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively). Acquisition was assessed using delay, omission, or yoked conditioning schedules of reinforcement. Omission training was identical to delay, except that the emission of an eyeblink conditioned response (CR) resulted in omission of the unconditioned airpuff stimulus (US) on that trial. Each subject in the yoked group was matched on total BI score to a subject in the omission group, and received the same schedule of CS and US delivery, resulting in a partial reinforcement training schedule. Delay conditioning elicited significantly more CRs compared to the omission and yoked contingencies, the latter two of which did not differ from each other. Thus, acquisition of an avoidance response was not apparent. BI individuals demonstrated enhanced acquisition overall, while partial reinforcement training significantly distinguished between BI and NI groups. Enhanced learning in BI may be a function of an increased defensive learning capacity, or sensitivity to uncertainty. Further work examining the influence of BI on learning acquisition is important for understanding individual differences in disorder etiology in anxiety vulnerable cohorts.

  3. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  4. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  5. Cancrinite-group minerals behavior at non-ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotti, Paolo; Gatta, G. Diego; Kahlenberg, Volker; Merlini, Marco; Alvaro, Matteo; Cámara, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Cancrinite-group minerals occur in the late stages of alkaline (SiO2)-undersaturated magmatism and in related effusive or contact rocks. So far only few studies have been devoted to the description of the thermo-elastic behavior, phase-stability and P /T -structure evolution (at the atomic scale) of this mineral group. Cancrinite-group minerals have an open-framework structure characterized by the [CAN]-topology. The [CAN]-framework shows large 12-ring channels, parallel to the c crystallographic axis, bound by columns of cages, the so-called can units. While very limited chemical variation is observed in the framework composition (the composition is almost always [Si6Al6O24]) a remarkable chemical variability is reported for the extraframework components in the cancrinite-group minerals. Two subgroups can be identified according to the extraframework content of the can units: the cancrinite- and the davyne-subgroups, showing Na-H2O and Ca-Cl chains, respectively. The channels are stuffed by cations, anions and molecules. We aimed to model the thermo-elastic behavior and the mechanisms of the (P ,T)-induced structure evolution of cancrinite-group minerals, with special interest on the role played by the extraframework population. The study was restricted to the following (CO3)-rich and (SO4)-rich end-members: cancrinite sensu stricto {[(Na,Ca)6(CO3)1.2-1.7][Na2(H2O)2][Al6Si6O24]}, vishnevite {[(Na,Ca,K)6(SO4)][Na2(H2O)2][Al6Si6O24]}, balliranoite {[(Na,Ca)6(CO3)1.2-1.7][Ca2Cl2][Al6Si6O24]} and davyne {[(Na,Ca,K)6((SO4),Cl)][Ca2Cl2][Al6Si6O24]}. Their high-P and low-T (T < 293 K) behavior was investigated by means of in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction, using diamond-anvil cells and (N2)-cryosystems, respectively. The high-T behavior of cancrinite has also been studied by means of in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction with a resistive heater. Cancrinite minerals share a similar volume compressibility and thermal expansivity at ambient conditions (cancrinite

  6. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  7. The Kinetic Behavior of Benzaldehyde under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Gould, I.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Aldehydes represent an intermediate redox state between alcohols and carboxylic acids and are likely intermediates in the transformation of organic compounds in natural systems. We have conducted kinetic studies of a model aldehyde, benzaldehyde, in high-temperature water (250-350 °C, saturation pressure) in clear fused quartz (CFQ) autoclaves. Under these conditions, benzaldehyde is observed to undergo a disproportionation reaction to benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid reminiscent of the base-catalyzed Cannizzaro reaction known to occur at cooler temperatures. Benzene is also produced via decarbonylation of the aldehyde. We have obtained pseudo second-order rate constants for the decomposition of benzaldehyde at 250, 300, and 350 °C. Rates derived via repeated heating phases and subsequent quantitative 13C-NMR spectroscopy of a single NMR-compatible CFQ tube containing isotopically labeled benzaldehyde are consistent with those obtained by analysis of product suites from individual timed experiments via gas chromatography. Arrhenius parameters for these rate constants are consistent with published values for the reaction under supercritical conditions from one study (Tsao et al. 1992) yet the pre-exponential factor is approximately 7 orders of magnitude smaller than that derived from another study (Ikushima et al. 2001). Moreover, fitting our rate constants with the Eyring equation yields an entropy of activation (ΔS‡) of -26.6 kcal mol-1 K-1, which is consistent for a bimolecular transition state at the rate-limiting step. In contrast, the rates of Ikushima et al. yield a positive value of ΔS‡, which is inconsistent with the putative mechanism for the reaction. The linear Arrhenius behavior of the decomposition of benzaldehyde from high-temperature liquid to supercritical conditions demonstrates the potential for extrapolating experimentally derived rates of reactions for organic functional group transformations to conditions where diagenesis, alteration

  8. Behavior of the Reversed Field Pinch with Nonideal Boundary Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yung-Lung

    The linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability of current-driven modes is studied for a reversed field pinch with nonideal boundary conditions. The plasma is bounded by a thin resistive shell surrounded by a vacuum region out to a radius at which a perfectly conducting wall is situated. The distant wall and the thin shell problems are studied by removing either the resistive shell or the conducting wall. Linearly, growth rates of tearing modes and kink modes are calculated by analytical solutions based on the modified Bessel function model for the equilibrium. The effects of variation of the shell resistivity and wall proximity on the growth rates are investigated. The modes that may be important in different parameter regimes and with different boundary conditions are identified. These results then help to guide the nonlinear study, and also help to interpret the quasilinear aspect of the nonlinear results. The nonlinear behaviors are studied with a three -dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code. The fluctuations generally rise with increasing distance between the conducting wall and the plasma. The enhanced fluctuation induced v times b electric field primarily oppose toroidal current; hence, loop voltage must increase to sustain the constant. If the loop voltage is held constant, the current decreases and the plasma evolves toward a nonreversed tokamak-like state. Quasilinear interaction between modes typically associated with the dynamo action is identified as the most probable nonlinear destabilization mechanism. The helicity and energy balance properties of the simulation results are discussed. The interruption of current density along field lines intersecting the resistive shell is shown to lead to surface helicity leakage. This effect is intimately tied to stability, as fluctuation induced v times b electric field is necessary to transport the helicity to the surface. In this manner, all aspects of helicity balance, i.e., injection, transport, and

  9. Behavior of the reversed field pinch with nonideal boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yung-Lung

    1988-11-01

    The linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability of current-driven modes are studied for a reversed field pinch with nonideal boundary conditions. The plasma is bounded by a thin resistive shell surrounded by a vacuum region out to a radius at which a perfectly conducting wall is situated. The distant wall and the thin shell problems are studied by removing either the resistive shell or the conducting wall. Linearly, growth rates of tearing modes and kink modes are calculated by analytical solutions based on the modified Bessel function model for the equilibrium. The effects of variation of the shell resistivity and wall proximity on the growth rates are investigated. The modes that may be important in different parameter regimes and with different boundary conditions are identified. The nonlinear behaviors are studied with a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code. The fluctuations generally rise with increasing distance between the conducting wall and the plasma. The enhanced fluctuation induced v x b electric field primarily oppose toroidal current; hence, loop voltage must increase to sustain the constant. Quasilinear interaction between modes typically associated with the dynamo action is identified as the most probable nonlinear destabilization mechanism. The helicity and energy balance properties of the simulation results are discussed. The interruption of current density along field lines intersecting the resistive shell is shown to lead to surface helicity leakage. This effect is intimately tied to stability, as fluctuation induced v x b electric field is necessary to transport the helicity to the surface. In this manner, all aspects of helicity balance, i.e., injection, transport, and dissipation, are considered self-consistently. The importance of the helicity and energy dissipation by the mean components of the magnetic field and current density is discussed.

  10. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Inflight Medical Conditions: ExMC Pharmacy Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element of NASA's Human Research Program is charged with identifying medical capabilities that can address the challenges of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and injuries that could occur during exploration missions beyond Earth's orbit. Faced with the obstacle of access to in-flight medical care, and limitations of vehicle space, time, and communications; it is necessary to prioritize what medical consumables are manifested for the flight, and which medical conditions are addressed. Studies of astronaut health establish the incidence of common and high risk medical conditions that require medical intervention during long-duration exploration missions. In 2000, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a committee of experts, Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine during Travel beyond Earth Orbit, to examine the issues surrounding astronaut health and safety for long duration space missions. Two themes run throughout the committee's final report: (1) that not enough is known about the risks to human health during long-duration missions beyond Earth's orbit or about what can effectively mitigate those risks to enable humans to travel and work safely in the environment of deep space and (2) that everything reasonable should be done to gain the necessary information before humans are sent on missions of space exploration (IOM, 2001). Although several spaceflight focused pharmaceutical research studies have been conducted, few have provided sufficient data regarding medication usage or potency changes during spaceflight. The Du pharmaceutical stability study assessed medications flown on space shuttles to and from the International Space Station (ISS) from 2006 until 2008; of which some medications were still viable beyond their expiration dates (Du et al, 2011). However, as with many spaceflight studies, the small 'n' associated with this study limits the ability to draw strong conclusions from it

  11. One-against-All Weighted Dynamic Time Warping for Language-Independent and Speaker-Dependent Speech Recognition in Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions. PMID:24520317

  12. One-against-all weighted dynamic time warping for language-independent and speaker-dependent speech recognition in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Sun, Jiping; Luo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English) names, language-independent (LI) with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD) automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW). This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI) for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW), as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER) compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions.

  13. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  14. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard.

  15. Flight in Adverse Environmental Condition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    to 0) exposed. llaysia A)OO. During MS approach in poor visibilityt thundeatorms and heavy rain Aircraft undershot And came to rest 1000 water * before...It calcul des avions I Is rafalt, tiles oot slot-s ith utillis Pour trotrwer dts vs~turs d"Intensiti do ratsle I PoatUt des bn. Devuls Son appart -ion...mean wind Is rather difficult. Using earth fixed sensors, a temporal *vraging Is performed for each measuring point. Out the question for the right

  16. Do Asian-American women who were maltreated as children have a higher likelihood for HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Lee, Yookyong; Jang, Jisun; Ng, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study is the first to systematically investigate whether multiple child maltreatment is associated with HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes among Asian-American women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n = 400), aged 18 to 35, who are identified as children of immigrants, using Computer-Assisted Survey Interviews (CASI). Results Approximately seven in ten women reported having been maltreated as a child and 6.8% reported any type of sexual abuse. Only 15% of our sample reported having sex at age 16 or before, yet almost 60% had ever engaged with risky sexual partners. Contrary to the findings from previous studies of White and Black women, sexual abuse plus other maltreatment was not associated with HIV risk behaviors among Asian-American women. However,it was associated with a marked increase in depression, lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A higher education was associated with increased odds of HIV risk behaviors including ever having anal sex and ever having potentially risky sexual partners. Conclusion There was no evidence indicating that multiple child maltreatment was linked to HIV risk behaviors, but it exhibited a robust association with poor mental health outcomes. These empirical patterns of internalizing trauma, suffering alone, and stayingsilent are in accord with Asian-cultural norms of saving face and maintaining family harmony. The prevention of multiple child maltreatment may reduce high levels of depression and suicidal behaviors among this population. It is urgently needed to identify victims of multiple child maltreatment and provide culturally appropriate interventions. PMID:21872488

  17. Stress, Behavior and Health: Developing a Model for Predicting Post-Deployment Morbidity, Mortality, and Other Adverse Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    coding. Figure 02 shows the rates of hospitalization for two types of traumatic injuries: knee and head injuries. The codes for these two groups of...conditions have remained fairly stable over time. The dotted line corresponds to traumatic knee injuries, and shows little variation until the latter...contact dermatitis and other eczema, unspecified cause (692.9), primary localized osteoarthrosis (715.18), osteoarthrosis , unspecified whether

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 cell surface hydrophobicity and survival of the cells under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakirova, Laisana; Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Auzina, Lilija; Zikmanis, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and the survival of these cells were examined in response to varied cultivation conditions and adverse environmental conditions. An inverse linear relationship (P < 0.01) was detected between the CSH of intact L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 and survival of cells subjected to subsequent freezing/thawing, long-term storage or exposure to mineral and bile acids. The observed relationships were supported by significant correlations between the CSH and changes in composition of the cell envelopes (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and conventional biochemical analysis methods. The results also suggest that the estimates of hydrophobicity, being a generalized characteristic of cell surfaces, are important parameters to predict the ability of intact probiotic bacteria to endure extreme environments and therefore should be monitored during cultivation. A defined balance of cell components, which can be characterized by the reduced CSH values, apparently helps to ensure the resistance, improved viability and hence the overall probiotic properties of bacteria.

  19. Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

  20. A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Rebecca A.; Clardy, Jon; Tomioka, Masahiro; Iino, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s). Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location. PMID:23861933

  1. A sexually conditioned switch of chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Naoko; Iwata, Ryo; Yokoi, Saori; Butcher, Rebecca A; Clardy, Jon; Tomioka, Masahiro; Iino, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s). Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.

  2. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  3. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed.

  4. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed. PMID:25134042

  5. Play versus Alone Conditions as Controls during Functional Analyses of Self-Injurious Escape Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Iwata, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared effects of continuous reinforcement (play) and alone conditions as controls during functional analyses for 66 individuals whose self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by escape. SIB was lower during both control conditions than it was during the test (demand) condition. SIB was lowest during the alone condition. (Author/CR)

  6. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  7. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  8. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; Zhu, Zihua; Olszta, Matthew J.; Tang, Ming

    2016-08-11

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m-2 d-1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10-6 m s-1. The crystal phases (oxyapatite and Ca-rich powellite) corroded below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).

  9. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    DOE PAGES

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-11

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m-2 d-1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10-6 m s-1. The crystal phases (oxyapatite and Ca-rich powellite) corrodedmore » below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).« less

  10. Dilute condition corrosion behavior of glass-ceramic waste form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Neeway, James J.; Riley, Brian J.; Zhu, Zihua; Olszta, Matthew J.; Tang, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Borosilicate glass-ceramics are being developed to immobilize high-level waste generated by aqueous reprocessing into a stable waste form. The corrosion behavior of this multiphase waste form is expected to be complicated by multiple phases and crystal-glass interfaces. A modified single-pass flow-through test was performed on polished monolithic coupons at a neutral pH (25 °C) and 90 °C for 33 d. The measured glass corrosion rates by micro analysis in the samples ranged from 0.019 to 0.29 g m-2 d-1 at a flow rate per surface area = 1.73 × 10-6 m s-1. The crystal phases (oxyapatite and Ca-rich powellite) corroded below quantifiable rates, by micro analysis. While, Ba-rich powellite corroded considerably in O10 sample. The corrosion rates of C1 and its replicate C20 were elevated an order of magnitude by mechanical stresses at crystal-glass interface caused by thermal expansion mismatch during cooling and unique morphology (oxyapatite clustering).

  11. Surface decarburization behavior and its adverse effects of air-cooled forging steel C70S6 for fracture splitting connecting rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao-lei; Xie, li-yao; Liu, Guang-lei; Chen, lie; Liu, Ya-zheng; Li, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Surface decarburization behavior and its adverse effects of air-cooled forging steel C70S6 for automobile engine fracture splitting connecting rod were investigated comprehensively by mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology analysis. The results show that the surface decarburization in the outer surface of the fracture splitting at the big end bore and the micro-cracks in the decarburized layer are result in the uneven and spalling fracture surfaces of the waster connecting rod product. Besides, partial decarburization is produced between 900 °C and 1250 °C for heating 2 h, and decarburization sensitivity reach maximum at 1150 °C, but no complete decarburization forms for heating 2 h at 650-1250 °C. The decarburized depth follows a parabolic law with the increase of the heating time from 0.5 h to 12 h, and the decarburization sensitivity coefficient is 2.05×10-5 m·s-1/2 at 1200 °C. For the connecting rod manufacturing, surface decarburization must be under effective control during the hot forging process but not the control cooling process.

  12. Behavior of ionic conducting IPN actuators in simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannir, Adelyne; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Laurent, Elisabeth; Cadiergues, Laurent; Vidal, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The presentation focuses on the performances of flexible all-polymer electroactive actuators under space-hazardous environmental factors in laboratory conditions. These bending actuators are based on high molecular weight nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) derivative and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene) (PEDOT). The electroactive PEDOT is embedded within the PEO/NBR membrane which is subsequently swollen with an ionic liquid as electrolyte. Actuators have been submitted to thermal cycling test between -25 to 60°C under vacuum (2.4 10-8 mbar) and to ionizing Gamma radiations at a level of 210 rad/h during 100 h. Actuators have been characterized before and after space environmental condition ageing. In particular, the viscoelasticity properties and mechanical resistance of the materials have been determined by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests. The evolution of the actuation properties as the strain and the output force have been characterized as well. The long-term vacuuming, the freezing temperature and the Gamma radiations do not affect significantly the thermomechanical properties of conducting IPNs actuators. Only a slight decrease on actuation performances has been observed.

  13. Using Teach-Back to Understand Participant Behavioral Self-Monitoring Skills across Health Literacy Level and Behavioral Condition

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kathleen; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul; Noel, Lauren; Bailey, Angela; Zoellner, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess differences, by health literacy status and behavioral condition, in participants’ abilities to accurately self-monitor behaviors and recall key behavioral messages using data from a teach-back call. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Rural, southwestern Virginia. Participants Adults (n=301). Majority (81.1%) were female, 31.9% had ≤high school education, 66.1% earned <$25,000 per year, and 32.9% were low health literate. Intervention First class session of two community-based behavioral interventions: SIPsmartER (reduce sugar sweetened beverage intake) or MoveMore (increase physical activity). Main Outcome Measures Reported accuracy of behavioral diary completion, proportion of behavioral messages recalled during the first round of teach-back, and rounds of teach-back. Analysis Descriptive statistics and GLM. Results Low health literate participants were significantly less accurate in diary completion (P<.001), recalled fewer behavioral messages correctly (P<.001), and needed more rounds of teach-back (P<.001) than high health literate participants. Compared to SIPsmartER participants, MoveMore participants more accurately completed diaries (P=.001), but recalled a lower proportion of behavioral messages correctly (P<.001) and required more rounds of teach-back Conclusions and Implications Health literacy status and behavioral target impact ability to self-monitor and recall key concepts. Researchers should consider using teach-back early in the intervention to assess and reinforce participants’ ability to self-monitor. PMID:26453368

  14. Differential Effects of a Food-Based Conditioned Inhibitor on Food- or Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombas, Andres S.; Kearns, David N.; Weiss, Stanley J.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment compared the effects of a food-based conditioned inhibitor on food seeking vs. cocaine seeking behavior. In two groups of rats, the A+/AB- Pavlovian conditioned inhibition procedure was used to create a conditioned inhibitor for food. Then, for one group of rats (Food-Food Group), a click stimulus was established as an…

  15. Corrosion behavior of carbon steels under tuff repository environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.

    1984-10-01

    Carbon steels may be used for borehole liners in a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff in Nevada. Borehole liners are needed to facilitate emplacement of the waste packages and to facilitate retrieval of the packages, if required. Corrosion rates of low carbon structural steels AISI 1020 and ASTM A-36 were determined in J-13 well water and in saturated steam at 100{sup 0}C. Tests were conducted in air-sparged J-13 water to attain more oxidizing conditions representative of irradiated aqueous environments. A limited number of irradiation corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed. Chromium-molybdenum alloy steels and cast irons were also tested. These materials showed lower general corrosion but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when welded. 4 references, 4 tables.

  16. Neighborhood Conditions and Helping Behavior in Late Life.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a latent variable model that explores the ways in which social structural factors influence the amount of social support that older adults provide to their social network members. Neighborhood conditions play a key role in this conceptual scheme. The findings provide support for the following conceptual linkages: (1) low parental education is associated with low respondent education; (2) older people with less education encounter more economic difficulty; (3) greater financial problems are associated with living in a rundown neighborhood; (4) older individuals who live in dilapidated neighborhoods are more hostile; and (5) older adults who are hostile are less likely to provide social support to their social network members. Research indicates that helping others is a key to successful aging. Ways must be found to help economically disadvantaged elders provide support to their social network members.

  17. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Krugers, Harm J; Arp, J Marit; Xiong, Hui; Kanatsou, Sofia; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Korosi, Aniko; Joels, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life -at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  18. Experimental Constraints on He, Ne, Ar Behavior at Mantle Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Kelley, S. P.; Parman, S. W.; Cooper, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    We have experimentally constrained He, Ne and Ar mineral-melt partitioning for olivine, enstatite and spinel under mantle P-T conditions. The experiments were run in a piston cylinder apparatus. Run products were analyzed by UV laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP). Our data (Ol, Opx, Sp), along with literature data (Cpx), suggest He, Ne and Ar are incompatible during mantle melting. Gem quality crystals of En100, Sp and Fo90 were polished using colloidal silica and loaded along with a MgO rich, synthetic MORB powder into a graphite inner and Pt outer capsule. Within the inner capsule, crystals were faced against graphite, an identical crystal or polished glassy carbon. Equal pressures (40-60 total bars) of He, Ne and Ar were loaded into the outer capsule before it was welded closed. The run conditions were 1450C and 1-2 GPa for 10 hrs (Brown University). Depth profiles of the mineral faces were obtained using a 193 nm excimer laser (Open University). The large crystal area and short wavelength laser allows for measurements with high depth resolution and concentration precision: a 400 um aperture with 150 nm ablation depth can provide a detection limit (3 sigma > blank) of ~500 ppb He, ~1 ppm Ne and ~500 ppb Ar. Three mineral ablation pits were imaged using a white light interferometer at Tufts University and indicate an ablation rate of ~25 nm/pulse. Glass ablation rates are estimated using previous measurements. The melts were generally understaturated with respect to He, Ne and Ar (1-10, 3-200 and 4-1000 PPM, respectively). Concentrations in the minerals were mostly below detection limits. Where detectable, near surface gas concentrations visually correlate with the amount of adhering graphite. This could be due to trapped/adsorbed gas in the graphite or to surface deformation produced by the graphite. The surface with the least adhering graphite and smoothest surface (faced against glassy carbon) shows no observable near surface enrichment of He, Ne or Ar. Given

  19. Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time.

  20. Reaction Behaviors of Glycine under Super- and Subcritical Water Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alargov, Dimitar K.; Deguchi, Shigeru; Tsujii, Kaoru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2002-02-01

    The influence of temperature and pressure on the dimerization and decomposition of glycine under simulated hydrothermal system conditions was studied by injecting a glycine solution into water in the sub- and supercritical state. The experiments at five different temperatures of supplied water - 250, 300, 350, 374, and 400 °C - were performed at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa. At 350 °C, experiments under 15.0-40.0 MPa were conducted. Diglycine, triglycine (trace), diketopiperazine, and an unidentified product with a high molecular mass (433 Da) were the main products of oligomerization. The results show that temperature and pressure influence the extent of dimerization and decomposition of glycine. The maximum of dimers formation was observed at 350 and 375 °C at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa, respectively, and coincided with a high rate of glycine decomposition. Glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, as well as other amino acids, were obtained by injecting a mixture of formaldehyde and ammonia. The results support the oligomerization and synthesis of amino acids in a submarine hydrothermal system.

  1. Microclimatic conditions and their effects on sheep behavior during a live export shipment from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Pines, M K; Phillips, C J C

    2013-09-01

    The microclimate can potentially impact the health and welfare of livestock exported by ship. Within-pen microclimatic conditions were recorded and the effects of ammonia on sheep behavior investigated on a voyage from Australia to the Middle East. Ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide as well as wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and dew-point temperature and air speed were mapped in 20 open-deck focal pens, with the focus on the behavior and location of a marked sheep in each pen. Air speed was highly variable in most pens, with pockets of high but transient concentrations of ammonia (30.7 to 44.2 mg/m(3)) in 20% of pens that had no or minimal air flow. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied in some pens, but overall concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were low. Sheep in pens previously identified to have high ammonia concentrations, high wet-bulb temperatures, and low wind speed stood longer (P = 0.003) and spent less time feeding (P = 0.01) and ruminating (P = 0.004) than those in pens previously identified with low ammonia, low wet-bulb temperature, and high wind speed. Moreover, sheep exposed to increased ammonia concentrations held their head higher (P = 0.004) to avoid the greater ammonia concentrations at lower heights, and these sheep had more conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Sheep movement around the pen was limited. Increased time spent lying down (P = 0.04) and more rhythmical behavior in the second half of the voyage indicated that the sheep adjusted to shipboard conditions over time. It is concluded that high, transient concentrations of ammonia existed in some pens, which adversely affected the behavior of sheep.

  2. Computational modeling and experimental validation of odor detection behaviors of classically conditioned parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongkun; Kulasiri, Don; Samarasinghe, Sandhya; Rains, Glen; Olson, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    A prototype chemical sensor named Wasp hound® that utilizes five classically conditioned parasitoid wasps, Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to detect volatile odors was successfully implemented in a previous study. To improve the odor-detecting ability of Wasp Hound®, searching behaviors of an individual wasp in a confined area are studied and modeled through stochastic differential equations in this paper. The wasps are conditioned to 20 mg of coffee when associated with food and subsequently, tested to 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg of coffee. A stochastic model is developed and validated based on three positive behavioral responses (walking, rotation around odor source, and self-rotation) from conditioned wasps at four different test dosages. The model is capable to reproducing the behaviors of conditioned wasps, and can be used to improve the ability of Wasp Hound® to assess changes in odor concentration. The model simulation results show the behaviors of conditioned wasps are significantly different when tested at different coffee dosages. We conjecture that the searching behaviors of conditioned wasps are based on the temporal and spatial neuron activity of olfactory receptor neurons and glomeruli, which are strongly correlated to the training dosages. The overall results demonstrate the utility of mathematical models for interpreting experimental observations, gaining novel insights into the dynamic behavior of classically conditioned wasps, as well as broadening the practical uses of Wasp Hound.

  3. Selective strengthening of conditioned behaviors that occur during periods of amphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xun; Holden, John M; Lynch, Kevin G; Peoples, Laura L

    2007-06-01

    Exposure to psychomotor stimulants, during conditioning sessions, can lead to a persistent increase in the strength of conditioned behaviors and the effects of conditioned stimuli, which can be detected in subsequent drug-free periods. It is possible that the effects are selective for the behaviors and stimuli conditioned during drug exposure. The present study was designed to test this prediction. Animals were trained to discriminate two sets of stimuli. For each set, lever pressing during the presentation of one stimulus (S+) was reinforced and responding during the presentation of the other stimulus (S-) had no programmed consequences. Following an initial acquisition phase, training with one set of stimuli continued during sessions of amphetamine exposure, whereas training with the second set continued during saline exposure (20 intermixed sessions). The findings of subsequent drug-free choice tests showed that the drug history selectively enhanced the propensity of animals to engage in the drug-assigned behavior relative to the saline-assigned behavior. This change in behavior was evident in S+, but not S- trials and was potentially mediated by an acute effect of amphetamine on stimulus conditioning. The findings provide novel evidence that the facilitative effects of coincident conditioning and acute psychomotor stimulant exposure can be selective for the stimuli and behaviors conditioned during the drug exposure. These findings are relevant to hypotheses regarding the etiology of drug addiction.

  4. Locomotor behavior of fish hatched from embryos exposed to flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1978-01-01

    Embryos of Fundulus heteroclitus in various stages of development were exposed to space flight conditions aboard Apollo spacecraft and Cosmos satellites. The objective of the study was to ascertain whether fish hatched from these embryos displayed locomotor behavior different from that of control fish of the same age. An electronic monitoring technique was used to record behavior. Results indicate no change in locomotor behavior in fish on Apollo Spacecraft, but inexplicable significant changes were noted in fish aboard Cosmos Satellites.

  5. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  6. Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis: The Prediction of Premature Withdrawal from Behavioral Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William G.; Johnson, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Predictors of premature withdrawal from a 12-week program of behavioral conditioning for childhood nocturnal enuresis were examined for 47 children (ages 5-14). The function containing number of previous techniques used, presence of child behavior problems, and parent tolerance of enuresis was a significant predictor of early termination of…

  7. Conditional or unconditional? The effects of implementation intentions on driver behavior.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; McCartan, Rebecca; McGregor, Bruce; Kelly, Steve W

    2016-03-01

    Implementation intentions (if-then plans) exert conditional effects on behavior, meaning that their ability to change behavior is conditional upon encountering the critical situation specified in the if component of the plan. In the present study, we tested whether implementation intentions can exert unconditional effects on behavior. Consistent with the process of operant generalization, we hypothesized that implementation intentions would change behavior, not only in situations that are contextually identical to those specified in the if component but also in contextually similar situations. Implementation intentions were not expected to generate behavior-change in contextually different situations to those specified. Participants (N = 139) completed questionnaires measuring speeding behavior and motivation to speed. Experimental participants then specified implementation intentions to avoid speeding in critical situations that were contextually identical, similar, or different to those subsequently encountered on a driving simulator. Control participants received educational information about the risks of speeding. All participants then drove on a driving simulator. Consistent with the hypotheses participants in both the contextually identical and similar conditions exceeded the speed limit less frequently than did controls. There was no difference in speeding behavior between the contextually different and control conditions. Implications of the findings for behavior-change are discussed.

  8. Genotype and neuropsychological response inhibition as resilience promoters for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder under conditions of psychosocial adversity.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Zucker, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD) in the face of family adversity. Two protective factors were examined for their potential relevance to prefrontal brain development: neuropsychological response inhibition, as assessed by the Stop task, and a composite catecholamine genotype risk score. Resilient children were characterized in both samples by more effective response inhibition, although the effect in the second sample was very small. Genotype was measured in Sample 1, and a composite high risk genotype index was developed by summing presence of risk across markers on three genes expressed in prefrontal cortex: dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, and noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor. Genotype was a reliable resilience indicator against development of ADHD and CD, but not ODD, in the face of psychosocial adversity. Results illustrate potential neurobiological protective factors related to development of prefrontal cortex that may enable children to avoid developing ADHD and CD in the presence of psychosocial adversity.

  9. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mashhood A; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  10. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Mashhood A.; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p < 0.001) explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  11. Scaling behavior in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection revealed by conditional structure functions.

    PubMed

    Ching, Emily S C; Tsang, Yue-Kin; Fok, T N; He, Xiaozhou; Tong, Penger

    2013-01-01

    We show that the nature of the scaling behavior can be revealed by studying the conditional structure functions evaluated at given values of the locally averaged thermal dissipation rate. These conditional structure functions have power-law dependence on the value of the locally averaged thermal dissipation rate, and such dependence for the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling is different from the other scaling behaviors. Our analysis of experimental measurements verifies the power-law dependence and reveals the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling behavior at the center of the bottom plate of the convection cell.

  12. IQ Correlates of Speech and Silence Behavior Under Three Dyadic Speaking Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The duration of utterance, latency, and interruption speech behavior of 30 young job applicants was studied under three speaking conditions. In the third condition, the employment interview, a number of positive correlations emerged. Verbal IQ is positively correlated with a speaker's mean duration of utterance, especially when he is discussing…

  13. MAINTAINING TASK BEHAVIOR IN A LITERACY PROGRAM UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF REINFORCEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, DONALD E.P.; AND OTHERS

    THE WORK OUTPUT OF RETARDED READERS USING A PROGRAMED LITERACY CURRICULUM WAS OBSERVED UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF REINFORCEMENT IN A CONTROLLED CLASSROOM. TASK BEHAVIOR WAS FOLLOWED BY CONDITIONS OF NO CONSEQUENCE, TEACHER PRAISE, A WORK-BREAK CONSEQUENCE, A MONETARY CONSEQUENCE, AND FEEDBACK ON AMOUNT OF WORK RELATIVE TO PREVIOUS WORK. SIX…

  14. A lack of response of the financial behaviors of biodiversity conservation nonprofits to changing economic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions. PMID:25512840

  15. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals.

  16. Adult Tea Green Leafhoppers, Empoasca onukii (Matsuda), Change Behaviors under Varying Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Longqing; Vasseur, Liette; Huang, Huoshui; Zeng, Zhaohua; Hu, Guiping; Liu, Xin; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching. The results suggested that under normal photoperiod both female and male adults were generally more active in darkness (i.e., at night) than in light. In continuous darkness (DD), the locomotion and cleaning events in Period 1 (7:00–19:00) were significantly increased, when compared to the leafhoppers under normal photoperiod (LD). Leafhoppers, especially females, changed their behavioral patterns to a two day cycle under DD. Under continuous illumination (continuous quartz lamp light, yellow light at night, and green light at night), the activities of locomotion, cleaning, and searching were significantly suppressed during the night (19:00–7:00) and locomotion activities of both females and males were significantly increased during the day (7:00–19:00), suggesting a shift in circadian rhythm. Our work suggests that changes in light conditions, including photoperiod and wavelength, can influence behavioral activities of leafhoppers, potentially affecting other life history traits such as reproduction and development, and may serve as a method for leafhopper behavioral control. PMID:28103237

  17. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation (MD). We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24 h MD on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition. PMID:26733839

  18. Reduced cannibalistic behavior of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae under dark and dim conditions.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yukinori; Sanudin, Noorsyarinah; Firdaus, Rian Freddie; Saad, Shahbudin

    2013-06-01

    In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.

  19. Maternal behavior, paternal behavior, and pup survival in CD-1 albino mice (Mus musculus) in three different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Wright, S L; Brown, R E

    2000-06-01

    Parental behavior, food consumption, and pup development in litters of CD-1 albino mice (Mus musculus) with single mothers or paired mothers in 3 different housing conditions were compared. Fewer pups survived when parents were required to run in a wheel to obtain food, and these pups had lower weights than pups in the wheel-noncontingent and no-wheel groups. The presence of the male facilitated pup survival in the wheel-contingent group but had no effect on pup growth. Mice in the wheel-contingent group ran more revolutions than those in the wheel-noncontingent group and spent less time in parental care. In the wheel-contingent group, males spent more time running and ate less food than females, suggesting that males may indirectly facilitate pup development by providing food for the mother. The results suggest that the presence of the male increases pup care and may facilitate maternal behavior under appropriate environmental conditions.

  20. A conditional process model of children's behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Curran, Thomas; Hill, Andrew P; Niemiec, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    The potential benefits of children's engagement in sport for their psychological, social, and physical health are well established. Yet children may also experience psychological and social impairments due, in part, to a variety of detrimental coach behaviors. In the current study, we proposed and tested a conditional process model of children's self-reported behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory. Results from a sample of 245 youth soccer players suggested that structure from coaches related positively to behavioral engagement and negatively to behavioral disaffection, and that these relations were mediated by athletes' basic psychological need satisfaction. Importantly, and in line with our hypotheses, these indirect effects were moderated by autonomy support from coaches, such that the mediation was evident only among those who reported higher levels of autonomy support. These findings underscore the importance of coaches' providing guidance, expectations, and feedback (i.e., structure) in a way that respects athletes' volition (i.e., autonomy support).

  1. Dynamic avalanche behavior of power MOSFETs and IGBTs under unclamped inductive switching conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lu; Xiaoli, Tian; Shuojin, Lu; Hongyu, Zhou; Yangjun, Zhu; Zhengsheng, Han

    2013-03-01

    The ability of high-voltage power MOSFETs and IGBTs to withstand avalanche events under unclamped inductive switching (UIS) conditions is measured. This measurement is to investigate and compare the dynamic avalanche failure behavior of the power MOSFETs and the IGBT, which occur at different current conditions. The UIS measurement results at different current conditions show that the main failure reason of the power MOSFETs is related to the parasitic bipolar transistor, which leads to the deterioration of the avalanche reliability of power MOSFETs. However, the results of the IGBT show two different failure behaviors. At high current mode, the failure behavior is similar to the power MOSFETs situation. But at low current mode, the main failure mechanism is related to the parasitic thyristor activity during the occurrence of the avalanche process and which is in good agreement with the experiment result.

  2. A Conditioned Behavioral Paradigm for Assessing Onset and Lasting Tinnitus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Edward; Luo, Hao; Bobian, Michael; Panekkad, Ajay; Zhang, Xueguo; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerous behavioral paradigms have been developed to assess tinnitus-like behavior in animals. Nevertheless, they are often limited by prolonged training requirements, as well as an inability to simultaneously assess onset and lasting tinnitus behavior, tinnitus pitch or duration, or tinnitus presence without grouping data from multiple animals or testing sessions. To enhance behavioral testing of tinnitus, we developed a conditioned licking suppression paradigm to determine the pitch(s) of both onset and lasting tinnitus-like behavior within individual animals. Rats learned to lick water during broadband or narrowband noises, and to suppress licking to avoid footshocks during silence. After noise exposure, rats significantly increased licking during silent trials, suggesting onset tinnitus-like behavior. Lasting tinnitus-behavior, however, was exhibited in about half of noise-exposed rats through 7 weeks post-exposure tested. Licking activity during narrowband sound trials remained unchanged following noise exposure, while ABR hearing thresholds fully recovered and were comparable between tinnitus(+) and tinnitus(-) rats. To assess another tinnitus inducer, rats were injected with sodium salicylate. They demonstrated high pitch tinnitus-like behavior, but later recovered by 5 days post-injection. Further control studies showed that 1): sham noise-exposed rats tested with footshock did not exhibit tinnitus-like behavior, and 2): noise-exposed or sham rats tested without footshocks showed no fundamental changes in behavior compared to those tested with shocks. Together, these results demonstrate that this paradigm can efficiently test the development of noise- and salicylate-induced tinnitus behavior. The ability to assess tinnitus individually, over time, and without averaging data enables us to realistically address tinnitus in a clinically relevant way. Thus, we believe that this optimized behavioral paradigm will facilitate investigations into the mechanisms of

  3. Brain imaging in neurogenetic conditions: realizing the potential of behavioral neurogenetics research.

    PubMed

    Reiss, A L; Eliez, S; Schmitt, J E; Patwardhan, A; Haberecht, M

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral neurogenetics research is a new method of scientific inquiry that focuses on investigation of neurodevelopmental dysfunction associated with specific genetic conditions. This research method provides a powerful tool for scientific inquiry into human gene-brain-behavior linkages that complements more traditional research approaches. In particular, the use of specific genetic conditions as models of common behavioral and cognitive disorders occurring in the general population can reveal insights into neurodevelopmental pathways that might otherwise be obscured or diluted when investigating more heterogeneous, behaviorally defined subject groups. In this paper, we review five genetic conditions that commonly give rise to identifiable neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disability in children: fragile X syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome. While emphasis is placed on describing the brain morphology associated with these conditions as revealed by neuroimaging studies, we also include information pertaining to molecular genetic, postmortem, and neurobehavioral investigations to illustrate how behavioral neurogenetics research can contribute to an improved understanding of brain disorders in childhood.

  4. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior. PMID:25374516

  5. Voluntary and evoked behavioral correlates in neuropathic pain states under different social housing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Claudia; Kuner, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to develop and incorporate novel behavioral tests in classically used preclinical pain models. Most rodent studies are based upon stimulus-evoked hindpaw measurements even though chronic pain is usually a day and night experience. Chronic pain is indeed a debilitating condition that influences the sociability and the ability for voluntary tasks, but the relevant behavioral readouts for these aspects are mostly under-represented in the literature. Moreover, we lack standardization in most behavioral paradigms to guarantee reproducibility and ensure adequate discussion between different studies. This concerns not only the combination, application, and duration of particular behavioral tasks but also the effects of different housing conditions implicating social isolation. Results Our aim was to thoroughly characterize the classically used spared nerve injury model for 12 weeks following surgery. We used a portfolio of classical stimulus-evoked response measurements, detailed gait analysis with two different measuring systems (Dynamic weight bearing (DWB) system and CatWalk), as well as observer-independent voluntary wheel running and home cage monitoring (Laboras system). Additionally, we analyzed the effects of social isolation in all behavioral tasks. We found that evoked hypersensitivity temporally matched changes in static gait parameters, whereas some dynamic gait parameters were changed in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, voluntary wheel running behavior was not affected in spared nerve injury mice but by social isolation. Besides a reduced climbing activity, spared nerve injury mice did not showed tremendous alterations in the home cage activity. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study providing detailed insights into various voluntary behavioral parameters related to pain and highlights the importance of social environment on spontaneous non-evoked behaviors in a mouse model of chronic neuropathy. Our results

  6. Patterns of Chronic Conditions and Their Associations With Behaviors and Quality of Life, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Thompson, William W.; Zack, Matthew M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Cella, David; Smith, Ashley Wilder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Co-occurring chronic health conditions elevate the risk of poor health outcomes such as death and disability, are associated with poor quality of life, and magnify the complexities of self-management, care coordination, and treatment planning. This study assessed patterns of both singular and multiple chronic conditions, behavioral risk factors, and quality of life in a population-based sample. Methods In a national survey, adults (n = 4,184) answered questions about the presence of 27 chronic conditions. We used latent class analysis to identify patterns of chronic conditions and to explore associations of latent class membership with sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral risk factors, and health. Results Latent class analyses indicated 4 morbidity profiles: a healthy class (class 1), a class with predominantly physical health conditions (class 2), a class with predominantly mental health conditions (class 3), and a class with both physical and mental health conditions (class 4). Class 4 respondents reported significantly worse physical health and well-being and more days of activity limitation than those in the other latent classes. Class 4 respondents were also more likely to be obese and sedentary, and those with predominantly mental health conditions were most likely to be current smokers. Conclusions Subgroups with distinct patterns of chronic conditions can provide direction for screening and surveillance, guideline development, and the delivery of complex care services. PMID:26679491

  7. Temporary Increases in Problem Behavior and Sleep Disruption Following Decreases in Medication: A Descriptive Analysis of Conditional Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Swanson, Greg; Dornbusch, Kaitlin

    2007-01-01

    Conditional rates of problem behavior for weeks that followed medication decreases and no medication changes were compared for 12 individuals who exhibited severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury, aggression). The results indicate that conditional rates of problem behavior were higher following medication decreases than following no changes in…

  8. Cocaine Conditioned Behavior: A Cocaine Memory Trace or an Anti-Habituation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Robert J.; Damianopoulos, Ernest N.; Shanahan, Arielle B.

    2008-01-01

    Whether cocaine locomotor conditioning represents a cocaine positive effect; i.e., a Pavlovian cocaine conditioned response; or, a cocaine negative effect; i.e., interference with habituation to the test environment, is a subject of some controversy. Three separate experiments were conducted to compare the behavior (locomotion and grooming) of separate groups of rats given 1, 9 or 14 cocaine (10 mg/kg) treatments paired/unpaired with placement into an open-field arena. The behavior of the cocaine groups on subsequent saline tests were compared with the habituation rates of saline treated rats. After one cocaine pairing with the test environment, the subsequent behavior of the cocaine-paired group on saline tests was similar to a non-habituated control group. In the two experiments with repeated cocaine pairings to the test environment, the subsequent behavior of the cocaine treated groups did not parallel that of the non-habituated saline control groups. These results were not explicable in terms of cocaine anti-habituation effects. It is suggested that cocaine contextual cues paired with cocaine treatment can activate cocaine memory traces which with subsequent cocaine treatments are reinforced and strengthened. In this way repeated cocaine use can forge conditioned stimulus connections to the cocaine behavioral response that are highly resistant to extinction. PMID:18571225

  9. Ground-truthing evoked potential measurements against behavioral conditioning in the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Randy J.; Mann, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become commonly used to measure hearing thresholds in fish. However, it is uncertain how well AEP thresholds match behavioral hearing thresholds and what effect variability in electrode placement has on AEPs. In the first experiment, the effect of electrode placement on AEPs was determined by simultaneously recording AEPs from four locations on each of 12 goldfish, Carassius auratus. In the second experiment, the hearing sensitivity of 12 goldfish was measured using both classical conditioning and AEP's in the same setup. For behavioral conditioning, the fish were trained to reduce their respiration rate in response to a 5 s sound presentation paired with a brief shock. A modified staircase method was used in which 20 reversals were completed for each frequency, and threshold levels were determined by averaging the last 12 reversals. Once the behavioral audiogram was completed, the AEP measurements were made without moving the fish. The recording electrode was located subdermally over the medulla, and was inserted prior to classical conditioning to minimize handling of animal. The same sound stimuli (pulsed tones) were presented and the resultant evoked potentials were recorded for 1000-6000 averages. AEP input-output functions were then compared to the behavioral audiogram to compare techniques for estimating behavioral thresholds from AEP data.

  10. Vulnerability of conditional NCAM-deficient mice to develop stress-induced behavioral alterations.

    PubMed

    Bisaz, Reto; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies in rodents showed that chronic stress induces structural and functional alterations in several brain regions, including shrinkage of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, which are accompanied by cognitive and emotional disturbances. Reduced expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) following chronic stress has been proposed to be crucially involved in neuronal retraction and behavioral alterations. Since NCAM gene polymorphisms and altered expression of alternatively spliced NCAM isoforms have been associated with bipolar depression and schizophrenia in humans, we hypothesized that reduced expression of NCAM renders individuals more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of stress on behavior. Here, we specifically questioned whether mice in which the NCAM gene is inactivated in the forebrain by cre-recombinase under the control of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II promoter (conditional NCAM-deficient mice), display increased vulnerability to stress. We assessed the evolving of depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning and memory impairments following a subchronic stress protocol (2 weeks) that does not result in behavioral dysfunction, nor in altered NCAM expression, in wild-type mice. Indeed, while no behavioral alterations were detected in wild-type littermates after subchronic stress, conditional NCAM-deficient mice showed increased immobility in the tail suspension test and deficits in reversal spatial learning in the water maze. These findings indicate that diminished NCAM expression might be a critical vulnerability factor for the development of behavioral alterations by stress and further support a functional involvement of NCAM in stress-induced cognitive and emotional disturbances.

  11. Seeking behavior, place conditioning, and resistance to conditioned suppression of feeding in rats intermittently exposed to palatable food.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Santos, Jeffrey W; Smith, Karen L; Ferragud, Antonio; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive consumption of highly palatable food within short periods of time accompanied by loss of control over eating. Extensive evidence provides support for the consideration of binge eating disorder as an addiction-like disorder. In this study, we wanted to determine whether rats undergoing an operant binge-like eating procedure could develop maladaptive forms of conditioned feeding behaviors. For this purpose, we trained male rats to self-administer either a sugary, highly palatable diet ("Palatable" rats) or a chow diet ("Chow" rats) for 1 hour a day. After escalation and stabilization of palatable food intake, we tested Chow and Palatable rats in (a) a conditioned place preference test, (b) a second-order schedule of reinforcement, (c) a cue-induced suppression of feeding test. In the conditioned place preference task, Palatable rats spent significantly more time in the compartment that was previously paired with the palatable food, compared to Chow controls. Furthermore, in the second-order schedule of reinforcement task, Palatable rats exhibited active lever responding 4- to 6-fold higher than Chow control rats. Finally, in the cue-induced suppression of feeding test, although Chow control subjects reduced responding by 32% in the presence of the conditioned punishment, Palatable rats persevered in responding despite the aversive cue. These results further characterize this animal model of binge-like eating and provide additional evidence for the addictive properties of highly palatable food.

  12. Social effects on foraging behavior and success depend on local environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Harry H; Carter, Alecia J; Ashford, Alexandra; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In social groups, individuals' dominance rank, social bonds, and kinship with other group members have been shown to influence their foraging behavior. However, there is growing evidence that the particular effects of these social traits may also depend on local environmental conditions. We investigated this by comparing the foraging behavior of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, under natural conditions and in a field experiment where food was spatially clumped. Data were collected from 55 animals across two troops over a 5-month period, including over 900 agonistic foraging interactions and over 600 food patch visits in each condition. In both conditions, low-ranked individuals received more agonism, but this only translated into reduced foraging performances for low-ranked individuals in the high-competition experimental conditions. Our results suggest one possible reason for this pattern may be low-ranked individuals strategically investing social effort to negotiate foraging tolerance, but the rank-offsetting effect of this investment being overwhelmed in the higher-competition experimental environment. Our results also suggest that individuals may use imbalances in their social bonds to negotiate tolerance from others under a wider range of environmental conditions, but utilize the overall strength of their social bonds in more extreme environments where feeding competition is more intense. These findings highlight that behavioral tactics such as the strategic investment of social effort may allow foragers to mitigate the costs of low rank, but that the effectiveness of these tactics is likely to be limited in certain environments. PMID:25691973

  13. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  14. Reinforcer-specificity of appetitive and consummatory behavior of rats after Pavlovian conditioning with food reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Galarce, Ezequiel M; Crombag, Hans S; Holland, Peter C

    2007-05-16

    We examined the reinforcer-specificity of Pavlovian conditioning in the control of appetitive and consummatory behaviors in Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer, cue-potentiated eating, and devaluation procedures. Rats received pairings of one conditioned stimulus with sucrose and another conditioned stimulus with maltodextrin. In Experiment 1, rats were also trained to earn sucrose for one instrumental response and maltodextrin for another. In a transfer test, the Pavlovian cues enhanced the rate of instrumental responding more when the food reinforcer predicted by the instrumental response and the Pavlovian cue were consistent than when they were inconsistent, but both cues enhanced both responses. In Experiment 2, sated rats' consumption of each food was potentiated in the presence of a cue for that food, but not in the presence of a cue for the other food. In Experiment 3, one food was devalued by pairing it with lithium chloride, prior to testing food consumption and food-cup directed behaviors. The food cues selectively controlled food-cup related behaviors, regardless of the presence of the devalued or nondevalued foods in the food cup. Together, these results are consistent with the view that conditioned cues modulate appetitive and consummatory behaviors with increasing levels of specificity. The closer an action comes to ingestion, the more it is controlled by sensory properties conveyed by learned cues. These data are discussed in the context of allostatic regulation of food foraging and intake.

  15. [Effect of phenibut on the behavior of experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Borodkina, L E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phenibut on the locomotor and orientation-research activity, as well as on the alcohol and food motivation, was studied on experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism. Phenibut decreased the manifestations of alcohol-induced behavioral disorders and reduced alcohol motivation.

  16. Employees' Intentions to Retire Early: A Case of Planned Behavior and Anticipated Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dam, Karen; van der Vorst, Janine D. M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the early retirement intentions of 346 older Dutch employees by extending the theory of planned behavior with anticipated work conditions. The results showed that employees who felt a pressure from their spouse to retire early had a strong intention to leave the work force before the official retirement age, that is 65.…

  17. Working Conditions as Risk or Resiliency Factors for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Susan Fread; Johns, Beverley H.; Mounsteven, Joyce; Olorunda, Olufunmilola

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study examined working conditions reported by special education teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) to identify factors common to teachers likely to leave their positions within the next 2 years and factors common to those likely to stay. Survey responses from an international sample of 776 teachers and…

  18. Operant Conditioning of Within-Interview Verbal Behavior of Counselors-In-Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gerald R.

    This study was designed to answer two major questions: (1) whether or not operant conditioning procedures supplemented by treatments drawn from other areas of experimental psychology could produce changes in counselor interviewing behavior, and (2) how much change resulted from response specific reinforcement and how much from other factors. Three…

  19. Self-Injurious Behavior in Rett Syndrome: Interactions between Features of Rett Syndrome and Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, interactions were examined between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Analysis suggested different functions for two forms of SIB: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. Features of Rett syndrome tended to maximize the…

  20. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  1. Stereotypic Behavior in Nonhuman Primates as a Model for the Human Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Corrine K.

    2014-01-01

    Stereotypies that develop spontaneously in nonhuman primates can provide an effective model for repetitive stereotyped behavior in people with neurodevelopmental or obsessive-compulsive disorders. The behaviors are similar in form, are similarly affected by environmental conditions, and are improved with similar treatment methods such as enrichment, training, and drug therapy. However, because of a greater number of commonalities in these factors, nonhuman primates may serve as a better model for stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism or intellectual disability than for compulsions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Because animal models may not be exact in all features of the disorder being studied, it is important to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of using a nonhuman primate model for stereotyped behavior in people with psychological disorders. PMID:25225307

  2. The conditioning of dyspneic suffocation fear. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration on behavioral freezing and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mongeluzi, Donna L; Rosellini, Robert A; Ley, Ronald; Caldarone, Barbara J; Stock, Howard S

    2003-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a single exposure to 100% carbon dioxide (CO2) can serve as an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) in a Pavlovian aversive-context conditioning paradigm in rats. Although the US exposure parameters employed in the initial studies were sufficient for producing a context-specific enhancement of behavioral freezing and analgesia, it had yet to be determined whether variations of these CO2 conditioning procedures would produce other conditioning effects. Thus, the purpose of the following experiment was to investigate the intensity of the US on the conditioned response (CR). The findings confirm that variations in CO2 concentrations produce changes in the CR that are consistent with principles of Pavlovian conditioning. The findings lend additional support to the tenability of a dyspneic suffocation fear theory of panic disorder, a theory that postulates that at least one type of panic attack could be a consequence of Pavlovian conditioning.

  3. Behavioral rhythms of the Japanese newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, under a semi-natural condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Kiyoko; Oishi, T.

    Locomotor activity rhythms of the Japanese newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, were recorded under a semi-natural condition using phototransistor systems. The daily activity rhythm showed a seasonal change: the locomotor activity was mainly diurnal (active during the daytime) from spring to early summer; mainly nocturnal (active during the night-time) from summer to autumn; and showed either a diurnal or nocturnal pattern, depending on the ambient temperature, in winter. To analyze the daily activity in detail, we observed the behavior of a group of newts (three males, three females) throughout 24 h. Four types of behavior (respiration, feeding, mating, and resting on the land) were observed. Each behavior had daily rhythms and showed a seasonal change. The behavior on land showed mainly a nocturnal or bimodal pattern (activity rhythms with two peaks) throughout the year and was more frequently observed in summer. Mating behavior also showed a seasonal change: high activity in spring, with peaks in the early morning and evening, but no activity in summer. Except in winter, feeding and respiratory behavior showed no seasonal changes in either activity period or frequency. Coupling between behavior and the clock seems to be weak in the Japanese newt because of indistinct daily rhythms and frequent phase changes of locomotor activity in water. Physical factors such as humidity and temperature seem to affect strongly the daily activity of the newts.

  4. Self-assessment and modification of a division I strength and conditioning coach's instructional behavior.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Gerry J; De Marco, George M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of self-assessment in the modification of a Division I strength and conditioning coach's instructional behavior. The coach and 16 members of the university's women's volleyball team were the subjects. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized. Sources of data included the Self-Assessment Feedback Instrument (SAFI) and the coach's personal journal. The study consisted of 12 practices divided into 3 phases. Each phase consisted of 4 videotaped practices. Practices were coded with the SAFI to determine the type and frequency of the coach's behaviors. Phase I data depicted the coach's behavioral profile. Following phase I, the coach formulated goals and targeted behaviors for improvement or change. During phase II, interventions to generate improvements and changes were developed with the primary investigator after each practice. Phase III, conducted in the off-season, was the postintervention phase, during which the coach resumed his regular instructional routine and did not receive intervention. At the conclusion of the study, descriptive statistics were used to compare phase I and III data to determine the effectiveness of the self-assessment process. Qualitative data collected from the coach's journal were subject to content analyses. All behaviors targeted for modification were successfully changed. The most frequently observed behavior during phase III was Instruction During Performance (42.2%), followed by Extended Information (15.2%) and Questions (11.2%). Analysis of the coach's journal revealed a heightened self-awareness of his instructional behavior. It was determined that the process of self-assessment was effective in improving the coach's instructional behavior. Practical application of the results of this study will support strength and conditioning coaches' efforts to efficiently improve the quality of instruction provided to their athletes.

  5. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P < 0.001) and was partially reciprocated by a 6.0% increase in resting (F1,154 = 7.629, P = 0.006), 0.9% increase in maintenance (F1,154 = 7.028, P = 0.009), and 1.8% increase in social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors

  6. Behavior data of battery and battery pack SOC estimation under different working conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-12-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of battery behavior. The constant current condition and the dynamic stress test (DST) condition were carried out to analyze the battery discharging and charging features. The datasets were achieved at room temperature, in April, 2016. The shared data contributes to clarify the battery pack state-of-charge (SOC) and the battery inconsistency, which is also shown in the article of "An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model" (X. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. Yang, et al., 2016) [1].

  7. Influence of Photospheric Magnetic Conditions on the Catastrophic Behaviors of Flux Ropes in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jiajia

    2017-02-01

    Since only the magnetic conditions at the photosphere can be routinely observed in current observations, it is of great significance to determine the influences of photospheric magnetic conditions on solar eruptive activities. Previous studies about catastrophe indicated that the magnetic system consisting of a flux rope in a partially open bipolar field is subject to catastrophe, but not if the bipolar field is completely closed under the same specified photospheric conditions. In order to investigate the influence of the photospheric magnetic conditions on the catastrophic behavior of this system, we expand upon the 2.5-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model in Cartesian coordinates to simulate the evolution of the equilibrium states of the system under different photospheric flux distributions. Our simulation results reveal that a catastrophe occurs only when the photospheric flux is not concentrated too much toward the polarity inversion line and the source regions of the bipolar field are not too weak; otherwise no catastrophe occurs. As a result, under certain photospheric conditions, a catastrophe could take place in a completely closed configuration, whereas it ceases to exist in a partially open configuration. This indicates that whether the background field is completely closed or partially open is not the only necessary condition for the existence of catastrophe, and that the photospheric conditions also play a crucial role in the catastrophic behavior of the flux rope system.

  8. Salmon jumping: behavior, kinematics and optimal conditions, with possible implications for fish passageway design.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, D V; Hertel, F S; Jordan, L K; Gordon, M S

    2010-09-01

    Behavioral and kinematic properties and capacities of wild migratory salmonid fishes swimming upstream and jumping up waterfalls generally have played only minor roles in the design and construction of passageways intended to help these fishes get past dams and other human-made obstacles blocking their movements. This paper reports the results of an experimental study of relevant behavioral and kinematic properties of adult kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) jumping up waterfalls as they migrate upstream. We used a portable, adjustable apparatus to study in the field fish responding to artificial waterfalls under a range of flow conditions. We observed fish under conditions of varying water flow rates, pool depths, fall heights and fall angles. We analyzed digital video recordings of their behaviors. Kokanee salmon spontaneously jump up waterfalls within a relatively narrow range of conditions, including low flow speeds, near vertical angles and pool depth to fall height ratios near 1.0. Preferred values for each parameter are, to some extent, dependent on other parameters. In contrast to previous misconceptions, jumping behavior is initiated by running S-start accelerations from beneath the boils formed in the plunge pools below waterfalls, as opposed to C-start standing jumps from the surface. S-starts are immediately followed by burst swimming to the point of takeoff at the surface. These results can contribute to an improved basis for developing designs of fish passageways that may ultimately make them more effective and efficient.

  9. Intergenerational health disparities: socioeconomic status, women's health conditions, and child behavior problems.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Robert S.; Wilson, Kathryn; Wise, Paul H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the intergenerational mechanisms that lead to social disparities in child health. We examined whether the association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and child behavior problems is mediated by maternal health conditions and behavior. METHODS: Prospective cohort data (1979-1998) on 2,677 children and their mothers were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. SES, the Child Behavior Problems Index (BPI), and maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use before, during, and after pregnancy were examined. RESULTS: Lower income and lower maternal education were associated with increased child BPI scores. Adjustment for maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use attenuated the associations between SES and child BPI by 26% to 49%. These maternal health conditions often occurred together, persisted over time, and were associated with the mother's own childhood SES and pre-pregnancy health. CONCLUSIONS: Social disparities in women's health conditions may help shape the likelihood of behavior problems in the subsequent generation. Improved public health programs and services for disadvantaged women across the lifecourse may not only address their own urgent health needs, but reduce social disparities in the health and well-being of their children. PMID:16025720

  10. Self-injurious behavior in Rett syndrome: interactions between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C; Murphy, G; Crayton, L; Corbett, J

    1993-03-01

    Operant and biological theories of the cause of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in people with a mental handicap are often viewed as mutually exclusive. In this single case study, interactions between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of SIB are examined. Functional analysis by analog methodology indicated different functions for two forms of SIB shown by the subject: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. It is suggested that features of Rett syndrome established conditions under which operant conditioning of self-injurious responding was maximized. The implications of this interaction between features of syndromes and operant conditioning for the conceptualization of the cause of SIB are discussed and it is proposed that the notion of a unitary cause of SIB is inappropriate. It is more productive to consider operant conditioning as the process that maintains responding against a background of predisposing and mediating factors which may be biologically determined.

  11. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  12. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  13. Can attention control conditions have detrimental effects in behavioral medicine randomized trials?

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; McDermott, Mary M.; Reed, George; Greenland, Philip; Mazor, Kathy M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Whited, Matt; Schneider, Kristin; Appelhans, Brad; Leung, Kathy; Merriam, Philip; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attention control conditions are used to balance nonspecific attention in randomized trials of behavioral interventions. Very little guidance is available in the literature about which behavioral interventions and outcomes merit an attention control. The primary aim of the present paper is to demonstrate a scenario in which use of attention control in a behavioral randomized trial was unnecessary and possibly detrimental. Methods Exploratory analyses were performed in a randomized controlled trial that tested whether a patient-centered telephone counseling (PC) intervention reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in 355 participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), compared to attention control (AC) and usual care (UC) conditions. The PC intervention was designed to activate participants to ask their physician for lipid-lowering medication and/or increase dose intensity, increase medication adherence, and reduce fat intake. The AC condition involved attention-matched phone-delivered health education, and the UC condition consisted of an educational pamphlet. Results At 12-month follow-up, mean LDL-C changes were −11.1, and −6.8 mg/dl in the UC and AC conditions, respectively (p=.17). The proportion of participants who increased use or dose intensity of medication was significantly lower in AC than UC, 17.5% versus 30.5% (p=0.03). No significant difference between AC and UC were observed on other outcomes. Conclusions The AC had significantly worse medication outcomes and there was no indication of a therapeutic effect on other endpoints. Implications for use of attention control in behavioral randomized trials are discussed. PMID:23197844

  14. Within-individual correlations reveal link between a behavioral syndrome, condition and cortisol in free-ranging Belding's ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Katherine C.; Mateo, Jill. M.

    2014-01-01

    Animals often exhibit consistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality) and correlations between behaviors (i.e. behavioral syndromes), yet the causes of those patterns of behavioral variation remain insufficiently understood. Many authors hypothesize that state-dependent behavior produces animal personality and behavioral syndromes. However, empirical studies assessing patterns of covariation among behavioral traits and state variables have produced mixed results. New statistical methods that partition correlations into between-individual and residual within-individual correlations offer an opportunity to more sufficiently quantify relationships among behaviors and state variables to assess hypotheses of animal personality and behavioral syndromes. In a population of wild Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) we repeatedly measured activity, exploration, and response to restraint behaviors alongside glucocorticoids and nutritional condition. We used multivariate mixed models to determine whether between-individual or within-individual correlations drive phenotypic relationships among traits. Squirrels had consistent individual differences for all five traits. At the between-individual level, activity and exploration were positively correlated whereas both traits negatively correlated with response to restraint, demonstrating a behavioral syndrome. At the within-individual level, condition negatively correlated with cortisol, activity and exploration. Importantly, this indicates that although behavior is state-dependent, which may play a role in animal personality and behavioral syndromes, feedback mechanisms between condition and behavior appear not to produce consistent individual differences in behavior and correlations between them. PMID:25598565

  15. Spin-up behavior and effects of initial conditions for an integrated hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck, Alimatou; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2015-04-01

    Initial conditions have been shown to have a strong effect on outputs of surface water models, but their impact on integrated hydrologic models is not well documented. We investigated the effects of initial conditions on an integrated hydrologic model of a 5632 km2 domain in the northeastern U.S. Simulations were run for the year 1980 using four initial conditions spanning a range of average depth to water table, including 1 m ("wet"), 3m, 5m, and 7 m ("dry") below land surface. Model outputs showed significant effects of initial conditions on basin-averaged variables such as subsurface storage, surface storage, and surface runoff, with the greatest impact observed on surface storage and runoff. Effects of initial conditions were related to meteorological conditions, with precipitation reducing the effects of initial conditions on surface storage and runoff. Additionally, feedbacks between soil moisture and land-energy fluxes affected the impacts of initial conditions: higher temperatures magnified the differences in storage, recharge, and discharge among the four initial-condition scenarios. Ten year recursive runs were conducted for the wet and dry scenarios. Spin-up times varied by model components and were considerably smaller for land-surface states and fluxes. Spin-up for dry initial conditions was slower than for wet initial conditions, indicating longer system memory for dry initial conditions. These variations in persistence of initial conditions should be taken into consideration when designing model initialization approaches. More broadly, this behavior is indicative of increased persistence of the effects of dry years as opposed to wet years in hydrologic systems.

  16. Modeling acclimatization by hybrid systems: condition changes alter biological system behavior models.

    PubMed

    Assar, Rodrigo; Montecino, Martín A; Maass, Alejandro; Sherman, David J

    2014-07-01

    In order to describe the dynamic behavior of a complex biological system, it is useful to combine models integrating processes at different levels and with temporal dependencies. Such combinations are necessary for modeling acclimatization, a phenomenon where changes in environmental conditions can induce drastic changes in the behavior of a biological system. In this article we formalize the use of hybrid systems as a tool to model this kind of biological behavior. A modeling scheme called strong switches is proposed. It allows one to take into account both minor adjustments to the coefficients of a continuous model, and, more interestingly, large-scale changes to the structure of the model. We illustrate the proposed methodology with two applications: acclimatization in wine fermentation kinetics, and acclimatization of osteo-adipo differentiation system linking stimulus signals to bone mass.

  17. Conditioned place preference induced by social play behavior: parametrics, extinction, reinstatement and disruption by methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated behavioral factors underlying conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by social interaction in adolescent rats. We found that the magnitude of socially-induced CPP depended on the social motivation of the animals and on the amount of training. After extinction, socially-induced CPP could be reinstated by a single reconditioning session. Treatment with methylphenidate, which disrupts social play behavior in adolescent rats, but not social exploratory behavior, prevented the development of socially-induced CPP. Interestingly, methylphenidate by itself induced CPP. These data demonstrate that: 1. social interaction is rewarding in adolescent rats; 2. appetitive and mnemonic factors influence the development of socially-induced CPP; 3. comparable to drug-induced CPP, socially-induced CPP can be extinguished and reinstated; 4. social play is likely to be the most rewarding aspect of social interaction in adolescent rats; 5. social context influences the subjective effects of methylphenidate.

  18. Specific Medical Conditions Are Associated with Unique Behavioral Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ben-Itzchak, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders which occurs with numerous medical conditions. In previous research, subtyping in ASD has been based mostly on cognitive ability and ASD symptom severity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific medical conditions in ASD are associated with unique behavioral profiles. The medical conditions included in the study were macrocephaly, microcephaly, developmental regression, food selectivity, and sleep problems. The behavioral profile was composed of cognitive ability, adaptive skills, and autism severity, and was examined in each of the aforementioned medical conditions. The study population included 1224 participants, 1043 males and 181 females (M:F ratio = 5.8:1) with a mean age of 49.9 m (SD = 29.4) diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests. Groups with and without the specific medical conditions were compared on the behavioral measures. Developmental regression was present in 19% of the population and showed a more severe clinical presentation, with lower cognitive abilities, more severe ASD symptoms, and more impaired adaptive functioning. Microcephaly was observed in 6.3% of the population and was characterized by a lower cognitive ability and more impaired adaptive functioning in comparison to the normative head circumference (HC) group. Severe food selectivity was found in 9.8% and severe sleep problems in 5.1% of the ASD population. The food selectivity and sleep problem subgroups, both showed more severe autism symptoms only as described by the parents, but not per the professional assessment, and more impaired adaptive skills. Macrocephaly was observed in 7.9% of the ASD population and did not differ from the normative HC group in any of the examined behavioral measures. Based on these findings, two unique medical-behavioral subtypes in ASD that affect inherited traits of cognition and/or autism severity were suggested. The microcephaly phenotype occurred with

  19. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources.

    PubMed

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs.

  20. Functional analysis of maladaptive behaviors: Rule as a transitive conditioned motivating operation.

    PubMed

    Belfiore, Phillip J; Kitchen, Thomas; Lee, David L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of a staff-delivered rule on the occurrence of challenging behavior (stereotypic touching) of an adult with severe intellectual disabilities. Four experimental functional analysis conditions were developed: (a) attention, (b) rule+attention, (c) rule only, and (d) control. Results showed that the percentage of intervals in which stereotypic touching responses (STR) occurred was greater within the experimental condition where a rule statement was embedded with contingent attention. Results are discussed in light of the plasticity of functional analysis technology to allow for stimulus variation within the typical social attention condition, and the suggestion that the rule statement, in this study, may function as a Transitive Conditioned Establishing Operation (CEO-T), asserting that the provision of attention is more valued in the presence of the stated rule.

  1. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  2. Influence of temper condition on the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of boron-aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. M.; Herakovich, E. T.; Tenney, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of temper condition on the tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior for six boron-aluminum laminates was investigated. In addition to monotonic tension and compression tests, tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension--compression tests were conducted to study the effects of cyclic loading. Tensile strength results are a function of the laminate configuration; unidirectional laminates were affected considerably more than other laminates with some strength values increasing and others decreasing.

  3. A guideline for analyzing circadian wheel-running behavior in rodents under different lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Corinne; Schmutz, Isabelle; Hampp, Gabriele; Oster, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the field. Furthermore, it aims to assist in designing, carrying out, and evaluating wheel-running experiments with rodents, particularly mice. Since light is an easily applicable stimulus that provokes strong effects on clock phase, the paper focuses on the application of different lighting conditions. PMID:16136228

  4. Emotional stress evoked by classical fear conditioning induces yawning behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Natsuko; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2014-04-30

    Yawning is often observed not only in a state of boredom or drowsiness but also in stressful emotional situations, suggesting that yawning is an emotional behavior. However, the neural mechanisms for yawning during stressful emotional situations have not been fully determined, though previous studies have suggested that both parvocellular oxytocin (OT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are responsible for induction of yawning. Thus, using ethological observations and c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we examined whether emotional stress evoked by classical fear conditioning is involved in induction of yawning behavior in freely moving rats. Emotional stress induced yawning behavior that was accompanied by anxiety-related behavior, and caused neuronal activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as increases in activity of both OT and CRF neurons in the PVN. These results suggest that emotional stress may induce yawning behavior, in which the neuronal activation of the CeA may have a key role.

  5. Generation and Behavioral Characterization of β-catenin Forebrain-Specific Conditional Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; O'Donnell, Kelley C.; Picchini, Alyssa M.; Dow, Eliot R.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway and β-catenin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We generated forebrain-specific CRE-mediated conditional β-catenin knockout mice to begin exploring the behavioral implications of decreased Wnt pathway signaling in the central nervous system. In situ hybridization revealed a progressive knockout of β-catenin that began between 2 and 4 weeks of age, and by 12 weeks resulted in considerably decreased β-catenin expression in regions of the forebrain, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. A significant decrease in protein levels of β-catenin in these brain regions was observed by western blot. Behavioral characterization of these mice in several tests (including the forced swim test, tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness, response and sensitization to stimulants, and light/dark box among other tests) revealed relatively circumscribed alterations. In the TST, knockout mice spent significantly less time struggling (a depression-like phenotype). However, knockout mice did not differ from their wild-type littermates in the other behavioral tests of mood-related or anxiety-related behaviors. These results suggest that a considerable β-catenin reserve exists, and that a 50-70% β-catenin reduction in circumscribed brain regions is only capable of inducing subtle behavioral changes. Alternatively, regulating β-catenin may modulate drug effects rather than being a model of mood disorder pathophysiology per se. PMID:18299155

  6. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  7. The behavior of a compressible turbulent boundary layer in a shock-wave-induced adverse pressure gradient. Ph.D. Thesis - Washington Univ., Seattle, Aug. 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the mean- and fluctuating-flow properties of a compressible turbulent boundary layer in a shock-wave-induced adverse pressure gradient are presented. The turbulent boundary layer developed on the wall of an axially symmetric nozzle and test section whose nominal free-stream Mach number and boundary-layer thickness Reynolds number were 4 and 100,000, respectively. The adverse pressure gradient was induced by an externally generated conical shock wave. Mean and time-averaged fluctuating-flow data, including the complete experimental Reynolds stress tensor and experimental turbulent mass- and heat-transfer rates are presented for the boundary layer and external flow, upstream, within and downstream of the pressure gradient. The mean-flow data include distributions of total temperature throughout the region of interest. The turbulent mixing properties of the flow were determined experimentally with a hot-wire anemometer. The calibration of the wires and the interpretation of the data are discussed. From the results of the investigation, it is concluded that the shock-wave - boundary-layer interaction significantly alters the turbulent mixing characteristics of the boundary layer.

  8. Wear of surface-engineered metal-on-metal bearings for hip prostheses under adverse conditions with the head loading on the rim of the cup.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Ian; Williams, Sophie; Isaac, Graham; Hatto, Peter; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2013-04-01

    Clinical studies have found high wear rates, elevated ion levels and high revision rates of large-diameter metal-on-metal surface replacement bearings in some patients, which have been associated with edge loading of the head on the rim of the cup. We have simulated increased wear and ion levels in metal-on-metal bearings in vitro by introducing variations in translational and rotational positioning of the components, which reproduces stripe wear on the femoral head, cup rim wear and clinically relevant large as well as small wear particles. There is interest in technologies such as surface engineering, which might reduce metal wear and the release of wear particles and ions. Reduced wear with surface-engineered surface replacements compared to metal-on-metal controls has been reported under standard walking conditions with correctly aligned and concentric components. In this in vitro study, the wear of chromium nitride surface-engineered metal-on-metal bearings under conditions of microseparation associated with translational and rotational malpositioning of the components was investigated and the results were compared with a previously reported study of metal-on-metal bearings under the same conditions. Simulations were conducted using our unique hip simulation microseparation methodologies, which reproduce accelerated wear in metal-on-metal bearings and have previously been clinically validated with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. Four of the six surface-engineered bearings had evidence of head contact on the rim of the cup, which produced stripe wear on the femoral head. Four of the six surface-engineered bearings (two without stripe and two with stripe wear) had lower wear than the previously reported high wearing metal-on-metal bearings. At 2 million cycles, two of the surface-engineered bearings had substantially increased wear rates, four times higher than the high wear rates previously reported for metal-on-metal bearings under the same conditions. There was

  9. Effects of social housing condition and behavior on growth of the Shionogi mouse mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Grimm, M S; Emerman, J T; Weinberg, J

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated marked effects of social housing condition on the growth rate of the androgen-responsive Shionogi mouse mammary carcinoma. The present study investigated the possible role of psychosocial variables in modulating the differential tumor growth rates observed. Male DD/S mice were reared individually housed (I) or in groups (G) of three or five siblings or nonsiblings. Following tumor cell injection, mice either remained in their rearing conditions (II, GG) or were rehoused (IG, GI). Effects of group size, sibling relationship, dominance status, change vs. no change in housing condition, and direction of change (individual to group or group to individual) were examined. Home cage behaviors were monitored both prior to and following tumor cell injection and rehousing. Overall, mice in the GI conditions showed faster tumor growth rates than mice in the IG conditions. Mice in the II and GG conditions showed intermediate tumor growth rates. Differences in group size and sibling relationship prior to and following tumor cell injection and rehousing had no significant influence on tumor growth rates. However, both change in housing condition and direction of change following tumor cell injection/rehousing were significant variables in modulating differential tumor growth rates. Dominance status differentially influenced tumor growth depending on whether mice experienced a change in housing; in the IG conditions, dominant mice showed faster tumor growth whereas in the GG conditions, dominant mice showed slower tumor growth than subordinate mice. Increased fighting among mice in IG compared to mice in GG conditions may play a role in modulating differential tumor growth rates.

  10. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  11. Overt behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in a fear conditioning paradigm: a dose-response study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, Markus; Borta, Andreas; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2005-11-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory rats is usually confined to the level of overt behavior, like locomotion, behavioral inhibition, instrumental responses, and others. Apart from such visible outcome, however, behaviorally relevant information can also be obtained when analyzing the animals' ultrasonic vocalization, which is typically emitted in highly motivational situations, like 22-kHz calls in response to acute or conditioned threat. To further investigate such vocalizations and their relationship with overt behavior, we tested male Wistar rats in a paradigm of Pavlovian fear conditioning, where a tone stimulus (CS) was preceding an aversive foot-shock (US) in a distinct environment. Importantly, the shock dose was varied between groups (0-1.1 mA), and its acute and conditioned outcome were determined. The analysis of visible behavior confirms the usefulness of immobility as a measure of fear conditioning, especially when higher shock doses were used. Rearing and grooming, on the other hand, were more useful to detect conditioned effects with lower shock levels. Ultrasonic vocalization occurred less consistently than changes in overt behavior; however, dose-response relationships were also observed during the phase of conditioning, for example, in latency, call rate and lengths, intervals between calls, and sound amplitude. Furthermore, total calling time (and rate) were highly correlated with overt behavior, namely behavioral inhibition as measured through immobility. These correlations were observed during the phase of fear conditioning, and the subsequent tests. Importantly, conditioned effects in overt behavior were observed, both, to the context and to the CS presented in this context, whereas conditioned vocalization to the context was not observed (except for one rat). In support and extent of previous results, the present data show that a detailed analysis of ultrasonic vocalization can substantially broaden and refine the spectrum of analysis in

  12. Testosterone replacement therapy to improve secondary sexual characteristics and body composition without adverse behavioral problems in adult male patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kido, Yasuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru; Abe, Yoshiko; Oto, Yuji; Itabashi, Hisashi; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshino, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yuriko; Obata, Kazuo; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a complex genetic disorder, arises from suppressed expression of paternally inherited imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. Characteristics include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, hypogonadism, obesity, and reduced bone and muscle mass. Testosterone replacement (TR) remains controversial due to concerns regarding behavioral problems. To evaluate the effects of TR on secondary sexual characteristics, body composition, and behavior in adult males with PWS, 22 male PWS patients over the age of 16 with behavioral scores of less than grade 4 on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) underwent monthly intramuscular TR (125 mg). Pubertal change, body composition and behavior were evaluated before and after 24 months of therapy. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH did not change. Increased pubic hair was observed in 16 of 22 patients (72.7%). Percent body fat decreased from 47.55 ± 2.06% to 39.75 ± 1.60% (n = 18) (P = 0.018). Bone mineral density increased from 0.8505 ± 0.0426 g/cm(2) to 0.9035 ± 0.0465 g/cm(2) (n = 18) (P = 0.036), and lean body mass increased from 18093.4 ± 863.0 g to 20312.1 ± 1027.2 g (n = 18) (P = 0.009). The MOAS was unchanged, from 4.5 ± 2.0 at the beginning of the study to 3.0 ± 1.7 at the end of study indicating no increase in aggression. No behavioral problems were observed. Based on this pilot study, TR with 125 mg monthly is a potentially safe and useful intervention for adult males with PWS.

  13. Personalized Coaching Systems to support healthy behavior in people with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hermens, H; op den Akker, H; Tabak, M; Wijsman, J; Vollenbroek, M

    2014-12-01

    Chronic conditions cannot be cured but daily behavior has a major effect on the severity of secondary problems and quality of life. Changing behavior however requires intensive support in daily life, which is not feasible with a human coach. A new coaching approach - so-called Personal Coaching Systems (PCSs) - use on-body sensing, combined with smart reasoning and context-aware feedback to support users in developing and maintaining a healthier behavior. Three different PCSs will be used to illustrate the different aspects of this approach: (1) Treatment of neck/shoulder pain. EMG patterns of the Trapezius muscles are used to estimate their level of relaxation. Personal vibrotactile feedback is given, to create awareness and enable learning when muscles are insufficiently relaxed. (2) Promoting a healthy activity pattern. Using a 3D accelerometer to measure activity and a smartphone to provide feedback. Timing and content of the feedback are adapted real-time, using machine-learning techniques, to optimize adherence. (3) Management of stress during daily living. The level of stress is quantified using a personal model involving a combination of different sensor signals (EMG, ECG, skin conductance, respiration). Results show that Personal Coaching Systems are feasible and a promising and challenging way forward to coach people with chronic conditions.

  14. Behavioral response of Corophium volutator relative to experimental conditions, physical and chemical disturbances.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Cheeseman, Kerri; Jouvenelle, Marie-Laure; Robertson, Sarah

    2005-12-01

    The preference/avoidance behavioral response of a widely used amphipod in toxicity tests, Corophium volutator, was investigated in relation to the presence of anthropogenic physical or chemical materials in sediments. Exposure conditions, including the density of amphipods, the depth of sediments, amount of overlying water, and exposure time, were examined for their influence on amphipods' preference for field sediments and avoidance of coarse sand. It was shown that these variables did not affect the response; thus, conditions similar to published standard toxicity tests were chosen. A gradient of sediments spiked with potential habitat disturbances that can be found on a beach or in contaminated sediments, such as those in harbors, were tested. These substances included sand, seaweed, burned wood, coal, crankcase oil, and diesel oil. To enhance the interpretation of results and decrease the variability observed when tests were conducted at different times over the summer, exposures were performed over a gradient of spike material in reference sediments. We conclude that physical obstacles added to reference sediments lead to less correlation with the behavioral response than observed with chemical interferences. Amphipods' behavior ranked harbor sediments similarly to previous studies concerning the health of intertidal mussels collected in proximity to the sediments sites. For five sites, preference of reference sediments was observed until the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diluted harbor sediments reached the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment quality guidelines.

  15. The effects of extrinsic stress on somatic markers and behavior are dependent on animal housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Huzard, Damien; Mumby, Dave G; Sandi, Carmen; Poirier, Guillaume L; van der Kooij, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Properties of the environment play an important role in animal wellbeing and may modulate the effects of external threats. Whereas stressors can affect emotion and impair cognition, environmental enrichment may prevent the occurrence of such negative sequelae. Animals exposed to semi-natural group-housing experience a complex environment; whereas environmental enrichment might protect against stressors, a socially-enriched environment(SEE) could entail aggressive inter-male encounters with additive stress effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to external stressors, footshocks and forced swimming, on adrenal gland and body weights as well as on behavior in rats housed under SEE or standard, non-enriched environment (NEE), conditions. We found that SEEs reduced the anxiogenic effects of stress. Moreover, SEEs improved the performance in an operant task and prevented the increase in impulsive behavior produced by external stressors on NEE animals. Whereas these findings are indicative of stress-buffering effects of SEEs, adrenal gland weights were increased while total body weights were decreased in SEE rats, suggesting that SEEs may simultaneously exacerbate physiological measurements of stress. Finally, in the SEE, total aggressive behaviors and body wounds were paradoxically reduced in animals that received external stressors in comparison to non-stressed controls. The consequences of the external stressors applied here are not uniform, varying according to the housing condition and the outcome considered.

  16. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Stepp, Jennifer E; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W Scott; Caldwell, Heather K

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr-/-) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups and maternal behavior of virgin Oxtr-/- females toward foster pups and compared knockouts of both lines to wildtype (Oxtr+/+) littermates. We found that both Oxtr-/- and OxtrFB/FB females appear to have largely normal maternal behaviors. However, with first litters, approximately 40% of the OxtrFB/FB knockout dams experienced high pup mortality, compared to fewer than 10% of the Oxtr+/+ dams. We then went on to test whether or not this phenotype occurred in subsequent litters or when the dams were exposed to an environmental disturbance. We found that regardless of the degree of external disturbance, OxtrFB/FB females lost more pups on their first and second litters compared to wildtype females. Possible reasons for higher pup mortality in OxtrFB/FB females are discussed.

  17. Facilitated acquisition of standard but not long delay classical eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, M D; VanMeenen, K M; Servatius, R J

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a key age in the development of anxiety disorders. The present study assessed the relationship between behavioral inhibition, a risk factor for anxiety typified by avoidance, and acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response. 168 healthy high school students (mean age 15.7 years, 54% female) were given a battery of self-report measures including the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI). The study compared acquisition of three experimental training conditions. Two groups were given paired CS-US training: standard delay of 500-ms or long delay of 1000-ms with CS overlapping and co-terminating with a 50-ms airpuff US. A third group received unpaired training of 1000-ms CS and 50-ms airpuff US. Inhibited individuals showed greater acquisition of the conditioned eyeblink response in the 500-ms CS condition, but not in the paired 1000-ms condition. No differences in spontaneous blinks or reactivity to the stimulus were evident in the 1000-ms unpaired CS condition. Results support a relationship between associative learning and anxiety vulnerability that may be mediated by cerebellar functioning in inhibited individuals.

  18. Wear behaviors of HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by laser remelting under lubricated condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejun, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    A HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) sprayed WC-12Co coating was remelted with a CO2 laser. The surface-interface morphologies and phases were analyzed by means of SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XRD (X-ray diffraction), respectively. The friction and wear behaviors of WC-12Co coating under the dry and lubricated conditions were investigated with a wear test. The morphologies and distributions of chemical elements on worn scar were analyzed with a SEM, and its configured EDS (energy diffusive spectrometer), respectively, and the effects of lubricated condition on COFs (coefficient of friction) and wear performance were also discussed. The results show that the adhesion between the coating and the substrate is stronger after laser remetling (LR), in which mechanical bonding, accompanying with metallurgical bonding, was found. At the load of 80 N, the average COF under the dry and lubricated friction conditions is 0.069, and 0.052, respectively, the latter lowers by 23.3% than the former, and the wear rate under the lubricated condition decreases by 302.3% than that under the dry condition. The wear mechanism under the dry and lubrication conditions is primarily composed of abrasive wear, cracking, and fatigue failure.

  19. Reference place conditioning procedure with cocaine: increased sensitivity for measuring associatively motivated choice behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Carmela M; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Bevins, Rick A

    2010-07-01

    Place conditioning is widely used to study the conditioned rewarding effects of drugs. In the standard version, one reward (cocaine) is compared with no reward (saline). A modified variant of this task, 'reference-conditioning' procedure, compares two potentially rewarding stimuli (high vs. low cocaine dose). There has been little research on the utility of this procedure. Experiment 1 used the standard protocol with saline administered before confinement to the reference compartment of a place conditioning chamber. On alternate days, saline, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine was administered before confinement to the opposite compartment. In experiments 2 and 3, reference-compartment saline was replaced with 5 and 7.5 mg/kg cocaine, respectively. Relative to saline, 7.5-20 mg/kg cocaine had comparable conditioned rewarding effects (i.e. similar increase in time in paired compartment). When cocaine replaced saline, there was competition at doses lower than 7.5 mg/kg. Rats that received 7.5 versus 2.5 mg/kg spent similar time in each compartment, indicating competition. Competition was not seen with 5 versus 20 mg/kg; preference was for the 20 mg/kg compartment. Experiment 4 showed that the competition at 2.5 mg/kg was not due to reward sensitization. The reference-conditioning procedure has increased the sensitivity for measuring associatively motivated choice behavior.

  20. Computer-assisted behavioral assessment of Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Anagnostaras, S G; Josselyn, S A; Frankland, P W; Silva, A J

    2000-01-01

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning, a conditional stimulus (CS, usually a tone) is paired with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US, usually a foot shock) in a novel context. After even a single pairing, the animal comes to exhibit a long-lasting fear to the CS and the conditioning context, which can be measured as freezing, an adaptive defense reaction in mice. Both context and tone conditioning depend on the integrity of the amygdala, and context conditioning further depends on the hippocampus. The reliability and efficiency of the fear conditioning assay makes it an excellent candidate for the screening of learning and memory deficits in mutant mice. One obstacle is that freezing in mice has been accurately quantified only by human observers, using a tedious method that can be subject to bias. In the present study we generated a simple, high-speed, and highly accurate algorithm that scores freezing of four mice simultaneously using NIH Image on an ordinary Macintosh computer. The algorithm yielded a high correlation and excellent linear fit between computer and human scores across a broad range of conditions. This included the ability to score low pretraining baseline scores and accurately mimic the effects of two independent variables (shock intensity and test modality) on fear. Because we used a computer and digital video, we were able to acquire a secondary index of fear, activity suppression, as well as baseline activity scores. Moreover, we measured the unconditional response to shock. These additional measures can enhance the sensitivity of the assay to detect interesting memory phenotypes and control for possible confounds. Thus, this computer-assisted system for measuring behavior during fear conditioning allows for the standardized and carefully controlled assessment of multiple aspects of the fear conditioning experience.

  1. Carbonation Behavior of Pure Cement Hydrates under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Conditions - 12199

    SciTech Connect

    Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo; Hertz, Audrey; Charton, Frederic

    2012-07-01

    Carbonation of cement-based waste forms using a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) is a developing technology for the waste immobilization of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes. However, the detail carbonation behaviors of cement matrices under the SCCO{sub 2} condition are unknown, since cement matrices forms very complex phases. In this study, in order to clarify the crystal phases, we synthesized pure cement hydrate phases as each single phases; portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}), ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 12}.26H{sub 2}O), and calcium silicate hydrate (n CaO---m SiO{sub 2} ---x H{sub 2}O), using suspensions containing a stoichiometric mixture of chemical regents, and performed carbonation experiments using an autoclave under supercritical condition for carbon dioxide. The XRD results revealed both the carbonate phases and co-product phases depending on the initial hydrate phases; gypsum for Ettringite, amorphous or crystalline silica for calcium silicate hydroxide. Thermogravimetric analysis was also performed to understand carbonation behaviors quantitatively. According to the experimental results, it was found that the major reaction was formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in all cases. However, the behaviors of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} content were quietly different: Portlandite was most reactive for carbonation under SCCO{sub 2} conditions, and the CO{sub 2} content per one molar CaO was ranged from 0.96 ∼ 0.98. In the case of Ettringite, the experiment indicates partial decomposition of ettringite phase during carbonation. Ettringite was comparatively stable even under the SCCO{sub 2} conditions. Therefore, a part of ettringite remained and formed similar phases after the ettringite carbonation. The CO{sub 2} content for ettringite showed almost constant values around 0.86 ∼ 0.87. In the case of calcium silicate hydrate, the carbonation behavior was significantly influenced by the condition of SCCO{sub 2

  2. Monitoring and ANN modeling of coal stockpile behavior under different atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Ozbay, Y.; Yilmaz, N.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    In this study, an industrial-sized stockpile of 5 m width, 4 m height, and 10 m length was built in a coal stock area to investigate coal stockpile behavior under different atmospheric conditions. The effective parameters on the coal stockpile that were time, weather temperature, atmospheric pressure, air humidity, velocity, and direction of wind values were automatically measured by means of a computer-aided measurement system to obtain Artificial Neural Network (ANN) input data. The coal stockpiles, which should be continuously observed, are capable of spontaneous combustion and then causing serious economical losses due to the mentioned parameters. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of the ANN model. Comparison of the experimental and ANN results, accuracy rates of training, and testing were found as 98.6% and 98.7%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this ANN model is powerfully estimated.

  3. Correlation changes in EEG, conditioned and behavioral reactions with various degrees of oxygen insufficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Zakharova, I. N.; Kalyuzhnyy, L. V.; Dvorzhak, I. I.; Moravek, M.; Tsmiral, Y. I.

    1974-01-01

    The dynamics of change in bioelectric activity of the brain during acute hypoxia are studied for the time that working capacity and active consciousness are preserved, and to establish the correlation between EEG changes and behavioral reactions under oxygen starvation. Changes in body functions and behavioral disturbances are related to the degree of oxygen saturation in the blood, to bioelectric activity of the brain, and to an increase in conditioned reflexes. The capacity for adequate reaction to external signals and for coordinated psychomotor activity after loss of consciousness returns to man after 30 seconds. Repeated effects of hypoxia produce changes in the physiological reactions of the body directed toward better adaptation to changing gaseous environments.

  4. Transient behavior of granular materials with symmetric conditions for tumbler shapes and fill fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Si, Yun

    2014-11-01

    The typical granular motion in circular tumblers is considered steady-state since there are no features to disrupt the top surface layer dimension. In polygon tumblers, however, the flowing layer is perpetually changing length, which creates unsteady conditions with corresponding change in the flow behavior. Prior work showed the minimization of free surface energy is independent of tumbler dimension, particle size, and rotation rate. This subsequent research reports on experiments where dimensional symmetry of the free surface in triangular and square tumblers with varying fill fractions do not necessarily produce the symmetric flow behaviors. Results of the quasi-2D tumbler experiment show that other dimensions aligned with gravity and the instantaneous free surface influence the phase when extrema for angle of repose and other flow features occur. The conclusion is that 50% fill fraction may produce geometric symmetry of dimensions, but the symmetry point of flow likely occurs at a lower fill fraction.

  5. Forced reeling of Bombyx mori silk: separating behavior and processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Beth; Holland, Chris; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-10-14

    Controlled reeling is a powerful tool to investigate the details of silk processing. However, consistent forced reeling of silkworms is hindered by the significant degree of behaviorally induced variation caused by the animal. This paper proposes silkworm paralysis as a novel method to control the animal and thus in vivo spinning conditions. Using these methods, we achieve low and consistent reeling forces during the collection of over 500 m of individual silk fiber while monitoring filament variability, morphology, and properties. Novel techniques to measure the irregular silk cross-sectional areas lead to the more accurate calculation of the true engineering values and mechanical property variation of individual silk fibers. Combining controlled reeling and accurate thread measurement techniques allows us to present the relative contributions of processing and behavior in the performance envelope of Bombyx mori silk.

  6. Sorption behaviors of a persistent toxaphene congener on marine sediments under different physicochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Lebeuf, Michel; Gouteux, Bruno; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Awaleh, Mohamed Osman

    2014-11-01

    Sorptive processes are important parameters affecting the mobility, availability and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxaphene, in aquatic systems. The sorption and desorption behaviors of the B7-1450, a stable toxaphene congener in environment, on marine sediment was studied under different temperature and salinity conditions to better understand the B-1450 distribution in estuarine systems. The data were fitted to different sorption models to characterize sorption behaviors by evaluating sorption coefficients and sequestrated fraction of B7-1450 on sediments. High carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) of the B7-1450 were observed with values ranging from 3.2×104 to 6.0×104 mL g(-1) under experimental conditions. The data showed an increase of B7-1450 sorption coefficients with the salinity and a decrease with temperature. These investigations indicate that B7-1450 is three times more sequestred on sediments in cold (2°C, 30 psu) than in warm marine conditions (20°C, 30 psu). These results suggest that the mobility and bioavailable of B7-1450 or other POPs from the sediments could be less important in cold marine comparatively in warm marine and warm freshwater media. As a result of climate changes, the warming of mid and high latitudes coastal waters could enhance the mobility of POPs.

  7. Eyeblink Conditioning and Novel Object Recognition in the Rabbit: Behavioral Paradigms for Assaying Psychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Craig; Disterhoft, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of data collected from behavioral paradigms has provided important information for understanding the etiology and progression of diseases that involve neural regions mediating abnormal behavior. The trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC) paradigm is particularly suited to examine cerebro-cerebellar interactions since the paradigm requires the cerebellum, forebrain, and awareness of the stimulus contingencies. Impairments in acquiring EBC have been noted in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although several species have been used to examine EBC, the rabbit is unique in its tolerance for restraint, which facilitates imaging, its relatively large skull that facilitates chronic neuronal recordings, a genetic sequence for amyloid that is identical to humans which makes it a valuable model to study AD, and in contrast to rodents, it has a striatum that is differentiated into a caudate and a putamen that facilitates analysis of diseases involving the striatum. This review focuses on EBC during schizophrenia and AD since impairments in cerebro-cerebellar connections have been hypothesized to lead to a cognitive dysmetria. We also relate EBC to conditioned avoidance responses that are more often examined for effects of antipsychotic medications, and we propose that an analysis of novel object recognition (NOR) may add to our understanding of how the underlying neural circuitry has changed during disease states. We propose that the EBC and NOR paradigms will help to determine which therapeutics are effective for treating the cognitive aspects of schizophrenia and AD, and that neuroimaging may reveal biomarkers of the diseases and help to evaluate potential therapeutics. The rabbit, thus, provides an important translational system for studying neural mechanisms mediating maladaptive behaviors that underlie some psychiatric diseases, especially

  8. Choice and contingency in the development of behavioral autonomy during instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kosaki, Yutaka; Dickinson, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    In two experiments hungry rats received extensive training to lever press for food outcomes before one outcome was devalued by aversion conditioning and responding tested in extinction. If the rats were trained on a concurrent schedule in which two responses yielded different outcomes, performance during the extinction test was reduced by devaluation of the associated outcome. By contrast, if a single response was trained concurrently with the noncontingent presentations of the other outcome, test performance was insensitive to devaluation of the contingent outcome. This finding demonstrates that training on a schedule that offers a choice between responses that yield different outcomes prevents the onset of behavioral autonomy.

  9. [The effect of pulsed cyclical microware radiation on the conditioned behavior of rats].

    PubMed

    Kolganova, O I; Pavlova, L N; Zhavoronkov, L P; Gluchakova, V S

    2004-01-01

    Research has been carried out to investigate the effects of pulsed cyclical microware exposure (7 GHz, 400 pps, 100 mcs, 10-20 mW/cm2, 10 or 20 cycles of "5 min exposure--4 min pause") on avoidance learning of rats. It was shown that reductions in conditioned behavior after cyclical pulsed microware exposure occurred at an SAR of 2.1 W/kg (10 mW/cm2). It was found the cumulation of the effects of the cycles at prolonged cyclical microwave exposures.

  10. Constraints and Benefits of Child Welfare Contracts with Behavioral Health Providers: Conditions that Shape Service Access.

    PubMed

    Bunger, Alicia C; Cao, Yiwen; Girth, Amanda M; Hoffman, Jill; Robertson, Hillary A

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative study examines worker perceptions of how public child welfare agencies' purchase of service contracts with private behavioral health organizations can both facilitate and constrain referral making and children's access to services. Five, 90-min focus groups were conducted with workers (n = 50) from an urban public child welfare agency in the Midwest. Using a modified grounded theory approach, findings suggest that contracts may expedite service linkages, but contract benefits are conditioned upon design and implementation. Results also suggest the critical role of front line workers in carrying out contractual relationships. Implications for research and interventions for enhancing contracting are discussed.

  11. Sexual behavior regulated (paced) by the female induces conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R G; Alonso, A

    1997-02-01

    The possibility that female-paced coital behavior induces a reward state of sufficient intensity and duration to induce conditioning was evaluated by the conditioned-place-preference paradigm. Ovariectomized female rats, treated with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, regulated (paced) their coital interactions with a stud male through a 2-compartment chamber in which only the female could freely move from one compartment to the other. The females that paced their coital interactions showed a clear place preference. In contrast, no change in preference was observed in the females that could not pace their coital contacts. The change in preference in the females that paced their coital interactions was similar to that produced by an injection of morphine (1 mg/kg). These results suggest that coital interactions in females can induce a reward state when the females can control the pace of the sexual interaction.

  12. Predators in training: operant conditioning of novel behavior in wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus).

    PubMed

    Emer, Sherri A; Mora, Cordula V; Harvey, Mark T; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Large pythons and boas comprise a group of animals whose anatomy and physiology are very different from traditional mammalian, avian and other reptilian models typically used in operant conditioning. In the current study, investigators used a modified shaping procedure involving successive approximations to train wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus) to approach and depress an illuminated push button in order to gain access to a food reward. Results show that these large, wild snakes can be trained to accept extremely small food items, associate a stimulus with such rewards via operant conditioning and perform a contingent operant response to gain access to a food reward. The shaping procedure produced robust responses and provides a mechanism for investigating complex behavioral phenomena in massive snakes that are rarely studied in learning research.

  13. ``Hot'' particles of the Yenisei River: Radioisotope composition, structure, and behavior in natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuguevskii, A. V.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Mel'Gunov, M. S.; Makarova, I. V.; Titov, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The radioisotope compositions, structure, and behavior of “hot” particles under the natural conditions of the Yenisei River in the nearby influence zone of Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine were examined in this study. By the composition of gamma-radiating isotopes, all particles are divided into three groups: mono-isotopic, bi-isotopic and poly-isotopic. Mono-isotopic “hot” particles, containing only 60Co were discovered for the first time. Transuranium elements (241Am and 243Cm) were revealed in poly-isotopic particles. Investigation of poly-isotopic particles by means of a scan electron microscope showed that the presence of UO2 together with the lack of activation of 152Eu testifies to the reactor origin of this particle. Experiments showed that in natural conditions “hot” particles under the influence of filtrating water and moisture of pore solutions are gradually dissolved and radionuclides are repeatedly drawn into migration.

  14. Sorption Behavior of Iodine on Allophane under Acid and Alkaline Conditions - 12203

    SciTech Connect

    Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Nakano, Masashi

    2012-07-01

    In the safety assessment of TRU geological disposal, Iodine-129 (I-129) is considered a key radionuclide. In Japan the reference buffer material within the repository is a bentonite based sand mixture, which is lacking in iodine adsorbent capacity. Additives or alternative buffer materials that can enhance iodine adsorption are desired. Allophane, a common soil material in Japan, is a potential candidate to aid in iodine retention. In order to assess the potential for improvement of buffer and backfill material to limit release of I-129, the sorption behavior of iodine (IO{sub 3}{sup -} and I{sup -}) on allophane was examined in this research. The sorption behavior of IO{sub 3}{sup -} by allophane is strong in acidic conditions, and markedly reduced in alkaline conditions. The K{sub d} values of IO{sub 3}{sup -} are approximately 0.4 m{sup 3}/kg (pH=5), 0.03 m{sup 3}/kg (pH=8), 0.011 m{sup 3}/kg (pH=9), 0.005 m{sup 3}/kg (pH=10). Conversely, the K{sub d} value of I{sup -} is as small as 0.01 m{sup 3}/kg in acidic conditions, and much smaller in alkaline conditions. The numerical analysis shows that a maximum release rate of I-129 from the engineered barrier in the geological disposal system decreased approximately one order of magnitude and the K{sub d} of the buffer increased up to 0.1 m{sup 3}/kg by applying allophane soils to engineered barriers. (authors)

  15. Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: A negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Kornreich, C; Delle-Vigne, D; Knittel, J; Nerincx, A; Campanella, S; Noel, X; Hanak, C; Verbanck, P; Ermer, E

    2011-01-01

    Aims To study the “social brain” in alcoholics by investigating social contract reasoning, theory of mind, and emotional intelligence. Design A behavioral study comparing recently detoxified alcoholics with normal, healthy controls. Setting Emotional intelligence and decoding of emotional non-verbal cues have been shown to be impaired in alcoholics. This study explores whether these deficits extend to conditional reasoning about social contracts. Participants 25 recently detoxified alcoholics (17 men and 8 women) were compared with 25 normal controls (17 men and 8 women) matched for sex, age, and education level. Measurements Wason Selection Task investigating conditional reasoning on three different rule types (social contract, precautionary, and descriptive), Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (modified version), and additional control measures. Findings Conditional reasoning was impaired in alcoholics. Performance on descriptive rules was not above chance. Reasoning performance was markedly better on social contract and precautionary rules, but this performance was still significantly lower than in controls. Several emotional intelligence measures were lower in alcoholics compared to controls, but these were not correlated with reasoning performance. Conclusions Conditional reasoning and emotional intelligence appear impaired in alcoholics. Impairment was particularly severe on descriptive rules. Though alcoholics' performance was better on social contract and precautionary rules, overall reasoning performance was still low. Differential performance is consistent with distinct neurocognitive reasoning mechanisms and partial resilience of evolutionarily-relevant functions. Impairment in social contract reasoning might lead to misunderstandings and frustration in social interactions, and reasoning difficulties about precautionary rules might contribute to risky behaviors in this population. PMID:21205056

  16. Assessment of Constitutive and Stability Behavior of Sands Under Plane Strain Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein

    2000-01-01

    A series of biaxial (plane strain) experiments were conducted on three sands under low (15 kPa) and high (100 kPa) confining pressure conditions to investigate the effects of specimen density, confining pressure, and sand grains size and shape on the constitutive and stability behavior of granular materials. The three sands used in the experiments were fine, medium, and coarse-grained uniform silica sands with rounded, sub-angular, and angular grains, respectively. Specimen deformation was readily monitored and analyzed with the help of a grid pattern imprinted on the latex membrane. The overall stress-strain behavior is strongly dependent on the specimen density, confining pressure, sand grain texture, and the resulting failure mode(s). That became evident in different degrees of softening responses at various axial strains. The relationship between the constitutive behavior and the specimens' modes of instability is presented. The failure in all specimens was characterized by two distinct and opposite shear bands. It was found that the measured dilatancy angles increase as the sand grains' angularity and size increase. The measured shear band inclination angles are also presented and compared with classical Coulomb and Roscoe solutions.

  17. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    PubMed

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes.

  18. Effects of surfactant on bubble hydrodynamic behavior under flotation-related conditions in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Zhu, Tingting; Liu, Yanyan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Huanran

    2012-01-01

    Bubble behavior is fundamental to the performance of froth flotation operations used in wastewater treatment processes. To fully understand and characterize bubble behavior under flotation-related conditions in wastewater, the high-speed photographic method has been employed to examine the motion of single bubbles and size distribution of bubble swarms with intermediate sizes ranging from 1 to 4 mm in the presence of surfactants in a laboratory scale flotation column. Both distilled water and synthetic municipal wastewater have been used to make solutions as well as two types of common surfactants. The instantaneous bubble motion has been recorded by a high speed camera. Subsequently, bubble trajectory, dimensions, velocity and distribution have been determined from the recorded frames using the image analysis software. The experimental results show that the addition of surfactant into wastewater has similar effects on bubble hydrodynamic behavior as in pure water (e.g., improving trajectory stabilization, dampening bubble deformation, slowing down terminal velocity, reducing bubble size and increasing the specific surface area of bubble swarm) due to the Marangoni effect. However, it is interesting to note that surfactant effects on single bubble hydrodynamics in wastewater are slightly stronger than those in pure water while surfactant effects on size parameters of bubble swarms in wastewater are significantly stronger than those in pure water. This finding suggests that besides surfactant, inorganic salts present in synthetic wastewater have an important influence on bubble dispersion.

  19. Wear behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under lubricated condition - a Taguchi based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Arkadeb; Duari, Santanu; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the tribological behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under engine oil lubricated condition to ascertain its suitability in automotive applications. Coating is deposited onto mild steel specimens by the electroless method. The experiments are carried out on a pin - on - disc type tribo tester under lubrication. Three tribotesting parameters namely the applied normal load, sliding speed and sliding duration are varied at their three levels and their effects on the wear depth of the deposits are studied. The experiments are carried out based on the combinations available in Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array (OA). Optimization of the tribo-testing parameters is carried out using Taguchi's S/N ratio method to minimize the wear depth. Analysis of variance carried out at a confidence level of 99% indicates that the sliding speed is the most significant parameter in controlling the wear behavior of the deposits. Coating characterization is done using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. It is seen that the wear mechanism under lubricated condition is abrasive in nature.

  20. Effects of forming conditions on structure, relaxation phenomena, and aging behaviors of glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changqing

    DSC analysis and DRIFT spectroscopy were combined to study the effects of fiber forming conditions and fiber aging behaviors. An external pressure set-up was incorporated into the former fiber drawing system to manipulate the fiber diameter. Soda-aluminosilicate glass fibers of the same diameter were prepared with this system at the same temperature with various rates. Pre-Tg exotherm of the fibers increased first with drawing rate and decreased when the rate exceeded 8.0 m/s, presumably caused by the shear thinning effects. When the rate is greater than 8.0 m/s, a new structure-related band at 877 cm-1 appeared as a shoulder to the band at 850 cm-1. The band at 877 cm -1 remained intact during the annealing and aging processes, while the band at 850 cm-1 responded sensitively to these processes. Evidence was found for structural orientation in silicate fibers. Four endothermic peaks were found in the DSC curves of long-term aged fibers. The assignments for the peaks were provided. The aging behavior of glass fibers was found to be affected by both the glass composition and the fiber forming conditions.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  2. [Finasteride adverse effects: An update].

    PubMed

    Carreño-Orellana, Néstor; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Álvarez-Véliz, Sergio; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Porras-Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

  3. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  4. Conditions and Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jean Y.; Strine, Tara W.; Allweiss, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with chronic conditions often experience exacerbation of those conditions and have specialized medical needs after a disaster. Less is known about the level of disaster preparedness of this particular population and the extent to which being prepared might have an impact on the risk of disease exacerbation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-reported asthma, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes and levels of household disaster preparedness. Methods Data were analyzed from 14 US states participating in the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large state-based telephone survey. Chi-square statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, as compared to those without each condition, persons with cardiovascular disease (aPR =1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17) and diabetes (aPR =1.13; 95% CI, 1.05–1.22) were slightly more likely to have an evacuation plan and individuals with diabetes (aPR =1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.05) and asthma (aPR =1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04) were slightly more likely to have a 3-day supply of prescription medication. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence for all other preparedness measures (3-day supply of food and water, working radio and flashlight, willingness to leave during a mandatory evacuation) between those with and those without each chronic condition. Conclusion Despite the increased morbidity and mortality associated with chronic conditions, persons with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and asthma were generally not more prepared for natural or man-made disasters than those without each chronic condition. PMID:24330818

  5. The effect of chemical composition and austenite conditioning on the transformation behavior of microalloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Mousavi Anijdan, S.H.; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Yue, Steve

    2012-01-15

    In this investigation, by using continuous cooling torsion (CCT) testing, the transformation behavior of four microalloyed steels under two circumstances of austenite conditioning and non-conditioning was studied. A full scale hot-rolling schedule containing a 13-pass deformation was employed for the conditioning of the austenite. The CCT tests were then employed till temperature of {approx} 540 Degree-Sign C and the flow curves obtained from this process were analyzed. The initial and final microstructures of the steels were studied by optical and electron microscopes. Results show that alloying elements would decrease the transformation temperature. This effect intensifies with the gradual increase of Mo, Nb and Cu as alloying elements added to the microalloyed steels. As well, austenite conditioning increased the transformation start temperature due mainly to the promotion of polygonal ferrite formation that resulted from a pancaked austenite. The final microstructures also show that CCT alone would decrease the amount of bainite by inducing ferrite transformation in the two phase region. In addition, after the transformation begins, the deformation might result in the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in the ferrite region. This could lead to two different ferrite grain sizes at the end of the CCT. Moreover, the Nb bearing steels show no sign of decreasing the strength level after the transformation begins in the non-conditioned situation and their microstructure is a mix of polygonal ferrite and bainite indicating an absence of probable dynamic recrystallization in this condition. In the conditioned cases, however, these steels show a rapid decrease of the strength level and their final microstructures insinuate that ferrite could have undergone a dynamic recrystallization due to deformation. Consequently, no bainite was seen in the austenite conditioned Nb bearing steels. The pancaking of austenite in the latest cases produced fully polygonal ferrite

  6. Reverse engineering adverse outcome pathways.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Chipman, J Kevin; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or incompletely characterized, mechanisms of action. The application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) can be used to overcome these limitations. This approach was used to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas). Gene expression changes in FHM ovaries in response to seven different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions, were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. Potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide were examined using two mutual information-based methods to infer gene regulatory networks and potential AOPs. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict network paths from stressor to adverse outcome as candidate AOPs. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment, thus leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biological processes, biomarkers, or alternative endpoints that can be used to monitor an AOP. Finally, the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology were identified and a road map for the utilization of these tools presented.

  7. Advanced Fast Curing Adhesives for Adverse Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    set of battle damage repair adhesives include Belzona 2311 elastomer , Belzona 1221 super metal, and Belzona metal plug, which are very fast curing...resin, and dinonylphenol (10). Marine use A-788 Splash Zone epoxy- polyamide mastic from Z Spar, Los Angeles, CA was used for testing (11). The

  8. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies.

  9. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  10. Reinforcement and the Organization of Behavior in Golden Hamsters: Pavlovian Conditioning with Food and Shock Unconditioned Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    1978-01-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in cases where instrumental conditionability appears to depend on the reinforcer used. Here the effects of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs)on golden hamster behaviors was observed. The intent was to see whether previously reported differences among the behaviors produced by food reinforcement and…

  11. The Effects of Context Changes on the Reinstatement of Extinguished Conditioned Behavior in a Conditioned Suppression Task with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Reinstatement refers to the return of previously extinguished conditioned responses to test trials of a conditional stimulus (CS) when presentations of the unconditional stimulus (US) alone are given following extinction. Four experiments were conducted to determine whether reinstatement could be found in a conditioned suppression task with humans…

  12. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual

  13. Long-term behavior of reaction-diffusion equations with nonlocal boundary conditions on rough domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Ciprian G.; Warma, Mahamadi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the long term behavior in terms of finite dimensional global and exponential attractors, as time goes to infinity, of solutions to a semilinear reaction-diffusion equation on non-smooth domains subject to nonlocal Robin boundary conditions, characterized by the presence of fractional diffusion on the boundary. Our results are of general character and apply to a large class of irregular domains, including domains whose boundary is Hölder continuous and domains which have fractal-like geometry. In addition to recovering most of the existing results on existence, regularity, uniqueness, stability, attractor existence, and dimension, for the well-known reaction-diffusion equation in smooth domains, the framework we develop also makes possible a number of new results for all diffusion models in other non-smooth settings.

  14. An anisotropic visco-hyperelastic model for PET behavior under ISBM process conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun-Mei; Chevalier, Luc; Monteiro, Eric

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical behavior of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) under the severe loading conditions of the injection stretch blow molding (ISBM) process is strongly dependent on strain rate, strain and temperature. In this process, the PET near the glass transition temperature (Tg) shows a strongly non linear elastic and viscous behavior. In author's previous works, a non linear visco-hyperelastic model has been identified from equi-biaxial tensile experimental results. Despite the good agreement with biaxial test results, the model fails to reproduce the sequential biaxial test (with constant width first step) and the shape evolution during the free blowing of preforms. In this work, an anisotropic version of this visco-hyperelastic model is proposed and identified form both equi and constant width results. The new version of our non linear visco-hyperelastic model is then implemented into the Abaqus environment and used to simulate the free blowing process. The comparison with the experimental results managed in Queen's University Belfast validates the approach.

  15. Role of the cerebellar cortex in conditioned goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Burguière, Eric; Arabo, Arnaud; Jarlier, Frederic; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2010-10-06

    Learning a new goal-directed behavioral task often requires the improvement of at least two processes, including an enhanced stimulus-response association and an optimization of the execution of the motor response. The cerebellum has recently been shown to play a role in acquiring goal-directed behavior, but it is unclear to what extent it contributes to a change in the stimulus-response association and/or the optimization of the execution of the motor response. We therefore designed the stimulus-dependent water Y-maze conditioning task, which allows discrimination between both processes, and we subsequently subjected Purkinje cell-specific mutant mice to this new task. The mouse mutants L7-PKCi, which suffer from impaired PKC-dependent processes such as parallel fiber to Purkinje cell long-term depression (PF-PC LTD), were able to acquire the stimulus-response association, but exhibited a reduced optimization of their motor performance. These data show that PF-PC LTD is not required for learning a stimulus-response association, but they do suggest that a PKC-dependent process in cerebellar Purkinje cells is required for optimization of motor responses.

  16. Methamphetamine enhances memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Houmes, Stephen W; Wyrick, Katherine L; Kammerzell, Samuel M; Lukowiak, Ken; Sorg, Barbara A

    2010-06-15

    Amphetamines have been used as cognitive enhancers to promote learning and memory. Amphetamines are also drugs of abuse that may promote the initiation of strong memories that ultimately lead to addiction. To understand how methamphetamine (Meth) may be augmenting learning and memory, we chose a relatively simple system, the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We studied the effects of Meth exposure on the long-term memory (LTM), extinction and reinstatement of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea. We first determined doses of Meth that would acutely alter respiratory behavior. Next, we measured the impact of training snails in Meth solution or water (control group) using a training procedure that produces LTM (>6 h) in control conditions. Meth exposure impaired the expression of LTM 21 h after two training sessions, but this appeared to be a context-dependent effect only. However, snails exposed to 3.3 mumol l(-1) Meth during training had a decreased rate of extinction of the operantly conditioned memory. We then tested whether this decreased ability of snails to extinguish memory was due to enhanced LTM or impaired extinction of that memory. Snails were operantly conditioned in water and exposed to Meth 16 h after their last trial but 4-5 h prior to extinction. Meth produced an increase rather than a decrease in extinction rate. Thus, Meth impaired extinction only when snails were exposed to Meth during training. Last, we tested the effect of Meth on the ability to form LTM using a single training procedure that is suboptimal for LTM formation. Control snails did not demonstrate LTM, as expected, but pre-exposure of snails to 3.3 micromol l(-1) Meth 24 h prior to the single training session produced LTM 24 h later, indicating that Meth pre-exposure primed snails for LTM formation. Taken together, our studies suggest that LTM is strengthened by Meth such that extinction training is less effective. Lymnaea provides a simple and useful model

  17. Change in mineral weathering behaviors of a bacterium Chitinophaga jiangningensis JN53 under different nutrition conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Qi; He, Linyan; Sheng, Xiafang

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, little is known about the nutrition-related changes in mineral weathering potential and pattern of bacteria. In this study, mineral weathering behaviors of a novel mineral-weathering bacterium Chitinophaga jiangningensis JN53 were characterized in the presence of three contrasting biotite or potassium feldspar-added media. C. jiangningensis JN53 increased more Fe release from the minerals in the M-BHm (nutrition-poor medium) than in the SSKM (nutrition-rich medium) and BHm (nutrition-moderate medium), while C. jiangningensis JN53 released more Al from the minerals and Si from biotite in the SSKM. Similar Si release from potassium feldspar by C. jiangningensis JN53 was observed in the SSKM, BHm, and M-BHm. K releasing ability of C. jiangningensis JN53 was significantly higher in the biotite-added M-BHm. Highest and lowest growth of C. jiangningensis JN53 was observed in the SSKM and M-BHm, respectively. In the presence of the minerals, C. jiangningensis JN53 mainly produced gluconic acid in the SSKM and acetic acid in the BHm and M-BHm. C. jiangningensis JN53 also produced large amount of succinic acid in the biotite-added SSKM and oxalic acid in the potassium feldspar-added M-BHm. The results showed the growth, production of organic acids, and mineral weathering ability of C. jiangningensis JN53 in the three contrasting nutrition conditions. The results also suggested the change in the mineral weathering behaviors of C. jiangningensis JN53 under different levels of nutrition conditions.

  18. A Fully Automated Drosophila Olfactory Classical Conditioning and Testing System for Behavioral Learning and Memory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L.; Page, Terry L.; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    Background Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. New Method The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. Results The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24 hours) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. Comparison with Existing Methods The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ~$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. Conclusions This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays

  19. Effects of hydrodynamic conditions on the sorption behaviors of aniline on sediment with coexistence of nitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Hua, Zulin; Cai, Yunjie; Shen, Xia; Li, Qiongqiong; Liu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-08-01

    The sorption behaviors of pollutants affected by hydrodynamic conditions were confirmed in natural water environment. The effects of hydrodynamic conditions on the sorption behaviors of aniline on sediment with coexistence of nitrobenzene were investigated. The particle entrainment simulator (PES) was used to simulate varied bottom shear stresses. The batch equilibrium method was applied to the experiments with the stress levels and the action time controlled at 0.2-0.5 N/m(2) and 24 h, respectively. The findings indicated that apparent partition coefficient of aniline on sediment increased with the shear stress significantly, while decreased with nitrobenzene concentration. On the contrary, both the sorption amount of aniline on suspended particulate matter (Q s) and the effect of nitrobenzene concentration on Q s declined as the shear stress increased. The sorption kinetic results showed that the sorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation, and the process included two stages: fast sorption stage and slow sorption stage, among which the average sorption rate of fast stage was 7.5-9.5 times that of slow one. The effect of shear stress on the average sorption rate of aniline was enhanced with the increase of nitrobenzene concentration. And shear stress weakened the disturbance of cosolute on main solute sorption process. In addition, experiment results of sorption kinetic show that only the initial sorption rate was affected by shear stress and cosolute concentration. In the first 5 min, shear stress had positive effects on the sorption rate. After that, the sorption rate barely changed with shear stress and cosolute concentration.

  20. Personal exposure, behavior, and work site conditions as determinants of blood lead among bridge painters.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Virji, M Abbas; McClean, Michael D; Weinberg, Janice; Woskie, Susan; Pepper, Lewis D

    2010-02-01

    Bridge painters are exposed to lead during several job tasks performed during the workday, such as sanding, scraping, and blasting. After the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard was passed in 1993 to control lead exposures among construction workers including bridge painters, this study was conducted among 84 bridge painters in the New England area to determine the significant predictors of blood lead levels. Lead was measured in personal air and hand wipe samples that were collected during the 2-week study period and in blood samples that were collected at the beginning and at the end of the study period. The personal air and hand wipe data as well as personal behaviors (i.e., smoking, washing, wearing a respirator) and work site conditions were analyzed as potential determinants of blood lead levels using linear mixed effects models. Our results show that the mean air lead levels over the 2-week period were the most predictive exposure measure of blood lead levels. Other individual-level significant predictors of blood lead levels included months worked on bridge painting crews, education, and personal hygiene index. Of the site-level variables investigated, having a containment facility on site was a significant predictor of blood lead levels. Our results also indicate that hand wipe lead levels were significantly associated with higher blood lead levels at the end of the study period compared with the beginning of the study period. Similarly, smoking on site and respirator fit testing were significantly associated with higher blood lead levels at the end of the study period. This study shows that several individual-level and site-level factors are associated with blood lead levels among bridge painters, including lead exposure through inhalation and possible hand-to-mouth contact, personal behaviors such as smoking on site, respirator fit testing, and work site conditions such as the use of better containment facilities. Accordingly

  1. Overview of the M5{sup R} Alloy behavior under RIA and LOCA Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mardon, J.P.; Dunn, B.

    2007-07-01

    Experience from irradiation in PWRs has confirmed the M5{sup R} possesses all the properties required for upgraded operation including new fuel management approaches and high duty reactor operation. In this paper accident behavior is demonstrated through a comparison of M5{sup R} and Zircaloy-4 cladding behavior under RIA (Reactivity Insertion Accident) and LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) conditions. AREVA NP supports a significant experimental program of analytical and full -scale tests along with comprehensive analyses on both M5{sup R} and SRA low-tin Zircaloy-4. A key presumption in the conduct of such tests is that, for all Zirconium alloys, the primary effects of high burn-up on cladding thermal-mechanical properties arise from the accumulation of hydrogen within the cladding during operation. This hypothesis is supported through a summarisation of the results of the main RIA and LOCA tests performed on virgin, pre-hydrided, and irradiated M5{sup R} and SRA low-tin Zircaloy-4 cladding. The first part of the paper presents the results of recent Room Temperature (RT) and High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) integral RIA tests, mainly from the NSRR and CABRI programs, and separate effects mechanical properties tests on high burn-up M5{sup R} and Zircaloy- 4 irradiated claddings. In the second part of this paper, studies of cladding performance under LOCA conditions are presented.. The discussion includes high temperature oxidation kinetics, quench behaviour and post quenched mechanical behaviour of virgin, pre-hydrided and irradiated M5{sup R} and Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes after oxidation at LOCA temperatures and various quenching scenarios. The hydrogen concentrations studied are alloy dependent. Included are mechanical tests and in-depth metallurgical investigations developed to understand the failure mechanisms with the differing alloys and hydrogen concentrations. The result is a confirmation that the effect of hydrogen uptake dominates on the RIA and LOCA

  2. Deployment-related psychiatric and behavioral conditions and their association with functional disability in OEF/OIF/OND veterans.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Sara M; Fonda, Jennifer R; Fortier, Catherine B; Amick, Melissa A; Kenna, Alexandra; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the factors that influence veterans' functional outcome after deployment is critical to provide appropriately targeted care. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been related to disability, but other psychiatric and behavioral conditions are not as well examined. We investigated the impact of deployment-related psychiatric and behavioral conditions on disability among 255 OEF/OIF/OND service members and veterans. Structured clinical interviews assessed TBI and the psychiatric conditions of depression, PTSD, anxiety, and substance use. Self-report questionnaires assessed disability and the behavioral conditions of sleep disturbance and pain. Over 90% of participants had a psychiatric and/or behavioral condition, with approximately half presenting with ≥ 3 conditions. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 clinically relevant psychiatric and behavioral factors which accounted for 76.9% of the variance: (a) depression, PTSD, and military mTBI (deployment trauma factor); (b) pain and sleep (somatic factor); (c) anxiety disorders, other than PTSD (anxiety factor); and (d) substance abuse or dependence (substance use factor). Individuals with the conditions comprising the deployment trauma factor were more likely to be substantially disabled than individuals with depression and PTSD, but no military mTBI, OR = 3.52; 95% CI [1.09, 11.37]. Depression, PTSD, and a history of military mTBI may comprise an especially harmful combination associated with high risk for substantial disability.

  3. Effects of surface grinding conditions on the reciprocating friction and wear behavior of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Zanoria, E.S.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between two significantly different surface grinding conditions and the reciprocating ball-on-flat friction and wear behavior of a high-quality, structural silicon nitride material (GS-44) was investigated. The slider materials were silicon nitride NBD 200 and 440C stainless steel. Two machining conditions were selected based on extensive machining and flexural strength test data obtained under the auspices of an international, interlaboratory grinding study. The condition categorized as {open_quotes}low strength{close_quote} grinding used a coarse 80 grit wheel and produced low flexure strength due to machining-induced flaws in the surface. The other condition, regarded as {open_quotes}high strength grinding,{close_quotes} utilized a 320 grit wheel and produced a flexural strength nearly 70% greater. Grinding wheel surface speeds were 35 and 47 m/s. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted following the procedure described in a newly-published ASTM standard (G- 133) for linearly-reciprocating wear. Tests were performed in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the grinding marks (lay) using a 25 N load, 5 Hz reciprocating frequency, 10 mm stroke length, and 100 m of sliding at room temperature. The effects of sliding direction relative to the lay were more pronounced for stainless steel than for silicon nitride sliders. The wear of stainless steel was less than the wear of the silicon nitride slider materials because of the formation of transfer particles which covered the sharp edges of the silicon nitride grinding grooves and reduced abrasive contact. The wear of the GS-44 material was much greater for the silicon nitride sliders than for the stainless steel sliders. The causes for the effects of surface-grinding severity and sliding direction on friction and wear of GS-44 and its counterface materials are explained.

  4. Effect of boundary conditions on measured water retention behavior within soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-torres, S.; Scheuermann, A.; Pedroso, D.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC) is a practical representation of the behavior of soil water by relating the suction (difference between the air and water pressures to the moisture content (water saturation). The SWCC is characterized by a hysteresis loop, which is thought to be unique in that any drainage-imbibition cycle lies within a main hysteresis loop limited by two different curves for drainage and imbibition. This 'uniqueness' is the main argument for considering the SWCC as a material-intrinsic feature that characterizes the pore structure and its interaction with fluids. Models have been developed with the SWCC as input data to describe the evolution of the water saturation and the suction within soils. One example of these models is the widely used Richard's equation [1]. In this work we present a series of numerical simulations to evaluate the 'unique' nature of the SWCC. The simulations involves the use of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) [2] within a regular soil, modelling the flow behavior of two immiscible fluids: wetting and non-wetting. The soil is packed within a cubic domain to resemble the experimental setups that are commonly used for measuring the SWCC[3]. The boundary conditions ensure that the non-wetting phase enters through one cubic face and the wetting phase enters trough the opposite phase, with no flow boundary conditions in the remaining 4 cubic faces. The SWCC known features are inspected including the presence of the common limit curves for different cycles involving varying limits for the suction. For this stage of simulations, the SWCC is indeed unique. Later, different boundary conditions are applied with the two fluids each injected from 3 opposing faces into the porous medium. The effect of this boundary condition change is a net flow direction, which is different from that in the previous case. A striking result is observed when both SWCC are compared and found to be noticeable different. Further analysis is

  5. Intra-population variation in behavior modification by the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus dirus: are differences mediated by host condition?

    PubMed

    Caddigan, Sara C; Barkauskas, Rima T; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2014-11-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Male C. intermedius infected by A. dirus parasites are less likely to engage in mating behavior than uninfected males but there is a significant intra-population variation in the occurrence of this behavioral change. Previous studies on uninfected isopods have shown that glycogen content is a predictor of male mating behavior and we examined whether the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected male C. intermedius could be explained by this relationship. A field-based behavioral experiment was used to quantify intra-population variation in male mating behavior, which showed that 50% of infected males were responsive to females and 50% were not responsive. Biochemical analysis of responsive and non-responsive males revealed that glycogen content was a predictor of the mating behavior for uninfected males but was not a predictor of mating behavior for infected males. For infected males, parasite intensity was a predictor of mating behavior. Males that contained more A. dirus parasites were less likely to undergo modification of mating behavior. We propose that the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected C. intermedius identified in nature was not mediated by host condition.

  6. E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance Under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of-Area Operations (La Propagation, la Signature et les performances des Systemes optroniques dans des Conditions Meteorologiques Defavorables, compte Tenu des Operations hors Zone)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    la temnp~ature tinctes. 11 y a donc d~doublement ; on parle encore d’une thermodynamique T (en K) et A l’humidit6 sp~cifique q zone de mirage. (en kg...A4pour les conditions de stratification CHN =-10-3 et CEN =1,2-10-3 (13) instable. Les variables thermodynamiques utilis~es sont La determination de z

  7. Once is too much: Conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Colechio, Elizabeth M.; Imperio, Caesar G.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocaine-paired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial by trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug-taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1 – 2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug-seeking and drug-taking in rats. PMID:24773440

  8. Once is too much: conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Colechio, Elizabeth M; Imperio, Caesar G; Grigson, Patricia S

    2014-04-01

    Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocaine-paired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial-by-trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1-2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug seeking and drug taking in rats.

  9. Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

  10. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  11. Mechanical behavior of human stratum corneum: Relationship to tissue structure and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kenneth Shih-Heng

    The outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC), provides mechanical protection and a controlled barrier to the external environment while subject to highly variable conditions including natural changes in local temperature and humidity as well as potentially damaging acute and chronic chemical exposure. Tissue integrity is central to SC protective properties, and such exposure can be deleterious to SC structure and mechanical properties. Mechanics-based techniques to study both in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical behavior of human SC tissue as a function of temperature, hydration, and chemical treatment are presented. The in-plane viscoelastic properties of SC were examined to provide a more detailed understanding of underlying time-dependent processes. Creep recovery experiments were employed to probe retardation time scales. Stretched exponential and computational analyses of SC responses provided a measure of the distribution of time scales and their dependence on conditioning and loading parameters. Retardation times were found to decrease with increasing hydration, likely linked to keratin-keratin interactions, and the distribution of process time scales was found to sharpen correspondingly. Mechanical and fracture behavior of SC in the out-of-plane direction is examined as well. Delamination energy values were quantified for SC for the first time in this work, and values were found to range from ˜1--8 J/m2, typically decreasing with increasing hydration and temperature. Removal of intercellular lipids significantly elevated values at each condition with the range ˜4--13 J/m2. The SC possesses gradients through its thickness, and examination of the delamination properties through the thickness of the SC yielded increasing values with depth into the SC ranging from ˜3--15 J/m2 as might be expected given the natural degradation of protein linkages, or corneosomes, toward the outer skin surface. SC also was shown to be subject to time-dependent, or

  12. Compulsive drug-seeking behavior and relapse. Neuroadaptation, stress, and conditioning factors.

    PubMed

    Weiss, F; Ciccocioppo, R; Parsons, L H; Katner, S; Liu, X; Zorrilla, E P; Valdez, G R; Ben-Shahar, O; Angeletti, S; Richter, R R

    2001-06-01

    The development of addiction and vulnerability to relapse following withdrawal is proposed to be the result of neuroadaptive processes within the central nervous system that oppose the acute reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse. These changes lead to impairment in the mechanisms that mediate positive reinforcement and the emergence of affective changes such as anxiety, dysphoria, and depression during withdrawal. Considerable evidence exists implicating perturbations in DA and 5-HT transmission in the nucleus accumbens--neurochemical systems that are activated by cocaine and ethanol self-administration and deficient during withdrawal--as potential substrates for these affective changes. In addition, growing evidence suggests that enhanced CRF release in the central nucleus of the amygdala represents a mechanism underlying the anxiogenic and stress-like consequences of withdrawal that are common to all drugs of abuse. A growing body of evidence also implicates dysregulation of the non-neuroendocrine CRF stress system within the central nucleus of the amygdala as a common factor in the anxiogenic and aversive consequences of withdrawal from drugs of abuse. Moreover, a possible link may exist between long-lasting abnormalities in CRF function in the CeA and vulnerability to relapse during protracted abstinence. Another presumably critical element contributing to the chronic relapsing nature of drug addiction is the learned responses to drug-related stimuli. The long-lasting efficacy of drug- and alcohol-associated contextual stimuli in eliciting drug-seeking behavior in animal models of relapse resembles the endurance of conditioned cue reactivity and cue-induced cocaine craving in humans and confirms a significant role of learning factors in the long-lasting addictive potential of cocaine. With cocaine, D1-dependent neural mechanisms within the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala may be important substrates for the motivating effects of drug

  13. The effect of maternal body condition on in vivo production of zygotes and behavior of delivered offspring in mice.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Burkuš, Ján; Fabianová, Kamila; Račeková, Enikö; Czikková, Soňa; Koppel, Juraj

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of maternal body condition on oocyte quality and zygote production. Additionally, we examined the possible consequences on somatic parameters and behavior of naturally delivered offspring. We used an experimental model based on overfeeding of outbred mice during intrauterine and early postnatal development to produce the following four types of females: physiological (7%-8%), slightly increased (8%-11%), highly increased (>11%), and low (<7%) body fat content (Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The fertilized females with slightly increased body fat showed increased numbers of spontaneously ovulated oocytes and an increased fertilization index compared with control animals. On the contrary, mice with slightly and highly increased body fat showed increased numbers of isolated immature oocytes and degenerates. Furthermore, animals with increased body fat had significantly decreased deposits of neutral lipids in the cytoplasm of mature oocytes (Nile red staining) and showed lower reduction in DNA cytosine methylation signal in parental pronuclei (5-methylcytosine immunohistochemistry). The highly increased amount of body fat in mothers was accompanied with lower weights in newborn pups and 5-week-old offspring. We also observed several deviations from normal behavior (open-field test and forced swimming test). The females with low body fat displayed a lower fertilization index, a lower percentage of zygotes at pronuclear stage 4 with demethylated DNA cytosine in parental pronuclei, and lower newborn weights. Although delivered offspring were able to gain normal weight by the fifth week of life, there were several deviations from normal behavior observed. Our results show that periconceptional status of maternal body condition adversely affects the quality of oocytes and might be correlated with significant changes during postnatal offspring development. The data documenting later onset of DNA demethylation in zygotes and decreased

  14. Conditional Release of Forensic Psychiatric Patients Consistent with or Contrary to Behavioral Experts' Recommendations in the Netherlands: Prevalence Rates, Patient Characteristics and Recidivism After Discharge from Conditional Release.

    PubMed

    Nagtegaal, Maria H; Boonmann, Cyril

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined a group of 447 Dutch forensic psychiatric patients on conditional release (CR). After a brief overview of the Dutch CR system for forensic psychiatric patients is presented, two sets of factors were studied: factors associated with behavioral experts' recommendations on CR readiness (prevalence rates of recommendations in contrast to or consistent with the judge's decision on CR, written vs. oral recommendations and consensus among parties); and characteristics of forensic psychiatric patients on CR imposed consistent with or contrary to behavioral experts' recommendations (i.e., demographic variables, psychopathology, judicial background and outcomes of violent behavior). Patients on CR consistent with or contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations did not differ in demographic background variables and psychopathology. Patients on CR contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations, however, had more prior convictions, and their index offense more often included a sex offense and a property offense (with or without violence) as compared to patients on CR consistent with the behavioral experts' recommendations. In addition, decisions contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations were more often reached after a 3-month continuation adjournment and after an appeal. Also, patients on CR contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations were less often found to have been on trial leave before their CR. Finally, recidivism rates were found to be much higher for those on CR contrary to, as compared with those on CR consistent with the behavioral experts' recommendations. However, when corrected for other well-known static predictors of recidivism, this significant difference was no longer prevalent. The implications for evaluators' CR readiness reports and lessons that may be learned from the Dutch forensic psychiatric CR system are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effects of changing housing conditions on mangabey behavior (Cercocebus atys): spatial density, housing quality, and novelty effects

    PubMed Central

    Crast, Jessica; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Jonesteller, Trina

    2015-01-01

    The separate influences of spatial density and housing quality on the behavior of captive animals are difficult to measure because the two factors are often intrinsically linked. Here, we recorded affiliative and agonistic behavior in adult sooty mangabeys in various housing situations, testing spatial density and housing quality changes separately (N=26 experienced spatial density changes; N=12 experienced housing quality changes). We varied spatial density by 50% while holding housing quality constant and we varied housing quality while holding spatial density constant (achieved by comparing two types of run-housing that varied in the amount of visual privacy and outdoor access). Each housing condition was one month in duration. Prior to collecting data in each housing condition, we evaluated the subjects’ initial responses to the change in housing environment during two-week novelty periods. Affiliative behavior did not change during the novelty periods. Agonistic behavior initially increased slightly when spatial density increased and it decreased significantly when spatial density decreased; it also decreased when subjects moved to housing that offered more visual privacy and outdoor space, indicating that the mangabeys were sensitive to these housing changes. After the novelty periods, affiliative behavior increased under higher spatial density, but remained unchanged across housing quality conditions; agonistic behavior remained unchanged across all conditions. Results suggest that a prolonged increase in spatial density led the mangabeys to adopt a tension-reduction coping strategy, in which the increase in affiliative behavior alleviates a presumed increase in social tension. Reducing visual privacy and choice did not affect the mangabeys’ behavior, post-novelty period. Thus, like many other primates, the mangabeys managed tension by flexibly adapting to changes in their housing environment in ways that reduce the risk of severe aggression. This study

  16. Pair exposure with conspecific during fear conditioning induces the link between freezing and passive avoidance behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2016-07-01

    Social factor plays an important role in dealing with posttraumatic stress disorder related to excessive physiological fear response and insufficient fear memory extinction of the brain. However, although social circumstances occurred not only during contextual retrieval but also during fear conditioning, most previous studies focused on the advantageous aspects of social buffering in fear retrieval period. To demonstrate the association between fear responses and fear memory from social stimuli during fear conditioning, pair exposed rats with conspecific as social buffering were subjected to a fear conditioning of passive avoidance test to evaluate memory function and freezing behavior. Whereas single exposed rats showed the significant increase of freezing behaviors and passive avoidance behaviors compared to control rats, pair exposed rats showed significant alleviation of the freezing behaviors and passive avoidance behaviors compared to single exposed rats. Furthermore, we determined a significant correlation between freezing and passive avoidance behavioral alteration in pair exposed rats. Taken together, we suggest that pair exposure with conspecific during fear conditioning helps to cope with both freezing response and fear memory systems and their reciprocal interaction has a crucial potential as a resource for the relief of unreasonable stress responses in posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. Behavioral and Molecular Analysis of Nicotine-Conditioned Place Preference in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kedikian, Ximena; Faillace, Maria Paula; Bernabeu, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Studies using mice and rats have demonstrated that nicotine induces a conditioned place preference (CPP), with more effective results obtained by using biased procedures. Zebrafish have also been used as a model system to identify factors influencing nicotine-associated reward by using an unbiased design. Here, we report that zebrafish exhibited putative nicotine biased CPP to an initially aversive compartment (nicotine-paired group). A counterbalanced nicotine-exposed control group did not show a significant preference shift, providing evidence that the preference shift in the nicotine-paired group was not due to a reduction of aversion for this compartment. Zebrafish preference was corroborated by behavioral analysis of several indicators of drug preference, such as time spent in the drug-paired side, number of entries to the drug-paired side, and distance traveled. These results provided strong evidence that zebrafish may actually develop a preference for nicotine, although the drug was administrated in an aversive place for the fish, which was further supported by molecular studies. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR analysis depicted a significant increase in the expression of α7 and α6 but not α4 and β2 subunits of the nicotinic receptor in nicotine-paired zebrafish brains. In contrast, zebrafish brains from the counterbalanced nicotine group showed no significant changes. Moreover, CREB phosphorylation, an indicator of neural activity, accompanied the acquisition of nicotine-CPP. Our studies offered an incremental value to the drug addiction field, because they further describe behavioral features of CPP to nicotine in zebrafish. The results suggested that zebrafish exposed to nicotine in an unfriendly environment can develop a preference for that initially aversive place, which is likely due to the rewarding effect of nicotine. Therefore, this model can be used to screen exogenous and endogenous molecules involved in nicotine

  18. A Computational and Experimental Study of Ignition Behavior of Gasoline Surrogate Fuels Under Low-Temperature Combustion Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Haworth, D. C.; Kalaskar, V. B.; Boehman, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    One strategy for next-generation engines is low-temperature compression ignition of gasoline. Reaction pathways that are not relevant for high-temperature flame propagation are activated under these conditions, and the ignition behavior of these fuels under low-temperature conditions has not been widely explored. Here the ignition behavior of gasoline and two- and three-component surrogates has been studied experimentally and computationally over a range of operating conditions of interest for low-temperature engine combustion. Experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine. For each fuel blend, the critical compression ratio (lowest compression ratio at which the main ignition occurs) was determined over a range of operating conditions, by varying one parameter at a time with all other parameters held fixed. A simplified CFD model that considers detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate the experiment. The focus of the study is to determine which surrogate fuel mixtures and chemical mechanisms are able to capture the ignition behavior of gasoline under these conditions. For example, different ignition behavior is found for different surrogate mixtures that all have the same Research Octane Number, and it is important to capture this behavior in CFD models.

  19. 42 CFR 483.450 - Condition of participation: Client behavior and facility practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... substitute for an active treatment program. (4) The use of systematic interventions to manage inappropriate... systematic time-out program as required by paragraph (b) of this section. (Thus, emergency placement of a... drug regimen review requirement at § 483.460(j), for desired responses and adverse consequences...

  20. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  1. Laboratory experiment on poroelastic behavior of Berea sandstone under two-phase fluid flow condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, H.; Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Ogawa, T.; Aoki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled two-phase fluid flow and deformation of Berea sandstone was discussed through laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiment, a triaxial compression apparatus with flow pipes to pass fluids through a rock sample was used. The experimental procedures were as follows. Firstly, external stresses close to hydrostatic condition were applied to a water saturated cylindrical Berea sandstone sample. Then, compressed air was infiltrated from the bottom of the sample. During the experiment, both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were measured. Both strains showed sudden extensions after a few seconds, and monotonically extended thereafter. The volumetric discharge of water showed that air breakthrough occurred in around 100 seconds after the commencement of the air injection. Numerical simulations based on thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations were conducted in order to quantitatively analyze the experimental results. In a simulation in which the material was assumed to be homogeneous isotropic, the axial strain at half the height of the sample and the volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were reproduced well by using reasonable parameters, while that was not the case with the circumferential strain at half the height of the sample. On the other hand, in a simulation in which anisotropy of the material was introduced, all experimental data were reproduced well by using reasonable parameters. This result is reasonable because Berea sandstone is well known to be anisotropic under such Terzaghi effective stress condition as used in our experiment, i.e., 3.0 MPa (Hart and Wang, 1999; Hart, 2000). Our results indicate that the theory of poroelasticity for two-phase fluid system can explain the strain behavior of porous media for two-phase fluid flow observed in laboratory experiments.

  2. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  3. The relation between the Type A behavior pattern, pacing, and subjective workload under single- and dual-task conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, D.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty Type A and 20 Type B subjects performed two discrete tasks alone and together. Half of the subjects performed paced versions of both tasks; half, unpaced versions. Workload ratings were obtained for all subjects under single- and dual-task conditions using eight bipolar adjective scales. Under single-task conditions there was a significant interaction between behavior pattern and pacing on one of the tasks. This interaction indicated that Type A subjects responded more rapidly under unpaced conditions than did Type B subjects, although there was little difference between the groups under paced conditions. Under dual-task conditions, Type A subjects responded more rapidly than did Type B subjects regardless of pacing. There was one significant interaction between behavior pattern and task on one of the workload scales.

  4. Precipitation Behavior of the Second Phase in V-Ti Microalloy TRIP Steels at Different Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Hui; Fu, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Hu; He, Yan-Lin; Wang, Hua; Li, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Precipitation behavior of the second phase in V-Ti microalloyed transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels at different conditions was investigated. The second phase is mainly composed of Vanadium-titanium carbides and vanadium-titanium nitrides, which precipitates from bainitic ferrites as well as ferrite grains and grain boundaries. The average size, size distribution and numbers of the second phase of TRIP steel in as-cast state, as hot and cold rolled state and as TRIP heated state were analyzed and compared by using the technique of carbon extraction replica and transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that hot rolling can promote the second phase refining. In addition, the size of the second phase is obviously increased with the prolonged time soaking at 800􀔨. The average equivalent radiu of the second phase in samples after intercritical annealing at 800°C for 5 minutes and bainitic isothermal transformation temperature of 400°C for 5 minutes is about 4nm.

  5. Surface and tribological behaviors of the bioinspired polydopamine thin films under dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fut K; Han, Yougun; Gaikwad, Ravi; Leonenko, Zoya; Zhao, Boxin

    2013-02-11

    Dopamine is a "sticky" biomolecule containing the typical functional groups of mussel adhesive proteins. It can self-polymerize into a nanoscale thin film on various surfaces. We investigated the surface, adhesion, friction, and cracking properties of polydopamine (PDA) thin films for their effective transfer to functional devices and biocompatible coatings. A series of surface characterizations and mechanical tests were performed to reveal the static and dynamic properties of PDA films coated on glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and epoxy. We found that PDA films are highly hydrated under wet conditions because of their porous membrane-like nanostructures and hydrophilic functional groups. Upon dehydration, the films form cracks when they are coated on soft substrates due to internal stresses and the large mismatch in elastic modulus. The adhesive pull-off force or the effective work of adhesion increased with the contact time, suggesting dynamic interactions at the interface. A significant decrease in friction forces in water was observed on all three material surfaces coated with PDA; thus, the film might serve as a water-based lubrication coating. We attributed the different behavior of PDA films in air and in water to its hydration effects. These research findings provide insight into the stability, mechanical, and adhesive properties of the PDA films, which are critical for their applications.

  6. Driver behavior in use of guide and logo signs under distraction and complex roadway conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaber, David; Pankok, Carl; Corbett, Brendan; Ma, Wenqi; Hummer, Joseph; Rasdorf, William

    2015-03-01

    White-on-blue logo signs on the sides of highways are typically used to notify drivers of food, gas, and lodging at an upcoming interchange. The current research assessed driver performance and attention allocation in a simulated freeway driving task when exposed to six-panel logo signs, nine-panel logo signs, mileage guide signs, and roadway work zones both with and without an in-car navigation device. The objective was to identify the impact of signage types on driver behavior under realistic driving conditions. Results revealed glance durations and fixation frequencies to guide signs to be significantly lower than with six-panel and nine-panel logo signs, but no differences were found between six-panel and nine-panel logo signs. There were also statistical differences among the independent variables for speed deviation and lane deviation, but magnitudes were not large enough to be considered practically significant in terms of driving safety. Overall, there were minor differences in sign processing time between logo signs and mileage guide signs, but such differences did not translate to degradations in vehicle control.

  7. Degradation behavior of soy protein-wheat gluten films in simulated soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, S K; Hettiarachchy, N S; Were, L

    2000-07-01

    Films containing soy protein and wheat gluten were exposed to simulated farmland soil mix over a period of 30 days and monitored for degradation. The simulated farmland soil mix (topsoil/sand/Sunshine compost/vermiculite, 59:6:25:10, wt %) was mixed and stored at ambient humidity (48-55%) and temperature (20-24 degrees C); the soil mix was constantly maintained at 15% moisture by weight. Research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of gluten and cysteine additions on biodegradable behavior in the simulated farmland soil conditions. The four types of films, soy protein (S:G 1:0); soy protein with cysteine addition (S:G 1:0 + CYS); soy protein-wheat gluten (S:G 4:1); and soy protein-wheat gluten with cysteine addition (S:G 4:1 + CYS), were prepared at pH 7. 0 for degradation studies. Soy protein-gluten film rapidly degraded with 50% weight loss in about 10 days and with up to 95% weight loss in 30 days. Tensile strength and elongation of all soy protein-gluten films significantly decreased in 3 days. However, cysteine addition delayed the degradation rate of soy protein-gluten films. Soy protein-wheat gluten film disintegrated after 20 days in the simulated farmland soil environment. These results suggest that wheat gluten and cysteine addition to soy protein-based films could delay degradation rates due to their high disulfide contents.

  8. In-depth behavioral characterization of the corticosterone mouse model and the critical involvement of housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Demuyser, Thomas; Deneyer, Lauren; Bentea, Eduard; Albertini, Giulia; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Merckx, Ellen; De Prins, An; De Bundel, Dimitri; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-03-15

    Depression and anxiety are disabling and highly prevalent psychiatric disorders. To better understand the neurobiological basis of mood and anxiety disorders, relevant animal models are needed. The corticosterone mouse model is frequently used to study depression. Chronic stress and accompanying glucocorticoid elevation causes pathological changes in the central nervous system, which are related to psychiatric symptoms. Exogenous administration of corticosterone is therefore often used to induce depressive-like behavior in mice and in some cases also features of anxiety-like behavior are shown. However, a thorough characterization of this model has never been conducted and housing conditions of the used subjects often differ between the implemented protocols. We chronically administered a subcutaneous corticosterone bolus injection to single- and group-housed mice, and we subsequently evaluated the face validity of this model by performing a battery of behavioral tests (forced swim test, mouse-tail suspension test, saccharin intake test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, elevated plus maze, light/dark paradigm and open field test). Our results show that corticosterone treatment has a substantial overall effect on depressive-like behavior. Increases in anxiety-like behavior on the other hand are mainly seen in single housed animals, independent of treatment. The current study therefore does not only show a detailed behavioral characterization of the corticosterone mouse model, but furthermore also elucidates the critical influence of housing conditions on the behavioral outcome in this model.

  9. Adversity in Preschool-Aged Children: Effects on Salivary Interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Valentine, Thomas R.; Eslinger, Nicole M.; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to early life adversity is linked to impaired affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning and increases risk for various psychiatric and medical conditions. Stress-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a biological mechanism of these effects. Few studies have examined cytokine levels in children experiencing early life adversity, and very little research has investigated cytokines or other markers of inflammation in saliva. In the present study, we examined salivary IL-1β and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in relation to stress exposure in 40 children aged 3 to 5 years who were enrolled in a larger study of early life adversity. Childhood maltreatment status was assessed via review of child welfare records, and contextual stress exposure, traumatic life event history, and symptoms of psychopathology were assessed via caregiver interviews at a home visit. In a subsequent visit, salivary IL-1β and CRP were obtained before and after participation in four emotion-eliciting tasks. Number of past month contextual stressors, lifetime contextual stressors, and traumatic life events each demonstrated a significant main effect on IL-1β. Baseline IL-1β was positively associated with each of the significant main-effect adversities. Post-challenge IL-1β displayed positive associations with each adversity variable, but were not significant. CRP was not significantly associated with any of the adversity variables. Given evidence suggesting involvement of IL-1β in the neuropathology of psychiatric conditions, these results may have important implications for developmental outcomes. PMID:25997772

  10. The National Ignition Facility: an experimental platform for studying behavior of matter under extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward

    2011-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). As the world's largest and most energetic laser system, NIF serves as the national center for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration to achieve thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and to explore the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from all of its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm3-sized target, NIF can reach the conditions required to initiate fusion reactions. NIF can also provide access to extreme scientific environments: temperatures about 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions have never been created before in a laboratory and exist naturally only in interiors of the planetary and stellar environments as well as in nuclear weapons. Since August 2009, the NIF team has been conducting experiments in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)—a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, General Atomics, the University of Rochester, Sandia National Laboratories, as well as a number of universities and international collaborators. The results from these initial experiments show promise for the relatively near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.2 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 10%. Cryogenic target capability and additional diagnostics are being installed in preparation for layered target deuterium-tritium implosions to be conducted later in 2010. Important national security and basic science experiments have

  11. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  12. Frictional Behavior of Anorthite and Quartz at High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Masuda, K.; Fujimoto, K.; Shigematsu, N.; Ohtani, T.; Sumii, T.; Okuyama, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Most of earthquakes in the crust occurred at the depth of 5 to 20km, and the distribution of mainshocks matches the base of this zone, where is considered to be consistent with brittle-ductile transition zone. The lower boundary on seismicity results from a switch from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening of friction with increasing temperature. The physical properties of rocks associated with elevated temperatures were determined by many frictional experiments. In these experimental studies, quartz, which controls the rock strength at brittle-ductile transition zone, was generally used. On the other hand, frictional experiment with feldspar is very few in spite of dominant phase in the crust, because feldspar behaves in a brittle manner at greenshist facies. However, recent studies indicate fine-grained plagioclase (1um) contributed deformation process largely at the Hatagawa fault zone, northeast Japan, where is considered to have been brittle-ductile transition zone in the past. In order to understand the source processes of earthquakes, it is important to evaluate the physical properties of fine grained plagioclace as well as those of quartz. In this study, we conducted frictional experiments by using anorthite and quartz gouges under high pressure and high temperature in a triaxial apparatus, and compared frictional behaviors of two minerals with elevated temperature. Temperature varied from room temperature to 800°C. Fine- (1-10um,1um) and coarse-grained (50um, 100um) samples were prepared to evaluate the effect of different grain size as observed Hatagawa fault zone. The samples were put between upper and lower sawcut cylinders (20mm diameter x 40mm long). The sawcut was oriented at 30° to the loading axis. These were jacketed with thin sleeves of annealed Cu. Pore fluids accelerated deformation process of Hatagawa mylonite at higher temperature than 600°C under the same effective confining pressure (Masuda et al., presented in this meeting

  13. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Foley, Georgina

    2017-04-05

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article defined the different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and explored when they can occur. It emphasised the importance of being knowledgeable about medications, considering patient safety when patients are taking medications, being alert to the possibility of ADRs, and recognising and responding to suspected ADRs.

  14. Models of Behavior Disorder: A Formal Analysis Based on Woods' Taxonomy of Instrumental Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Warren W.

    1976-01-01

    Among the phenomena covered are superstitious behavior, learned helplessness, experimental neurosis, anaclitic depression as a result of maternal separation, and physiological disturbances such as ulceration. (Author/AM)

  15. Maternal Behavior, Social Support, and Economic Conditions as Predictors of Distress in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Wilson, Leon

    1990-01-01

    Single mothers' coping behavior, psychological functioning, and communication to their children about financial matters and personal problems predicted the degree of psychological distress experienced by the children. (PCB)

  16. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    carried out in both countries. The use of crushed aggregates in both the frost protection layer and asphalt layers is the main topic for our investigations. In existing standards there is large focus on mechanical properties of aggregates and their grain size distribution, but little focus on mineralogy and and its behaviour at low temperatures. With the purpose to study the effect of winter climatic conditions and the use of salts during winter maintenance, different samples of aggregates and asphalt mixtures used in Norwegian and Spanish roads were subjected to freeze-thaw cycles in the laboratory. To evaluate the impact of these cycles to the mechanical properties of the selected materials, Los Angeles test on aggregates and Cantabro test on asphalt have been done and compared with results from the same aggregates and asphalt mixtures but untreated in the laboratory. The results obtained were related to the petrographical analysis of the rocks that compose the aggregates in order to estimate the influence of the rock properties (mineralogy, texture and structure) in road materials behavior, especially when they are exposed to winter conditions.

  17. A study on hardness behavior of geopolymer paste in different condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Farah Farhana; Hussin, Kamarudin; Rahmat, Azmi; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam

    2016-07-01

    This study has been conducted to understand the hardness behavior of geopolymer paste in different conditions; with and without being immersed in water. Geopolymer paste has been used nowadays as an alternative way to reduce global warming pollution by carbon dioxide (CO2) released to the air caused from the production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Geopolymer has many advantages such as high compressive strength, lower water absorption and lower porosity. Geopolymer paste in this study was made from a mixture of fly ash and alkaline activators. The alkaline activators that have been used were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution. Then the mixture was allowed to harden for 24hrs at ambient temperature and then placed in the oven for 24hrs with 60°C for the curing process. The hardness testing was conducted after a few months when the samples already achieved the optimum design. The samples were divided to two conditions; without immersion which was placed at ambient temperature (S1) and immersed in water for one week (S2). The samples then are divided into two at the center and testing was conducted into 4 parts which are part 1, part 2, part 3 and part 4. Various methods of non-destructively testing concrete and mortar have been in use for many years such as Vickers hardness test, Rockwell hardness test, Brinell hardness test and many more. The Rockwell hardness test method as defined in ASTM E-18 is the most commonly used hardness test method which is also used in this study. From the results, S1 has higher hardness value than S2 for all parts with the maximum value of S1 is 118.6 and the minimum value is 71.8. The maximum value of S2 is 114.4 and the minimum value is 0. The central part of the geopolymer paste also showed greater hardness values than the edge area of the samples.

  18. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests

  19. Reciprocating sliding wear behavior of alendronate sodium-loaded UHMWPE under different tribological conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jing; Yang, Dan; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), a potential drug to treat osteolysis, under different normal loads and lubrication conditions. A mixture of UHMWPE powder and ALN (1.0 wt.%) solution was dried and hot pressed. The static and dynamic friction coefficients of UHMWPE-ALN were slightly higher than those of UHMWPE except under normal load as 10 N and in 25 v/v % calf serum. The specific wear rates of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE were the lowest in 25 v/v % calf serum compared to those in deionized water or physiological saline. In particular, the specific wear rate of UHMWPE-ALN was lower than that of UHMWPE at 50 N in 25 v/v % calf serum. The main wear mechanisms of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN in deionized water and UHMWPE in physiological saline were abrasive. The main wear mechanism of UHMWPE-ALN in physiological saline was micro-fatigue. In 25 v/v % calf serum, the main wear mechanism of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN was abrasive wear accompanied with plastic deformation. The results of Micro-XRD indicated that the molecular deformation of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE under the lower stress were in the amorphous region but in the crystalline region at the higher stress. These results showed that the wear of UHMWPE-ALN would be reduced under calf serum lubricated, which would be potentially applied to treat osteolysis.

  20. Influence of instrument conditions on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide with UV laser-assisted atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, B.; Henderson, H.B.; Gan, J.; Manuel, M.V.

    2015-04-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) provides the ability to detect subnanometer chemical variations spatially, with high accuracy. However, it is known that compositional accuracy can be affected by experimental conditions. A study of the effect of laser energy, specimen base temperature, and detection rate is performed on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide (UO2). In laser-assisted mode, tip geometry and standing voltage also contribute to the evaporation behavior. In this investigation, it was determined that modifying the detection rate and temperature did not affect the evaporation behavior as significantly as laser energy. It was also determined that three laser evaporation regimes are present in UO2. Very low laser energy produces a behavior similar to DC-field evaporation, moderate laser energy produces the desired laser-assisted field evaporation characteristic and high laser energy induces thermal effects, negatively altering the evaporation behavior. The need for UO2 to be analyzed under moderate laser energies to produce accurate stoichiometry distinguishes it from other oxides. The following experimental conditions providing the best combination of mass resolving power, accurate stoichiometry, and uniform evaporation behavior: 50 K, 10 pJ laser energy, a detection rate of 0.003 atoms per pulse, and a 100 kHz repetition rate.

  1. Chinese and American Employers’ Perspectives Regarding Hiring People with Behaviorally Driven Health Conditions: The Role of Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Tsang, Hector W. H.; Shi, Kan; Lam, Chow S.; Larson, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Work opportunities for people with behaviorally driven health conditions such as HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and psychosis are directly impacted by employer perspectives. To investigate this issue, we report findings from a mixed method design involving qualitative interviews followed by a quantitative survey of employers from Chicago (U.S.), Beijing (China), and Hong Kong (China). Findings from qualitative interviews of 100 employers were used to create 27 items measuring employer perspectives (the Employer Perspective Scale: EPS) about hiring people with health conditions. These perspectives reflect reasons for or against discrimination. In the quantitative phase of the study, representative samples of approximately 300 employers per city were administered the EPS in addition to measures of stigma, including attributions about disease onset and offset. The EPS and stigma scales were completed in the context of one of five randomly assigned health conditions. We weighted data with ratios of key demographics between the sample and the corresponding employer population data. Analyses showed that both onset and offset responsibility varied by behaviorally driven condition. Analyses also showed that employer perspectives were more negative for health conditions that are seen as more behaviorally driven, e.g., drug and alcohol abuse. Chicago employers endorsed onset and offset attributions less strongly compared to those in Hong Kong and Beijing. Chicago employers also recognized more benefits of hiring people with various health conditions. The implications of these findings for better understanding stigma and stigma change among employers are considered. PMID:21036445

  2. Psychological and Pedagogical Conditions for the Prevention of Deviant Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Natalya V.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention…

  3. Exploring the Link among Behavior Intervention Plans, Treatment Integrity, and Student Outcomes under Natural Educational Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Mayer, G. Roy; Wright, Diana Browning; Kraemer, Bonnie; Wallace, Michele D.; Dart, Evan; Collins, Tai; Restori, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Several researchers have argued that the functional behavior assessment (FBA) and behavior intervention plan (BIP) mandates in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004 have gone beyond the current research base. For instance, although BIPs have been shown to improve student outcomes when implemented with strict control and oversight…

  4. Relationships between Psychiatric Conditions and Behavior Problems among Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Matson, Johnny L.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Mayville, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Adults with predominantly severe and profound mental retardation (N = 180) who lived in a developmental center were assessed with the Behavior Problems Inventory and the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II. Individuals with self-injurious, stereotyped, or aggressive/destructive behavior had generally higher psychopathology scores…

  5. Behaviors that Discriminate ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Primary Symptoms, Symptoms of Comorbid Conditions, or Indicators of Functional Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether behaviors that differentiate children and adolescents with ADHD from those without are related to the primary diagnostic criteria (i.e., inattention and impulsivity--hyperactivity), symptoms of comorbid conditions, functional impairment, or a combination, and to determine whether…

  6. Reliability of Undergraduate Student in a Research on the Relations between Behavior and Days of the Week or Atmospheric Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Jean

    The influence of atmospheric conditions and the day of the week on school children's behavior was investigated by undergraduates. The college students were told either that their participation in the research was compulsory and would be graded, or that their participation was voluntary and ungraded. Fifty teachers observed their pupils' behavior…

  7. A-B Status of Behavior Therapy Technicians as Related to Success of Mowrer's Conditioning Treatment for Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Leonard E.; Foreman, Milton E.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the relationship of therapy technician A-B status and the outcomes of a specific behavior treatment; namely, Mowrer's conditioning paradigm for the treatment of enuresis. Results support the hypothesis that B-status technicians would be associated with higher successful outcomes than A-status…

  8. Role of the Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Mediating Behavioral Control-Induced Reduction of Later Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Michael V.; Lucero, Thomas R.; Amat, Jose; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    A prior experience of behavioral control over a stressor interferes with subsequent Pavlovian fear conditioning, and this effect is dependent on the activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) at the time of the initial experience with control. It is unknown whether mPFCv activity is necessary during fear learning and/or testing for…

  9. Measurement of Behavioral Taste Responses in Mice: Two-Bottle Preference, Lickometer, and Conditioned Taste-Aversion Tests.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Stratford, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time. Finally, conditioned taste aversion tests accurately determine the perceived taste threshold for palatable tastants. Together, these diverse methods enable researchers to observe and measure behavioral taste responses in mice to any tastant. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  11. Adverse effects of differential parental attention1

    PubMed Central

    Sajwaj, Thomas E.; Pinkston, Susan; Cordua, Glenn; Jackson, Carolyn; Herbert, Emily W.; Pinkston, Elsie M.; Hayden, M. Loeman

    1973-01-01

    In two independent parent training projects (Kansas and Mississippi), mothers of deviant young children were observed to follow almost all child behaviors with attention. The mothers were then trained to use differential attention procedures to increase their child's appropriate behaviors and to decrease deviant behaviors. Contrary to expectations, the differential attention procedure produced substantial increases in deviant behavior for four of the children. This adverse effect was maintained over many sessions and was replicated in single organism, reversal designs. A fifth child showed no change. A sixth child showed some improvement. However, this effect was not recovered in a second application of differential attention, and the child became worse. The results underline the importance of subject generality in applied behavior analysis and strongly suggest that service programs using operant techniques must carefully evaluate their effects on behavior. PMID:16795386

  12. Adverse reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

    2003-06-01

    (The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty.

  13. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  14. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  15. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given.

  16. Migration Behavior of Plutonium in Compacted Bentonite Under Reducing Condition Using Electromigration

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuya Idemitsu; Yosuke Yamasaki; Syeda Afsarun Nessa; Yaohiro Inagaki; Tatsumi Arima; Toshiaki Mitsugashira; Mitsuo Hara; Yoshimitsu Suzuki

    2007-07-01

    Carbon steel is one of the candidate overpack materials for high-level waste disposal and is expected to assure complete containment of vitrified waste glass during an initial period of 1000 years in Japan. Carbon steel overpack will be corroded by consuming oxygen introduced by repository construction after closure of repository and then will keep the reducing environment in the vicinity of repository. The migration of iron corrosion products through the buffer material will affect migration of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Therefore the authors have carried out electromigration experiments with source of iron ions supplied by anode corrosion of iron coupons attached to compacted bentonite. Authors tried to use plutonium in this experimental configuration to obtain the knowledge of migration behavior of actinides. Authors also used cesium as reference. The concentrations of iron and sodium showed nearly complementary distributions. It is expected that iron ion could migrate as ferrous ion through the interlayer of montmorillonite replacing exchangeable sodium ions in the interlayer. Concentration profiles of plutonium in bentonite grew as time supplying electric potential as long as 168 h. Plutonium migrated from the iron anode toward cathode as deeper than 1 mm of the interior of bentonite even in 48 h, though plutonium could not diffuse 1 mm for 2 years. On the other hand, profiles of cesium were reported to be controlled by ordinary diffusion because of large diffusion coefficient of cesium in bentonite as large as 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}/s. Drift of the cesium profile by electric potential gradient could be observed clearly after 240 h at individual experiment for cesium. Apparent dispersion coefficients of plutonium were calculated from the profiles and were as large as 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}/s. Since plutonium migration was accelerated by electric potential, plutonium chemical species would have positive charge and were estimated as PuOH{sup 2+} or PuCl{sup 2

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapies: Review of the Evidence for the Treatment of Relationship Distress, Psychopathology, and Chronic Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Cohen, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) is an approach to assisting couples that has strong empirical support for alleviating relationship distress. This paper provides a review of the empirical status of CBCT along with behavioral couple therapy (BCT), as well as the evidence for recent applications of CBCT principles to couple-based interventions for individual psychopathology and medical conditions. Several meta-analyses and major reviews have confirmed the efficacy of BCT and CBCT across trials in the United States, Europe, and Australia, and there is little evidence to support differential effectiveness of various forms of couple therapy derived from behavioral principles. A much smaller number of effectiveness studies have shown that successful implementation in community settings is possible, although effect sizes tend to be somewhat lower than those evidenced in randomized controlled trials. Adapted for individual problems, cognitive-behavioral couple-based interventions appear to be at least as effective as individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) across a variety of psychological disorders, and often more effective, especially when partners are substantially involved in treatment. In addition, couple-based interventions tend to have the unique added benefit of improving relationship functioning. Findings on couple-based interventions for medical conditions are more varied and more complex to interpret given the greater range of target outcomes (psychological, relational, and medical variables).

  18. Conditional Reduction of Adult Born Doublecortin-Positive Neurons Reversibly Impairs Selective Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Lillian; Zhang, Jingzhong; Zimprich, Annemarie; Niedermeier, Kristina M.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB)- and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX) promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM), results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months) and middle aged (from 10 months) mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the TAM treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior. PMID:26617501

  19. Conditional Reduction of Adult Born Doublecortin-Positive Neurons Reversibly Impairs Selective Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Lillian; Zhang, Jingzhong; Zimprich, Annemarie; Niedermeier, Kristina M; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB)- and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreER(T2) under doublecortin (DCX) promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM), results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months) and middle aged (from 10 months) mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the TAM treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior.

  20. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  1. Does complex absorption behavior leading to conditioning and damage in KDP/DKDP reflect the electronic structure of initiators?

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; DeMange, P P; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Demos, S G

    2007-10-24

    Currently, most of our thinking about the defects responsible for initiating laser damage considers them as featureless absorbers. However, an increasing body of evidence, particularly involving multi-wavelength irradiation, suggests electronic structure of damage initiators is important in determining both initiation and conditioning behaviors in KDP. The effective absorption coefficient of energy under multi-wavelength irradiation cannot be accounted for by a structureless absorber, but is consistent with an initiator with a multi-level structure. We outline the evidence and assess the ability of such a simple multi-level model to explain these and other experimentally observed behaviors.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence, PTSD, and Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…

  3. Individual Psychological Factors and Complex Interpersonal Conditions that Predict LGBT-Affirming Behavior.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul

    2015-08-01

    To counter homophobic behavior in schools, research is needed on heterosexual youth who act as allies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth by engaging in LGBT-affirming behavior (e.g., voicing support, engaging in advocacy, countering homophobia). Among 624 heterosexual high school students (M age = 16.11; 53 % female; 88 % white), this study found that critical thinking, self-reflection, lower sexual prejudice, having more LGBT friends, and having sexual orientation-based discussions with peers were associated with engaging in more LGBT-affirming behavior. Several factors moderated the association between having sexual orientation-based discussions and LGBT-affirming behavior: the association was stronger among youth who described the tone of these discussions as more positive, who more often used positive problem-solving strategies, and who reported low sexual prejudice. The degree to which conversations were challenging did not moderate this association. Finally, having LGBT friends was more strongly associated with affirming behavior for youth who felt more connected and had more sexual orientation-based discussions with these friends. The findings underscore the need for research to identify other factors that prompt heterosexual youth to act as allies to LGBT youth.

  4. [Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions.

  5. High-pressure behavior of cristobalite under quasi-hydrostatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernok, Ana; Bykova, Elena; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2014-05-01

    Cristobalite is a high-temperature, low-pressure polymorph of SiO2. It is comprised of a framework of SiO4 tetrahedra, like many other low-pressure silica polymorphs, e.g. quartz tridymite, or coesite. Its cubic form known as β-cristobalite crystallizes above 1470 ° C and at atmospheric pressure. The tetragonal α-phase is a metastable polymorph which appears upon cooling of the cubic β-cristobalite to ambient temperature and it can be found in natural acidic volcanic rocks. High-pressure behavior of α-cristobalite is of interest form the geological standpoint because it was experimentally observed that under elevated pressures and at ambient temperature this polymorph with 4-fold coordinated silicon can transform to seifertite - a lower mantle phase with octahedrally coordinated Si. The transformational sequence is as follows. The tetragonal α-cristobalite transforms to a monoclinic cristobalite II near ~1.5 GPa upon hydrostatic compression. The structure of this higher-pressure polymorph was recently solved. Above ~10 GPa cristobalite II is found to transforms to cristobalite X-I. Apart from the recent determination of the unit cell parameters, the structure of the cristobalite X-I still remains unknown. Further compression of cristobalite X-I above pressures exceeding ~35 GPa leads to formation of cristobalite X-II, which is the polymorph reported to have the structure of seifertite. However, there is a large discrepancy among various experimental observations regarding the pressure at which this transition takes place. Motivated by the recent studies, we aim at understanding how the structure of this "bridging phase", cristobalite X-I, is evolving under pressure and how it transforms to the seifertite phase. We performed in-situ single crystal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction up to 82 GPa in steps of 3-5 GPa. We used diamond-anvil cells with 250 μm diamond culet size and neon as the pressure-transmitting medium. In-situ Raman spectra indicated the

  6. Multiaxial fatigue behavior of tubular joints under variable amplitude loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, A.; Wu, S.; Yu, X.

    1994-12-31

    An analytical approach has been developed for the study of fatigue life of tubular joints used in offshore structures when random loading conditions are applied. The method is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics and surface fatigue crack propagation. Using the line-spring element method, stress intensity factors of a part-through surface crack are computed. Crack propagation under random loading conditions with distribution parameters is calculated leading to fatigue life prediction if the statistical characteristics of random loading conditions are known. This method can be also used in predicting the remaining lives of tubular joints when cracks are detected and random loading conditions are applied.

  7. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  8. 42 CFR 483.450 - Condition of participation: Client behavior and facility practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... inappropriate client behavior must be employed with sufficient safeguards and supervision to ensure that the safety, welfare and civil and human rights of clients are adequately protected. (3) Techniques to manage... supervision of designated staff. (iii) The door to the room is held shut by staff or by a mechanism...

  9. Unique Genetic Loci Identified for Emotional Behavior in Control and Chronic Stress Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-21

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 1) Applied Neuroscience, 711 Human Performance Wing, Air Force Research...Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9...Human Performance Wing Airman Systems Directorate Warfighter Interface Division Battlespace Visualization Branch Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433 711

  10. Equilibrium Fluid Interface Behavior Under Low- and Zero-Gravity Conditions. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical basis for the forthcoming Angular Liquid Bridge investigation on board Mir is described. Our mathematical work is based on the classical Young-Laplace-Gauss formulation for an equilibrium free surface of liquid partly filling a container or otherwise in contact with solid support surfaces. The anticipated liquid behavior used in the apparatus design is also illustrated.

  11. Host-choice behavior of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of huanglongbing (HLB), considered to be the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Knowledge of the ACP’s host-plant finding behavior aids in our understanding of the epidemiology of HLB and in designing experiments to ...

  12. Humans, Fish, and Whales: How Right Whales Modify Calling Behavior in Response to Shifting Background Noise Conditions.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Groch, Karina; Flores, Paulo; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Urazghildiiev, Ildar R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of behavioral plasticity in the variation of sound production of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in response to changes in the ambient background noise conditions. Data were collected from southern right whales in Brazilian waters in October and November 2011. The goal of this study was to quantify differences in right whale vocalizations recorded in low background noise as a control, fish chorus noise, and vessel noise. Variation in call parameters were detected among the three background noise conditions and have implications for future studies of noise effects on whale sound production.

  13. Behavior of the Brightness Temperature of the Ocean-Atmosphere System Under Conditions of Midlatitude and Tropical Cyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankov, A. G.; Milshin, A. A.; Novichikhin, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the behavior of the ocean-atmosphere system characteristics based on direct (contact) and satellite microwave radiometric measurements. Some common and distinctive features of their dynamics in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic (in its Norwegian, Newfoundland, and Gulf Stream energy-active zones), which significanty affect the weather conditions in Europe, and in the tropical latitudes of the Atlantic (the Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas area), which are the sources of tropical cyclogenesis, are considered.

  14. Behaviorally-inhibited temperament is associated with severity of PTSD symptoms and faster eyeblink conditioning in veterans

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; McAuley, J. Devin; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have sometimes demonstrated facilitated acquisition of classically-conditioned responses and/or resistance to extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether these behaviors are acquired as a result of PTSD or exposure to trauma, or reflect pre-existing risk factors that confer vulnerability for PTSD. Here, we examined classical eyeblink conditioning and extinction in veterans self-assessed for current PTSD symptoms, exposure to combat, and the personality trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a risk factor for PTSD. 128 veterans were recruited (mean age 51.2 years; 13.3% female); 126 completed self-assessment, with 25.4% reporting a history of exposure to combat and 30.9% reporting severe, current PTSD symptoms (PTSS). PTSD symptom severity was correlated with current BI (R2=0.497) and PTSS status could be predicted based on current BI and combat history (80.2% correct classification). A subset of the veterans (n=87) also completed eyeblink conditioning. Among veterans without PTSS, childhood BI was associated with faster acquisition; veterans with PTSS showed delayed extinction, under some conditions. These data demonstrate a relationship between current BI and PTSS, and suggest that the facilitated conditioning sometimes observed in PTSD patients may partially reflect personality traits such as childhood BI that pre-date and contribute to vulnerability for PTSD. PMID:21790343

  15. The influence of meteorological conditions on the behavior of pollutants concentrations in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, O R; de, FátimaAndradeM

    2002-01-01

    The observed behavior of pollution concentrations to the prevailing meteorological conditions has been studied for the period from June 13 to September 2, 1994, for the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). The synoptic conditions, which prevailed during the period, have been identified. The behavior of these large-scale systems namely the relative positions, the nature and the types of the anticyclone or cold front (CF) has been investigated, and for each identified synoptic situation, trace elements concentrations have been determined. During the CF synoptic condition, the elements presented low concentrations associated with intense ventilation, precipitation and high relative humidity. It is seen that for both the synoptic conditions namely the South Atlantic Subtropical High and Polar High, high values of concentrations prevailed due to weak ventilation, low relative humidity and absence of precipitation. The micro and mesoscale meteorological conditions have also been studied for a day with low and a day with high concentration of particulate pollutants. Finally, applying receptor modeling to the fine aerosol mass concentration data set, five categories of emission sources in the MASP were identified: vehicles, garbage incineration, vegetation, suspend soil dust and burning of fuel oil.

  16. Boundary Behavior of Viscous Fluids: Influence of Wall Roughness and Friction-driven Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Dorin; Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka

    2010-07-01

    We consider a family of solutions to the evolutionary Navier-Stokes system supplemented with the complete slip boundary conditions on domains with rough boundaries. We give a complete description of the asymptotic limit by means of Γ-convergence arguments, and identify a general class of boundary conditions.

  17. Effects of social conditions during adolescence on courtship and aggressive behavior are not abolished by adult social experience.

    PubMed

    Ruploh, Tim; Henning, Miriam; Bischof, Hans-Joachim; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Social experience during adolescence has long-lasting consequences for adult social behavior in many species. In zebra finches, individuals reared in pairs during adolescence start to court females faster, sing more courtship motifs to females and are more aggressive compared with group-reared males. We investigated whether such differences are stable during adulthood or can be abolished by novel social experience after adolescence by giving all birds extensive experience with group life during adulthood. Courtship and aggressiveness increased in all males, but pair-reared males still had a higher motif rate and were more aggressive than group-reared males. Males no longer differed in courtship latency. In addition to the stable treatment differences, individual differences in behavior remained stable over time. Our results show that differences in behavior acquired during adolescence are preserved into adulthood, although adults still change their social behavior. Adolescence can thus be seen as a sensitive period during which social conditions have a lasting effect on adult behavior.

  18. Foraging Behavior under Starvation Conditions Is Altered via Photosynthesis by the Marine Gastropod, Elysia clarki

    PubMed Central

    Middlebrooks, Michael L.; Pierce, Sidney K.; Bell, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been well documented that nutritional state can influence the foraging behavior of animals. However, photosynthetic animals, those capable of both heterotrophy and symbiotic photosynthesis, may have a delayed behavioral response due to their ability to photosynthesize. To test this hypothesis we subjected groups of the kleptoplastic sea slug, Elysia clarki, to a gradient of starvation treatments of 4, 8, and 12 weeks plus a satiated control. Compared to the control group, slugs starved 8 and 12 weeks displayed a significant increase in the proportion of slugs feeding and a significant decrease in photosynthetic capability, as measured in maximum quantum yield and [chl a]. The 4 week group, however, showed no significant difference in feeding behavior or in the metrics of photosynthesis compared to the control. This suggests that photosynthesis in E. clarki, thought to be linked to horizontally-transferred algal genes, delays a behavioral response to starvation. This is the first demonstration of a link between photosynthetic capability in an animal and a modification of foraging behavior under conditions of starvation. PMID:21799783

  19. Pavlovian conditioning and cross-sensitization studies raise challenges to the hypothesis that overeating is an addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Harb, M R; Almeida, O F X

    2014-04-29

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels and sign tracking (ST) in Pavlovian conditioning are potential biomarkers of compulsive behaviors such as addiction. As overeating is sometimes viewed as a form of addictive behavior, we hypothesized that murine Pavlovian sign trackers would have a greater propensity to overeat and develop obesity. Using a food reward in the classical conditioning paradigm, we show that ST behavior is a robust conditioned response but not a predictor of eating and growth trajectories in mice, thus challenging the view that the development of obesity and drug addiction depend on identical mechanisms. This interpretation was supported by experiments which showed that overweight mice do not display cross-sensitization to an addictive drug (morphine), and conversely, that overweight morphine-sensitized animals do not overconsume a highly rewarding food. Although the rewarding/motivational effects of both food and drugs of abuse are mediated by similar neurochemical mechanisms, obesity and drug addiction represent a summation of other dysfunctional input and output pathways that lead to the emergence of two distinct disorders, each of which would deserve a specific pharmacotherapeutic approach.

  20. Administration of the Glial Condition Medium in the Nucleus Accumbens Prolong Maintenance and Intensify Reinstatement of Morphine-Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Khodagholi, Fariba; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggested that glial cells are involved in synaptic plasticity and behavioral changes induced by drugs abuse. The role of these cells in maintenance and reinstatement of morphine (MRP) conditioned place preference (CPP) remains poorly characterized. The aim of present study was to investigate the direct role of glial cells in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the maintenance and reinstatement of MRP-seeking behavior. CPP induced with injection of MRP (5 mg/kg, s.c. for 3 days), lasted for 7 days after cessation of MRP treatment and priming dose of MRP (1 mg/kg, s.c.) reinstated the extinguished MRP-induced CPP. The astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) and neuroglia conditioned medium (NCM) exposed to MRP (10 and 100 µM) have been microinjected into the NAc. Intra-NAc administration of ACM during extinction period failed to change the maintenance of MRP-CPP, but MRP 100-treated ACM could slightly increase the magnitude of reinstatement. In contrast to ACM, intra-NAc administration of MRP 100-treated NCM caused slower extinction by 3 days and significantly increased the magnitude of reinstatement. Our findings suggest the involvement of glial cells activation in the maintenance and reinstatement of MRP-seeking behaviors, and provides new evidence that these cells might be a potential target for the treatment of MRP addiction.

  1. Pavlovian conditioning and cross-sensitization studies raise challenges to the hypothesis that overeating is an addictive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harb, M R; Almeida, O F X

    2014-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels and sign tracking (ST) in Pavlovian conditioning are potential biomarkers of compulsive behaviors such as addiction. As overeating is sometimes viewed as a form of addictive behavior, we hypothesized that murine Pavlovian sign trackers would have a greater propensity to overeat and develop obesity. Using a food reward in the classical conditioning paradigm, we show that ST behavior is a robust conditioned response but not a predictor of eating and growth trajectories in mice, thus challenging the view that the development of obesity and drug addiction depend on identical mechanisms. This interpretation was supported by experiments which showed that overweight mice do not display cross-sensitization to an addictive drug (morphine), and conversely, that overweight morphine-sensitized animals do not overconsume a highly rewarding food. Although the rewarding/motivational effects of both food and drugs of abuse are mediated by similar neurochemical mechanisms, obesity and drug addiction represent a summation of other dysfunctional input and output pathways that lead to the emergence of two distinct disorders, each of which would deserve a specific pharmacotherapeutic approach. PMID:24780921

  2. Caregiving burden and parent-child quality of life outcomes in neurodevelopmental conditions: the mediating role of behavioral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect effects, via parents' behavioral disengagement coping, of caregiving burden on the quality of life (QL) of parents and their children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Self-completion questionnaires on the target variables were administered to a sample of 156 parents who had a child with a neurodevelopmental condition, namely epilepsy (n = 65) and cerebral palsy (n = 91). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model and ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Significant direct effects of caregiving burden on parents' and their children's QL were found. Additionally, caregiving burden had a significant indirect effect on parents' QL, via behavioral disengagement, but not on their children's QL. Finally, this model was found to be invariant across conditions and patients' age groups. Caregiving burden may be elected as a strategic intervention target to improve parent-child QL outcomes in neuropediatric settings. Parents should be encouraged to avoid or reduce behavioral disengagement coping in relation to their caregiving stress, and alternatively adopt active coping strategies that may positively affect their children's QL and impede or attenuate the deleterious effects of caregiving burden on their own QL.

  3. Service Workers' Chain Reactions to Daily Customer Mistreatment: Behavioral Linkages, Mechanisms, and Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chi, Nai-Wen; Yang, Jixia; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2016-10-27

    Drawing on the stressor-emotion model, we examine how customer mistreatment can evoke service workers' passive forms of deviant behaviors (i.e., work withdrawal behavior [WWB]) and negative impacts on their home life (i.e., work-family conflict [WFC]), and whether individuals' core self-evaluations and customer service training can buffer the negative effects of customer mistreatment. Using the experience sampling method, we collect daily data from 77 customer service employees for 10 consecutive working days, yielding 546 valid daily responses. The results show that daily customer mistreatment increases service workers' daily WWB and WFC through negative emotions. Furthermore, employees with high core self-evaluations and employees who received customer service training are less likely to experience negative emotions when faced with customer mistreatment, and thus are less likely to engage in WWB or provoke WFC. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. [Pathological buying. A review of the current knowledge regarding this condition of behavioral excess].

    PubMed

    Müller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2010-04-01

    Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.

  5. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-07-22

    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  6. Behavior of Smokes and Agents during Variable Meteorological Conditions over Complex Terrain.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Meteorol. and 3rd Conf. on Mountain Meteorol., Portland, OR, 51-54. Lundgren , T. S., 1982: "Strained Spiral Vortex Model for Turbulent Fine Structure...94 -" D-2 Schematic Diagram of Vortex Interactions .................. 95 D-3 Schematic Diagram of Braid Formation and Behavior ......... 96 D-4...Initial Vortex used in Chorin’s Simulation ................ 101 D-5 Vortex Configurations During Chorin’s Simulation .......... 102 D-6 Schematic Diagram

  7. Effects of pre-conditioning on behavior and physiology of horses during a standardised learning task

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Holly; Starling, Melissa J.; Freire, Rafael; Buckley, Petra; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Rein tension is used to apply pressure to control both ridden and unridden horses. The pressure is delivered by equipment such as the bit, which may restrict voluntary movement and cause changes in behavior and physiology. Managing the effects of such pressure on arousal level and behavioral indicators will optimise horse learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of training horses to turn away from bit pressure on cardiac outcomes and behavior (including responsiveness) over the course of eight trials in a standardised learning task. The experimental procedure consisted of a resting phase, treatment/control phase, standardised learning trials requiring the horses (n = 68) to step backwards in response to bit pressure and a recovery phase. As expected, heart rate increased (P = 0.028) when the handler applied rein tension during the treatment phase. The amount of rein tension required to elicit a response during treatment was higher on the left than the right rein (P = 0.009). Total rein tension required for trials reduced (P < 0.001) as they progressed, as did time taken (P < 0.001) and steps taken (P < 0.001). The incidence of head tossing decreased (P = 0.015) with the progression of the trials and was higher (P = 0.018) for the control horses than the treated horses. These results suggest that preparing the horses for the lesson and slightly raising their arousal levels, improved learning outcomes. PMID:28358892

  8. Serration Behavior of a Zr-Based Metallic Glass Under Different Constrained Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. N.; Gu, J. L.; Chen, S. Q.; Shao, Y.; Wang, H.; Yao, K. F.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the plastic behavior and shear band dynamics of metallic glasses (MGs) being tuned by the external constraint, uniaxial compression tests were performed on Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 MG samples with aspect ratios of 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, and 3:1. Better plasticity was observed for the samples with smaller aspect ratio (under higher constraint degree). In the beginning of yielding, increasing serration (jerky stress drop) size on the loading curves was noticed for all samples. Statistical analysis of the serration patterns indicated that the small stress-drop serrations and large stress-drop serrations follow self-organized critical and chaotic dynamics, respectively. Under constrained loading, the large stress-drop serrations are depressed, while the small stress-drop serrations are less affected. When changing the external constraint level by varying the sample aspect ratio, the serration pattern, shear band dynamics, and plastic behavior will change accordingly. This study provides a perspective from tuning shear band dynamics to understand the plastic behavior of MGs under different external constraint.

  9. Frictional behavior of automotive brake materials under wet and dry conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Weintraub, M.H.; Jang, Ho; Donlon, W.

    1996-12-15

    The purpose of this effort was to develop an improved understanding of the relationship between the structure and frictional behavior of materials in the disc brake/rotor interface with a view toward improving the performance of automotive disc brakes. The three tasks involved in this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were as follows: Task 1. Investigation of Brake Pads and Rotors. Characterize surface features of worn brake pads and rotors, with special attention to the transfer film which forms on them during operation. Ford to supply specimens for examination and other supporting information. Task 2. Effects of Atmosphere and Repeated Applications on Brake Material Friction. Conduct pin-on-disk friction tests at ORNL under controlled moisture levels to determine effects of relative humidity on frictional behavior of brake pad and rotor materials. Conduct limited tests on the characteristics of friction under application of repeated contacts. Task 3. Comparison of Dynamometer Tests with Laboratory Friction Tests. Compare ORNL friction data with Ford dynamometer test data to establish the degree to which the simple bench tests can be useful in helping to understand frictional behavior in full-scale brake component tests. This final report summarizes work performed under this CRADA.

  10. [Behavioral reactions of animals subjected in the prenatal development period to space flight conditions].

    PubMed

    Apanasenko, Z I; Kuznetsova, M A; Korotkova, V Iu

    1986-01-01

    The Wistar female rats were flown on the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 during their pregnancy days 13-18. Offspring (at the age 1 to 3 months) of four of these rats were used to investigate their behavioral reactions in the open field and mazes of different design, food attraction being applied. Control rats of matched pregnancy term were kept either in a vivarium or in a biosatellite mockup where all flight factors, except for weightlessness, were simulated. It was found that exposure to weightlessness in the above intrauterine developmental period caused no serious changes in the behavioral reactions of rats during their postnatal development. The number of refusals and errors and the latency period were similar in the rats from the flight and control groups. Changes were seen only in fine behavioral regulation. The flown animals displayed a lower research activity in the open field, a longer time of search in the maze, a far longer time or grooming and a greater number of inadequate movements, and a stronger response to external inhibiting stimuli. These changes seem to be caused by a slight attenuation of the basic nervous processes (primarily, inhibitory) and a decrease of their balance and lability. These effects may be associated with an inhibitory influence of space flight factors on the maturation of cortical structures.

  11. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  12. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  13. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence.

  14. Interventions to Address Medical Conditions and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    McGinty, Emma E.; Baller, Julia; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.

    2016-01-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI. Peer-reviewed studies were identified using 4 major research databases. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies testing interventions to address medical conditions and risk behaviors among persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Information was abstracted from each study by 2 trained reviewers, who also rated study quality using a standard tool. Following individual study review, the quality of the evidence (high, medium, low) and the effectiveness of various interventions were synthesized. 108 studies were included. The majority of studies examined interventions to address overweight/obesity (n = 80). The strength of the evidence was high for 4 interventions: metformin and behavioral interventions had beneficial effects on weight loss; and bupropion and varenicline reduced tobacco smoking. The strength of the evidence was low for most other interventions reviewed. Future studies should test long-term interventions to cardiovascular risk factors and health-risk behaviors. In addition, future research should study implementation strategies to effectively translate efficacious interventions into real-world settings. PMID:26221050

  15. A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maddux, Jean-Marie; Lacroix, Franca; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contexts in which drugs of abuse are consumed can trigger craving, a subjective Pavlovian-conditioned response that can facilitate drug-seeking behavior and prompt relapse in abstinent drug users. We have developed a procedure to study the behavioral and neural processes that mediate the impact of context on alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. Following acclimation to the taste and pharmacological effects of 15% ethanol in the home cage, male Long-Evans rats receive Pavlovian discrimination training (PDT) in conditioning chambers. In each daily (Mon-Fri) PDT session, 16 trials each of two different 10 sec auditory conditioned stimuli occur. During one stimulus, the CS+, 0.2 ml of 15% ethanol is delivered into a fluid port for oral consumption. The second stimulus, the CS-, is not paired with ethanol. Across sessions, entries into the fluid port during the CS+ increase, whereas entries during the CS- stabilize at a lower level, indicating that a predictive association between the CS+ and ethanol is acquired. During PDT each chamber is equipped with a specific configuration of visual, olfactory and tactile contextual stimuli. Following PDT, extinction training is conducted in the same chamber that is now equipped with a different configuration of contextual stimuli. The CS+ and CS- are presented as before, but ethanol is withheld, which causes a gradual decline in port entries during the CS+. At test, rats are placed back into the PDT context and presented with the CS+ and CS- as before, but without ethanol. This manipulation triggers a robust and selective increase in the number of port entries made during the alcohol predictive CS+, with no change in responding during the CS-. This effect, referred to as context-induced renewal, illustrates the powerful capacity of contexts associated with alcohol consumption to stimulate alcohol-seeking behavior in response to Pavlovian alcohol cues. PMID:25286088

  16. The Effects of 4-Methylethcathinone on Conditioned Place Preference, Locomotor Sensitization, and Anxiety-Like Behavior: A Comparison with Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Qiu, Yi; Zhang, Yizhi; Βai, Yanping; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: 4-Methylethcathinone is a drug that belongs to the second generation of synthetic cathinones, and recently it has been ranked among the most popular “legal highs”. Although it has similar in vitro neurochemical actions to other drugs such as cocaine, the behavioral effects of 4-methylethcathinone remain to be determined. Methods: The addictive potential and locomotor potentiation by 4-methylethcathinone were investigated in rats using the conditioned place preference and sensitization paradigm. Methamphetamine was used as a positive control. Because synthetic cathinones can have psychological effects, we also examined anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze. Results: A conditioning dose of 10mg/kg 4-methylethcathinone was able to induce conditioned place preference and reinstatement (following 2 weeks of withdrawal). Acute or repeated injections of 4-methylethcathinone at 3 or 10mg/kg failed to alter locomotor activity. At 30mg/kg, however, acute 4-methylethcathinone increased locomotor activity compared with saline, while chronic 4-methylethcathinone induced a delayed and attenuated sensitization compared with methamphetamine. Additionally, repeated daily injections of 4-methylethcathinone (30mg/kg) reduced, whereas methamphetamine increased time spent by rats in the open arm of an elevated plus maze compared with saline injections. Interestingly, a 2-week withdrawal period following chronic injections of 4-methylethcathinone or methamphetamine increased time spent in the open arm in all rats. Conclusions: The rewarding properties of 4-methylethcathinone were found to be dissociated from its effects on locomotor activity. Additionally, chronic 4-methylethcathinone use may trigger abnormal anxious behaviors. These behavioral effects caused by 4-methylethcathinone appear to last even after a withdrawal period. PMID:26612552

  17. Novel cues reinstate cocaine-seeking behavior and induce Fos protein expression as effectively as conditioned cues.

    PubMed

    Bastle, Ryan M; Kufahl, Peter R; Turk, Mari N; Weber, Suzanne M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Thiel, Kenneth J; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-08-01

    Cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior is a widely used model of cue-elicited craving in abstinent human addicts. This study examined Fos protein expression in response to cocaine cues or to novel cues as a control for activation produced by test novelty. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with either a light or a tone cue, or received yoked saline and cue presentations, and then underwent daily extinction training. They were then tested for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by response-contingent presentations of either the cocaine-paired cue or a novel cue (that is, tone for those trained with a light or vice versa). Surprisingly, conditioned and novel cues both reinstated responding and increased Fos similarly in most brain regions. Exceptions included the anterior cingulate, which was sensitive to test cue modality in saline controls and the dorsomedial caudate-putamen, where Fos was correlated with responding in the novel, but not conditioned, cue groups. In subsequent experiments, we observed a similar pattern of reinstatement in rats trained and tested for sucrose-seeking behavior, whereas rats trained and tested with the cues only reinstated to a novel, and not a familiar, light or tone. The results suggest that novel cues reinstate responding to a similar extent as conditioned cues regardless of whether animals have a reinforcement history with cocaine or sucrose, and that both types of cues activate similar brain circuits. Several explanations as to why converging processes may drive drug and novel cue reinforcement and seeking behavior are discussed.

  18. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to various forms of adversity early in life are at increased risk for a broad range of developmental difficulties, affecting both cognitive and emotional adjustment. We review a growing body of evidence suggesting that exposure to adverse circumstances affects the developing brain in ways that increase risk for a myriad of problems. We focus on two forms of adversity, one in which children are exposed to childhood maltreatment in family environments, and another in which children are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation in contexts of institutional rearing. We discuss ways in which each of these experiences represent violations of species-expected caregiving conditions, thereby imposing challenges to the developing brain. We also review emerging data pointing to the effectiveness of early intervention in remediating neurodevelopmental consequences associated with maltreatment or institutional rearing. We conclude by discussing implications of this work for public health efforts and highlight important directions for the field. PMID:26334107

  19. Telithromycin: review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has been marketed since the early 2000s. It has not been shown to be more effective against any bacteria than other macrolide antibiotics. Its antibacterial activity is in no way remarkable. In early 2014, we reviewed its adverse effect profile using data from periodic safety update reports, drug regulatory agencies, and detailed published case reports. In addition to the adverse effect profile telithromycin shares with the other macrolides, it provokes several specific adverse effects: visual disturbances due to impaired accommodation; taste and smell disorders; severe liver damage; worsening of myasthenia gravis; rhabdomyolysis; and loss of consciousness. Prolongation of the QT interval with standard oral doses is a worrisome adverse effect. In practice, it is better not to use telithromycin as it exposes patients to disproportionate, serious adverse effects. When treatment with a macrolide antibiotic appears necessary, it is prudent to choose a different macrolide, such as spiramycin or azithromycin, which have fewer adverse effects.

  20. Disrupting Glutamate Co-transmission Does Not Affect Acquisition of Conditioned Behavior Reinforced by Dopamine Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong V; Viereckel, Thomas; Zell, Vivien; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Broker, Carl J; Talishinsky, Aleksandr; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Galinato, Melissa H; Arvidsson, Emma; Kesner, Andrew J; Hnasko, Thomas S; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2017-03-14

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were previously found to express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and to co-transmit glutamate in the ventral striatum (VStr). This capacity may play an important role in reinforcement learning. Although it is known that activation of the VTA-VStr dopamine system readily reinforces behavior, little is known about the role of glutamate co-transmission in such reinforcement. By combining electrode recording and optogenetics, we found that stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons in vivo evoked fast excitatory responses in many VStr neurons of adult mice. Whereas conditional knockout of the gene encoding VGLUT2 in dopamine neurons largely eliminated fast excitatory responses, it had little effect on the acquisition of conditioned responses reinforced by dopamine neuron activation. Therefore, glutamate co-transmission appears dispensable for acquisition of conditioned responding reinforced by DA neuron activation.

  1. [Neurophysiologic analysis of the effect of ACTH and hydrocortisone on conditioned reflex behavior in cats].

    PubMed

    Sever'ianova, L A

    1977-01-01

    In defensive behaviour of cats, ACTH eliminated extinction delay, evoked by electrical stimulation (with constant parameters) of the midbrain reticular formation, and enhanced the activating influence of the thalamus reticular zone. Hydrocortisone produced opposite effects. In alimentary behaviour, the adaptive hormones enhanced the facilitating effect on extinction, induced by stimulation of non-specific structures and the hypothalamus. However, during hydrocortisone action, encephalographic signs of the reflex remained for a long time after extinction of effector manifestations. Thus, ACTH and hydrocortizone, by changing the interaction between brain structures, exert certain influences on the behavioral processes. The hormonal effects, in turn, depend on the initial co-excitation of the centres.

  2. Compressive behavior of bulk metallic glass under different conditions --- Coupled effect of temperature and strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Weihua

    Metallic glass was first reported in 1960 by rapid quenching of Au-Si alloys. But, due to the size limitation, this material did not attract remarkable interest until the development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with specimen sizes in excess of 1 mm. BMGs are considered to be promising engineering materials because of their ultrahigh strength, high elastic limit and wear resistance. However, they usually suer from a strong tendency for localized plastic deformation with catastrophic failure. Many basic questions, such as the origin of shear softening and the strain rate eect remain unclear. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of the Zr55Al 10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass and a metallic glass composite is investigated. The stress-strain relationship for Zr55Al10Ni 5Cu30 over a wide range of strain rate (5x10 --5 to 2x103 s--1) was investigated in uniaxial compression loading using both MTS servo-hydraulic system (quasi-static) and compression Kolsky bar system (dynamic). The effect of the strain rate on the fracture stress at room temperature was discussed. Based on the experimental results, the strain rate sensitivity of the bulk metallic glass changes from a positive value to a negative value at high strain rate, which is a consequence of the significant adiabatic temperature rise during the dynamic testing. In order to characterize the temperature eect on the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass, a synchronically assembled heating unit was designed to be attached onto the Kolsky bar system to perform high temperature and high strain rate mechanical testing. A transition from inhomogeneous deformation to homogeneous deformation has been observed during the quasi-static compressive experiments at testing temperatures close to the glass transition temperature. However, no transition has been observed at high strain rates at all the testing temperatures. A free volume based model is applied to analyze the stress-strain behavior of the homogeneous

  3. Two-wave behavior under various conditions of transition area from cancellous bone to cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami

    2014-07-01

    The two-wave phenomenon, the wave separation of a single ultrasonic pulse in cancellous bone, is expected to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, because actual bone has a complicated structure, precise studies on the effect of transition conditions between cortical and cancellous parts are required. This study investigated how the transition condition influenced the two-wave generation using three-dimensional X-ray CT images of an equine radius and a three-dimensional simulation technique. As a result, any changes in the boundary between cortical part and trabecular part, which gives the actual complex structure of bone, did not eliminate the generation of either the primary wave or the secondary wave at least in the condition of clear trabecular alignment. The results led us to the possibility of using the two-wave phenomenon in a diagnostic system for osteoporosis in cases of a complex boundary.

  4. Constitutive Equations and Flow Behavior of an As-Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Under Large Strain Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Cunsheng; Lu, Xing; Wang, Cuixue; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-06-01

    A reasonable constitutive model is the key to achieving the accurate numerical simulation of magnesium alloy extrusion process. Based on the hot compression tests of the as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy, the strain-compensated Arrhenius equation, the constitutive equation taking into account dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX), and the modified Fields-Backofen equation (FB) are established to describe the deformation behavior of this alloy under large strain condition (strain level greater than 1.0) and wide strain rate range (0.01 to 10 s-1), respectively. Then material parameters in each constitutive model are determined by linear fitting method. The comparison of these three kinds of equations shows that the strain-compensated Arrhenius model provides the best prediction of flow stress, and the calculated value of correlation coefficient ( R) is the highest as 0.9945 and the average absolute relative error (AARE) is the lowest as 3.11%. The constitutive equation with DRV + DRX can also predict flow stress accurately, and its values of R and AARE are 0.9920 and 4.41%, respectively. However, compared to the other two constitutive equations, the modified FB equation does not give good description of hot deformation behavior for this magnesium alloy. Finally, the advantages and drawbacks of these three kinds of constitutive models are discussed and compared. Therefore, this work could provide theoretical guidelines for investigating hot deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys and determining the appropriate extrusion process parameters under large strain condition.

  5. Music Regulators in Two String Quartets: A Comparison of Communicative Behaviors between Low- and High-Stress Performance Conditions.

    PubMed

    Biasutti, Michele; Concina, Eleonora; Wasley, David; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviors as a sort of "language" to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This article focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance) and eye contact. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in non-verbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how they are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of two string quartet performances (Quartet A performing Bartók and Quartet B performing Haydn) were analyzed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP), undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP) during a public recital. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e., the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gesture) during HSP than LSP. Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contact during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviors are less standardized and may change according to idiosyncratic performance conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance.

  6. Music Regulators in Two String Quartets: A Comparison of Communicative Behaviors between Low- and High-Stress Performance Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Biasutti, Michele; Concina, Eleonora; Wasley, David; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviors as a sort of “language” to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This article focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance) and eye contact. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in non-verbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how they are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of two string quartet performances (Quartet A performing Bartók and Quartet B performing Haydn) were analyzed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP), undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP) during a public recital. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e., the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gesture) during HSP than LSP. Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contact during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviors are less standardized and may change according to idiosyncratic performance conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance. PMID:27610089

  7. Ageing of solid-state protein films: Behavior of azurin at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, P. P.; Bramanti, A.; Maruccio, G.; Mercato, L. L. del; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-03-01

    We report on the folding properties of the protein azurin, deposited onto SiO 2 surfaces and subsequently dehydrated. The molecular films have been maintained at ambient conditions through several days, and the ageing effects have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental results show a modest initial conformational rearrangement, followed by long-term stability. Interestingly, upon rehydration of the biomolecular films at the end of the investigated period (approximately one month), azurin returns to exhibit a native-like conformation. This study indicates a rather surprising resilience of proteins to ambient conditions and sheds a somewhat unexpected positive light on reliability in biomolecular electronics.

  8. Melting behavior of mixed U-Pu oxides under oxidizing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strach, Michal; Manara, Dario; Belin, Renaud C.; Rogez, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    In order to use mixed U-Pu oxide ceramics in present and future nuclear reactors, their physical and chemical properties need to be well determined. The behavior of stoichiometric (U,Pu)O2 compounds is relatively well understood, but the effects of oxygen stoichiometry on the fuel performance and stability are often still obscure. In the present work, a series of laser melting experiments were carried out to determine the impact of an oxidizing atmosphere, and in consequence the departure from a stoichiometric composition on the melting behavior of six mixed uranium plutonium oxides with Pu content ranging from 14 to 62 wt%. The starting materials were disks cut from sintered stoichiometric pellets. For each composition we have performed two laser melting experiments in pressurized air, each consisting of four shots of different duration and intensity. During the experiments we recorded the temperature at the surface of the sample with a pyrometer. Phase transitions were qualitatively identified with the help of a reflected blue laser. The observed phase transitions occur at a systematically lower temperature, the lower the Pu content of the studied sample. It is consistent with the fact that uranium dioxide is easily oxidized at elevated temperatures, forming chemical species rich in oxygen, which melt at a lower temperature and are more volatile. To our knowledge this campaign is a first attempt to quantitatively determine the effect of O/M on the melting temperature of MOX.

  9. Revisiting the neural role of estrogen receptor beta in male sexual behavior by conditional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Naulé, Lydie; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Parmentier, Caroline; Martini, Mariangela; Albac, Christelle; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Keller, Matthieu; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-04-01

    Estradiol derived from neural aromatization of gonadal testosterone plays a key role in the perinatal organization of the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of neural estrogen receptor (ER) β in estradiol-induced effects without interfering with its peripheral functions. For this purpose, male mice lacking ERβ in the nervous system were generated. Analyses of males in two consecutive tests with a time interval of two weeks showed an effect of experience, but not of genotype, on the latencies to the first mount, intromission, pelvic thrusting and ejaculation. Similarly, there was an effect of experience, but not of genotype, on the number of thrusts and mating length. Neural ERβ deletion had no effect on the ability of males to adopt a lordosis posture in response to male mounts, after castration and priming with estradiol and progesterone. Indeed, only low percentages of both genotypes exhibited a low lordosis quotient. It also did not affect their olfactory preference. Quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the preoptic area showed unaffected sexual dimorphism of both populations in mutants. By contrast, the number of androgen receptor- and ERα-immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis of mutant males. These data show that neural ERβ does not play a crucial role in the organization and activation of the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior. These discrepancies with the phenotype of global ERβ knockout models are discussed.

  10. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  11. Pretrial Functional Connectivity Differentiates Behavioral Outcomes during Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in the Rabbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Matthew P.; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Wang, Lei; Disterhoft, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in neural activity can produce states that facilitate and accelerate task-related performance. Acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning (tEBC) in the rabbit is enhanced when trials are contingent on optimal pretrial activity in the hippocampus. Other regions which are essential for whisker-signaled tEBC, such as the cerebellar…

  12. Conditioned Side Effects Induced by Cancer Chemotherapy: Prevention Through Behavioral Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burish, Thomas G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied cancer patients (N=24) in order to determine whether conditioned nausea and vomiting could be delayed or prevented. Indicated that patients receiving progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery had significantly less nausea and vomiting and significanty lower blood pressures, pulse rates, and dysphoria, especially anxiety,…

  13. Storage behavior of mango as affected by post harvest application of plant extracts and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nisha; Jain, S K

    2014-10-01

    The use of plant extracts could be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides in the post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of extracts obtained from four plants (neem, Pongamia, custard apple leaf and marigold flowers) on the extension of shelf life of mango fruits cv. Dashehri under two storage conditions (Cool store and ambient condition). The fruits were treated with 2 concentrations of each plant extracts (10 % and 20 %) were placed in perforated linear low density poly ethylene bags and stored in storage conditions viz., cool storage and ambient condition, respectively. The treatment of neem leaf extract in combination with cool storage gave encouraging results. Up to the end of the storage study the treatment combination of 20 % neem leaf extract and cool store completely inhibited the pathogens, and no spoilage was observed. There was minimum physiological loss in weight (6.24 %), minimum girth reduction (0.62 %), maximum ascorbic acid content (29.96 mg/ 100 g of pulp), maximum acidity (0.19 %), minimum pH (5.28), maximum total soluble solids (20.96 %), maximum total sugars (12.50 %), reducing sugars (4.12 %) and non- reducing sugars (7.96 %) and best organoleptic score (7.93/10) in this interaction. The inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract was ascribed to the presence of active principle azadirachtin.

  14. The Effects of Conditional Discrimination Instruction and Verbal Behavior on the Establishment of Hierarchical Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Clarissa S.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the use of conditional discrimination (CD) instruction and multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) to establish derived relational responding in accordance with hierarchical frames with school aged children. The first experiment used a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of MEI to teach participants to…

  15. Synchronous behavior of spontaneous oscillations of sarcomeres in skeletal myofibrils under isotonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, K; Shindo, Y; Ishiwata, S

    1996-04-01

    An isotonic control system for studying dynamic properties of single myofibrils was developed to evaluate the change of sarcomere lengths in glycerinated skeletal myofibrils under conditions of spontaneous oscillatory contraction (SPOC) in the presence of inorganic phosphate and a high ADP-to-ATP ratio. Sarcomere length oscillated spontaneously with a peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.5 microns under isotonic conditions in which the external loads were maintained constant at values between 1.5 x 10(4) and 3.5 x 10(4) N/m2. The shortening and yielding of sarcomeres occurred in concert, in contrast to the previously reported conditions (isomeric or auxotonic) under which the myofibrillar tension is allowed to oscillate. This synchronous SPOC appears to be at a higher level of synchrony than in the organized state of SPOC previously observed under auxotonic conditions. The period of sarcomere length oscillation did not largely depend on external load. The active tension under SPOC conditions increased as the sarcomere length increased from 2.1 to 3.2 microns, although it was still smaller than the tension under normal Ca2+ contraction (which is on the order of 10(5) N/m2). The synchronous SPOC implies that there is a mechanism for transmitting information between sarcomeres such that the state of activation of sarcomeres is affected by the state of adjacent sarcomeres. We conclude that the change of myofibrillar tension is not responsible for the SPOC of each sarcomere but that it affects the level of synchrony of sarcomere oscillations.

  16. Synchronous behavior of spontaneous oscillations of sarcomeres in skeletal myofibrils under isotonic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, K; Shindo, Y; Ishiwata, S

    1996-01-01

    An isotonic control system for studying dynamic properties of single myofibrils was developed to evaluate the change of sarcomere lengths in glycerinated skeletal myofibrils under conditions of spontaneous oscillatory contraction (SPOC) in the presence of inorganic phosphate and a high ADP-to-ATP ratio. Sarcomere length oscillated spontaneously with a peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.5 microns under isotonic conditions in which the external loads were maintained constant at values between 1.5 x 10(4) and 3.5 x 10(4) N/m2. The shortening and yielding of sarcomeres occurred in concert, in contrast to the previously reported conditions (isomeric or auxotonic) under which the myofibrillar tension is allowed to oscillate. This synchronous SPOC appears to be at a higher level of synchrony than in the organized state of SPOC previously observed under auxotonic conditions. The period of sarcomere length oscillation did not largely depend on external load. The active tension under SPOC conditions increased as the sarcomere length increased from 2.1 to 3.2 microns, although it was still smaller than the tension under normal Ca2+ contraction (which is on the order of 10(5) N/m2). The synchronous SPOC implies that there is a mechanism for transmitting information between sarcomeres such that the state of activation of sarcomeres is affected by the state of adjacent sarcomeres. We conclude that the change of myofibrillar tension is not responsible for the SPOC of each sarcomere but that it affects the level of synchrony of sarcomere oscillations. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8785342

  17. Conditions for spin-gapless semiconducting behavior in Mn{sub 2}CoAl inverse Heusler compound

    SciTech Connect

    Galanakis, I.; Özdoğan, K.; Şaşıoğlu, E.; Blügel, S.

    2014-03-07

    Employing ab initio electronic structure calculations, we investigate the conditions for spin-gapless semiconducting (SGS) behavior in the inverse Mn{sub 2}CoAl Heusler compound. We show that tetragonalization of the lattice, which can occur during films growth, keeps the SGS character of the perfect cubic compound. On the contrary, atomic swaps even between sites with different local symmetry destroy the SGS character giving rise to a half-metallic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of Co-surplus leads also to half-metallicity. Thus, we propose that in order to achieve SGS behavior during the growth of Mn{sub 2}CoAl (and similar SGS Heusler compounds) thin films, one should minimize the occurrence of defects, while small deformations of the lattice, due to the lattice mismatch with the substrate, do not play a crucial role.

  18. The behavior of fuel-lean premixed flames in a standard flammability limit tube under controlled gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wherley, B. L.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel-lean flames in methane-air mixtures from 4.90 to 6.20 volume percent fuel and propane-air mixtures from 1.90 to 3.00 volume percent fuel were studied in the vicinity of the limit for a variety of gravity conditions. The limits were determined and the behavior of the flames studied for one g upward, one g downward, and zero g propagation. Photographic records of all flammability tube firings were obtained. The structure and behavior of these flames were detailed including the variations of the curvature of the flame front, the skirt length, and the occurrence of cellular instabilities with varying gravity conditions. The effect of ignition was also discussed. A survey of flame speeds as a function of mixture strength was made over a range of lean mixture compositions for each of the fuels studied. The results were presented graphically with those obtained by other researchers. The flame speed for constant fractional gravity loadings were plotted as a function of gravity loadings from 0.0 up to 2.0 g's against flame speeds extracted from the transient gravity flame histories for corresponding gravity loadings. The effects of varying gravity conditions on the extinguishment process for upward and downward propagating flames were investigated.

  19. Patient-specific modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of individual sickle red blood cells under hypoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous morphology and abnormal dynamics under hypoxic conditions. We developed a time-dependent cell model that is able to simulate the dynamic processes of repeated sickling and unsickling of red blood cells (RBCs) under physiological conditions. By using the kinetic cell model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the dynamic behavior of individual sickle RBCs flowing in a microfluidic channel with multiple microgates. We investigate how individual sickle RBCs behave differently from healthy ones in channel flow, and analyze the alteration of cellular behavior and response to single-cell capillary obstruction induced by cell rheologic rigidification and morphological change due to cell sickling under hypoxic conditions. We also simulate the flow dynamics of sickle RBCs treated with hydroxyurea (HU) and quantify the relative enhancement of hemodynamic performance of HU. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant U01HL114476.

  20. Behavioral changes in response to sound exposure and no spatial avoidance of noisy conditions in captive zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Parie, Lisa; Bakker, Frederique; Snelderwaard, Peter; Tudorache, Christian; Schaaf, Marcel; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity in fish serves various important functions, but also makes fish susceptible to noise pollution. Human-generated sounds may affect behavioral patterns of fish, both in natural conditions and in captivity. Fish are often kept for consumption in aquaculture, on display in zoos and hobby aquaria, and for medical sciences in research facilities, but little is known about the impact of ambient sounds in fish tanks. In this study, we conducted two indoor exposure experiments with zebrafish (Danio rerio). The first experiment demonstrated that exposure to moderate sound levels (112 dB re 1 μPa) can affect the swimming behavior of fish by changing group cohesion, swimming speed and swimming height. Effects were brief for both continuous and intermittent noise treatments. In the second experiment, fish could influence exposure to higher sound levels by swimming freely between an artificially noisy fish tank (120–140 dB re 1 μPa) and another with ambient noise levels (89 dB re 1 μPa). Despite initial startle responses, and a brief period in which many individuals in the noisy tank dived down to the bottom, there was no spatial avoidance or noise-dependent tank preference at all. The frequent exchange rate of about 60 fish passages per hour between tanks was not affected by continuous or intermittent exposures. In conclusion, small groups of captive zebrafish were able to detect sounds already at relatively low sound levels and adjust their behavior to it. Relatively high sound levels were at least at the on-set disturbing, but did not lead to spatial avoidance. Further research is needed to show whether zebrafish are not able to avoid noisy areas or just not bothered. Quantitatively, these data are not directly applicable to other fish species or other fish tanks, but they do indicate that sound exposure may affect fish behavior in any captive condition. PMID:25741256

  1. Generation of Organ-conditioned Media and Applications for Studying Organ-specific Influences on Breast Cancer Metastatic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Piaseczny, Matthew M; Pio, Graciella M; Chu, Jenny E; Xia, Ying; Nguyen, Kim; Goodale, David; Allan, Alison

    2016-06-13

    Breast cancer preferentially metastasizes to the lymph node, bone, lung, brain and liver in breast cancer patients. Previous research efforts have focused on identifying factors inherent to breast cancer cells that are responsible for this observed metastatic pattern (termed organ tropism), however much less is known about factors present within specific organs that contribute to this process. This is in part because of a lack of in vitro model systems that accurately recapitulate the organ microenvironment. To address this, an ex vivo model system has been established that allows for the study of soluble factors present within different organ microenvironments. This model consists of generating conditioned media from organs (lymph node, bone, lung, and brain) isolated from normal athymic nude mice. The model system has been validated by demonstrating that different breast cancer cell lines display cell-line specific and organ-specific malignant behavior in response to organ-conditioned media that corresponds to their in vivo metastatic potential. This model system can be used to identify and evaluate specific organ-derived soluble factors that may play a role in the metastatic behavior of breast and other types of cancer cells, including influences on growth, migration, stem-like behavior, and gene expression, as well as the identification of potential new therapeutic targets for cancer. This is the first ex vivo model system that can be used to study organ-specific metastatic behavior in detail and evaluate the role of specific organ-derived soluble factors in driving the process of cancer metastasis.

  2. Generalization of verbal conditioning to verbal and nonverbal behavior: group therapy with chronic psychiatric patients1

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence

    1974-01-01

    Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377

  3. Correlation between nonexponential relaxation and non-Arrhenius behavior under conditions of high compression.

    PubMed

    Gapiński, Jacek; Paluch, Marian; Patkowski, Adam

    2002-07-01

    Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to investigate the behavior of the dynamical properties of 1,1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methyl-phenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC) at elevated pressures. The fragility of BMMPC measured by the steepness index m(T) is decreasing and the nonexponentiality parameter beta(KWW) is increasing with increasing pressure. This result strongly suggests that the phenomenological correlation between the steepness index and nonexponentionality is also preserved under high compression. The pressure dependence of the structural relaxation times is well characterized by a simple activation volume form. The activation volume continuously increases with decreasing temperature, which is probably due to the increase of cooperativity of the structural relaxation process. Moreover, we found that the glass-transition temperature exhibits a significant dependence on pressure.

  4. Intercostal muscle motor behavior during tracheal occlusion conditioning in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Poonam B.

    2016-01-01

    A respiratory load compensation response is characterized by increases in activation of primary respiratory muscles and/or recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles. The contribution of the external intercostal (EI) muscles, which are a primary respiratory muscle group, during normal and loaded breathing remains poorly understood in conscious animals. Consciousness has a significant role on modulation of respiratory activity, as it is required for the integration of behavioral respiratory responses and voluntary control of breathing. Studies of respiratory load compensation have been predominantly focused in anesthetized animals, which make their comparison to conscious load compensation responses challenging. Using our established model of intrinsic transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO), our aim was to evaluate the motor behavior of EI muscles during normal and loaded breathing in conscious rats. We hypothesized that 1) conscious rats exposed to ITTO will recruit the EI muscles with an increased electromyogram (EMG) activation and 2) repeated ITTO for 10 days would potentiate the baseline EMG activity of this muscle in conscious rats. Our results demonstrate that conscious rats exposed to ITTO respond by recruiting the EI muscle with a significantly increased EMG activation. This response to occlusion remained consistent over the 10-day experimental period with little or no effect of repeated ITTO exposure on the baseline ∫EI EMG amplitude activity. The pattern of activation of the EI muscle in response to an ITTO is discussed in detail. The results from the present study demonstrate the importance of EI muscles during unloaded breathing and respiratory load compensation in conscious rats. PMID:26823339

  5. Conditioned turning behavior: A Pavlovian fear response expressed during the post-encounter period following aversive stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tarpley, Jason W.; Shlifer, I. Gary; Halladay, Lindsay R.; Blair, Hugh T.

    2010-01-01

    Rats were trained to fear an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) by pairing it with a mild electric shock (the unconditioned stimulus, or US) delivered to one eyelid. After training, the CS elicited two different conditioned fear responses from rats: a passive freezing response, and an active turning response. The balance between these two modes of conditioned responding depended upon the rat's recent history of encounters with the US. If rats had not recently encountered the US, then they responded to the CS by freezing. But after recently encountering the US, rats exhibited CS-evoked turning responses that were always directed away from the trained eyelid, even if the US had recently been delivered to the opposite (untrained) eyelid. This post-encounter turning behavior was not observed in rats that had been trained with unpaired presentations of the CS and US, indicating that even though CS-evoked turning was selectively expressed after recent encounters with the US, it was nonetheless a conditioned Pavlovian fear response that depended upon a learned association between the CS and US. Further supporting this conclusion, pharmacological inactivation experiments showed that expression of both freezing and turning behaviors depended upon lateralized circuits in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG) that are known to support expression of Pavlovian fear responses. These findings indicate that even though the ability of a CS to elicit Pavlovian fear responses depend upon the long-term history of CS-US pairings, the mode of conditioned responding (freezing versus turning in the present experiments) can be modulated by short-term factors, such as the recent history of US encounters. We discuss neural mechanisms that might mediate such short-term transitions between different modes of defensive responding, and consider how dysregulation of such mechanisms might contribute to clinical anxiety disorders. PMID:20600645

  6. [The over-reinforced conditioned reflex--a highly adaptive behavioral system].

    PubMed

    Serdiuchenko, V M

    1995-01-01

    Specialized (according to Pavlov) instrumental alimentary conditioned reflexes (CR) were studied after extremely prolonged training (2500-3000 pairings). It was established that these CR were characterized by extremely rapid extinction (till 15-20 absences of instrumental reaction after only 2-7 presentations of non-reinforced conditioned stimulus, despite the classical statement on difficult extinction of consolidated CR) independently of typological features and level of alimentary motivation of animals. The results obtained allow us to set aside such reflexes as a special category of CR which are underlined by neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms distinct from those of commonly used in experimental practice less trained CR. The phenomenon described may be interesting in studying the processes of learning and long-term memory.

  7. Acrylic bone cements with bismuth salicylate: Behavior in simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L; Vázquez, B; López-Bravo, A; Parra, J; Goñi, I; Gurruchaga, M

    2007-02-01

    In a previous work, we reported the development of acrylic bone cement formulations for application in percutaneous vertebroplasty, by using bismuth salicylate (BS) as the radiopaque agent. Our objective was to obtain high radiopacity along with a therapeutical effect produced by the release of salicylic acid in situ. To follow that study, the setting kinetics and static and dynamical mechanical properties of the BS cements were studied in simulated physiological conditions. Moreover, radiopacity after various times of immersion in saline and the wettability of the cements surfaces were determined. The study finished with the analysis of the biological response. From the results, it can be concluded that physiological conditions did not affect negatively to the cements performance, since all BS-loaded cements fulfilled the ISO standard requirements. Radiopacity of the formulations was maintained over time and cements with BS were found to be biocompatible.

  8. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of instrumented spur gears operating at aerospace rotorcraft conditions was conducted. The instrumented gears were operated in a normal and in a loss-of-lubrication environment. Thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature at various locations on the test gears and a test utilized a full-field, high-speed infrared thermal imaging system. Data from thermocouples was recorded during all testing at 1 Hz. One test had the gears shrouded and a second test was run without the shrouds to permit the infrared thermal imaging system to take date during loss-of-lubrication operation. Both tests using instrumented spur gears were run in normal and loss-of-lubrication conditions. Also the result from four other loss-of-lubrication tests will be presented. In these tests two different torque levels were used while operating at the same rotational speed (10000 rpm).

  9. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of instrumented spur gears operating at aerospace rotorcraft conditions was conducted. The instrumented gears were operated in a normal and in a loss-of-lubrication environment. Thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature at various locations on the test gears and a test utilized a full-field, high-speed infrared thermal imaging system. Data from thermocouples was recorded during all testing at 1 hertz. One test had the gears shrouded and a second test was run without the shrouds to permit the infrared thermal imaging system to take data during loss-of-lubrication operation. Both tests using instrumented spur gears were run in normal and loss-of-lubrication conditions. Also the result from four other loss-of-lubrication tests will be presented. In these tests two different torque levels were used while operating at the same rotational speed (10000 revolutions per minute).

  10. The finite-amplitude behavior of the Joule mode under astrophysical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.; Ferrari, A.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetized astrophysical plasmas reveal a great deal of structure when spatially resolved. One possible explanation for this structuring is based on the existence of filamenting instabilities driven by radiation. In this paper, previous linear calculations are extended by considering the weakly nonlinear (finite-amplitude) development of such filamenting instabilities in magnetized unstratified plasmas. It is shown that under most conditions these instabilities (in particular, the Jouse model) are unstable at finite amplitude; in particular, in the temperature and plasma-beta domains characteristic of, for example, much of the solar transition region, these modes - which can be linearly stable under these conditions - become unstable to finite-amplitude perturbations. The relevance of this to the problem of heating the solar low transition region by current dissipation is discussed.

  11. Corrosion behavior of iron and nickel base alloys under solid oxide fuel cell exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

    2006-03-01

    Topography and phase composition of the scales formed on commercial ferritic stainless steels and experimental low CTE nickel-based alloys were studied in atmospheres simulating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) environments. The materials were studied under dual environment conditions with air on one side of the sample and carbon monoxide on the other side at 750°C. Surface characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used in this study.

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Transdiagnostic Behavioral Intervention for Mental Health and Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dindo, Lilian; Van Liew, Julia R; Arch, Joanna J

    2017-03-07

    Psychological interventions have a long history of successful treatment of patients suffering from mental health and certain medical conditions. At the same time, psychotherapy research has revealed key areas of growth for optimizing patient care. These include identifying novel treatment delivery methods that increase treatment adherence, developing new strategies to more effectively address the ever-growing population of patients with comorbid conditions, and elucidating the mechanisms by which effective treatments work in order to further refine their design. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported psychotherapy that offers promise for patients suffering from a wide range of mental and physical conditions, while addressing these gaps and challenges in the field. ACT rests on the fundamental premise that pain, grief, disappointment, illness, and anxiety are inevitable features of human life, with the therapeutic goal of helping individuals productively adapt to these types of challenges by developing greater psychological flexibility rather than engaging in counterproductive attempts to eliminate or suppress undesirable experiences. This is achieved through committed pursuit of valued life areas and directions, even in the face of the natural desire to escape or avoid painful and troubling experiences, emotions, and thoughts. ACT is transdiagnostic (applies to more than one condition), process-focused, and flexibly delivered. In a relatively short period of time, ACT has been effectively implemented across a broad range of therapeutic settings, including mental health, primary care, and specialty medical clinics. ACT has also been delivered in a variety of formats, including 1-day group workshops, online and smartphone applications, and telehealth. Focus on how best to package and deliver treatment to meet the unique needs of different patient populations helps to ensure treatment adherence and has fostered successful application of

  13. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  14. Erosive Wear Behavior of High-Alloy Cast Iron and Duplex Stainless Steel under Mining Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Centrifugal pumps used in the lignite mines encounter erosive wear problems, leading to a disastrous failure of the pump casings. This paper attempts to evaluate the erosive wear resistance of Ni-Hard 4, high-chromium iron, and Cast CD4MCu duplex stainless steel (DSS), for mining conditions. The prepared test coupons were subjected to an erosion test by varying the impingement velocity and the angle of impingement, under two different pH conditions of 3 and 7, which pertained to the mining conditions. XRD analysis was carried out to confirm the phases present in the alloy. The eroded surface was subjected to SEM analysis to identify the erosion mechanisms. The surface degradation of Ni-Hard 4 and high-chromium iron came from a low-angle abrasion with a grooving and plowing mechanism at a low angle of impingement. At normal impingement, deep indentations resulted in lips and crater formations, leading to degradation of the surface in a brittle manner. A combined extrusion-forging mechanism is observed in the CD4MCu DSS surface at all the impingement angles.

  15. Long-term behavior of ionic electroactive polymer actuators in variable humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vunder, V.; Punning, A.; Aabloo, A.

    2015-04-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers or IEAPs are considered as an attractive actuators and sensors in various applications. Many of these polymer composites are designed to be used in an ambient environment. However, the ambient conditions may significantly vary depending on the seasonal or the geographical irregularities generated by the power of nature. Taking the advantage of the fluctuating weather conditions of Estonia, different IEAP materials were continuously monitored for about 6 weeks. During this time the temperature and relative humidity of the ambient environment varied between 30-58 % and 23-29 °C respectively. The experiment was conducted in a non-air-conditioned lab facility where the parameters such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure were registered. Concurrently the electromechanical impedance of 12 actuators of different types was registered. This setup brings out the degradation as well as the impact of the environment to the IEAP actuators. The analysis reveals that the performance of the actuators under research is highly correlated with the ambient relative humidity level which can increase or decrease their performance more than 2 times. Naturally, this issue needs to be addressed in characterization, modeling and control areas. In contrast, the changes of pressure and temperature appeared to have no significant influence on the performance of the actuators investigated

  16. EIS Behavior of Experimental High-Strength Steel in Near-Neutral pH and Load Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Serna-Barquera, Sergio Alonso; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo Fabian; Castaneda, Homero

    2017-02-01

    Two thermomechanical heat treatments were applied to a high-strength low carbon steel with an experimental chemical composition, and as a result two different microstructures were obtained. Steel A had a ferritic microstructure, and steel B had a bainitic-martensitic one. The corrosion behavior was reviewed at long times in samples without load by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in a near-neutral pH (NNpH) environment. The results showed that the quantity and adherence of corrosion products on the sample surface at long times are different. Hence, the impedance was higher for steel B. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was applied to tempered samples of the two steels at 473 K, 673 K, and 873 K (200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C), and the corrosion behavior was acquired using EIS at the same time as the SSRT in NNpH conditions. This is a novel result because the tension samples were not electrically isolated from the rest of the load frame. The impedance for the ferritic steel was higher than the bainitic-martensitic one, while it slightly decreased for both steel over time. Tempering improved the corrosion resistance for steel A, while it was not modified for steel B. The corrosion behavior could be associated with the susceptibility of these steels to stress corrosion cracking. A transmission line model was proposed to show qualitatively the corrosion behavior of a crack in the steel, if there is a potential profile inside the crack. A hypothetical potential profile was acquired as well as different impedance behaviors based on electrochemical variables.

  17. EIS Behavior of Experimental High-Strength Steel in Near-Neutral pH and Load Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Serna-Barquera, Sergio Alonso; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo Fabian; Castaneda, Homero

    2017-04-01

    Two thermomechanical heat treatments were applied to a high-strength low carbon steel with an experimental chemical composition, and as a result two different microstructures were obtained. Steel A had a ferritic microstructure, and steel B had a bainitic-martensitic one. The corrosion behavior was reviewed at long times in samples without load by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in a near-neutral pH (NNpH) environment. The results showed that the quantity and adherence of corrosion products on the sample surface at long times are different. Hence, the impedance was higher for steel B. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was applied to tempered samples of the two steels at 473 K, 673 K, and 873 K (200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C), and the corrosion behavior was acquired using EIS at the same time as the SSRT in NNpH conditions. This is a novel result because the tension samples were not electrically isolated from the rest of the load frame. The impedance for the ferritic steel was higher than the bainitic-martensitic one, while it slightly decreased for both steel over time. Tempering improved the corrosion resistance for steel A, while it was not modified for steel B. The corrosion behavior could be associated with the susceptibility of these steels to stress corrosion cracking. A transmission line model was proposed to show qualitatively the corrosion behavior of a crack in the steel, if there is a potential profile inside the crack. A hypothetical potential profile was acquired as well as different impedance behaviors based on electrochemical variables.

  18. Morphological and behavioral differences in the gastropod Trophon geversianus associated to distinct environmental conditions, as revealed by a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Federico; Nieto Vilela, Rocío Aimé; Lozada, Mariana; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The gastropod Trophon geversianus exhibits shell polymorphisms along its distribution in subtidal and intertidal habitats. Our hypothesis is that morphological and behavioral patterns of T. geversianus represent habitat-specific constrains; subsequently we expect an association between shell morphology, attachment behavior, and habitat. In order to test this hypothesis we compared individuals from intertidal and subtidal habitats, at three sites in Golfo Nuevo (Argentina). We analyzed shell morphology using classic morphometric variables, 3D geometric morphometrics and computing tomography scan. The results were complemented with field observations of attachment to substrate and turning time behavior, as well as of the number of shell scars produced by crab predation. Our results showed differences in shell size and shape between intertidal and subtidal-collected individuals. Centroid size, total weight and shell weight, as well as shell density and thickness were significantly lower in intertidal individuals than in subtidal ones. Gastropods from intertidal habitats presented a low-spired shell and an expanded aperture which might allow better attachment to the bottom substrate, while subtidal individuals presented a slender and narrower shell shape. The number of crab scars was significantly higher in shells from subtidal individuals. Observations of the behavior of gastropods placed at the intertidal splash zone showed 100% of attachment to the bottom in the intertidal individuals, while subtidal specimens only attached in average in 32% of the cases. These latter took 12 times longer to re-attach to the bottom when faced up. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene fragments showed no consistent differences among individuals sampled in both habitats. All these results suggest that T. geversianus has developed two ecomorphs with distinct morphological and behavioral responses to physically stressful conditions registered in north Patagonian intertidals, as opposed to

  19. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  1. Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and

  2. Investigation of influence of hypomagnetic conditions closely similar to interplanetary magnetic filed on behavioral and vegetative reactions of higher mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, Natalie; Trukhanov, Kiril; Zamotshina, Tatyana; Zaeva, Olga; Khodanovich, Marina; Misina, Tatyana; Tukhvatulin, Ravil; Suhko, Valery

    To study the influence of long being under reduced magnetic field on behavioral and vegetative reactions of higher mammals the white rat males were put into the 700-1000 times reduced geomagnetic field (50-70 nT) for 25 days. Such field was obtained by using automatic compensation of the horizontal and vertical components of the GMF at a frequencies up to 10 Hz by means of solenoids of the experimental magnetic system. Control animals were located in the same room under usual laboratory GMF conditions (52 uT). Two days before the experiment the behavioral reactions were studied in the "open field" by means of a set of tests, characterizing the level of emotionality, moving and orientational-investigative activities of the animals under conditions of unimpeded behavior. 60 white underbred rat males with the initial body mass of 200 g were divided into three clusters. Animals with average indices were selected for the experiment. We have judged behavioral reaction disturbances of the rats under hypomagnetic conditions using videotape recordings carried out in the entire course of the chronic experiment. According to the obtained results during the period of maximum activity (from 230 to 330 a.m.) the number of interrelations between the individuals increased appreciably for experimental rats including interrelations with aggressive character. This was real during all 25 days of observation. We observed a certain dynamics of this index differed from that of the control group. We have also analyzed the final period of observation from the 21th to the 25th days. In this period we studied the 24 hours' dynamics of interrelations which were noted during 5 minutes in every hour around the clock. In the control group the number of interrelation was at a constantly low level. For experimental animals the number of interrelations was higher in the night hours than in the day ones. Moreover it exceeded the similar indexes observed from the 1st to the 20th day. For example from

  3. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  4. Effect of surface condition on the aqueous corrosion behavior of iron aluminies

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Perrin, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    The effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion characteristics of Fe-Al-based alloys were evaluated by electrochemical methods. Cyclic anodic polarization evaluations were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution (pH = 4,200 ppm Cl{sup {minus}}) on the Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides, FA-84 (Fe-28Al-2Cr-0.05B, at %), FA-129 (Fe-28Al-5Cr-0.5Nb-0.2C, at %), and FAL-Mo (Fe-28Al-5Cr-1Mo-0.04B-0.08Zr, at %), on the FeAl-based iron aluminide, FA-385 (Fe-35.65Al-0.20Mo-0.05Zr-0.11C, at %). The surface conditions evaluated were: As received (i.e. with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned (ground through 600-grit SiC paper), and chemically cleaned (10% HNO{sub 3}, 2%HF, at 43 {degree}C). The principal electrochemical parameter of interest was the critical putting potential with lower values indicating less resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion. For all materials evaluated, the critical pitting potential was found to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. Mechanisms responsible for the detrimental high-temperature-oxide effect are under study.

  5. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  6. Effect of cyclic loading and temper condition on the tensile behavior of boron-aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Kennedy, J. M.; Tenney, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results from monotonic and cyclic tension tests on six different 6061 boron-aluminum laminates show that the strength of fiber dominated laminates is decreased and the strength of matrix dominated laminates is increased by T6 heat treatment. Cyrogenic exposure and cyclic loading are shown to have little influence on strength. Cyclic loading is also shown to produce small reductions in modulus for some laminates and some temper conditions. The results are discussed in light of expected metallurgical and residual stress changes due to temperature excursions and loading cycles.

  7. SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND AMORPHOUS PEROXOTITANATE MATERIALS UNDER WEAKLY ACIDIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Click, D.

    2009-11-11

    Inorganic, titanate-based sorbents are tested with respect to adsorption of a variety of sorbates under weakly acidic conditions (pH 3). Specifically, monosodium titanate (MST) and amorphous peroxotitanate (APT) sorption characteristics are initially probed through a screening process consisting of a pair of mixed metal solutions containing a total of 29 sorbates including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, metalloids and nonmetals. MST and APT sorption characteristics are further analyzed individually with chromium(III) and cadmium(II) using a batch method at ambient laboratory temperature, varying concentrations of the sorbents and sorbates and contact times. Maximum sorbate loadings are obtained from the respective adsorption isotherms.

  8. PERSONAL ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED SOCIAL NORMS, AND HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  9. Tribological Behavior of Babbitt Alloy Rubbing Against Si3N4 and Steel Under Dry Friction Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xianbing; Chen, Yinxia

    2016-03-01

    The tribological behavior of Babbitt alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball with various sliding speeds at dry friction condition was investigated. It was found that B88 alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball possesses a low sliding wear resistance at dry friction. The wear rate is above 10-4 mm3/Nm, and the friction coefficient is from 0.2 to 0.4. At low sliding speed of 0.05-0.1 m/s, the mainly wear mechanisms are microgroove and fatigue wear, while at high sliding speed of 0.5 m/s, the wear mechanisms depend on plastic deformation and delamination. The high wear rate indicates that it is needed to prevent Babbitt alloy from working at dry friction conditions, while the low friction coefficient suggests that it is not easy to the occurrence of cold weld.

  10. Calibration of hydrodynamic behavior and biokinetics for TOC removal modeling in biofilm reactors under different hydraulic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Soric, Audrey; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    In this study, total organic carbon (TOC) biodegradation was simulated by GPS-X software in biofilm reactors with carriers of plastic rings and glass beads under different hydraulic conditions. Hydrodynamic model by retention time distribution and biokinetic measurement by in-situ batch test served as two significant parts of model calibration. Experimental results showed that TOC removal efficiency was stable in both media due to the enough height of column, although the actual hydraulic volume changed during the variation of hydraulic condition. Simulated TOC removal efficiencies were close to experimental ones with low theil inequality coefficient values (below 0.15). Compared with glass beads, more TOC was removed in the filter with plastic rings due to the larger actual hydraulic volume and lower half saturation coefficient in spite of its lower maximum specific growth rate of biofilm, which highlighted the importance of calibrating hydrodynamic behavior and biokinetics.

  11. Determination of acetamiprid residues in zucchini grown under greenhouse conditions: application to behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kim, Bo-Mee; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Cho, Soon-Kil; Ghafar, M W; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytical method was developed for the determination of acetamiprid residues in zucchini and zucchini leaves grown under greenhouse conditions using liquid chromatography. Residues were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients in excess of 0.999. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 µg/g and 0.02 and 0.06 µg/g, for the zucchini and zucchini leaves, respectively. For validation purposes, recoveries studies were carried out at low and high levels, yielding recovery rates ranged from 85.7 to 92.2% in zucchini and from 90.5 to 101.9% in zucchini leaves, with a relative standard deviation of <12%. The results demonstrated that the pattern of acetamiprid dissipation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with a half-life of 1.9 and 2.5 days, respectively. The residues in zucchini leaves were substantially higher than in the zucchini plant itself. No residues were detected at 7 days post-application. The results of this study suggest that acetamiprid is acceptable for application in/on zucchini under the recommended dosage conditions.

  12. Behavior of Supported Palladium Oxide Nanoparticles under Reaction Conditions, Studied with near Ambient Pressure XPS.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Astrid; Heutz, Niels; Raschke, Hannes; Merz, Klaus; Hergenröder, Roland

    2015-08-04

    Near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a promising method to close the "pressure gap", and thus, study the surface composition during heterogeneous reactions in situ. The specialized spectrometers necessary for this analytical technique have recently been adapted to operate with a conventional X-ray source, making it available for routine quantitative analysis in the laboratory. This is shown in the present in situ study of the partial oxidation of 2-propanol catalyzed with PdO nanoparticles supported on TiO2, which was investigated under reaction conditions as a function of gas composition (alcohol-to-oxygen ratio) and temperature. Exposure of the nanoparticles to 2-propanol at 30 °C leads to immediate partial reduction of the PdO, followed by a continuous reduction of the remaining PdO during heating. However, gaseous oxygen inhibits the reduction of PdO below 90 °C, and the oxidation of 2-propanol to carboxylates only occurs in the presence of oxygen above 90 °C. These results support the theory that metallic palladium is the active catalyst material, and they show that environmental conditions affect the nanoparticles and the reaction process significantly. The study also revealed challenges and limitations of this analytical method. Specifically, the intensity and fixed photon energy of a conventional X-ray source limit the spectral resolution and surface sensitivity of lab-based NAP-XPS, which affect precision and accuracy of the quantitative analysis.

  13. Analyses of Fatigue Crack Growth and Closure Near Threshold Conditions for Large-Crack Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A plasticity-induced crack-closure model was used to study fatigue crack growth and closure in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold testing procedures. Two methods of calculating crack-opening stresses were compared. One method was based on a contact-K analyses and the other on crack-opening-displacement (COD) analyses. These methods gave nearly identical results under constant-amplitude loading, but under threshold simulations the contact-K analyses gave lower opening stresses than the contact COD method. Crack-growth predictions tend to support the use of contact-K analyses. Crack-growth simulations showed that remote closure can cause a rapid rise in opening stresses in the near threshold regime for low-constraint and high applied stress levels. Under low applied stress levels and high constraint, a rise in opening stresses was not observed near threshold conditions. But crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) were of the order of measured oxide thicknesses in the 2024 alloy under constant-R simulations. In contrast, under constant-K(sub max) testing the CTOD near threshold conditions were an order-of-magnitude larger than measured oxide thicknesses. Residual-plastic deformations under both constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold simulations were several times larger than the expected oxide thicknesses. Thus, residual-plastic deformations, in addition to oxide and roughness, play an integral part in threshold development.

  14. Contextual control of conditioning is not affected by extinction in a behavioral task with humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    The Attentional Theory of Context Processing (ATCP) states that extinction will arouse attention to contexts resulting in learning becoming contextually controlled. Participants learned to suppress responding to colored sensors in a video-game task where contexts were provided by different gameplay backgrounds. Four experiments assessed the contextual control of simple excitatory learning acquired to a test stimulus (T) after (Exp. 1) or during (Exp. 2-4) extinction of another stimulus (X). Experiment 1 produced no evidence of contextual control of T, though renewal to X was present both at the time T was trained and tested. In Experiment 2 no contextual control of T was evident when X underwent extensive conditioning and extinction. In Experiment 3 no contextual control of T was evident after extensive conditioning and extinction of X, and renewal to X was present. In Experiment 4 contextual control was evident to T, but it neither depended upon nor was enhanced by extinction of X. The results presented here appear to limit the generality of ATCP.

  15. Dynamic analysis of hydrodynamic behavior of a flatfish cage system under wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong; Guan, Chang-tao; Wan, Rong; Huang, Bin; Li, Jiao

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a simulation model based on the finite element method. The method is used to analyze the motion response and mooring line tension of the flatfish cage system in waves. The cage system consists of top frames, netting, mooring lines, bottom frames, and floats. A series of scaled physical model tests in regular waves are conducted to verify the numerical model. The comparison results show that the simulated and the experimental results agree well under the wave conditions, and the maximum pitch of the bottom frame with two orientations is about 12°. The motion process of the whole cage system in the wave can be described with the computer visualized technology. Then, the mooring line tensions and the motion of the bottom frame with three kinds of weight are calculated under different wave conditions. According to the numerical results, the differences in mooring line tensions of flatfish cages with three weight modes are indistinct. The maximum pitch of the bottom frame decreases with the increase of the bottom weight.

  16. Isolated effects of number of acquisition trials on extinction of rat conditioned approach behavior.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel A; Prince, Emily B

    2012-05-01

    Four conditioned approach experiments with rats assessed for effects of number of acquisition trials on extinction of conditioned responding, when number of acquisition sessions and total acquisition time were held constant. In Experiment 1, 32 trials per acquisition session led to more extinction responding than did 1 or 2 trials per session but less than did 4 trials per session. In Experiment 2, 2 trials per acquisition session led to more spontaneous recovery than did 32 trials per session. These latter findings are reminiscent of the overtraining extinction effect (OEE). Experiment 3 attempted to reduce the OEE with a preconditioning phase of partial reinforcement. Experiment 4 attempted to reduce the beneficial within-subject effects of increasing the number of acquisition trials on extinction observed by Gottlieb and Rescorla (2010) by extinguishing stimuli in different sessions. Overall, results suggest a procedural asymmetry: between-subject, increasing the number of trials between any pair of trials does not lead to greater persistence of responding during extinction; within-subject, it does. Results are discussed from an associative perspective, with a focus on explanations involving either frustration or comparator mechanisms, and from an information processing perspective, with a focus on Rate Estimation Theory.

  17. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  18. Enhanced Eyeblink Conditioning in Behaviorally Inhibited Individuals is Disrupted by Proactive Interference Following US Alone Pre-exposures.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael Todd; Miller, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US) alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012). US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent conditioned response (CR) acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al. (2012) reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI). Sixty-six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI) individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible

  19. Explanation of power law behavior of autoregressive conditional duration processes based on the random multiplicative process.

    PubMed

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2004-04-01

    Autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) processes, which have the potential to be applied to power law distributions of complex systems found in natural science, life science, and social science, are analyzed both numerically and theoretically. An ACD(1) process exhibits the singular second order moment, which suggests that its probability density function (PDF) has a power law tail. It is verified that the PDF of the ACD(1) has a power law tail with an arbitrary exponent depending on a model parameter. On the basis of theory of the random multiplicative process a relation between the model parameter and the power law exponent is theoretically derived. It is confirmed that the relation is valid from numerical simulations. An application of the ACD(1) to intervals between two successive transactions in a foreign currency market is shown.

  20. Explanation of power law behavior of autoregressive conditional duration processes based on the random multiplicative process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2004-04-01

    Autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) processes, which have the potential to be applied to power law distributions of complex systems found in natural science, life science, and social science, are analyzed both numerically and theoretically. An ACD(1) process exhibits the singular second order moment, which suggests that its probability density function (PDF) has a power law tail. It is verified that the PDF of the ACD(1) has a power law tail with an arbitrary exponent depending on a model parameter. On the basis of theory of the random multiplicative process a relation between the model parameter and the power law exponent is theoretically derived. It is confirmed that the relation is valid from numerical simulations. An application of the ACD(1) to intervals between two successive transactions in a foreign currency market is shown.

  1. [The role of uncertainty in the conditioned-reflex learning behavior for selected cardiovascular functions].

    PubMed

    Mechedowa, A J; Hecht, K; Treptow, K; Hecht, T

    1976-01-01

    As a contribution to quantitative analysis of exogenous stress action, the role of probability learning (probability stress, probability affirmation) for selected cardio-vascular functions was studied in 25 albino rats and 8 dogs. It has been shown in the rats learning with probability stress that a dependence exists between stress probability, on the one hand, and conditional-reflectory processes and systolic blood pressure rise, on the other, that is, the pathogenic action of probability stress increases from a probability of p = 1.0 to p = 0.5. An analogous picture was found with the probability affirmation being applied in dogs. While a probability affirmation with p = 1.0 promoted adaptational processes, a value of p = 0.5 led to experimental neurosis, tachycardia and ECG alterations. The results obtained are discussed in context with the information entropy and information theory of emotions.

  2. Simulating the dynamic behavior of a vertical axis wind turbine operating in unsteady conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.; Soraperra, G.; Raciti Castelli, M.

    2016-09-01

    The present work aims at assessing the reliability of a simulation tool capable of computing the unsteady rotational motion and the associated tower oscillations of a variable speed VAWT immersed in a coherent turbulent wind. As a matter of fact, since the dynamic behaviour of a variable speed turbine strongly depends on unsteady wind conditions (wind gusts), a steady state approach can't accurately catch transient correlated issues. The simulation platform proposed here is implemented using a lumped mass approach: the drive train is described by resorting to both the polar inertia and the angular position of rotating parts, also considering their speed and acceleration, while rotor aerodynamic is based on steady experimental curves. The ultimate objective of the presented numerical platform is the simulation of transient phenomena, driven by turbulence, occurring during rotor operation, with the aim of supporting the implementation of efficient and robust control algorithms.

  3. Aerodynamic and acoustic behavior of a YF-12 inlet at static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, L. H.; Feltz, E. P.; Godby, L. A.; Miller, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    An aeroacoustic test program to determine the cause of YF-12 inlet noise suppression was performed with a YF-12 aircraft at ground static conditions. Data obtained over a wide range of engine speeds and inlet configurations are reported. Acoustic measurements were made in the far field and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were made inside the inlet. The J-58 test engine was removed from the aircraft and tested separately with a bellmouth inlet. The far field noise level was significantly lower for the YF-12 inlet than for the bellmouth inlet at engine speeds above 5500 rpm. There was no evidence that noise suppression was caused by flow choking. Multiple pure tones were reduced and the spectral peak near the blade passing frequency disappeared in the region of the spike support struts at engine speeds between 6000 and 6600 rpm.

  4. Microstructure and fracture behavior of F82H steel under different irradiation and tensile test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dai, Y.; Spätig, P.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of martensitic steel F82H were irradiated to doses ranging from 10.7 dpa/850 appm He to 19.6 dpa/1740 appm He at temperatures between 165 and 305 °C in the second experiment of SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP-II). Tensile tests were conducted at different temperatures and various fracture modes were observed. Microstructural changes including irradiation-induced defect clusters, dislocation loops and helium bubbles under different irradiation conditions were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deformation microstructures of tensile tested specimens were carefully examined to understand the underlying deformation mechanisms. Deformation twinning was for the first time observed in irradiated martensitic steels. A change of deformation mechanism from dislocation channeling to deformation twinning was observed when the fracture mode changed from rather ductile (quasi-cleavage) to brittle (intergranular or cleavage and intergranular mixed).

  5. Release behavior of uranium in uranium mill tailings under environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Peng, Tongjiang; Sun, Hongjuan; Yue, Huanjuan

    2017-02-28

    Uranium contamination is observed in sedimentary geochemical environments, but the geochemical and mineralogical processes that control uranium release from sediment are not fully appreciated. Identification of how sediments and water influence the release and migration of uranium is critical to improve the prevention of uranium contamination in soil and groundwater. To understand the process of uranium release and migration from uranium mill tailings under water chemistry conditions, uranium mill tailing samples from northwest China were investigated with batch leaching experiments. Results showed that water played an important role in uranium release from the tailing minerals. The uranium release was clearly influenced by contact time, liquid-solid ratio, particle size, and pH under water chemistry conditions. Longer contact time, higher liquid content, and extreme pH were all not conducive to the stabilization of uranium and accelerated the uranium release from the tailing mineral to the solution. The values of pH were found to significantly influence the extent and mechanisms of uranium release from minerals to water. Uranium release was monitored by a number of interactive processes, including dissolution of uranium-bearing minerals, uranium desorption from mineral surfaces, and formation of aqueous uranium complexes. Considering the impact of contact time, liquid-solid ratio, particle size, and pH on uranium release from uranium mill tailings, reducing the water content, decreasing the porosity of tailing dumps and controlling the pH of tailings were the key factors for prevention and management of environmental pollution in areas near uranium mines.

  6. Mineralization behavior of fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Shih, Kaimin; Lu, Xingwen; Liu, Chengshuai

    2013-03-19

    The fate and transport of the fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during the thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge were observed using both qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction techniques. Two main fluorine mineralization mechanisms leading to the substantial formation of CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F phases were observed. They had a close relationship with the thermal treatment condition and the PFOS content of the sludge. At low temperatures (300-600 °C), CaF2 dominated in the product and increases in treatment time and temperature generally enhanced the fluorine transformation. However, at higher temperatures (700-900 °C), increases in treatment time and temperature had a negative effect on the overall efficiency of the fluorine crystallization. The results suggest that in the high temperature environment there were greater losses of gaseous products such as HF and SiF4 in the transformation of CaF2 to Ca5(PO4)3F, the hydrolysis of CaF2, and the reaction with SiO2. The quantitative analysis also showed that when treating sludge with low PFOS content at high temperatures, the formation of Ca5(PO4)3F may be the primary mechanism for the mineralization of the fluorine in PFOS. The overall results clearly indicate the variations in the fate and transport of fluorine in PFOS when the sludge is subject to different PFOS contents and treatment types, such as heat drying or incineration.

  7. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  8. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Cannas, Sara; D'Alessandro, Francesca; Florenzano, Fulvio; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Cestari, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold). The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g., hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze) and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment: (i) significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma; (ii) persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory; (iii) prevents fear reinstatement; (iv) reduces amygdala activity; and (v) requires an intact lOFC to be effective. These results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of the traumatic experience mediated

  9. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on wool production, feeding behavior, and body condition of Merino ewes.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Ding, S; Bush, R D; McAllister, T A

    2013-02-01

    The increasing availability of crude glycerin from the biodiesel industry has led to an interest in its use as an energy source in ruminant diets. However, its effects on ruminal fermentation patterns and methane (CH4) production are unclear, and there are no reports on the effect of its inclusion in the diet on wool production or growth of Merino sheep. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin on in vitro ruminal fermentation and CH4 production and DMI, BW, feeding behavior, and wool growth and quality in Merino ewes. Crude glycerin (99.2% pure, colorless, odorless, viscous liquid) replaced whole wheat grain in completely pelleted diets at levels of 0%, 6%, and 12% DM in both in vitro and in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, diets were dried and ground through a 1-mm screen and incubated on 2 different days for 24 h. Modified McDougal's buffer and rumen liquor were mixed 3:1