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Sample records for adverse childhood experiences

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking status in five states.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Anda, Robert F; Edwards, Valerie J; Perry, Geraldine S; Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Croft, Janet B

    2011-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking behavior among a random sample of adults living in five U.S. states. We used data from 25,809 participants of the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess the relationship of each of the 8 adverse childhood experiences and the adverse childhood experience score to smoking status. Some 59.4% of men and women reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Each of the eight adverse childhood experiences measures was significantly associated with smoking status after adjustment for demographic variables. The prevalence ratios for current and ever smoking increased in a positive graded fashion as the adverse childhood experience score increased. Among adults who reported no adverse childhood experiences, 13.0% were currently smoking and 38.3% had ever smoked. Compared to participants with an adverse childhood experience score of 0, those with an adverse childhood experience score of 5 or more were more likely to be a current smoker (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92-2.57) and to have ever smoked (aPR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.67-1.93). Further research is warranted to determine whether the prevention of and interventions for adverse childhood experiences might reduce the burden of smoking-related illness in the general population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences among Men with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Miguel; Cesoni, Oscar M; Farinola, Romina; Bertone, Matías S; Prokopez, Cintia R

    2017-12-01

    Individuals who suffered traumatic events or adverse experiences during their childhood have an increased risk of developing during adulthood physical problems, aggressive behavior, and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have higher rates of traumatic experiences during childhood than the general population, and those who suffered multiple traumatic events have an increased risk of disease relapse. The current study aims to determine the prevalence of different types of adverse experiences during childhood among a male patient sample with schizophrenia. An Observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Jose T. Borda Hospital, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants included 51 male patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, applying a socio-demographic questionnaire, SCID I and II scales to assess psychiatric diagnosis, and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire to evaluate the presence of adverse childhood experiences. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 22 software. We observed that 94% of participants had experienced at least one adverse childhood experience. Most (63%) suffered from 4 or more disruptive child events. A high prevalence of family history of mental illness was found, also emotional abuse and neglect. Most traumatic events occurred within the family group. It was found a moderately significant relationship between patients who suffered adverse events and the presence of auditory hallucinations.

  4. Consistency in adult reporting of adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Colman, I; Kingsbury, M; Garad, Y; Zeng, Y; Naicker, K; Patten, S; Jones, P B; Wild, T C; Thompson, A H

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have used retrospective reports to assess the long-term consequences of early life stress. However, current individual characteristics and experiences may bias the recall of these reports. In particular, depressed mood may increase the likelihood of recall of negative experiences. The aim of the study was to assess whether specific factors are associated with consistency in the reporting of childhood adverse experiences. The sample comprised 7466 adults from Canada's National Population Health Survey who had reported on seven childhood adverse experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007. Logistic regression was used to explore differences between those who consistently reported adverse experiences and those whose reports were inconsistent. Among those retrospectively reporting on childhood traumatic experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007, 39% were inconsistent in their reports of these experiences. The development of depression, increasing levels of psychological distress, as well as increasing work and chronic stress were associated with an increasing likelihood of reporting a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007 that had not been previously reported. Increases in mastery were associated with reduced likelihood of new reporting of a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007. The development of depression and increases in chronic stress and psychological distress were also associated with reduced likelihood of 'forgetting' a previously reported event. Concurrent mental health factors may influence the reporting of traumatic childhood experiences. Studies that use retrospective reporting to estimate associations between childhood adversity and adult outcomes associated with mental health may be biased.

  5. Adverse childhood experiences and adult smoking, Nebraska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L; Mannino, David

    2013-09-19

    Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among Nebraskans. We analyzed 2011 Nebraska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Adverse Childhood Experience module) data, defining adverse childhood experience exposures as physical, sexual, and verbal abuse (ie, direct exposures), and household dysfunction associated with mental illness, substance abuse, divorce, domestic violence, and living with persons with incarceration histories (ie, environmental exposures). We estimated prevalence of exposures, taking into account the complex survey design. We used logistic regression with predicted margins to estimate adjusted relative risk for smoking by direct or environmental exposure. Approximately 51% of Nebraskans experienced 1 or more adverse childhood events; 7% experienced 5 or more. Prevalence of environmental exposures (42%) was significantly higher than that of direct exposures (31%). Prevalence of individual exposures ranged from 6% (incarceration of a household member) to 25% (verbal abuse). Adjusted relative risks of smoking for direct and environmental exposures were 1.5 and 1.8, respectively. We present a new method of evaluating adverse childhood experience data. Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences is high among Nebraskans, and these exposures are associated with smoking. State-specific strategies to monitor adverse events among children and provide interventions might help to decrease the smoking rate in this population.

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Anda, Robert F; Chapman, Daniel P; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie; Williamson, David F; Croft, Janet B; Giles, Wayne H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common adverse childhood experiences to a male's risk of impregnating a teenager. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man's own age at the time; his history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. At least one adverse childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two adverse childhood experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each adverse childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P <.001) between the number of adverse childhood experiences and the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no adverse childhood experiences, a male with at least five adverse childhood experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the adverse childhood experiences was reduced 64-100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have an important relationship to

  7. Adverse childhood experiences: towards a clear conceptual meaning.

    PubMed

    Kalmakis, Karen A; Chandler, Genevieve E

    2014-07-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have been associated with negative physical and psychological health outcomes, but this phenomenon lacks the clear, consistent meaning necessary for use in nursing research, theory development and practice. Concept clarification. The literature search was not limited a priori by date and included publications with abstracts in English from PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Social Abstracts. The search retrieved 128 articles published from 1970-2013. The search term 'adverse childhood experiences' was used, with similar terms permitted. A snowball approach was used to expand the search to relevant literature. The articles were read and analysed following Norris's five steps for concept clarification to refine, elucidate and operationally define the concept and the context in which it occurred. Adverse childhood experiences were defined operationally as childhood events, varying in severity and often chronic, occurring in a child's family or social environment that cause harm or distress, thereby disrupting the child's physical or psychological health and development. This concept clarification should raise awareness and understanding of the diverse nature and shared characteristics of adverse childhood experiences that are believed to influence the health of individuals as they age. This clarified concept will help expand research on health consequences of adverse childhood experiences and interventions to improve health. We recommend promoting a model of primary care that pays attention to the social and familial influences on the health of individuals worldwide. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Shea, Judy A; Rubin, David; Wood, Joanne

    2014-07-01

    Current assessments of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may not adequately encompass the breadth of adversity to which low-income urban children are exposed. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the range of adverse childhood experiences faced by young adults who grew up in a low-income urban area. Focus groups were conducted with young adults who grew up in low-income Philadelphia neighborhoods. Using the nominal group technique, participants generated a list of adverse childhood experiences and then identified the 5 most stressful experiences on the group list. The most stressful experiences identified by participants were grouped into a ranked list of domains and subdomains. Participants identified a range of experiences, grouped into 10 domains: family relationships, community stressors, personal victimization, economic hardship, peer relationships, discrimination, school, health, child welfare/juvenile justice, and media/technology. Included in these domains were many but not all of the experiences from the initial ACEs studies; parental divorce/separation and mental illness were absent. Additional experiences not included in the initial ACEs but endorsed by our participants included single-parent homes; exposure to violence, adult themes, and criminal behavior; personal victimization; bullying; economic hardship; and discrimination. Gathering youth perspectives on childhood adversity broadens our understanding of the experience of stress and trauma in childhood. Future work is needed to determine the significance of this broader set of adverse experiences in predisposing children to poor health outcomes as adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  10. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Exley, Daniel; Norman, Alyson; Hyland, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Post-bariatric Surgery Psychiatric Inpatient Sample.

    PubMed

    Fink, Kathryn; Ross, Colin A

    2017-12-01

    Sixty-three inpatients in a psychiatric hospital who had previously undergone bariatric surgery were interviewed by the hospital dietitian. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences in this population. Participants completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Scale. The average score on the ACE was 5.4 (3.3); 76% of participants reported childhood emotional neglect, 70% childhood verbal abuse, and 64% childhood sexual abuse; only two participants reported no adverse childhood experiences. The participants in the study reported high levels of adverse childhood experiences compared to the general population, which is consistent with prior literature on rates of childhood trauma in post-bariatric surgery patients. The role of adverse childhood experiences in post-bariatric surgery adaptation should be investigated in future research, including in prospective studies.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences Predict Alcohol Consumption Patterns Among Kenyan Mothers.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael L; Grouls, Astrid; Chen, Catherine X; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-04-16

    We analyze whether adverse childhood experiences predict weekly alcohol consumption patterns of Kenyan mothers and their partners. Randomly selected respondents (n = 1,976) were asked about adverse childhood experiences and alcohol consumption patterns for themselves and their partners. Fixed effect models were used to determine odds of reporting weekly alcohol consumption and the number of beverages typically consumed, controlling for wealth, age, education, and partner alcohol consumption. Cumulative adverse childhood experiences predicted higher odds of weekly alcohol consumption of the respondent and her partner. Childhood exposure to physical abuse, emotional neglect, and mental illness in the household significantly increased odds of weekly alcohol consumption by the respondent. More drinks consumed per typical session were higher among respondents with more cumulative adversities. Physical and emotional abuse significantly predicted number of drinks typically consumed by the respondent. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore and find associations between adverse childhood experiences and alcohol consumption in Kenya. Consistent with high-income settings, exposure to childhood adversities predicted greater alcohol consumption among Kenyan women.

  14. Exploring the Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hope.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Michael A; Hemming, Eden J; McIntosh, Heather C; Hellman, Chan M

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and hope, a convenience sample of caregivers bringing in children for medical investigation of child abuse at a regional child advocacy center were surveyed for adverse childhood experiences and dispositional hope. Hope in this sample had a significant negative correlation to the adverse childhood experiences subscale "abuse" (r = -.19; p < .05). The relationship between hope and the other adverse childhood experiences subscales "neglect" (r = -.14) and "dysfunctional family" (r = -.16) was not statistically significant. An analysis of variance was performed to determine if caregivers who have experienced both sexual and physical abuse (M = 29.67; SD = 15.96) have lower hope scores compared to those caregivers who have experienced neither physical nor sexual abuse (M = 42.64; SD = 18.44). This analysis (F (1, 84) = 5.28; p < 0.05) showed that caregivers who experienced both physical and sexual abuse scored significantly lower on hope compared to their counterparts who experienced no adverse events, with an estimated effect size of moderate strength (d = 0.70). Higher adverse childhood experiences scores are associated with lower hope. This result was especially true for those adult caregivers who reported experiencing both physical and sexual abuse when compared to adults who did not experience either form of child trauma. While the empirical literature continues to demonstrate the negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences across the life span, hope offers a compelling new line of inquiry in child maltreatment research especially for studies targeting prevention or intervention.

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Mental Health of Veterans.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Waldrop, Jessica R

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. Veterans have experienced the burdens of mental illness and suicide. The current article focuses on Veterans who served from 2001-2015. Although combat exposure and suicidal ideation are linked, approximately one half of all suicides among Active Duty service members (who have served since 2001) occurred among those who never deployed. Researchers who sought additional risks for suicide found that Veterans have greater odds of adversities in childhood than the general population. Adverse childhood experiences are stressful and traumatic experiences, including abuse and neglect, as well as witnessing household dysfunction, or growing up with individuals with mental illness or substance abuse. Further, childhood physical abuse has been shown to be a significant predictor for posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide. Adverse childhood experiences confer additional risk for the mental health of service members. Psychiatric nursing implications include the importance of assessing early childhood adversity during psychosocial assessments. Providing trauma-informed strategies for treatment is an essential element of psychiatric nursing care. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Extremity: New Evidence for Sexual Homicide.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt; Beauregard, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a wide range of behavioral, health, and psychiatric deficits and have recently been used to study the development of serious offending careers. Unfortunately, this research paradigm has largely ignored forensic populations. This study utilized the adverse childhood experiences framework to examine the associations between exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences on sexual homicide using a sample of 616 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders from Canada 85 of whom committed sexual homicide. Epidemiological tables of odds revealed that a gradient of adverse childhood experiences was associated with sexual homicide, but that the most significant risks were for offenders who had the most extensive abuse histories. In adjusted models, exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences increased the odds of sexual homicide by 334%, 249%, and 546%, respectively. These effects intensified in models adjusted for childhood enuresis, cruelty to animals, parental abandonment, deviant sexual behaviors, poor self-image, and sexual problems to 559%, 326%, and 849%, respectively. The adverse childhood experiences framework is a systematic way to organize the criminogenic developmental sequela in sexual homicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Behavioral Problems in Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.

    2016-01-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well being Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3,000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. PMID:27884508

  19. [Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Samardzić, Ljiljana; Nikolić, Gordana; Grbesa, Grozdanko; Simonović, Maja; Milenković, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001); there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05); scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05). The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for psychiatric disorders. They are in positive correlation with

  20. Adverse experiences in childhood, adulthood neighbourhood disadvantage and health behaviours.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Early life adversities may play a role in the associations observed between neighbourhood contextual factors and health behaviours. We examined whether self-reported adverse experiences in childhood (parental divorce, long-term financial difficulties, serious conflicts, serious/chronic illness or alcohol problem in the family, and frequent fear of a family member) explain the association between adulthood neighbourhood disadvantage and co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors (smoking, moderate/heavy alcohol use, physical inactivity). Study population consisted of 31 271 public sector employees from Finland. The cross-sectional associations were analysed using two-level cumulative logistic regression models. Childhood adverse experiences were associated with the sum of risk factors (cumulative OR 1.32 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.40) among those reporting 3-6 vs 0 adversities). Adverse experiences did not attenuate the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and risk factors; this cumulative OR was 1.52 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.62) in the highest versus lowest quartile of neighbourhood disadvantage when not including adversities, and 1.50 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.60) when adjusted for childhood adversities. In adversity-stratified analyses those reporting 3-6 adversities had 1.60-fold (95% CI 1.42 to 1.80) likelihood of risk factors if living in the neighbourhood of the highest disadvantage, while in those with fewer adversities this likelihood was 1.09-1.34-fold (95% CI 0.98 to 1.53) (p interaction 0.07). Childhood adverse experiences and adulthood neighbourhood disadvantage were associated with behavioural risk factors. Childhood experiences did not explain associations between neighbourhood disadvantage and the risk factors. However, those with more adverse experiences may be susceptible for the socioeconomic conditions of neighbourhoods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Low-Income Latino Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Children.

    PubMed

    Loria, Hilda; Caughy, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children and examine differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences by immigrant generational status. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of parents/caregivers of a nationally representative sample of US children. The study sample was limited to Latino children in households with an annual income ≤200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) whose parents responded to a 9-item inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Descriptive statistics estimated the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and examined differences in prevalence by immigrant generational status. Of 22 297 children, 29% (n = 6483) were Latino (9% first generation, 57% second generation, 30% third or higher generation); 25% (n = 1692) of all Latino children were exposed to 2 or more adverse childhood experiences. Latino immigrant children had a lower prevalence (13%; n = 801) compared with nonimmigrant Latino children (40%; n = 772). The most common adverse childhood experiences were financial hardship and parent divorce/separation. The total number and mean number of adverse childhood experiences differed by child generational status, and the differences persisted after stratification by age and FPL. The prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences was highest among third- or higher-generation nonimmigrant children and lowest among second-generation immigrant children. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children is similar to the prevalence for all US children; however, the prevalence is significantly higher in nonimmigrant children. Targeted screening to address adverse childhood experiences, policy changes, and guidance regarding care practices to address adverse childhood experiences in Latino children are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and disability in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Xie, Dawei; Stineman, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    To assess relationships between adverse childhood experiences and self-reported disabilities in adult life. Cross-sectional, random-digit-dialed, state-population-based survey (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Fourteen states and the District of Columbia. Noninstitutionalized adults ages ≥18 years surveyed in 2009 and/or in 2010 (n = 81,184). The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Module asks about abuse (physical, sexual, emotional), family dysfunction (exposures to domestic violence, living with mentally ill, substance abusing, or incarcerated family member(s), and/or parental separation and/or divorce) that occurred before age 18 years. The ACE score sums affirmed ACE categories (range, 0-8). We controlled for demographic characteristics (age, race, education, income, and marital status) and self-reported physical health conditions (stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, coronary heart disease, asthma). Five states asked participants about mental health conditions (anxiety, depression). A subset analysis of participants in these states evaluated the effect of adjusting for these conditions. The primary outcome was disability (self-reported activity limitation and/or assistive device use). More than half of participants (57%) reported at least 1 adverse childhood experience category, and 23.2% reported disability. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of disability increased in a graded fashion from odds ratio 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.4) among those who experienced 1 adverse experience to odds ratio 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-7.5) among those with 7-8 adverse experiences compared with those with no such experiences when adjusting for demographic factors. The relationship between adverse experiences and disability remained strong after adjusting for physical and mental health conditions. There is a strong graded relationship between childhood exposure to abuse and household

  3. [Screening of adverse childhood experiences in preschoolers: scoping review].

    PubMed

    Vega-Arce, Maribel; Núñez-Ulloa, Gastón

    The aim of the present article was to describe available scientific publications detailing strategies and screening tools for Adverse Childhood Experiences in preschoolers (2 to 5 years of age). A scoping review of the topic was carried out through investigative articles published in peer review journals from January 1998 to June 2017 and indexed in seven international databases (Cochrane Library, EBSCO, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Web of Science and Scielo). The articles were selected based on predefined criteria, using limiters and manual screening. Twenty articles published between 1999 and 2017 were selected. The screening of adverse childhood experiences is performed through opportunistic recruitment in a professional context aimed at caregivers and children, which integrates training actions, application of screening tools and reception of identified cases. Screening tools differ between interviews and questionnaires. Furthermore, we report the periodicity of the screening, the behaviors and beliefs of the professionals against it and the barriers to its implementation. This review confirms that the screening of Adverse Childhood Experiences is an emerging topic in the research field. We emphasize the need to systematize and evaluate the strategies and tools for screening Adverse Childhood Experiences, as well as to develop local approaches to respond to the needs of children exposed to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

  5. Health consequences of adverse childhood experiences: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kalmakis, Karen A; Chandler, Genevieve E

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative health outcomes, but the evidence has had limited application in primary care practice. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the research on associations between ACEs and adult health outcomes to inform nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care practice. The databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Social Abstracts were searched for articles published in English between 2008 and 2013 using the search term "adverse childhood experiences." Forty-two research articles were included in the synthesis. The evidence was synthesized and is reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis procedure (PRISMA). ACEs have been associated with health consequences including physical and psychological conditions, risk behaviors, developmental disruption, and increased healthcare utilization. Generalization of the results is limited by a majority of studies (41/42) measuring childhood adversity using self-report measures. NPs are encouraged to incorporate assessment of patients' childhood history in routine primary care and to consider the evidence that supports a relationship between ACEs and health. Although difficult, talking about patient's childhood experiences may positively influence health outcomes. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. The experience of adverse childhood experiences and dental care in childhood.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Elizabeth; Radcliff, Elizabeth; Nelson, Joni; Strompolis, Melissa; Martin, Amy

    2018-06-06

    Routine preventive dental care is important to overall child health and well-being. However, the experience of adversity in childhood may prevent children from getting adequate preventive care. This study seeks to explore how the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the role of a protective adult may be associated with dental care utilization in childhood. Data from the 2016 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (SC BRFSS), which interviews adults eighteen year of age and older, were used in this study. Dental care utilization in childhood was measured as the adult retrospectively reported frequency of dental care in childhood: at least once every 2 years (adequate dental care) or less often than every 2 years (inadequate dental care). ACEs were determined by asking about each of respondent's childhood exposure to eleven childhood experiences, including divorce, parental incarceration, domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse, mental illness and emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a protective adult in childhood included respondents who had an adult who made them feel safe and protected during childhood. Descriptive and bivariate statistics explored differences in the adequacy of child dental care by ACE exposure, the presence of a protective adult and selected demographic characteristics. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the impact of counts and types of ACEs and the presence of a protective adult with inadequate childhood dental care. The unweighted study sample included 7079 respondents ageing from 18 to 79 years of age Sampling weights were used for all analyses. Among all respondents, 71.7% reported receiving adequate dental care during childhood; 28.3% responded that they received inadequate dental care. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, respondents who experienced four or more ACEs had a higher likelihood of inadequate dental care than respondents who reported no ACEs

  7. Maternal Adverse Childhood Experience and Infant Health: Biomedical and Psychosocial Risks as Intermediary Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Maguire, Jonathon L; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the mechanisms accounting for the transfer of risk from one generation to the next, especially as they relate to maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical and emotional health outcomes. Participants were 501 community mother-infant dyads recruited shortly after the birth and followed up at 18 months. Mothers retrospectively reported on their adverse childhood experiences. The main outcome measures were parent-reported infant physical health and emotional problems. Potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission included cumulative biomedical risk (eg, prenatal and perinatal complications) and postnatal psychosocial risk (eg, maternal depression, single parenthood, marital conflict). Four or more adverse childhood experiences were related to a 2- and 5-fold increased risk of experiencing any biomedical or psychosocial risk, respectively. There was a linear association between number of adverse childhood experiences and extent of biomedical and psychosocial risk. Path analysis revealed that the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical health operated specifically through cumulative biomedical risk, while the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and infant emotional health operated specifically through cumulative psychosocial risk. This pattern was not explained by maternal childhood disadvantage or current neighborhood poverty. Maternal adverse childhood experiences confer vulnerability to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal psychosocial health. The association between adverse childhood experiences and offspring physical and emotional health operates through discrete intermediary mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES AND REPEAT INDUCED ABORTION

    PubMed Central

    BLEIL, Maria E.; ADLER, Nancy E.; PASCH, Lauri A.; STERNFELD, Barbara; REIJO-PERA, Renee A.; CEDARS, Marcelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize the backgrounds of women who have repeat abortions. Study Design In a cross-sectional study of 259 women (M=35.2±5.6 years), the relation between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of having 2+ abortions versus 0 or 1 abortion was examined. Self-reported adverse events occurring between ages 0-12 were summed. Results Independent of confounding factors, women who experienced more abuse, personal safety, and total adverse events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.15-5.71; OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.29-5.82; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.21-2.09) and versus 1 abortion (OR=5.83, 95% CI=1.71-19.89; OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.03-4.81; OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04-1.81). Women who experienced more family disruption events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.14-2.69) but not versus 1 abortion (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.79-1.70). Conclusions Women who have repeat abortions are more likely to have experienced childhood adversity than those having 0 or 1 abortion. PMID:21074137

  9. Prevention of mental disorders requires action on adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Jorm, Anthony F; Mulder, Roger T

    2018-04-01

    The increased availability of treatment has not reduced the prevalence of mental disorders, suggesting a need for a greater emphasis on prevention. With chronic physical diseases, successful prevention efforts have focused on reducing the big risk factors. If this approach is applied to mental disorders, the big risk factors are adverse childhood experiences, which have major effects on most classes of mental disorder across the lifespan. While the evidence base is limited, there is support for a number of interventions to reduce adverse childhood experiences, including an important role for mental health professionals. Taking action on adverse childhood experiences may be our best chance of emulating the success of public health action to prevent chronic physical diseases and thereby reduce the large global burden of mental disorders.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emerging adults who experienced stressful childhoods may engage in substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, adverse childhood experiences may play a prominent role in substance use decisions as these events violate the assumptions of group oriented cultural paradigms. Alternatively, adverse childhood events might not increase the risk of substance use because strong family ties could mitigate the potential maladaptive behaviors associated with these adverse experiences. This study examined whether adverse childhood experiences were associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Method Participants (n=1420, mean age=22, 41% male) completed surveys indicating whether they experienced any of 8 specific adverse experiences within their first 18 years of life, and past-month cigarette use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and binge drinking. Logistic regression models examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences and each category of substance use, controlling for age, gender, and depressive symptoms. Results The number of adverse childhood experiences was significantly associated with each category of substance use. A difference in the number of adverse childhood experiences, from 0 to 8, was associated with a 22% higher probability of cigarette smoking, a 24% higher probability of binge drinking, a 31% higher probability of marijuana use, and a 12% higher probability of hard drug use respectively. Conclusions These findings should be integrated into prevention/intervention programs in hopes of quelling the duration and severity of substance use behaviors among Hispanic emerging adults. PMID:26160522

  11. Relational resilience as a potential mediator between adverse childhood experiences and prenatal depression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E; Schaefer, Lauren M; Scrafford, Kathryn E

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the indirect effects of individual, relational, and contextual resilience in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and prenatal depression. Participants included 101 pregnant women. Adverse childhood experiences had a direct effect on depression, B = 1.11, standard error = .44, p = .01, and relational resilience, B = -1.15, standard error = .19, p < .001, but not individual or contextual resilience. With resilience as a mediator, the effect of adverse childhood experiences on depression was no longer significant. Specifically, relational resilience had a significant indirect effect (IE) on the association between adverse childhood experiences and depression, IE = 1.04, boot standard error  = .28 (95% confidence interval  = .58, 1.68). Results emphasize the associated role of relational qualities, such as sense of security and belongingness, with childhood adversity and mental health.

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-11-01

    Emerging adults who experienced stressful childhoods may engage in substance use as a maladaptive coping strategy. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, adverse childhood experiences may play a prominent role in substance use decisions as these events violate the assumptions of group oriented cultural paradigms. Alternatively, adverse childhood events might not increase the risk of substance use because strong family ties could mitigate the potential maladaptive behaviors associated with these adverse experiences. This study examined whether adverse childhood experiences were associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants (n = 1420, mean age = 22, 41% male) completed surveys indicating whether they experienced any of 8 specific adverse experiences within their first 18 years of life, and past-month cigarette use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and binge drinking. Logistic regression models examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences and each category of substance use, controlling for age, gender, and depressive symptoms. The number of adverse childhood experiences was significantly associated with each category of substance use. A difference in the number of adverse childhood experiences, from 0 to 8, was associated with a 22% higher probability of cigarette smoking, a 24% higher probability of binge drinking, a 31% higher probability of marijuana use, and a 12% higher probability of hard drug use respectively. These findings should be integrated into prevention/intervention programs in hopes of quelling the duration and severity of substance use behaviors among Hispanic emerging adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Commitment Offense, and Race/Ethnicity: Are the Effects Crime-, Race-, and Ethnicity-Specific?

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2017-03-22

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered.

  14. Correlates of adverse childhood experiences among adults with severe mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Rosenberg, Stanley D; Jankowski, Mary Kay

    2008-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences have been found to be associated with poor physical and poor mental health, impaired functioning, and increased substance abuse in the general adult population. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of these experiences among adults with severe mood disorders. Adverse childhood experiences (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illness, loss of parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and placement in foster or kinship care) were assessed retrospectively in a sample of 254 adults with major mood disorders. The relationships between cumulative exposure to these experiences and psychiatric problems, health, substance use disorders, community functioning, trauma exposure in adulthood, and high-risk behaviors were examined. Increased exposure to childhood adverse experiences was related to high-risk behaviors, diagnosis of a substance use disorder, exposure to trauma in adulthood, psychiatric problems (younger age at first hospitalization, number of suicide attempts, and diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder), medical service utilization, and homelessness. The findings extend research in the general population by suggesting that adverse childhood experiences contribute to worse mental and physical health and functional outcomes among adults with severe mood disorders.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences in substance use disorder outpatients of a Lebanese addiction center.

    PubMed

    Naal, Hady; El Jalkh, Tatiana; Haddad, Ramzi

    2018-05-02

    Childhood adversities (CAs) are well reviewed in mental health and addiction research internationally. However, these variables have not been studied within the framework of addiction in the Middle East region. The present study reports the prevalence of Childhood Adversities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for Substance Use Disorder. We used the Adverse Childhood Experiences - International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) to map out the prevalence of childhood adversities. The studied population was composed of a clinical outpatient sample that met criteria for substance use disorder (N = 144). Results indicated that almost all the sample reported having experienced at least 1 CA, whereby three quarters of the clinical sample reported experiencing 6 or more adversities. Childhood adversities are highly prevalent in a Lebanese substance use disorder population which raises the need for better screening strategies and more understanding of Adverse Childhood Experiences in this specific population.

  16. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adult traumatic brain injury/concussion: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zechen; Bayley, Mark T; Perrier, Laure; Dhir, Priya; Dépatie, Lana; Comper, Paul; Ruttan, Lesley; Lay, Christine; Munce, Sarah E P

    2018-01-12

    Adverse childhood experiences are significant risk factors for physical and mental illnesses in adulthood. Traumatic brain injury/concussion is a challenging condition where pre-injury factors may affect recovery. The association between childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion has not been previously reviewed. The research question addressed is: What is known from the existing literature about the association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? All original studies of any type published in English since 2007 on adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion outcomes were included. The literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al.'s scoping review frameworks were used. Two reviewers independently completed screening and data abstraction. The review yielded six observational studies. Included studies were limited to incarcerated or homeless samples, and individuals at high-risk of or with mental illnesses. Across studies, methods for childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion assessment were heterogeneous. A positive association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury occurrence was identified. The review highlights the importance of screening and treatment of adverse childhood experiences. Future research should extend to the general population and implications on injury recovery. Implications for rehabilitation Exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury. Specific types of adverse childhood experiences associated with risk of traumatic brain injury include childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, household member incarceration, and household member drug abuse. Clinicians and researchers should inquire about adverse childhood experiences in all people with traumatic brain injury as pre-injury health conditions can

  17. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Commitment Offense, and Race/Ethnicity: Are the Effects Crime-, Race-, and Ethnicity-Specific?

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Matt; Alcala, Justin; Kusow, Abdi; Hochstetler, Andy; Heirigs, Mark H.; Caudill, Jonathan W.; Trulson, Chad R.; Baglivio, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered. PMID:28327508

  18. Associations of adverse childhood experiences with depression and alcohol abuse among Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated adverse childhood experiences of Korean college students and the impact such experiences have on students' depression and alcohol abuse. Using an online questionnaire, 939 college students were surveyed regarding their adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms and alcohol use habits. About half of the participants claimed to have experienced at least one adversity in their childhood. Eight percent of participants reported experiencing four or more categories of adversity. The correlations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms, alcohol abusive behaviors, and the comorbid condition of the two outcomes were significant when students' gender, geographical regions, maternal and paternal education, and family incomes were adjusted. Graded associations of cumulated adverse childhood experiences with the outcome variables were evident. These findings strengthen the link between child maltreatment and adult public health issues carrying socioeconomic burdens, two matters that have not been extensively studied in Korean contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Violent Female Offenders: A Comparison of Homicide and Sexual Perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Pflugradt, Dawn M; Allen, Bradley P; Zintsmaster, Amanda J

    2018-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a multitude of health and social problems. In addition to an increased risk of poor health, mental disorders, and substance abuse, childhood maltreatment is also significantly related to adult violent offending. Although gender-specific analyses suggest that early childhood maltreatment precedes later violence for males across offense categories, it is unknown whether this association also applies to different types of female offenders. This study explores the types and quantity of adverse childhood experiences for two groups of violent female offenders: perpetrators of intentional homicide ( N = 28) and perpetrators of sexual offenses ( N = 47). A nonparametric analysis using odds ratios (OR) indicated that female homicide perpetrators experienced significantly more adverse childhood experiences (as measured by the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire) than female sex offenders. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual victimization in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Ford, Derek C; Merrick, Melissa T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and sexual victimization (SV) in adulthood may provide important information about the level of risk for adult SV and sexual re-victimization among childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors. In the present paper, we explore the relationship between ACEs, including CSA, and SV in adulthood. Data from the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study were used to examine the effect of experiences of early adversity on adult SV. Adult HMO members (n=7,272) undergoing a routine health exam provided detailed information about ACEs that occurred at age 18 or younger and their experiences of SV in adulthood. Analyses revealed that as ACE score increased, so did risk of experiencing SV in adulthood. Each of the ACE variables was significantly associated with adult SV, with CSA being the strongest predictor of adult SV. In addition, for those who reported CSA, there was a cumulative increase in adult SV risk with each additional ACE experienced. As such, early adversity is a risk factor for adult SV. In particular, CSA is a significant risk factor for sexual re-victimization in adulthood, and additional early adversities experienced by CSA survivors may heighten adult SV risk above and beyond the risk associated with CSA alone. Given the interconnectedness among various experiences of early adversity, adult SV prevention actions must consider how other violence-related and non-violence-related traumatic experiences may exacerbate the risk conferred by CSA on subsequent victimization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Association between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of chronic diseases in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Nie, Junyan; Yu, Honghui; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Leilei; Han, Juan; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai; Shen, Min

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence and characteristics of childhood adverse experiences among adults aged 18-59 years and understand the association between childhood adverse experiences and risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a questionnaire among adults aged 18-59 years selected through cluster random sampling from 3 communities in Macheng, Hubei province. Uinivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between adverse experiences in childhood and the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. A total of 1 767 adults aged 18-59 years were surveyed and 1 501 valid questionnaires were returned. The average age was (36.32± 10.20) years for males and (35.72±9.08) years for females. The prevalence rate of childhood adverse experiences was 66.22%. The risk of chronic disease in adults increased with the increase of the score indicating childhood adverse experiences (Z=-5.902 1, P<0.000 1). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being physically abused (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.41-2.64), substance abuse in family (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.16-6.80), being bullied (OR=2.59, 95% CI: 1.39-4.80) and parents separation/divorce (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.09-2.09) were significantly associated with risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences was high in adults aged 18-59 years, which was significantly associated with the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. Early prevention of chronic diseases should be conducted in childhood.

  3. Separate and cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences in predicting adult health and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Mariette J; Walker, John R; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Data from the Ontario Health Survey, a representative population sample (n=9,953) of respondents aged 15 years and older, were analyzed using logistic regression. Adverse childhood experiences examined were childhood physical and sexual abuse, parental marital conflict, poor parent-child relationship, low parental education and parental psychopathology. Most (72%) respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience and a considerable proportion of respondents (37%) reported two or more of these experiences. In examining the bivariate models, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a stronger influence than other types of adverse childhood experiences. With the addition of other adverse childhood experiences in the model, the odds ratios for childhood abuse were attenuated but remained statistically significant for most health outcomes. This suggests that childhood abuse may have a unique adverse influence on the development of poor adult health. When an aggregate variable was created to explore the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experience, the odds were increased, with each additional experience, for reporting multiple health problems [odds ratio (OR): 1.22], poor self-rated health (OR: 1.18), pain (OR: 1.24), disability (OR: 1.24), general practitioner use (OR: 1.12), emergency room use (OR: 1.29) and health professional use (OR: 1.19). This study suggests that childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences are overlapping risk factors for long-term adult health problems and that the accumulation of these adverse experiences increases the risk of poor adult health. This study highlights the importance of the many

  4. Colorectal cancer screening and adverse childhood experiences: Which adversities matter?

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma

    2017-07-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have been associated with an increased risk of a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, research has not paid enough attention to the association between ACEs and cancer screening. As such, the present study examined the association between ACEs and ever using colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, among adults age 50 and over. Analyses used the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=24,938) to model odds of ever engaging in CRC screening from nine different adversities. Bivariate and multivariate models were fit. In bivariate models, physical abuse, having parents that were divorced or separated, and living in a household where adults treated each other violently were associated with lower odds of engaging in CRC. In multivariate models that accounted for potential confounders, emotional and sexual abuse were each associated with higher odds of engaging in CRC. Results suggest potential pathways by which early childhood experiences can impact future health behaviors. Future research should examine this association longitudinally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-Exposure and Clustering of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Socioeconomic Differences and Psychotropic Medication in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. Methods This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. Results Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3–2.5) and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9–3.2). The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. Conclusions Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences. PMID:23341951

  6. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5) and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2). The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina D; Newacheck, Paul; Hawes, Eva; Halfon, Neal

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing longitudinal Adverse Childhood Experiences Study of adults has found significant associations between chronic conditions; quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood; and the trauma and stress associated with adverse childhood experiences, including physical or emotional abuse or neglect, deprivation, or exposure to violence. Less is known about the population-based epidemiology of adverse childhood experiences among US children. Using the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, we assessed the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and associations between them and factors affecting children's development and lifelong health. After we adjusted for confounding factors, we found lower rates of school engagement and higher rates of chronic disease among children with adverse childhood experiences. Our findings suggest that building resilience-defined in the survey as "staying calm and in control when faced with a challenge," for children ages 6-17-can ameliorate the negative impact of adverse childhood experiences. We found higher rates of school engagement among children with adverse childhood experiences who demonstrated resilience, as well as higher rates of resilience among children with such experiences who received care in a family-centered medical home. We recommend a coordinated effort to fill knowledge gaps and translate existing knowledge about adverse childhood experiences and resilience into national, state, and local policies, with a focus on addressing childhood trauma in health systems as they evolve during ongoing reform. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Kauhanen, Laura; Leino, Janne; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lynch, John W.; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n = 2682) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n = 952). Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18) age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood. PMID:22111009

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; Ulukol, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences - e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration - and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10,696 respondents - 59.7% female - aged 18-25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32-2.15) - for physical inactivity - to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98-76.65) - for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; Ulukol, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10 696 respondents – 59.7% female – aged 18–25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Findings Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32–2.15) – for physical inactivity – to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98–76.65) – for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Conclusion Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European. PMID:25378755

  11. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marni B; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D; Harville, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assess whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. From April 2012 to February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18-45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased [fecundability ratio (FR) = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-1.00]. Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45-5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52-4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56-1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, body mass index, race, education, smoking and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive circumstances.

  12. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  13. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  14. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  15. Sexual Dysfunction in Males: Significance of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)

  16. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  17. Attachment-Related Regulatory Processes Moderate the Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Stress Reaction in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Levy, Kenneth N; Scott, Lori N; Granger, Douglas A

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the authors explored whether attachment insecurity moderates the effects of adverse childhood experiences on stress reactivity in the context of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were 113 women (39 with BPD, 15 with some BPD criteria present, 59 without any BPD symptoms) who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Saliva samples were collected before and after the stressor and assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol. Adverse childhood experiences were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and attachment by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Results revealed that attachment avoidance and a combination of more adverse childhood experiences and attachment insecurity resulted in higher sAA levels and differences in reactivity to the stressor. Interactions between attachment anxiety and adverse childhood experiences were related to blunted cortisol reactivity. The results suggest that the influence of adverse childhood experiences on stress regulation in BPD may be moderated by attachment-related regulatory processes.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael T; Pawlak, Natalie O; Frontario, Ariana; Sherman, Kathleen; Krupp, Lauren B; Charvet, Leigh E

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood. To investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation. Adverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset ( r  = -0.30, p  = 0.04). ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ) ( r  = -0.25, p  = 0.04). ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Childhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  19. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences, the Medical Home, and Child Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE), access to a medical home and a global measure of well-being among children ages 6-17 using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Multivariate linear regressions assessed the associations between each adverse experience and an index of child well-being with and without the impact of other events. The number of ACE was summed for each respondent and the analyses were repeated with the cumulative score as a continuous variable. The cumulative model was repeated with the addition of an interaction term between ACE score and medical home access. All analyses were conducted separately for children ages 6-11 and adolescents 12-17. Over half (53 %) of US children ages 6-17 have experienced some adverse experience during childhood. Over a quarter (28 %) has experienced at least two adverse experiences, while 15 % have experienced three or more hardships. Results suggest that the accumulation of ACE reduces well-being in children. The associations remained significant after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, age, parental education, special health condition, and medical home access. Medical home access was consistently associated with higher levels of child well-being and was a significant moderator of the relationship between the total ACE and child well-being among children ages 6-11. Children with ACE exposure and access to a medical home have higher levels of well-being than comparable children without access to a medical home. Children exposed to adverse experiences have measurably lower levels of well-being, although younger children with access to a medical home are protected at increasing exposure.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy; Hingson, Ralph W

    2008-08-01

    Our goal was to determine whether adverse childhood experiences predicted the age at which drinking was initiated and drinking motives in a representative sample of current or former drinkers in the United States. In 2006, a probability sample of 3592 US current or former drinkers aged 18 to 39 were surveyed. Multinomial logistic regression examined whether each of 10 adverse childhood experiences was associated with earlier ages of drinking onset, controlling for demographics, parental alcohol use, parental attitudes toward drinking, and peers' drinking in adolescence. We also examined whether there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse childhood experiences and age of drinking onset and whether adverse childhood experiences were related to self-reported motives for drinking during the first year that respondents drank. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported >or=1 adverse childhood experiences, and 19% reported experiencing >or=4. The most commonly reported adverse childhood experiences were parental separation/divorce (41.3%), living with a household member who was a problem drinker (28.7%), mental illness of a household member (24.8%), and sexual abuse (19.1%). Of the 10 specific adverse childhood experiences assessed, 5 were significantly associated with initiating drinking at or=21 years of age) after adjustment for confounders, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, having a mentally ill household member, substance abuse in the home, and parental discord or divorce. Compared with those without adverse childhood experiences, respondents with adverse childhood experiences were substantially more likely to report that they drank to cope during the first year that they used alcohol. Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be

  3. Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  5. Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

  6. Adverse childhood experiences of referred children exposed to intimate partner violence: consequences for their wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M; Visser, Margreet

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. The study population comprised 208 children (M=7.81 years, SD=2.39, range 2-12) who were referred to mental health and welfare institutions after reported Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). At intake, caregivers, children, and teachers completed questionnaires on Adverse Childhood Experiences, behavior and emotional problems, and trauma symptoms. The results showed that child witnesses of IPV were also exposed to other adverse experiences, such as abuse, household dysfunction and neglect. The mean number of ACEs was 5.08 (range 2-9). Twenty percent of the children in this sample experienced seven ACEs or more. The number of ACEs children were exposed to was unrelated to the level of emotional and behavioral problems, except for trauma related symptoms reported by parents. This study shows that children who witnessed Intimate Partner Violence were also exposed to other adverse experiences. The results of this study may imply that in this high-risk clinical sample of children exposed to IPV, additional adverse experiences have a limited relationship to psychological outcomes. A thorough assessment and inclusion of all Adverse Childhood Experiences is necessary for a comprehensive treatment program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood abuse and psychotic experiences - evidence for mediation by adulthood adverse life events.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, V; Boydell, J; McGuire, P; Harris, V; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; MacCabe, J H; Morgan, C

    2017-10-09

    We have previously reported an association between childhood abuse and psychotic experiences (PEs) in survey data from South East London. Childhood abuse is related to subsequent adulthood adversity, which could form one pathway to PEs. We aimed to investigate evidence of mediation of the association between childhood abuse and PEs by adverse life events. Data were analysed from the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH, n = 1698). Estimates of the total effects on PEs of any physical or sexual abuse while growing up were partitioned into direct (i.e. unmediated) and indirect (total and specific) effects, mediated via violent and non-violent life events. There was strong statistical evidence for direct (OR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19-2.1) and indirect (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.32-1.72) effects of childhood abuse on PEs after adjustment for potential confounders, indicating partial mediation of this effect via violent and non-violent life events. An estimated 47% of the total effect of abuse on PEs was mediated via adulthood adverse life events, of which violent life events made up 33% and non-violent life events the remaining 14%. The association between childhood abuse and PEs is partly mediated through the experience of adverse life events in adulthood. There is some evidence that a larger proportion of this effect was mediated through violent life events than non-violent life events.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior.

  9. Tailoring health-related messages for young adults with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs).

    PubMed

    Karatekin, Canan; Ahluwalia, Rohini; Desir, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    The goal was to identify factors that might affect likelihood of seeking health-related interventions for young adults with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). We tested whether ACEs were associated with (1) regulatory focus (tendency toward promoting good outcomes versus preventing bad outcomes), and (2) patient activation (the intention to take active charge of one's health). We further tested whether promotion and prevention and patient activation were associated with each other and with health. Students at a public university (N = 321) completed online questionnaires assessing ACEs, regulatory focus, patient activation, and health. Greater childhood adversity showed small but significant associations with being a less activated patient and being less focused on promoting good outcomes. In contrast, greater childhood adversity had a much stronger association with focusing on preventing negative outcomes. Students with a more significant mental health history were more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity, to be less activated patients, and to focus more on prevention. Results suggest that using a prevention focus may be effective in health messages aimed to reach individuals with high levels of ACEs. Furthermore, individuals with high levels of ACEs may benefit from interventions aimed at increasing patient activation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse childhood events, substance abuse, and measures of affiliation.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Robertson, Marjorie J

    2004-08-01

    Adverse childhood events may influence later behaviors, including adulthood substance use and social affiliation. Studies have noted high prevalence rates of adverse childhood experiences and adulthood substance abuse among homeless adults. Using an existing longitudinal, countywide probability sample of 397 homeless adults, we examine the relationships among adverse childhood events on adulthood substance use, and the relationship of these variables to affiliation. Almost 75% of the sample had experienced an adverse childhood event. Path analysis indicated adulthood substance abuse mediated the inverse relationship between adverse childhood events and two measures of adulthood affiliation. Thus, although there is a relationship between adverse childhood events and adulthood substance use, it is adulthood substance use that determines most aspects of affiliation.

  11. The association of adverse childhood experiences with mid-life depressive symptoms and quality of life among incarcerated males: exploring multiple mediation.

    PubMed

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Parisi, Jeanine M; Thorpe, Roland; Tanner, Elizabeth; Gross, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To explore the association of experiencing death, trauma, and abuse during childhood with depressive symptoms and quality of life at mid-life among incarcerated men and to understand how current social support and coping strategies mediate the impact of childhood trauma histories on mental health. Study participants were 192 male inmates in a maximum security prison. Participants completed measures of adverse childhood experiences related to death, trauma, and abuse, and depressive symptoms and quality of life. Data were analyzed using multiple mediation modeling. Men who reported having experienced adverse childhood experiences reported more depressive symptoms and lower quality of life than their counterparts. The results showed that in models both unadjusted and adjusted for age, race, education, number of years served, and whether the inmate had a life sentence, the association between adverse childhood experiences and quality of life were partially explained by the total of the indirect effects (point estimate = -.5052; CI.95 = -1.0364, -.0429 and point estimate = -.7792; CI.95 = -1.6369, -.0381), primarily via social support. However, the associations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms were not explained by social support and coping. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with deleterious mental health effects in later life. Social support and coping partially mediate the association between adverse childhood experiences and quality of life. The high prevalence of childhood trauma among aging prison inmates warrants attention to increasing social support mechanisms to improve mental health.

  12. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-09

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.

  13. All Unhappy Childhoods Are Unhappy in Their Own Way-Differential Impact of Dimensions of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adult Mental Health and Health Behavior.

    PubMed

    Westermair, Anna L; Stoll, Anne M; Greggersen, Wiebke; Kahl, Kai G; Hüppe, Michael; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences have consistently been linked with poor mental and somatic health in adulthood. However, due to methodological restraints of the main lines of research using cumulative or selective models, little is known about the differential impact of different dimensions of adverse childhood experiences. Therefore, we gathered data from 396 psychiatric in-patients on the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, extracted dimensions using factor analysis and compared this dimensional model of adverse childhood experiences to cumulative and selective models. Household Dysfunction (violence against the mother, parental divorce, substance abuse or incarceration of a household member) was associated with poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol dependency and obesity as proxy marker for an imbalance between energy intake and physical activity) and with poorer socio-economic achievement (lower education and income) in adulthood. The previously reported associations of maltreatment and sexual abuse with these outcome criteria could not be corroborated. Both Maltreatment (emotional and physical neglect and abuse) and Sexual Abuse predicted BPD, PTSD and suicidal behavior. However, the two ACE dimensions showed sufficiently divergent validity to warrant separate consideration in future studies: Maltreatment was associated with affective and anxiety disorders such as social phobia, panic disorder and major depressive disorder, whereas Sexual Abuse was associated with dysregulation of bodily sensations such as pain intensity and hunger/satiation. Also, we found both quantitative and qualitative evidence for the superiority of the dimensional approach to exploring the consequences of adverse childhood experiences in comparison to the cumulative and selective approaches.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Disordered Gambling: Assessing the Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Julia C; Kim, Hyoun S; Dobson, Keith S; Hodgins, David C

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual and physical abuse, have been established as risk factors for the development of disordered gambling. The underlying mechanism by which ACEs influence disordered gambling, however, remains unknown. The aims of the present research were to comprehensively investigate ten types of childhood adversity and their relationships to disordered gambling in adulthood, and to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. A sample of community gamblers (N = 414) completed self-report measures of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and gambling severity. Results revealed a significant association between all but one type (physical abuse) of ACEs and disordered gambling. Further, the results highlighted the cumulative impact of ACEs on gambling. Specifically, individuals who experienced three or more types of ACEs were more than three times as likely to report disordered gambling as compared to individuals with no history of childhood adversity. Importantly, as hypothesized, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. Findings from this research describe the association between ACEs and gambling and indicate a causal link between childhood adversity and disordered gambling. Results suggest that treatment initiatives may do well to address both ACEs and emotion dysregulation in the treatment of problem gambling.

  15. Does the cortisol awakening response link childhood adversity to adult BMI?

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly F; Arbel, Reout; Shapiro, Lauren S; Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2018-06-01

    Childhood adversity is a risk factor for the development of obesity in adulthood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, which has been associated separately with both adverse childhood experiences and obesity, has been posited as a mechanism by which stressful experiences influence body mass index (BMI); however, this mechanism has not yet been tested longitudinally. The present study uses multireporter, longitudinal data across three time points to test whether the adolescent cortisol awakening response (CAR), an index of diurnal HPA activity, mediates the association between adversity in childhood and BMI in adulthood. Eighty-two youth, mothers, and fathers reported on adverse childhood experiences from middle childhood to late adolescence. During adolescence, youth provided saliva samples three times each morning across three days, which were assayed for cortisol to calculate CAR. During early adulthood, youth reported height and weight to calculate BMI. Greater adversity predicted flatter CAR and higher young adult BMI. Flatter CAR partially mediated the association between childhood adversity and young adult BMI. Stress-related alterations to HPA activity account in part for the childhood adversity-adult obesity link. Findings are consistent with theoretical models implicating HPA alterations as linking childhood adversity to metabolic and behavioral determinants of BMI in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Association between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Cohen, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are linked to multiple adverse health outcomes. This study examined the association between ACEs and cancer diagnosis. Methods Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey were used. The BRFSS is the largest ongoing telephone health survey, conducted in all US states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and provides data on a variety of health issues among the non-institutionalized adult population. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive components for ACEs. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to provide adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between ACE components and overall, childhood and adulthood cancer, adjusting for confounders such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, educational status, marital status, and insurance status. Results Approximately 62% of respondents reported being exposed to ACEs and about one in ten respondents reported ever having been diagnosed with cancer. Component 1, which had the sexual abuse variables with the highest weights, was significantly associated with adulthood cancer (adjusted OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03–1.43). Conclusion The association between ACEs and adulthood cancer may be attributable to disease progression through association of ACEs with risk factors for other chronic diseases. More research should focus on the impact of sexual abuse ACEs and adverse health outcomes. PMID:23776494

  17. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  18. Understanding and Promoting Resilience in the Context of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciaraffa, Mary A.; Zeanah, Paula D.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2018-01-01

    Brain development in the early years is especially susceptible to toxic stress caused by adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). According to epigenetics research, toxic stress has the capacity to physically change a child's brain and be hardwired into the child's biology via genes in the DNA. The compelling nature of the impact of early adversity…

  19. All Unhappy Childhoods Are Unhappy in Their Own Way—Differential Impact of Dimensions of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adult Mental Health and Health Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Westermair, Anna L.; Stoll, Anne M.; Greggersen, Wiebke; Kahl, Kai G.; Hüppe, Michael; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences have consistently been linked with poor mental and somatic health in adulthood. However, due to methodological restraints of the main lines of research using cumulative or selective models, little is known about the differential impact of different dimensions of adverse childhood experiences. Therefore, we gathered data from 396 psychiatric in-patients on the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, extracted dimensions using factor analysis and compared this dimensional model of adverse childhood experiences to cumulative and selective models. Household Dysfunction (violence against the mother, parental divorce, substance abuse or incarceration of a household member) was associated with poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol dependency and obesity as proxy marker for an imbalance between energy intake and physical activity) and with poorer socio-economic achievement (lower education and income) in adulthood. The previously reported associations of maltreatment and sexual abuse with these outcome criteria could not be corroborated. Both Maltreatment (emotional and physical neglect and abuse) and Sexual Abuse predicted BPD, PTSD and suicidal behavior. However, the two ACE dimensions showed sufficiently divergent validity to warrant separate consideration in future studies: Maltreatment was associated with affective and anxiety disorders such as social phobia, panic disorder and major depressive disorder, whereas Sexual Abuse was associated with dysregulation of bodily sensations such as pain intensity and hunger/satiation. Also, we found both quantitative and qualitative evidence for the superiority of the dimensional approach to exploring the consequences of adverse childhood experiences in comparison to the cumulative and selective approaches. PMID:29875707

  20. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, dispositional mindfulness, and adult health.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Robert C; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Gooze, Rachel A; Becker, Brandon D; Gallagher, Kathleen C; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether greater dispositional mindfulness is associated with better adult health across a range of exposures to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). In 2012, a web-based survey of 2160 Pennsylvania Head Start staff was conducted. We assessed ACE score (count of eight categories of childhood adversity), dispositional mindfulness (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised), and the prevalence of three outcomes: multiple health conditions (≥ 3 of 7 conditions), poor health behavior (≥ 2 of 5 behaviors), and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (≥ 2 of 5 indicators). Respondents were 97% females, and 23% reported ≥ 3 ACEs. The prevalences of multiple health conditions, poor health behavior, and poor HRQOL were 29%, 21%, and 13%, respectively. At each level of ACE exposure, health outcomes were better in those with greater mindfulness. For example, among persons reporting ≥ 3 ACEs, those in the highest quartile of mindfulness had a prevalence of multiple health conditions two-thirds that of those in the lowest quartile (adjusted prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.66 (0.51, 0.86)); for those reporting no ACEs, the ratio was 0.62 (0.41, 0.94). Across a range of exposures to ACEs, greater dispositional mindfulness was associated with fewer health conditions, better health behavior, and better HRQOL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The association of adverse childhood experiences and appetitive aggression with suicide attempts and violent crimes in male forensic psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Manuela; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Otte, Stefanie; Rasche, Katharina; Leichauer, Katharina; Tippelt, Susanne; Shenar, Riad; Klingner, Solveig; Vasic, Nenad; Streb, Judith

    2016-06-30

    Although previous studies in inmates, forensic and psychiatric samples suggest the relation between childhood trauma and suicide behavior as well as between childhood trauma and violent delinquency, the understanding of possible underlying mechanisms is still fragmentary. In a naturalistic study design, we tested if suicidal attempts and violent crimes are differently associated with adverse childhood experiences and levels of appetitive aggression in male forensic psychiatry inpatients. Adverse childhood experiences and appetitive aggression styles were collected by means of self-report measures, suicide attempts were taken from the medical history and violent crimes were appraised by official court records. The data were analyzed by the means of generalized linear models. Results revealed that appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences were significant predictors of suicide attempts, whereas violent crimes were associated solely with appetitive aggression. Suicide attempts and violent delinquency in forensic patients seem to be both positively associated with high levels of appetitive aggression, whereas their etiological pathways might differ with regard to adverse childhood experiences. Considering these interrelations to a greater extent might improve both diagnostics and treatment of forensic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Daniel W; Kaufman, Joan

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have shown an uptick in studies assessing bullying and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article reviews extant findings, and points to gaps in the literature. Children with ASD are bullied by peers at a rate three to four times that of nondisabled peers with negative impacts on academic functioning and mental health symptoms, including increased risk for suicidality. Children with ASD are also at enhanced risk for other ACES, particularly parental divorce and income insufficiency, and as observed in the general population, children with ASD who experience an increased number of ACES are at elevated risk for comorbid psychiatric and medical health problems. Children with ASD with an elevated number of ACES also experience a delay in ASD diagnosis and treatment initiation. There is no evidence of increased risk of child maltreatment within the ASD population. As bullying and other adverse experiences are common and associated with deleterious outcomes in children with ASD, there is a need for additional research on intervention strategies to prevent and mitigate the impact of these experiences. Ongoing work on the assessment of trauma experiences and PTSD symptoms in children on the spectrum is also needed.

  4. The risk of male adult alcohol dependence: The role of the adverse childhood experiences and ecological executive function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengxun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhenchun; Liu, Jintong; Wang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    To explore the association between male adult alcohol dependence and their adverse childhood experiences as well as ecological executive function. The questionnaires of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) were adopted for the assessments of 102 alcohol dependent patients who were diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the International Classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10) and 106 healthy volunteers, and the differences between patients and healthy volunteers were analyzed. The percentage of adverse childhood experiences in alcohol dependent patients was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers (χ(2)=17.28, P<0.01); and the incidences of emotional abuse, physical neglect, violence witness, and substance abuse were significantly higher in alcohol dependent patients than those in healthy volunteers (χ(2)=4.59, 4.46, 10.51, and 44.09 respectively; P<0.05). The ecological executive function analysis showed that the BRIEF total score and scores for each item were all significantly higher in alcohol dependent patients than those of healthy volunteers (P<0.01). The adult alcohol dependence was associated with their adverse childhood experiences and ecological executive function. Then physical neglect and substance abuse of parents in childhood, and emotional control defect in the ecological executive function showed strong association with adult alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  6. Childhood adversities and clinical symptomatology in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of childhood trauma with respect to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Merih; Bilici, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Several historical items were more common in females than in males including family history of psychiatric disease (23.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.048), a personal history of psychiatric disease (51.0% vs. 29.0%, p < 0.001), and previous suicide attempts (49.0% vs. 25.0%, p < 0.001). In male inmates, in contrast, there were higher rates of substance abuse (48.0% vs. 29.0%, p < 0.001) and previous convictions (50.0% vs. 25.0%, p < 0.001). Males had a younger age at first crime (24.9 ± 8.9 years vs. 30.3 ± 9.2 years, p < 0.001), whereas females had higher rates of violent crimes (69.2% vs. 30.8% p < 0.001) and higher CTQ total scores (51.9 ± 20.9 vs. 46.2 ± 18.9, p = 0.04). A significant relationship of CTQ total score was noted with age at first offense (β = 0.772, p < 0.001) but not with sentence length (β = 0.075, p = 0.292). There were also possible mediating roles of psychiatric problems, adverse family experiences and DES in the relationship between CTQ and age at first offense. In conclusion, our findings revealed a high prevalence of and significant associations among childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric problems in a cohort of incarcerated females and males. A psychiatric background, childhood trauma characterized by sexual abuse and violent crimes were found to be predominant in female prison inmates

  8. Adverse and adaptive childhood experiences are associated with parental reflective functioning in mothers with substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Ulrika; Watten, Reidulf; Söderström, Kerstin; Skårderud, Finn; Øie, Merete Glenne

    2018-07-01

    Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD. A sample of 43 mothers with small children were interviewed with the Parental Developmental Interview to assess PRF, and they completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire regarding aversive and adaptive experiences. In addition, we used the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 to control for mental health status and a battery of neuropsychological tests to control for executive functions. Results indicated that adaptive experiences in early childhood were positively related to PRF, and that experience of emotional abuse was negatively related to PRF. When separating the group of mothers in two sub-groups based on PRF level, results showed that mothers with negative to low PRF had significantly more experiences of adversities in early childhood and latency, and significantly less adaptive experiences in early childhood, latency and adolescence, compared to mothers with moderate to high PRF. In addition, mothers with adequate to high PRF reported experiencing significantly more types of adaptive experiences, and significantly less adversities compared to mothers with negative to low PRF. Results are discussed in relation to developmental trauma, resilience, epistemic trust and mistrust. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  11. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Life Course Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Several studies demonstrate an association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and poor outcomes over the life course. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System show that ACEs are common among North Carolina residents, ACEs co-occur, and cumulative ACE exposure is associated with poor health outcomes. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder: evidence for stress sensitisation in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Koenen, Karestan C; Bromet, Evelyn J; Karam, Elie G; Liu, Howard; Petukhova, Maria; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Sampson, Nancy A; Stein, Dan J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Dinolova, Rumyana V; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-11-01

    Background Although childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age. Aims To examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to childhood adversity types, traumatic experience types and life-course stage. Method Epidemiological data were analysed from the World Mental Health Surveys ( n = 27 017). Results Four childhood adversities (physical and sexual abuse, neglect, parent psychopathology) were associated with similarly increased odds of PTSD following traumatic experiences (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8), whereas the other eight childhood adversities assessed did not predict PTSD. Childhood adversity-PTSD associations did not vary across traumatic experience types, but were stronger in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood than later adulthood. Conclusions Childhood adversities are differentially associated with PTSD, with the strongest associations in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood. Consistency of associations across traumatic experience types suggests that childhood adversities are associated with generalised vulnerability to PTSD following traumatic experiences. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Yan, Peipei; Shan, Zhilei; Chen, Sijing; Li, Moying; Luo, Cheng; Gao, Hui; Hao, Liping; Liu, Liegang

    2015-11-01

    It is evident that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can influence health status of adult life, but few large-scale studies have assessed the relation of ACEs with type 2 diabetes. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize existing evidence on the link between ACEs and type 2 diabetes in adults. We searched all published studies from PubMed and EMBASE before Aug 2015 using keywords like adverse childhood experiences and diabetes, and scanned references of relevant original articles. We included studies that reported risk estimates for diabetes by ACEs and matched our inclusion criteria. We examined the overall relationship between ACEs and diabetes, and stratified the analyses by type of childhood adversities, study design and outcome measures, respectively. Seven articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this Meta-analysis, comprising 4 cohort and 3 cross-section studies. A total of 87,251 participants and 5879 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were reported in these studies. The exposure of ACEs was positively associated with the risk of diabetes with a combined odds ratio of 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.51) in the total participants. The influence of neglect was most prominent (pooled odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.57) while the effect of physical abuse was least strong (pooled odds ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.42). The pooled odds ratio associated with sexual abuse was 1.39 with the 95% confidence intervals from 1.28 to 1.52. The results support a significant association of adverse childhood experiences with an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of chronic childhood adversity in Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Zambrano, Joaquín; Cruz, Carlos; Méndez, Enrique

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of adversity (neglect and abuse, parental loss, parental psychopathology, economic adversity, and serious physical illness), the interrelatedness of adversities, and their socio-demographic correlates. This is a multistage probability survey of 3005 adolescents aged 12-17 years residing in Mexico City. Youth were administered the computer-assisted adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview in their homes. The childhood and posttraumatic stress disorder sections provided information regarding adversity. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed considering the multistage and weighted sample design. A total of 68% of adolescents have experienced at least one type of chronic childhood adversity, whereas almost 7% have experienced four of more. The most frequent adversity is economic adversity followed by witnessing domestic violence. Boys experience more neglect than girls, and girls experience more sexual abuse than boys. Family dysfunction adversities tend to clump together such that youth exposed to abuse of any form also report witnessing domestic violence and parental mental pathology. Youth whose parents have divorced are likely to experience economic adversity. Parental death is independent of experiencing other childhood adversities. Older adolescents, school drop-outs, those with young mothers, those with more siblings, and those whose parents have less education are more likely to experience adversity. Although most adolescents have experienced some adversity, a small group is exposed to many adversities. Understanding the distribution of adversities may help us to identify at-risk youth and to better interpret the findings from studies on the role of adversity in diverse health outcomes.

  15. Is There a Cumulative Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Intimate Partner Violence in Emerging Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Gelin, Melissa; Zwilling, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been shown to cumulatively predict a range of poor physical and mental health outcomes across adulthood. The cumulative effect of ACEs on intimate partner violence (IPV) in emerging adulthood has not been previously explored. The current study examined the individual and cumulative associations between nine ACEs (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, witnessing domestic violence, living with a mentally ill, substance abusing, or incarcerated household member) and IPV in a diverse sample of college students ( N = 284; M age = 20.05 years old [ SD = 2.5], 32% male, 37% Caucasian, 30% Asian, 33% other, and 27% Hispanic) from an urban, public college in the Northeast of the United States. Participants reported ACEs (measured by the Adverse Childhood Experiences Survey) and IPV perpetration and victimization (measured with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale-2) of physical and psychological aggression in an online study that took place from 2015 to 2016. Bivariate and multivariate associations between ACEs, cumulative ACEs (assessed by the sum of adverse experiences), and IPV outcomes were assessed, while controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. No cumulative associations were observed between ACEs and any of the IPV subscales in multivariate regressions, while witnessing domestic violence was significantly associated with perpetration and victimization of physical aggression and injury, and household member incarceration and physical abuse were associated with physical aggression perpetration. Adverse childhood events do not seem to associate cumulatively with IPV in emerging adulthood and the contributions of individual childhood experiences appear to be more relevant for IPV outcomes. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  16. Poor mental health among low-income women in the U.S.: The roles of adverse childhood and adult experiences.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Nitkowski, Jenna C

    2018-06-01

    It is well established that exposure to a greater number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes. Given the predictive validity of ACE scores and other cumulative risk metrics, a similar measurement approach may advance the study of risk in adulthood. We examined the prevalence and interrelations of 10 adverse adult experiences, including household events such as intimate partner violence and extrafamilial events such as crime victimization. We also tested the relation between cumulative adult adversity and later mental health problems, and we examined whether adult adversity mediates the link between childhood adversity and mental health. Data were collected from 501 women in the Families and Children Thriving Study, a longitudinal investigation of low-income families that received home visiting services in Wisconsin. We conducted correlation analyses to assess interrelations among study measures along with multivariate analyses to test the effects of childhood and adult adversity on three outcomes: depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We then fit a structural equation model to test whether the effects of childhood adversity on mental health are mediated by adult adversity. Over 80% of participants endorsed at least one adverse adult experience. Adult adversities correlated with each other and with the mental health outcomes. Controlling for ACEs and model covariates, adult adversity scores were positively associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD scores. Path analyses revealed that the ACE-mental health connection was mediated by adult adversity. Our findings indicate that mental health problems may be better understood by accounting for processes through which early adversity leads to later adversity. Pending replication, this line of research has the potential to improve the identification of populations that are at risk of poor health outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  17. Adverse childhood or adult experiences and risk of bilateral oophorectomy: a population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Gazzuola Rocca, Liliana; Smith, Carin Y; Grossardt, Brandon R; Faubion, Stephanie S; Shuster, Lynne T; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bilateral oophorectomy has commonly been performed in conjunction with hysterectomy even in women without a clear ovarian indication; however, oophorectomy may have long-term deleterious consequences. To better understand this surgical practice from the woman’s perspective, we studied the possible association of adverse childhood or adult experiences with the subsequent occurrence of bilateral oophorectomy. Design Population-based case–control study. Setting Olmsted County, Minnesota (USA). Participants From an established population-based cohort study, we sampled 128 women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before age 46 years for a non-cancerous condition in 1988–2007 (cases) and 128 age-matched controls (±1 year). Methods Information about adverse experiences was abstracted from the medical records dating back to age 15 years or earlier archived in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system. Adverse childhood experiences were summarised using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) score. Results We observed an association of bilateral oophorectomy performed before age 46 years with verbal or emotional abuse, physical abuse, any abuse, substance abuse in the household, and with an ACE score ≥1 experienced before age 19 years (OR=3.23; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.02; p<0.001). In women who underwent the oophorectomy before age 40 years, we also observed a strong association with physical abuse experienced during adulthood (OR=4.33; 95% CI 1.23 to 15.21; p=0.02). Several of the associations were higher in women who underwent oophorectomy at a younger age (<40 years) and in women without an ovarian indication for the surgery. None of the psychosocial or medical variables explored as potential confounders or intervening variables changed the results noticeably. Conclusions Women who suffered adverse childhood experiences or adult abuse are at increased risk of undergoing bilateral oophorectomy before menopause. We suggest that the

  18. Adverse childhood or adult experiences and risk of bilateral oophorectomy: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gazzuola Rocca, Liliana; Smith, Carin Y; Grossardt, Brandon R; Faubion, Stephanie S; Shuster, Lynne T; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Rocca, Walter A

    2017-06-07

    Bilateral oophorectomy has commonly been performed in conjunction with hysterectomy even in women without a clear ovarian indication; however, oophorectomy may have long-term deleterious consequences. To better understand this surgical practice from the woman's perspective, we studied the possible association of adverse childhood or adult experiences with the subsequent occurrence of bilateral oophorectomy. Population-based case-control study. Olmsted County, Minnesota (USA). From an established population-based cohort study, we sampled 128 women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before age 46 years for a non-cancerous condition in 1988-2007 (cases) and 128 age-matched controls (±1 year). Information about adverse experiences was abstracted from the medical records dating back to age 15 years or earlier archived in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system. Adverse childhood experiences were summarised using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) score. We observed an association of bilateral oophorectomy performed before age 46 years with verbal or emotional abuse, physical abuse, any abuse, substance abuse in the household, and with an ACE score ≥1 experienced before age 19 years (OR=3.23; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.02; p<0.001). In women who underwent the oophorectomy before age 40 years, we also observed a strong association with physical abuse experienced during adulthood (OR=4.33; 95% CI 1.23 to 15.21; p=0.02). Several of the associations were higher in women who underwent oophorectomy at a younger age (<40 years) and in women without an ovarian indication for the surgery. None of the psychosocial or medical variables explored as potential confounders or intervening variables changed the results noticeably. Women who suffered adverse childhood experiences or adult abuse are at increased risk of undergoing bilateral oophorectomy before menopause. We suggest that the association may be explained by a series of biological, emotional, and

  19. Validity of Adult Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Rutter, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influential studies have cast doubt on the validity of retrospective reports by adults of their own adverse experiences in childhood. Accordingly, many researchers view retrospective reports with scepticism. Method: A computer-based search, supplemented by hand searches, was used to identify studies reported between 1980 and 2001 in…

  20. Latent Classes and Cumulative Impacts of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Gia Elise

    2018-05-01

    Studies of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have gauged severity using a cumulative risk (CR) index. Few studies have focused on the nature of the context of adversity and their association with psychosocial outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the patterning of ACEs and to explore the resultant patterns' association with HIV risk-taking, problem drinking, and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify homogeneous, mutually exclusive "classes" of 11 of the most commonly used ACEs. The LCA resulted in four high-risk profiles and one low-risk profile, which were labeled: (1) highly abusive and dysfunctional (3.3%; n = 1,983), (2) emotionally abusive alcoholic with parental conflict (6%, n = 3,303), (3) sexual abuse only (4.3%, n = 2,260), (4) emotionally abusive and alcoholic (30.3%, n = 17,460), and (5) normative, low risk (56.3%, n = 32,950). Compared to the low-risk class, each high-risk profile was differentially associated with adult psychosocial outcomes even when the conditional CR within that class was similar. The results further our understanding about the pattern of ACEs and the unique pathways to poor health. Implications for child welfare systems when dealing with individuals who have experienced multiple forms of early childhood maltreatment and/or household dysfunction are discussed.

  1. Do adverse childhood experiences predict adult interpersonal difficulties? The role of emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2018-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for interpersonal difficulties in adulthood, however the mechanism that underlies this association is unknown. The current study investigated the association of a wide range of ACEs with interpersonal difficulties in adulthood, and tested whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and interpersonal difficulties. Patients over the age of 18 were recruited from primary care clinics (N = 4006). Participants completed self-report questionnaires that assessed ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal difficulties. Results indicated that, after controlling for a range of demographic variables, each type of ACE significantly predicted increased interpersonal difficulties and that cumulative ACEs predicted increased interpersonal difficulties, F(8, 3137) = 39.68, p < .001, R 2  = 0.09. Further, emotion dysregulation mediated the association between ACEs and interpersonal difficulties, B = 0.79, SE = 0.09, 95% CI [0.64, 0.97]. These findings emphasize the role of childhood adversity on interpersonal functioning in adulthood, and highlight emotion dysregulation as a mechanism by which this association occurs. Results have the potential to inform preventative and treatment efforts to improve adaptive outcomes among individuals with a history of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the interrelatedness of multiple types of adverse childhood experiences and odds for poor health in South Carolina adults.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Elizabeth; Strompolis, Melissa; Bennett, Kevin J; Morse, Melanie; Radcliff, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to negative health outcomes in adulthood, but little research has been done on the effect of ACEs on the health and well-being of adults in South Carolina (SC). This study analyzed a sample of 9744 respondents who participated in the 2014 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine the relationship among childhood experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as witnessing household violence, on mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood among SC residents. Twenty-two percent of survey respondents reported poor general health (22.1%), and a smaller proportion reported high frequent mental distress in the past month (13.1%). Each category of childhood experiences was associated with an increase in the risk of poor general health. Individuals reporting three or more types of experiences were more likely to report poor health (aOR 2.89; 95% CI 2.86-2.92) than adults without such experiences. Respondents reporting three or more types of childhood adverse experiences were more likely to report frequent mental distress (aOR 3.29; 95% CI 3.26-3.33) compared to adults who did not report three or more types of adversity. Findings from the SC BRFSS highlight a connection between ACEs and negative health outcomes later in life. Given that results of this study also demonstrated that increased exposure to ACEs was associated with greater odds of negative health in adulthood, preventing adverse events such as experiencing abuse or witnessing domestic violence in childhood will have significant effects on later adult health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dying to be famous: retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Sharples, Olivia; Hennell, Tom; Hardcastle, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Rock and pop fame is associated with risk taking, substance use and premature mortality. We examine relationships between fame and premature mortality and test how such relationships vary with type of performer (eg, solo or band member) and nationality and whether cause of death is linked with prefame (adverse childhood) experiences. Design A retrospective cohort analysis based on biographical data. An actuarial methodology compares postfame mortality to matched general populations. Cox survival and logistic regression techniques examine risk and protective factors for survival and links between adverse childhood experiences and cause of death, respectively. Setting North America and Europe. Participants 1489 rock and pop stars reaching fame between 1956 and 2006. Outcomes Stars’ postfame mortality relative to age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched populations (USA and UK); variations in survival with performer type, and in cause of mortality with exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Results Rock/pop star mortality increases relative to the general population with time since fame. Increases are greater in North American stars and those with solo careers. Relative mortality begins to recover 25 years after fame in European but not North American stars. Those reaching fame from 1980 onwards have better survival rates. For deceased stars, cause of death was more likely to be substance use or risk-related in those with more adverse childhood experiences. Conclusions Relationships between fame and mortality vary with performers’ characteristics. Adverse experiences in early life may leave some predisposed to health-damaging behaviours, with fame and extreme wealth providing greater opportunities to engage in risk-taking. Millions of youths wish to emulate their icons. It is important they recognise that substance use and risk-taking may be rooted in childhood adversity rather than seeing them as symbols of success. PMID:23253869

  5. Disrupted Executive Function and Aggression in Individuals With a History of Adverse Childhood Experiences: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiao-Mei; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Sun, Ji-Wei; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Here, we explored the functional and neural mechanisms underlying aggression related to adverse childhood experiences. We assessed behavioral performance and event-related potentials during a go/no-go and N-back paradigm. The participants were 15 individuals with adverse childhood experiences and high aggression (ACE + HA), 13 individuals with high aggression (HA), and 14 individuals with low aggression and no adverse childhood experiences (control group). The P2 latency (initial perceptual processing) was longer in the ACE + HA group for the go trials. The HA group had a larger N2 (response inhibition) than controls for the no-go trials. Error-related negativity (error processing) in the ACE + HA and HA groups was smaller than that of controls for false alarm go trials. Lastly, the ACE + HA group had shorter error-related negativity latencies than controls for false alarm trials. Overall, our results reveal the neural correlates of executive function in aggressive individuals with ACEs.

  6. [The role of genotype in the intergenerational transmission of experiences of childhood adversity].

    PubMed

    Reichl, Corinna; Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood abuse and maltreatment is estimated to lie at about 15% in the overall German population. Previous research suggested that about one third of all individuals who had experienced childhood adversity subsequently maltreated their own children or responded insensitively to their children's needs. Empirical studies imply that interindividual differences in the responsiveness to childhood adversity can partially be explained by gene-environment interactions. This article discusses the potential interplay of genes and environment in the context of transmitting maltreating behavior and (in)sensitive parenting against the background of current challenges in genetic research. Selected studies on gene × environment interactions are presented and relevant gene polymorphisms are identified. Overall, previous studies reported interactions between polymorphisms of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocin-related, and arginine vasopressin-related systems and childhood experiences of care and abuse in the prediction of social behaviors during mother-child interactions. The results indicate a differential susceptibility toward both negative and positive environments which is dependent on genetic characteristics. Future research should thus investigate the effects of children's presumed risk gene variants toward negative as well as positive parenting. This could contribute to a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the intergenerational transmission of abusive and beneficial parenting behavior and help to avoid false stigmatizations.

  7. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  8. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quynh Anh; Dunne, Michael P; Vo, Thang Van; Luu, Ngoc Hoat

    2015-11-01

    Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years. © 2015 APJPH.

  10. Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Debora Lee; Jerman, Petra; Silvério Marques, Sara; Koita, Kadiatou; Purewal Boparai, Sukhdip Kaur; Burke Harris, Nadine; Bucci, Monica

    2018-02-23

    Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected. Mental and behavioral health outcomes were excluded, as were physical health outcomes that were a direct result of adversity (i.e. abusive head trauma). Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. After identifying 15940 records, 35 studies were included in this review. Selected studies indicated that exposure to childhood adversity was associated with delays in cognitive development, asthma, infection, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. Studies on household dysfunction reported an effect on weight during early childhood, and studies on maltreatment reported an effect on weight during adolescence. Maternal mental health issues were associated with elevated cortisol levels, and maltreatment was associated with blunted cortisol levels in childhood. Furthermore, exposure to childhood adversity was associated with alterations of immune and inflammatory response and stress-related accelerated telomere erosion. Childhood adversity affects brain development and multiple body systems, and the physiologic manifestations can be detectable in childhood. A history of childhood adversity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of developmental delay, asthma, recurrent infections requiring hospitalization, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. The variability in children's response to adversity suggests complex underlying mechanisms and poses a challenge in the development of uniform diagnostic guidelines. More large longitudinal studies are needed to better

  11. Factors Associated with Whether Pediatricians Inquire about Parents’ Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E.K.; Garner, Andrew; O’Connor, Karen G.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. This paper examines pediatric practice in inquiring about parents’ childhood adversities as of 2013. Methods Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents’ ACE. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child’s life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice ((81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents’ ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents’ ACE Conclusion As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents’ ACE despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development‥ Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACE and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP’s proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. PMID:27157045

  12. Factors Associated With Whether Pediatricians Inquire About Parents' Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. We examined pediatric practice in inquiring about parents' childhood adversities as of 2013. Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents' ACEs. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child's life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice (81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents' ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents' ACE. As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents' ACEs despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development. Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACEs and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP's proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood Adversity, Daily Stress, and Marital Strain in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Rachel; Umberson, Debra; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity has enduring consequences for individuals throughout life, including increased reactivity to stress that may contribute to marital strain in adulthood. Past research on gendered experiences of heterosexual spouses raises questions about how the influence of childhood adversity might differ for men and women in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic diary data from 756 individuals in 106 male same-sex, 157 female same-sex, and 115 different-sex marriages to consider how childhood adversity moderates the association between daily stress and marital strain. Results suggest that the negative consequences of daily stress for marital strain are amplified by past childhood adversity with variation for men and women in same- and different-sex unions, such that women and those in same-sex marriages may experience some protection from the adverse consequences of childhood adversity.

  14. Cumulative Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction in Sex Therapy Patients: What Role for Symptom Complexity?

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    Patients consulting for sexual difficulties frequently present additional personal or relational disorders and symptoms. This is especially the case when they have experienced cumulative adverse childhood experiences (CACEs), which are associated with symptom complexity. CACEs refer to the extent to which an individual has experienced an accumulation of different types of adverse childhood experiences including sexual, physical, and psychological abuse; neglect; exposure to inter-parental violence; and bullying. However, past studies have not examined how symptom complexity might relate to CACEs and sexual satisfaction and even less so in samples of adults consulting for sex therapy. To document the presence of CACEs in a sample of individuals consulting for sexual difficulties and its potential association with sexual satisfaction through the development of symptom complexity operationalized through well-established clinically significant indicators of individual and relationship distress. Men and women (n = 307) aged 18 years and older consulting for sexual difficulties completed a set of questionnaires during their initial assessment. (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (ii) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-4, (iii) Experiences in Close Relationships-12, (iv) Beck Depression Inventory-13, (v) Trauma Symptom Inventory-2, and (vi) Psychiatric Symptom Inventory-14. Results showed that 58.1% of women and 51.9% of men reported at least four forms of childhood adversity. The average number of CACEs was 4.10 (SD = 2.23) in women and 3.71 (SD = 2.08) in men. Structural equation modeling showed that CACEs contribute directly and indirectly to sexual satisfaction in adults consulting for sex therapy through clinically significant individual and relational symptom complexities. The findings underscore the relevance of addressing clinically significant psychological and relational symptoms that can stem from CACEs when treating sexual difficulties in adults seeking sex

  15. The Role of Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Race in Intergenerational High-Risk Smoking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Veronica A.; Petito, Lucia C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods: Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Results: Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking–child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Conclusions: Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. Implications: These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational

  16. Typologies of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship to incarceration in U.S. military veterans.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jana; Waterhouse-Bradley, Bethany; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, but no study has examined the different typologies of ACEs and the relationship of these with adult incarceration in military veterans. The current study used latent class analysis to examine the existence of different childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction typologies in a sample of U.S. military veterans identified through the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III ((NESARC-III)). A total of 60.73% of veterans reported one or more ACEs. Four latent classes were identified and were named Low adversities, Moderate maltreatment with high household substance use, Severe maltreatment with moderate household dysfunction and Severe multi-type adversities. Relative to the Low adversities class, the three maltreatment/dysfunction classes had significantly elevated odds ratios (1.72-2.29) for adult incarceration, when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and drug use. The results point to the importance of examining childhood risk factors for incarceration and suggest that a certain sub-group of military personnel who are about to transition into the civilian life may need additional support to adjust and live successful lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES AMONG YOUTH AGING OUT OF FOSTER CARE: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Rebbe, Rebecca; Nurius, Paula S.; Ahrens, Kym R.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that youth who age out, or emancipate, from foster care face deleterious outcomes across a variety of domains in early adulthood. This article builds on this knowledge base by investigating the role of adverse childhood experience accumulation and composition on these outcomes. A latent class analysis was performed to identify three subgroups: Complex Adversity, Environmental Adversity, and Lower Adversity. Differences are found amongst the classes in terms of young adult outcomes in terms of socio-economic outcomes, psychosocial problems, and criminal behaviors. The results indicate that not only does the accumulation of adversity matter, but so does the composition of the adversity. These results have implications for policymakers, the numerous service providers and systems that interact with foster youth, and for future research. PMID:28458409

  18. The Impact of a History of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Breastfeeding Initiation and Exclusivity: Findings from a National Population Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Ukah, Ugochinyere Vivian; Adu, Prince A; De Silva, Dane A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization. Given the low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Canada and the increasing reports of a history of adverse childhood experiences, this study sought to investigate the association between a history of adverse childhood experiences and breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding. Data used for this study were based on the 2011-2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, collected using a cross-sectional survey. The outcome measures were breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months or more. History of adverse childhood experiences was the main explanatory variable. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to investigate the effect on breastfeeding initiation and on exclusive breastfeeding in women who gave birth within 5 years before when the surveys were conducted. The study sample included 697 and 633 women for analyses on breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding, respectively. The proportion of women with breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in this study were 96.8% and 42.8%, respectively. After controlling for age and highest level of education, having a history of adverse childhood experiences was not significantly associated with breastfeeding initiation (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-1.87), but mothers with such history were less likely to exclusively breastfeed for up to 6 months compared with those without (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.90). These findings suggest the need for more breastfeeding monitoring programs beyond the hospital environment to provide more support to Canadian mothers, especially those who have experienced adverse childhood experiences or trauma in the past.

  19. Childhood Adversity and Pain Sensitization.

    PubMed

    You, Dokyoung Sophia; Meagher, Mary W

    Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing. Both groups underwent heat pain threshold and temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) testing after reporting depressive symptoms. TSSP refers to a progressive increase in pain intensity with repetition of identical noxious stimuli and is attributed to central sensitization. Changes in pain ratings over time (slope) were computed for TSSP sensitization and decay of subsequent aftersensations. The high-adversity group showed greater TSSP sensitization (meanslope, 0.75; SDpositive slope, 1.78), and a trend toward a slower decay (meanslope, -11.9; SD, 3.4), whereas the low-adversity group showed minimal sensitization (meanslope, 0.07; SDnear-zero slope, 1.77), F(1,123) = 5.84, p = .017 and faster decay (meanslope, -13.1; SD, 3.4), F(1,123) = 3.79, p = .054. This group difference remained significant even after adjusting for adult depressive symptoms (p = .033). No group difference was found in heat pain threshold (p = .85). Lastly, the high-adversity group showed blunted cardiac and skin conductance responses. These findings suggest that enhancement of central sensitization may provide a mechanism underlying the pain hypersensitivity and chronicity linked to childhood adversity.

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Prescribed Psychotropic Medications in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Robert F.; Brown, David W.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Bremner, J. Douglas; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prescription drugs are one of the fastest growing healthcare costs in the United States. However, the long-term influence of child abuse and related traumatic stressors on prescriptions for psychotropic medications in adults has not been described. This study assessed the relationship of eight adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to rates of prescriptions for psychotropic medications throughout adulthood. These ACEs included: abuse (emotional, physical, or sexual), witnessing domestic violence, growing up with substance abusing, mentally ill, or criminal household members, and parental separation/ divorce. Methods Data about ACEs were collected between 1995 and 1997 from adult health maintenance organization patients; prescription data were available from 1997 to 2004. The number of ACEs (ACE Score: maximum 8) was used as a measure of cumulative traumatic stress during childhood. The relationship of the score to rates of prescribed psychotropic drugs was prospectively assessed among 15,033 adult patients eligible for the follow-up phase of the study (mean follow-up: 6.1 years). Data were analyzed in 2006. Multivariate models were adjusted for age, race, gender, and education. Results Prescription rates increased yearly during the follow-up and in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting compared with persons with an ACE Score of 0, persons with a score of equal to or more than 5 had a nearly threefold increase in rates of psychotropic prescriptions. Graded relationships were observed between the score and prescription rates for antidepressant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and mood-stabilizing/bipolar medications; rates for persons with a score of equal to or more than 5 for these classes of drugs increased 3-, 2-, 10-, and 17-fold, respectively. Conclusions The strong relationship of the ACE Score to increased utilization of psychotropic medications underscores the contribution of childhood experience to the burden

  1. Examining the association between adverse childhood experiences and smoking-exacerbated illnesses.

    PubMed

    Crouch, E; Radcliff, E; Strompolis, M; Wilson, A

    2018-04-01

    Adults who smoke increase their likelihood of death from smoking-exacerbated illnesses. The presence of illnesses exacerbated by smoking can be a powerful incentive to quit smoking. However, having a smoking-exacerbated illness does not stop all patients from smoking. Understanding that smoking may be a coping mechanism for stress, this study examined the association between the experiences of adverse events in childhood with continued smoking in adulthood among individuals and a smoking-exacerbated illness. This retrospective observational study used 2014-2015 data from the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of adverse childhood experience (ACE) exposure on current smoking status. A total of 6321 respondents reported having a smoking-exacerbated illness. The most frequently reported categories of smoking-exacerbated illnesses were current asthma (63.9%), previous asthma (13.0%), and diabetes (12.3%). Overall, 62.4% of respondents had at least one ACE, with 20.3% of respondents having four or more ACEs. Respondents with one to three ACEs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-1.40) and four or more ACEs (aOR 2.89; CI 2.86-2.92) were both significantly more likely to smoke than respondents with no ACEs, even in the presence of illnesses exacerbated by smoking. Results suggest that ACE exposure may influence risky health behaviors in adulthood, such as continued smoking even in the presence of illnesses that are exacerbated by smoking. Given that smoking has been found to be a coping mechanism for adversity, anti-smoking efforts might benefit from designing interventions and treatment plans that address ACE exposure. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Painful Legacy of Childhood Violence: Migraine Headaches Among Adult Survivors of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2015-01-01

    Childhood adversities have been associated with adult migraine in the general population. However, most research has focused on only a few types of maltreatment and has not always controlled for factors correlated with early adversities and migraine. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early adversities and migraine, while controlling for a range of potential explanatory factors. We analyzed data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health. Using a representative sample of 10,358 men and 12,638 women, we undertook gender-specific logistic regression analyses to determine the association between number and type of self-reported childhood adversities (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing parental domestic violence) and migraine, while controlling for sociodemographics, comorbid adversities, health behaviors, depression, and anxiety. In total, 6.5% of men and 14.2% of women reported migraines. All three adversities were significantly associated with migraine for both genders, even after controlling for a range of variables. The fully adjusted odds of migraine associated with physical abuse, parental domestic violence, and sexual abuse were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42-1.83), 1.64 (95% CI = 1.39-1.93), and 1.32 (95% CI = 1.11-1.57), respectively, for women, and 1.50 (95% CI = 1.25-1.80), 1.52 (95% CI = 1.16-1.98), and 1.70 (95% CI = 1.22-2.36) for men. Greater number of adversities was also associated with increasing odds of migraine. Men reporting all three adversities had over three times (odds ratio = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.09-5.07) and women over two times (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 2.25-3.60) the odds of migraine compared with those without childhood adversities. Number and type of early adversities are associated with migraine among Canadian men and women. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  3. The Association between Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) and School Success in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Christopher; Lanigan, Jane D.

    2018-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of using school personnel as reporters to examine the relationship between the level of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) exposure in a nonclinical sample of public elementary schoolchildren and academic risk. We selected a random sample of 2,101 children from kindergarten through 6th grade classroom rosters at 10…

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  5. Recent life events and psychosis: The role of childhood adversities.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Life events are commonly reported to be related to psychosis. However, less attention has been given to the role that recent events play on psychosis, in relation to exposure to childhood adversity. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between recent events and psychosis, taking into account the role of early adversities. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Childhood adversity was evaluated using a validated semi-structured interview and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Recent events were recorded using a semi-structured interview with a normative and contextual approach. The diagnosis of psychosis was made according to Jablenski's criteria. Chi-square, t-test, odds ratio, and binary logistic regression statistical analyses were performed. Psychotic patients reported an excess of recent events. The occurrence of more than one recent event increased the risk of psychosis; there was a cumulative effect between recent and childhood events on psychosis. Recent events were significantly related to psychosis, even in the absence of childhood adversity or when adjusted for it. Our findings suggested that the effect of recent events on psychosis may be amplified by previous exposure to early adversity. Recent events alone, could be also linked to psychosis independently of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The lasting legacy of childhood adversity for disease risk in later life.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Cathal; Dooley, Cara; Layte, Richard; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-07-01

    There has been an increased interest in the role of the childhood social environment in the etiology of adult diseases in recent years. The present study examines whether the experience of adversity during childhood increases risk for disease in later life independent of later life socioeconomic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. The study involved a nationally representative sample of 6,912 persons aged 50 years and older who were participating in the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Childhood adversity was indexed using a 4-item measure that captured challenging and potentially noxious childhood environmental exposures including, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance abuse among parents, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. A doctor diagnosis of disease across 9 chronic disease types represented the primary outcome variables. The experience of adversity during childhood was associated with increased risk of disease in midlife and older ages across a large number of chronic disease types including cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and emotional, nervous, or psychiatric disorders. Analysis of the dose-response pattern revealed positively graded associations between the number of adverse events experienced during childhood and the occurrence of chronic disease in later life. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that the experience of adversity during childhood was associated with earlier age of onset for any physical disease type or emotional, nervous, or psychiatric disorders. These findings indicate that childhood may represent a sensitive or critical period in the development of disease and reinforces the necessity of adopting a life-course approach to the study of chronic diseases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and child-to-adult height trajectories in the 1958 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Rachel; Power, Chris; Li, Leah

    2013-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) are associated with adult cardiovascular disease (CVD). One possible pathway is through physical development, which has been linked to CVD risk. Our aim was to examine whether adverse childhood experiences are associated with child-to-adult height trajectories. The 1958 British birth cohort (n=17,638) includes all born in one week in March 1958, followed up to mid adulthood. Height was measured at 7, 11 and 16 years (y) and adulthood (converted to standard deviation scores (SDS); ≥1 height measurement n=16,444, adult leg length n=9180). Multivariate response models were used to examine the associations between childhood experiences (ascertained at 7 y and self-reported at 45 y) and child-to-adult height. Childhood neglect, prospectively assessed at 7 y, was associated with shorter stature throughout childhood: for each increment across a score ranging 0-7, average height reduced by 0.06 SDS (males) and 0.05 SDS (females) at 7 y (≈0.3 cm), with smaller deficits (0.03 SDS, ≈0.2 cm) in adulthood, after adjustment for parental height, birthweight and socio-economic factors. In males, the adult deficit was mainly due to shorter leg length. Household dysfunction was associated with shorter stature at 7-11 y, with adjusted deficits from 0.04 to 0.07 SDS per increment across a score ranging 0-7, but not at later ages. Adjusted models showed no associations for retrospectively reported abuse or neglect to 16 y. Those with a higher neglect score by 7 y grew more slowly, with deficits through to adulthood. No associations were found for abuse over the longer period to 16 y. Deficits associated with early life neglect and household dysfunction might have implications for adult CVD risks.

  8. Modeling life course pathways from adverse childhood experiences to adult mental health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tiffany M; Nurius, Paula; Song, Chiho; Fleming, Christopher M

    2018-06-01

    Although the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult mental health is becoming well established, less is known about the complex and multiple pathways through which ACEs exert their influence. Growing evidence suggests that adversity early in life conveys not only early impacts, but also augments risk of stress-related life course cascades that continue to undermine health. The present study aims to test pathways of stress proliferation and stress embodiment processes linking ACEs to mental health impairment in adulthood. Data are from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a representative sample of Washington State adults ages 18 and over (N = 14,001). Structural equation modeling allowed for testing of direct and indirect effects from ACEs though low income status, experiences of adversity in adulthood, and social support. The model demonstrated that adult low income, social support and adult adversity are in fact conduits through which ACEs exert their influence on mental health impairment in adulthood. Significant indirect pathways through these variables supported hypotheses that the effect of ACEs is carried through these variables. This is among the first models that demonstrates multiple stress-related life course pathways through which early life adversity compromises adult mental health. Discussion elaborates multiple service system opportunities for intervention in early and later life to interrupt direct and indirect pathways of ACE effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Race in Intergenerational High-Risk Smoking Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pear, Veronica A; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking-child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational smoking, and suggest that maternal early-life history is a potentially

  10. Unpacking the impact of adverse childhood experiences on adult mental health.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Melissa T; Ports, Katie A; Ford, Derek C; Afifi, Tracie O; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to childhood adversity has an impact on adult mental health, increasing the risk for depression and suicide. Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and several adult mental and behavioral health outcomes are well documented in the literature, establishing the need for prevention. The current study analyzes the relationship between an expanded ACE score that includes being spanked as a child and adult mental health outcomes by examining each ACE separately to determine the contribution of each ACE. Data were drawn from Wave II of the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study, consisting of 7465 adult members of Kaiser Permanente in southern California. Dichotomous variables corresponding to each of the 11 ACE categories were created, with ACE score ranging from 0 to 11 corresponding to the total number of ACEs experienced. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to examine the relationship between ACEs and adult mental health outcomes adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results indicated a graded dose-response relationship between the expanded ACE score and the likelihood of moderate to heavy drinking, drug use, depressed affect, and suicide attempts in adulthood. In the adjusted models, being spanked as a child was significantly associated with all self-reported mental health outcomes. Over 80% of the sample reported exposure to at least one ACE, signifying the potential to capture experiences not previously considered by traditional ACE indices. The findings highlight the importance of examining both cumulative ACE scores and individual ACEs on adult health outcomes to better understand key risk and protective factors for future prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  12. Childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles as predictors of anxiety among elderly caregivers.

    PubMed

    Prigerson, H G; Shear, M K; Bierhals, A J; Zonarich, D L; Reynolds, C F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  14. A Multivariate Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health Behaviors and Outcomes among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Getachew, Beth; Shah, Jean; Payne, Jackie; Pillai, Dina; Berg, Carla J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) prior to age 18 years and multiple health behaviors (eg, cigarette and other substance use) and outcomes (eg, obesity, depression) for a large college sample. Participants: 2,969 college students from seven universities in the state of Georgia were included…

  15. Promoting Resilience: Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Woods-Jaeger, Briana A; Cho, Bridget; Sexton, Chris C; Slagel, Lauren; Goggin, Kathy

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including trauma exposure, parent mental health problems, and family dysfunction, put children at risk for disrupted brain development and increased risk for later health problems and mortality. These negative effects may be prevented by resilience promoting environments that include protective caregiving relationships. We sought to understand (1) parents' experiences of ACEs, (2) the perceived impact on parenting, (3) protective factors that buffer ACEs potential negative impact, and (4) supports and services that can reduce the number and severity of ACEs and promote resilience among children exposed to early adversity. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 11 low-income, urban parents of young children who had experienced ACEs. Interviews were analyzed for emergent themes and shared with parents from the community to ensure relevance and proper interpretation. Themes from these interviews describe the potential intergenerational cycle of ACEs and key factors that can break that cycle, including parent aspirations to make children's lives better and parent nurturance and support. Parents' suggestions for intervention are also presented. Our findings illuminate protective factors and family strengths that are important to build upon when developing and implementing interventions to promote resilience among parents and children exposed to early adversity. This study benefits from highly ecologically valid data obtained from low-socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minority parents through one-on-one in-depth interviews and interpreted with the aid of community stakeholders through a community-based participatory research approach.

  16. Patterns of adverse childhood experiences and substance use among young adults: A latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny H; McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Conley, David

    2018-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been strongly linked with subsequent substance use. The aim of this study was to investigate how different patterns of ACEs influence substance use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals (N=336; ages 18-25), we performed latent class analyses (LCA) to identify homogenous groups of young people with similar patterns of ACEs. Exposure to ACEs incorporates 13 childhood adversities including childhood maltreatment, household dysfunction, and community violence. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used in an effort to examine the associations between ACEs classes and four young adult outcomes such as alcohol-related problems, current tobacco use, drug dependence symptoms, and psychological distress. LCA identified four heterogeneous classes of young people distinguished by different patterns of ACEs exposure: Low ACEs (56%), Household Dysfunction/Community Violence (14%), Emotional ACEs (14%), and High/Multiple ACEs (16%). Multiple regression analyses found that compared to those in the Low ACEs class, young adults in the High/Multiple ACEs class reported more alcohol-related problems, current tobacco use, and psychological symptoms, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and common risk factors for substance use such as peer substance use. Our findings confirm that for many young people, ACEs occur as multiple rather than single experiences. The results of this research suggest that exposure to poly-victimization during childhood is particularly related to substance use during young adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood adversity and insomnia in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Raffeld, Miriam R; Slopen, Natalie; Hale, Lauren; Dunn, Erin C

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between exposure to childhood adversity and insomnia, with an emphasis on the role of adversity type, timing, and accumulation (i.e., the number of specific types of adversities the child reported being exposed to). Our analytic sample comprised 9582 adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative population-based sample. We examined the association between 18 different types of retrospectively reported adversities (capturing interpersonal violence, accidents and injuries, social network or witnessing events, and other adverse events) and risk of self-reported past-year insomnia. We also examined whether the age at first exposure to adversity was associated with the risk of insomnia, and whether exposure to a greater number of different types of adversities (ie, accumulation) conferred an elevated risk of insomnia. In addition, we performed a sensitivity analysis excluding adolescents with a past-year diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or generalized anxiety disorder. Almost one-third of adolescents reported insomnia, with a higher prevalence among girls and those from racial/ethnic minority groups. Adolescents exposed to at least one childhood adversity of any type (59.41%) were more likely than their nonexposed peers to experience insomnia (across adversities, prevalence ratios (PRs) ranged from 1.31 to 1.89). Risk of insomnia differed based on the age at first exposure to adversity as well as the type of adversity. Adolescents exposed to a greater number of different types of adversities had a higher risk of insomnia compared to those experiencing fewer adversities. These results were similar, by and large, to those obtained after excluding adolescents with at least one of the four past-year psychiatric disorders. Exposure to adversity confers an elevated risk of insomnia. This association varied by type

  18. Pathways Linking Adverse Childhood Experiences to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Black Men: a Prospective Analysis of the Role of Sleep Problems and Delayed Reward Discounting.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Kogan, Steven; Liu, Sihong; Sweet, Lawrence; Mackillop, James

    2017-12-01

    African American men experience increases in smoking during the young adult transition. Exposure to childhood adversity, a risk factor which disproportionately affects African American men, has been identified as a robust precursor to health risk behavior in general and cigarette smoking in particular. The intermediate mechanisms that transmit the influence of early adversity to smoking behavior are not well understood. We tested a model of the escalation of smoking behaviors among young adult African American men, investigating sleep disturbance and delayed reward discounting as intermediate factors linking adverse childhood experiences with smoking. Hypotheses were tested with three waves of data (M age-T1  = 20.34, M age-T2  = 21.92, M age-T3  = 23.02) from 505 African American men living in rural counties in South Georgia. Men provided self-report data on their adverse childhood experiences, sleep problems, and smoking behavior using audio-assisted computer self-interviews. Men also completed a computer-based delayed reward discounting task. Structural equation modeling analyses supported our hypotheses: Adverse childhood experiences predicted poor sleep adequacy, which forecast increases in delayed reward discounting; discounting, in turn, predicted increased smoking. Significant indirect pathways were detected linking adversity to discounting via sleep adequacy and linking sleep adequacy to smoking via discounting. Prevention and intervention researchers can draw on these findings to develop programs that focus on sleep adequacy to reduce smoking in African American men exposed to childhood adversity.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences of Referred Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and later life adult obesity and smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Deardorff, Julianna; Kesavan, Yamini; Cohen, Alison K; Patil, Divya; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Prior work demonstrates associations between physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness early in life with obesity and smoking. Studies, however, have not generally been in nationally representative samples and have not conducted analyses to account for bias in the exposure. We used data from the 1979 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to test associations between measures of adverse childhood experiences with obesity and smoking and used an instrumental variables approach to address potential measurement error of the exposure. Models demonstrated associations between childhood physical abuse and obesity at age 40 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.52) and ever smoking (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16), as well as associations between household alcohol abuse (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.31-1.79) and household mental illness (OR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.60) with ever smoking. We find no evidence of association modification by gender, socioeconomic position, or race and/or ethnicity. Instrumental variables analysis using a sibling's report of adverse childhood experiences demonstrated a relationship between household alcohol abuse and smoking, with a population attributable fraction of 17% (95% CI, 2.0%-37%) for ever smoking and 6.7% (95% CI, 1.6%-12%) for currently smoking. Findings suggest long-term impacts of childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness on obesity and smoking and that the association between household alcohol abuse and smoking is not solely due to measurement error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  2. Childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated: differential exposure and vulnerability by race/ethnicity and gender.

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Susan; MacArthur, Kelly Rhea

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between childhood adversity and adult depression is well-established but less is known about the association between childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated. In this paper, we examine differential exposure and vulnerability to childhood adversity by race/ethnicity and gender on adult depression among the incarcerated in the United States. We address three research questions: does exposure to childhood adverse experiences vary by race/ethnicity and gender? Is there an association between these childhood adverse events and depression and does the strength of the association vary by the specific adverse experiences? And does vulnerability to childhood adversity vary by gender and race/ethnicity? Using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities (SI-SFCF), we measure four key childhood adverse events - parental/caretaker substance abuse, physical assault, having been placed in foster care, and sexual assault. We use ordinary least squares regression and a series of interaction effect analyses to examine differential exposure and vulnerability to the four childhood adverse experiences by race/ethnicity and gender. Incarcerated women are more likely to report parental substance abuse, but all inmates/prisoners are similarly vulnerable to this experience. For the other three adverse experiences measured, we find that there are important racial/ethnic and gender differences in both exposure and vulnerability. African American men and women are more vulnerable to the effects of physical and sexual victimization than White and Hispanic men and women. Women are much more likely to be exposed to sexual victimization, but men who report this experience are significantly more depressed. Hispanic women and White men and women are more likely to report foster care, but all inmates/prisoners who report foster care experiences are significantly more depressed than other inmates/prisoners, with the exception of

  3. The relationship between childhood adversity and food insecurity: 'It's like a bird nesting in your head'.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Mariana; Knowles, Molly; Rabinowich, Jenny; Arnold, Kimberly T

    2015-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, including abuse, neglect and household instability, affect lifelong health and economic potential. The present study investigates how adverse childhood experiences are associated with food insecurity by exploring caregivers' perceptions of the impact of their childhood adversity on educational attainment, employment and mental health. Semi-structured audio-recorded in-person interviews that included (i) quantitative measures of maternal and child health, adverse childhood experiences (range: 0-10) and food security using the US Household Food Security Survey Module; and (ii) qualitative audio-recorded investigations of experiences with abuse, neglect, violence and hunger over participants' lifetimes. Households in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Thirty-one mothers of children <4 years old who reported low or very low household food security. Twenty-one caregivers (68 %) reported four or more adverse childhood experiences, and this severity was significantly associated with reports of very low food security (Fisher's exact P=0·021). Mothers reporting emotional and physical abuse were more likely to report very low food security (Fisher's exact P=0·032). Qualitatively, participants described the impact of childhood adverse experiences with emotional and physical abuse/neglect, and household substance abuse, on their emotional health, school performance and ability to maintain employment. In turn, these experiences negatively affected their ability to protect their children from food insecurity. The associations between mothers' adverse experiences in childhood and reports of current household food security should inspire researchers, advocates and policy makers to comprehensively address family hardship through greater attention to the emotional health of caregivers. Programmes meant to address nutritional deprivation and financial hardship should include trauma-informed approaches that integrate behavioural interventions.

  4. The impact of adverse child and adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Paulson, Robert I; Green, Carla A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of adverse childhood experiences and adverse adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illnesses. As part of a mixed-methods study of recovery from serious mental illnesses, we interviewed and administered questionnaires to 177 members of a not-for-profit health plan over a 2-year period. Participants had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder. Data for analyses came from standardized self-reported measures; outcomes included recovery, functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Adverse events in childhood and adulthood were evaluated as predictors. Child and adult exposures to adverse experiences were high, at 91% and 82%, respectively. Cumulative lifetime exposure to adverse experiences (childhood plus adult experiences) was 94%. In linear regression analyses, adverse adult experiences were more important predictors of outcomes than adverse childhood experiences. Adult experiences were associated with lower recovery scores, quality of life, mental and physical functioning and social functioning and greater psychiatric symptoms. Emotional neglect in adulthood was associated with lower recovery scores. Early and repeated exposure to adverse events was common in this sample of people with serious mental illnesses. Adverse adult experiences were stronger predictors of worse functioning and lower recovery levels than were childhood experiences. Focusing clinical attention on adult experiences of adverse or traumatic events may result in greater benefit than focusing on childhood experiences alone. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Impact of Adverse Child and Adult Experiences on Recovery from Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Scott P.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Paulson, Robert I.; Green, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare effects of adverse childhood experiences and adverse adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods As part of a mixed-methods study of recovery from serious mental illnesses, we interviewed and administered questionnaires to 177 members of a not-for-profit health plan over a two-year period. Participants had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Data for analyses came from standardized self-reported measures; outcomes included recovery, functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Adverse events in childhood and adulthood were evaluated as predictors. Results Child and adult exposures to adverse experiences were high, at 91% and 82% respectively. Cumulative lifetime exposure to adverse experiences (childhood plus adult experiences) was 94%. In linear regression analyses, adverse adult experiences were more important predictors of outcomes than adverse childhood experiences. Adult experiences were associated with lower recovery scores, quality of life, mental and physical functioning, social functioning, and greater psychiatric symptoms. Emotional neglect in adulthood was associated with lower recovery scores. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Early and repeated exposure to adverse events was common in this sample of people with serious mental illnesses. Adverse adult experiences were stronger predictors of worse functioning and lower recovery levels than were childhood experiences. Focusing clinical attention on adult experiences of adverse or traumatic events may result in greater benefit than focusing on childhood experiences alone. PMID:26053533

  6. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195

  8. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  9. Childhood Adversity, Recent Life Stressors and Suicidal Behavior in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. Method 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Results Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Conclusions Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population. PMID:24681891

  10. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health, and health service utilization. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma, and victimization/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a de facto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  11. Adverse childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and emotional intelligence in partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Swopes, Rachael M; Simonet, Daniel V; Jaffe, Anna E; Tett, Robert P; Davis, Joanne L

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and low emotional intelligence (EI). Relationships among adverse childhood experiences (ACE), PTSD symptoms, and partner aggression (i.e., generalized tendency to aggress toward one's partner) were assessed in 108 male IPV offenders. It was hypothesized that ACE is positively correlated with partner aggression, PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression relationship, and the ACE-PTSD-aggression mediation varies by selected EI facets. Results indicate that ACE has an indirect effect on partner aggression via PTSD and PTSD mediates the ACE-aggression link when emotional self-regulation is low and when intuition (vs. reason) is high. Trauma-exposed IPV offenders may benefit from comprehensive treatments focusing on PTSD symptoms, emotional control, and reasoning skills to reduce aggression.

  12. Childhood adversity and midlife suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, S A; Clark, C; Smuk, M; Power, C; Davidson, T; Rodgers, B

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey. Childhood adversity was prospectively assessed at the ages of 7, 11 and 16 years. Suicidal ideation at midlife was assessed by the depressive ideas subscale of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were measured by the Rutter scales at 16 years. Life events, periods of unemployment, partnership separations and alcohol dependence were measured through adulthood. Illness in the household, paternal absence, institutional care, parental divorce and retrospective reports of parental physical and sexual abuse predicted suicidal ideation at 45 years. Three or more childhood adversities were associated with suicidal ideation at 45 years [odds ratio (OR) 4.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-6.94]. Psychological distress at 16 years partially mediated the associations of physical abuse (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.29-5.75), sexual abuse (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.90-11.16) with suicidal ideation. Adult life events partially mediated the association of parental divorce (OR 6.34, 95% CI -7.16 to 36.75) and physical (OR 9.59, 95% CI 4.97-27.88) and sexual abuse (OR 6.59, 95% CI 2.40-38.36) with suicidal ideation at 45 years. Adversity in childhood predicts suicidal ideation in midlife, partially mediated by adolescent internalizing and externalizing disorders, adult life events and interpersonal difficulties. Understanding the pathways from adversity to suicidal ideation can inform suicide prevention and the targeting of preventive

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories from Childhood to Young Adulthood: The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and/or risk behaviors that are associated with ACEs. Methods and Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured up to 16 times (13 times on average) over a 23-year period in 213 African Americans (AAs) and 181 European Americans (EAs) aged 5 to 38 years. Retrospective data on traumatic experiences prior to age 18 were collected, including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. Individual growth curve modeling within a multilevel framework was used to examine the relation between exposure to ACEs and BP development. No main effect of ACEs on average BP levels was found. However, a significant interaction of ACE score with age3 was observed (SBP: p=0.033; DBP: p=0.017). Subjects who experienced multiple traumatic events during childhood showed a faster rise of BP levels after age of 30 years than those without ACEs. As expected, a graded association of ACEs with childhood SES and negative health behaviors was observed (p<0.001). The ACE-SBP relation was not explained by these factors, while the ACE-DBP relation was partially mediated by illicit drug use. Conclusions In this novel longitudinal study, we observed that participants who were exposed to multiple ACEs displayed a greater increase of BP levels in young adulthood compared to their counterparts without ACEs. PMID:25858196

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to young adulthood: the Georgia stress and Heart study.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S; Treiber, Frank A; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A

    2015-05-12

    The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are associated with ACEs. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured up to 16 times (13 times on average) over a 23-year period in 213 African Americans and 181 European Americans 5 to 38 years of age. Retrospective data on traumatic experiences before 18 years of age were collected, including abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Individual growth curve modeling within a multilevel framework was used to examine the relation between exposure to ACEs and BP development. No main effect of ACEs on average BP levels was found. However, a significant interaction of ACE score with age(3) was observed (systolic BP, P=0.033; diastolic BP, P=0.017). Subjects who experienced multiple traumatic events during childhood showed a faster rise in BP levels after 30 years of age than those without ACEs. As expected, a graded association of ACEs with childhood socioeconomic status and negative health behaviors was observed (P<0.001). The ACE-systolic BP relation was not explained by these factors, whereas the ACE-diastolic BP relation was partially mediated by illicit drug use. In this novel longitudinal study, we observed that participants who were exposed to multiple ACEs displayed a greater increase in BP levels in young adulthood compared with their counterparts without ACEs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Childhood adversity and traumatic exposures during deployment as predictors of mental health in Australian military veterans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wu Yi; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; McGuire, Annabel C; Treloar, Susan A; Dobson, Annette J

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether the relationship between traumatic exposure on deployment and poor mental health varies by the reported level of childhood adversity experienced in Australian military veterans deployed to the Bougainville or East Timor military operations. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected in 2008 from 3,564 Australian military veterans who deployed to East Timor or Bougainville on their deployment experiences, health and recall of childhood events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between childhood adversity, deployment exposures and mental health. The most common childhood adversity reported was 'not having a special teacher, youth worker or family friend who looked out for them while growing up'. On average, responders reported experiencing 3.5 adverse childhood experiences (SD 2.7) and averaged 5.3 (SD 4.9) traumatic exposures on deployment. Both childhood adversity and traumatic exposures on deployment were associated with higher odds of poorer mental health. However, there was no evidence that level of childhood adversity modified the association between traumatic exposure and mental health. These findings suggest that military personnel who recalled a higher level of childhood adversity may need to be monitored for poor mental health and, if required, provided with appropriate support. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Association of adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviors among young adults visiting a regional primary healthcare center, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Musa, Sanjin; Peek-Asa, Corrine; Jovanović, Nina; Selimović, Edin

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to long-term health outcomes, as well as health risk behaviors. In the post-war period in Bosnia and Herzegovina, many young people grew up in an environment of deteriorated living standards due to high unemployment and economic insecurity. The objectives of the study were to: 1) describe the health risk behaviors of young adults accessing primary healthcare; and 2) examine associations of these risk factors with adverse childhood experiences in this context. This was a cross-sectional survey, conducted from April to October 2014. Participants were recruited from the Primary Healthcare Center Zenica. Patients between the ages of 18 and 24 were eligible for inclusion. The informed consent and self-administered questionnaire were offered to patients during clinic intake. The questionnaire contained questions on sexual and reproductive health, use of alcohol and drugs, dating violence, and adverse childhood experiences. During the study period 520 questionnaires were distributed, and 400 complete surveys were returned, for a response rate of 76.9%. Among the 400 respondents, 166 were males (41.5%) and 234 were females (58.5%). Our study showed that 48.7% of respondents had experienced some form of childhood adversity. Emotional neglect was the most common type of adverse childhood experience (25.6%) and was significantly more prevalent among females. Our study indicated that more than 15% of respondents had witnessed domestic violence. Overall, ACEs were associated with increased odds of early sex initiation, alcohol use, drug use, and dating violence, although some of these associations did not reach statistical significance. Emotional neglect was the exception, and reporting emotional neglect was associated with a significantly elevated odds ratio for all four of the health risk behaviors. Emotional abuse was associated with an increased odds of drug abuse (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.31-5.90) and dating

  17. Testing and testing positive: childhood adversities and later life HIV status among Kenyan women and their partners.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael L; Raimer-Goodman, Lauren; Chen, Catherine X; Grouls, Astrid; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are a critical feature of lifelong health. No research assesses whether childhood adversities predict HIV-testing behaviors, and little research analyzes childhood adversities and later life HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. We use regression models with cross-sectional data from a representative sample (n = 1974) to analyze whether adverse childhood experiences, separately or as cumulative exposures, predict reports of later life HIV testing and testing HIV+ among semi-rural Kenyan women and their partners. No significant correlation was observed between thirteen cumulative childhood adversities and reporting prior HIV testing for respondent or partner. Separately, childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect predicted lower odds of reporting having previously been tested for HIV. Witnessing household violence during one's childhood predicted significantly higher odds of reporting HIV+. Sexual abuse predicted higher odds of reporting a partner tested HIV+. Preventing sexual abuse and household violence may improve HIV testing and test outcomes among Kenyan women. More research is required to understand pathways between adverse childhood experiences and partner selection within Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa, and data presented here suggest understanding pathways may help improve HIV outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Childhood Adversity and Men’s Relationships in Adulthood: Life Course Processes and Racial Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348

  19. Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Baglivio, Michael T; Piquero, Alex R; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    To examine the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. We compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. ACE composite scores were higher and 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment were more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports. Sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of human trafficking: the odds of human trafficking was 2.52 times greater for girls who experienced sexual abuse, and there was a 8.21 times greater risk for boys who had histories of sexual abuse. Maltreated youths are more susceptible to exploitation in human trafficking. Sexual abuse in connection with high ACE scores may serve as a key predictor of exploitation in human trafficking for both boys and girls.

  20. Dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: What is the role of different types of childhood adversity?

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Katrin; Langeland, Willemien; Fisher, Helen L; Huber, Christian G; Schäfer, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    Our study aimed to explore the effects of different types of adverse childhood experiences (e.g. domestic violence, early loss, parental dysfunction, sexual and physical abuse) as well as experiences of sexual and physical abuse in adulthood on dissociative symptoms in adult patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. 145 patients were examined for psychotic symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), for dissociative symptoms with the German version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and for adverse experiences in childhood and adulthood with the Structured Trauma Interview (STI). Childhood physical abuse was reported by 32%, childhood sexual abuse by 17% of the patients. Other forms of childhood adversity were also quite common; 18% had witnessed domestic violence, 26% reported early loss, and nearly half of patients reported at least one condition potentially related to parental dysfunction. The DES total score was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, witnessing of domestic violence and paternal dysfunction, as well as with physical violence in adulthood. In the final regression model, reports of paternal dysfunction and sexual abuse in childhood were independently associated with adult dissociation. Variance in dissociative symptoms was mainly explained by paternal dysfunction (18%). Substantial rates of childhood adversity were found and specific associations were evident with adult dissociation amongst psychosis patients who reported sexual abuse or paternal dysfunction in childhood. Therefore, it is important that patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders are routinely asked about a broad range of possible adverse childhood experiences in order to provide appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with irritable bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Videlock, E J; Shih, W; Presson, A P; Mayer, E A; Chang, L

    2016-08-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) are associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Exposure to EALs as assessed by the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) questionnaire is associated with greater disease prevalence, but ACE has not been studied in gastrointestinal disorders. Study aims were to: (i) Estimate the prevalence of EALs in the IBS patients using the ACE questionnaire; (ii) Determine correlations between ACE and Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETI-SR) scores to confirm its validity in IBS; and (iii) Correlate ACE scores with IBS symptom severity. A total of 148 IBS (73% women, mean age = 31 years) and 154 HCs (59% women, mean age = 30 years) completed the ACE and ETI-SR between June 2010 and April 2015. These surveys measured EALs before age 18 in the domains of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and general trauma. IBS and abdominal pain severity was measured by a 20-point scale (0 = none, 20 = worst symptoms). The ACE score increased the odds of having IBS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-3.48, p = 0.008). Household mental illness (p < 0.001), emotional abuse (p = 0.004), and incarcerated household member (p = 0.019) were significant predictors of IBS. Adverse childhood experiences and ETI-SR scores were strongly correlated (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). ACE, but not ETI-SR, modestly correlated with IBS severity (r = 0.17, p = 0.036) and abdominal pain (r = 0.20, p = 0.015). The ACE questionnaire is a useful instrument to measure EALs in IBS based on its use in large studies, its ability to measure prevalence across different EAL domains, and its correlation with symptom severity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Examining the role of attachment in the relationship between childhood adversity, psychological distress and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mark; McNulty, Muireann

    2018-02-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with a wide range of detrimental psychological consequences. This study examined the mediating role of relationship-specific attachment (avoidance and anxiety) in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being. University students (N=190) across the Republic of Ireland completed self-report measures including the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale, Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress scales and measures of subjective well-being. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (67.4%) reported experiencing at least one adverse childhood experience. Childhood adversity was associated with symptoms of psychological distress and subjective well-being. All such associations were mediated by certain relationship-specific attachment dimensions. Of these, attachment anxiety in general relationships was the most prominent mediator for both psychological distress and subjective well-being. Attachment to one's father and to one's romantic partner did not mediate any association. These findings indicate that attachment, in particular relationships, is an important factor in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being as an adult. One's attachment anxiety in general relationships is particularly important in these associations. Therapeutic interventions addressing these attachment domains may offset the detrimental effects of childhood adversity. Future research is required using a longitudinal design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does continuous trusted adult support in childhood impart life-course resilience against adverse childhood experiences - a retrospective study on adult health-harming behaviours and mental well-being.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Hardcastle, Katie; Ford, Kat; Hughes, Karen; Ashton, Kathryn; Quigg, Zara; Butler, Nadia

    2017-03-23

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including child abuse and household problems (e.g. domestic violence) increase risks of poor health and mental well-being in adulthood. Factors such as having access to a trusted adult as a child may impart resilience against developing such negative outcomes. How much childhood adversity is mitigated by such resilience is poorly quantified. Here we test if access to a trusted adult in childhood is associated with reduced impacts of ACEs on adoption of health-harming behaviours and lower mental well-being in adults. Cross-sectional, face-to-face household surveys (aged 18-69 years, February-September 2015) examining ACEs suffered, always available adult (AAA) support from someone you trust in childhood and current diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and mental well-being were undertaken in four UK regions. Sampling used stratified random probability methods (n = 7,047). Analyses used chi squared, binary and multinomial logistic regression. Adult prevalence of poor diet, daily smoking and heavier alcohol consumption increased with ACE count and decreased with AAA support in childhood. Prevalence of having any two such behaviours increased from 1.8% (0 ACEs, AAA support, most affluent quintile of residence) to 21.5% (≥4 ACEs, lacking AAA support, most deprived quintile). However, the increase was reduced to 7.1% with AAA support (≥4 ACEs, most deprived quintile). Lower mental well-being was 3.27 (95% CIs, 2.16-4.96) times more likely with ≥4 ACEs and AAA support from someone you trust in childhood (vs. 0 ACE, with AAA support) increasing to 8.32 (95% CIs, 6.53-10.61) times more likely with ≥4 ACEs but without AAA support in childhood. Multiple health-harming behaviours combined with lower mental well-being rose dramatically with ACE count and lack of AAA support in childhood (adjusted odds ratio 32.01, 95% CIs 18.31-55.98, ≥4 ACEs, without AAA support vs. 0 ACEs, with AAA support). Adverse childhood experiences

  4. Rethinking childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clark, James E; Davidson, Sean L; Maclachlan, Laura; Newton, Julia L; Watson, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have consistently shown increased rates of childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, such aetiopathogenic studies of CFS are potentially confounded by co-morbidity and misdiagnosis particularly with depression. Purpose: We examined the relationship between rates of childhood adversity using two complimentary approaches (1) a sample of CFS patients who had no lifetime history of depression and (2) a modelling approach. Methods: Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) administered to a sample of 52 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome and 19 controls who did not meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder (confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Subsequently, Mediation Analysis (Baye's Rules) was used to establish the risk childhood adversity poses for CFS with and without depression. Results: In a cohort of CFS patients with depression comprehensively excluded, CTQ scores were markedly lower than in all previous studies and, in contrast to these previous studies, not increased compared with healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that CTQ scores correlated with the number of depressive symptoms during the lifetime worst period of low mood. The probability of developing CFS given a history of childhood trauma is 4%, a two-fold increased risk compared to the general population. However, much of this risk is mediated by the concomitant development of major depression. Conclusions: The data suggests that previous studies showing a relationship between childhood adversity and CFS may be attributable to the confounding effects of co-morbid or misdiagnosed depressive disorder. Abbreviations: CFS: Chronic fatigue syndrome; CTQ: Childhood trauma questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; CA: Childhood adversity; P : Probability.

  5. Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Karen; Lowey, Helen; Quigg, Zara; Bellis, Mark A

    2016-03-03

    Individuals' childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885) measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Mental Well-being Scale SWEMWBS) and life satisfaction and retrospective exposure to nine ACEs. Almost half of participants (46.4 %) had suffered at least one ACE and 8.3 % had suffered four or more. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for low life satisfaction and low mental well-being increased with the number of ACEs. AORs for low ratings of all individual SWEMWBS components also increased with ACE count, particularly never or rarely feeling close to others. Of individual ACEs, growing up in a household affected by mental illness and suffering sexual abuse had the most relationships with markers of mental well-being. Childhood adversity has a strong cumulative relationship with adult mental well-being. Comprehensive mental health strategies should incorporate interventions to prevent ACEs and moderate their impacts from the very earliest stages of life.

  6. The Influence of Childhood Adversity on Rural Black Men's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Oshri, Assaf

    2016-12-01

    Young Black men living in resource-poor rural environments are disproportionately affected by both adverse childhood experiences and HIV/STIs. The influence of childhood adversity on sexual risk behavior remains to be examined among this vulnerable population. In this study, we investigated the influence of overall adversity as well as three subcomponents, abusive parenting, parental neglect, and witnessing family violence, on men's engagement in sexual risk behavior. We hypothesized that adverse experiences would predict engagement in sexual risk behaviors including multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistent condom use, frequent sexual activity, and concurrent substance abuse and sexual activity. We tested formally the extent to which defensive relational schemas mediated these associations. Hypotheses were tested with data from 505 rural Black men (M age = 20.29, SD = 1.10) participating in the African American Men's Health Project. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Self-report data were gathered from participants via audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Bi-factor analyses revealed that, in addition to a common adversity factor, neglect independently predicted sexual risk behavior. Men's defensive relational schemas partially mediated the influence of the common adversity factor as well as the neglect subcomponent on sexual risk behavior. The present research identified a potential risk factor for sexual risk behavior in an understudied and vulnerable population. Adverse childhood experiences in general, and neglect in particular, may place many young Black men at risk for engaging in sexual risk behavior due in part to the influence of these experiences on men's development of relational schemas characterized by defensiveness and mistrust.

  7. Association of adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviors among young adults visiting a regional primary healthcare center, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, Corrine; Jovanović, Nina; Selimović, Edin

    2018-01-01

    Background Many studies have linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to long-term health outcomes, as well as health risk behaviors. In the post-war period in Bosnia and Herzegovina, many young people grew up in an environment of deteriorated living standards due to high unemployment and economic insecurity. The objectives of the study were to: 1) describe the health risk behaviors of young adults accessing primary healthcare; and 2) examine associations of these risk factors with adverse childhood experiences in this context. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey, conducted from April to October 2014. Participants were recruited from the Primary Healthcare Center Zenica. Patients between the ages of 18 and 24 were eligible for inclusion. The informed consent and self-administered questionnaire were offered to patients during clinic intake. The questionnaire contained questions on sexual and reproductive health, use of alcohol and drugs, dating violence, and adverse childhood experiences. Results During the study period 520 questionnaires were distributed, and 400 complete surveys were returned, for a response rate of 76.9%. Among the 400 respondents, 166 were males (41.5%) and 234 were females (58.5%). Our study showed that 48.7% of respondents had experienced some form of childhood adversity. Emotional neglect was the most common type of adverse childhood experience (25.6%) and was significantly more prevalent among females. Our study indicated that more than 15% of respondents had witnessed domestic violence. Overall, ACEs were associated with increased odds of early sex initiation, alcohol use, drug use, and dating violence, although some of these associations did not reach statistical significance. Emotional neglect was the exception, and reporting emotional neglect was associated with a significantly elevated odds ratio for all four of the health risk behaviors. Emotional abuse was associated with an increased odds of drug abuse (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1

  8. Mental Health Among Help-Seeking Urban Women: The Relationships Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Sexual Abuse, and Suicidality.

    PubMed

    Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J

    2018-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult mental health were explored in a sample of urban Aboriginal ( n = 83) and non-Aboriginal ( n = 89) women. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with negative home environments, teenage pregnancy, lifetime suicide attempts, and treatment seeking. Aboriginal women with CSA witnessed higher levels of physical/sexual abuse of family members. The severity of current psychological distress was associated with a history of childhood neglect. The results indicate that CSA rarely occurs in isolation, and that multiple ACEs are strongly associated with suicide attempts and treatment seeking in adulthood. Future studies should focus on the role of CSA in suicidality, as well as familial, community, and cultural protective factors.

  9. Mindfulness as a mediator of the association between adverse childhood experiences and alcohol use and consequences.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Espeleta, Hannah C; Lopez, Susanna V; Leavens, Eleanor L S; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2018-09-01

    One-third of college students report past-year heavy episodic drinking, making college student alcohol use an important area for continued research. Research has consistently linked early experiences of adversity to problematic substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Given the negative health consequences associated with heavy episodic drinking, it is imperative to identify mechanisms that contribute to this relation. Low levels of mindfulness have been linked to early adversity as well as impulsivity and alcohol use, therefore, the current study aims to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the relation between early adversity and current alcohol use and consequences. Undergraduate students (N = 385) at a Midwestern university completed an online questionnaire assessing experiences of childhood adversity, trait mindfulness, and current alcohol use and related consequences. Results indicated that increased adverse experiences and lower levels of mindfulness predicted both increased alcohol consumption and consequences (ps < 0.025), with mindfulness mediating the relationships. Mindfulness is a predictor of alcohol outcomes and appears to mediate the relation between early adversity and alcohol use and consequences. Findings suggest that students with a history of adversity are more likely to exhibit lower levels of mindfulness, which may lead to an increase in alcohol consumption and consequences in early adulthood. Targeted alcohol intervention efforts that incorporate mindfulness skills may be particularly beneficial for those who have experienced early adversity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Population attributable fractions of psychopathology and suicidal behaviour associated with childhood adversities in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversities are strong predictors of psychopathology and suicidality. However, specific adversities are associated with different outcomes, with cross-national variations reported. The current study examined rates of adversities reported in Northern Ireland (NI), and associations between adverse childhood experiences and psychopathology and suicidal behaviour were explored. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), conducted as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative (2004-2008); response rate 68.4% (n = 1,986). The on-line survey used, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to examine psychopathology and associated risk factors in the NI population. Prevalence rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversities were calculated, with gender and age variations explored. Females were more likely to experience sexual abuse. Individuals who grew up during the worst years of the civil conflict in NI experienced elevated levels of childhood adversities. Participants who endured childhood adversities were more likely to have mental health problems but variations in risk factors were found for different disorders. Parental mental illness was associated with all disorders however, with ORs ranging from 2.20 for mood disorders to 4.07 for anxiety disorders. Population attributable fractions (PAF) estimated the reduction in psychopathology and suicidal behaviour in the population if exposure to adverse childhood events had not occurred. The highest PAF values were revealed for parental mental illness and sexual abuse. The findings indicate that a substantial proportion of psychopathology and suicide risk in NI are attributable to childhood adversities, providing support for early intervention and prevention initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood adversity impacts on brain subcortical structures relevant to depression.

    PubMed

    Frodl, Thomas; Janowitz, Deborah; Schmaal, Lianne; Tozzi, Leonardo; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Stein, Dan J; Veltman, Dick J; Wittfeld, Katharina; van Erp, Theo G M; Jahanshad, Neda; Block, Andrea; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hatton, Sean N; Hickie, Ian B; Frey, Eva Maria; Carballedo, Angela; Brooks, Samantha J; Vuletic, Daniella; Uhlmann, Anne; Veer, Ilya M; Walter, Henrik; Schnell, Knut; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Schramm, Elisabeth; Konrad, Carsten; Zurowski, Bartosz; Baune, Bernhard T; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Thompson, Paul M; Hibar, Derrek P; Dannlowski, Udo; Grabe, Hans J

    2017-03-01

    Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood adversity is associated with subcortical volumes and how it interacts with a diagnosis of MDD and sex. Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, nine university partner sites, which assessed childhood adversity and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with MDD and controls, took part in the current joint mega-analysis. In this largest effort world-wide to identify subcortical brain structure differences related to childhood adversity, 3036 participants were analyzed for subcortical brain volumes using FreeSurfer. A significant interaction was evident between childhood adversity, MDD diagnosis, sex, and region. Increased exposure to childhood adversity was associated with smaller caudate volumes in females independent of MDD. All subcategories of childhood adversity were negatively associated with caudate volumes in females - in particular emotional neglect and physical neglect (independently from age, ICV, imaging site and MDD diagnosis). There was no interaction effect between childhood adversity and MDD diagnosis on subcortical brain volumes. Childhood adversity is one of the contributors to brain structural abnormalities. It is associated with subcortical brain abnormalities that are relevant to psychiatric disorders such as depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Enhanced prefrontal-amygdala connectivity following childhood adversity as a protective mechanism against internalizing in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herringa, Ryan J; Burghy, Cory A; Stodola, Diane E; Fox, Michelle E; Davidson, Richard J; Essex, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents. Consistent with prior work, childhood adversity predicted heightened amygdala reactivity to negative, but not positive, images in adolescence. However, amygdala reactivity was not related to internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, childhood adversity predicted increased fronto-amygdala connectivity to negative, but not positive, images, yet only in lower internalizing adolescents. Childhood adversity also predicted increased fronto-hippocampal connectivity to negative images, but was not moderated by internalizing. These findings were unrelated to adolescence adversity or externalizing symptoms, suggesting specificity to childhood adversity and adolescent internalizing. Together, these findings suggest that adaptation to childhood adversity is associated with augmentation of fronto-subcortical circuits specifically for negative emotional stimuli. Conversely, insufficient enhancement of fronto-amygdala connectivity, with increasing amygdala reactivity, may represent a neural signature of vulnerability for internalizing by late adolescence. These findings implicate early childhood as a critical period in determining the brain's adaptation to adversity, and suggest that even normative adverse experiences can have significant impact on neurodevelopment and functioning. These results offer potential neural mechanisms of adaptation and vulnerability which could be used in the prediction of risk for psychopathology following childhood

  13. Adverse childhood experiences: Evidence for screening beyond preventive visits.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi N; Borowsky, Iris W

    2018-07-01

    Primary efforts to screen for adverse childhood experiences (ACE/ACEs) are often focused on the well child/adolescent visit. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ACEs and youth likelihood of receiving preventive care. Data are from 126,868 students in the 8th, 9th, and 11th grades who participated in the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, an anonymous, self-report questionnaire examining youth behaviors, experiences, and perceptions. Logistic regression models were used to determine if 10 types of ACEs, including abuse, household dysfunction, and food and housing insecurity were associated with receipt of recommended preventive medical and dental care after adjustment for demographic covariates and self-reported health. ACEs scores were entered into regression models to test for cumulative impact of adversities on preventive care outcomes. More than one third (38.5%) of youth identified at least one ACE, most commonly having a parent or guardian who had ever been in jail or prison. Each type of ACE was significantly associated with reduced odds of receiving preventive care in the last year. Associations with food insecurity were of greatest magnitude, associated with 0.32 [CI: 0.64-0.72] to 0.54 [CI: 0.44-0.49] decreased odds of receiving care. Each one point increase in the total ACE score was associated with 0.07 [CI: 0.92-0.94] to 0.15 [CI: 0.84-0.86] decreased odds of having had a preventive care visit in the last year. Findings add to the growing literature documenting significant relationships between ACEs and health, in this case, youth missing opportunities to receive recommended surveillance and anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  15. Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner violence during pregnancy and their association to postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Mahenge, Bathsheba; Stöckl, Heidi; Mizinduko, Mucho; Mazalale, Jacob; Jahn, Albrecht

    2018-03-15

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and intimate partner violence (IPV) are recognized global health problems. Both ACEs and IPV have been linked to adverse physical and mental health problems for both mothers and infants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and/or sexual ACEs and IPV and their association to symptoms of postpartum depression among postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three health centers in the three districts of Dar es Salaam, comprising Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. A total of 500 women were interviewed by two trained midwife nurses during their routine postnatal care. The women were asked about their experiences of adverse childhood experiences, intimate partner violence and symptoms of postpartum depression. Of the 500 women who were interviewed, 39.4% (n = 197) reported to have experienced physical and/or sexual ACE and 18.8% (n = 94) experienced physical and/or sexual IPV during their index pregnancy. Physical ACE (AOR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.50-4.57), sexual ACE (AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.35-5.41), physical IPV (AOR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.98-11.43) and Sexual IPV (AOR 5.5, 95%CI: 2.51, 12.09) were significantly associated with symptoms of postpartum depression. Four out of ten women reported to have experienced ACEs and two out of ten women reported IPV in the index pregnancy which was significantly associated with symptoms of postpartum depression. These results are alarming and call upon the attention of health workers and the community at large in prevention, screening and early intervention of ACEs, IPV and symptoms of postpartum depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of FKBP5 with Childhood Adversity on Risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingxing; Kranzler, Henry R; Poling, James; Stein, Murray B; Anton, Raymond F; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel

    2010-01-01

    FKBP5 regulates the cortisol-binding affinity and nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Polymorphisms at the FKBP5 locus have been associated with increased recurrence risk of depressive episodes and rapid response to antidepressant treatment. A recent study showed that FKBP5 genotypes moderated the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with childhood maltreatment. One thousand one hundred forty-three European Americans (EAs) and 1284 African Americans (AAs) recruited for studies of the genetics of substance dependence were also screened for lifetime PTSD. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5, rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780, and rs9470080, were genotyped on the complete sample. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the interactive effect of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood adversity on the risk for PTSD. After correction for multiple testing, childhood adversity significantly increased the risk for PTSD. FKBP5 genotypes were not associated with the development of the disorder. In AAs, one of the SNPs, rs9470080, moderated the risk of PTSD that was associated with childhood abuse. Without childhood adverse experiences, participants with the TT genotype of this SNP had the lowest risk for PTSD, whereas they had the highest risk for PTSD after childhood adversity exposure. In addition, in EAs, alcohol dependence was observed to interact with childhood adverse experiences, and also FKBP5 polymorphisms, to increase the risk for PTSD. This study provides further evidence of a gene × environment effect of FKBP5 and childhood abuse on the risk for PTSD in AAs. Further study is required in other populations. PMID:20393453

  18. Mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Parenting Behaviors: Connecting Mothers' Difficult Pasts to Present Parenting Behavior via Reflective Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomeyer, Ellen; Renk, Kimberly; Cunningham, Annelise; Lowell, Amanda; Khan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have supported a connection between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative outcomes in adulthood. Fewer studies have examined the connection between ACEs and parenting behaviors, however. The study described in this article examined the relationships among ACEs, reflective functioning, and negative parenting behaviors…

  19. Interaction between childhood adversity and functional polymorphisms in the dopamine pathway on first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Yiend, Jenny; Dazzan, Paola; David, Anthony S; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Colizzi, Marco; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-04-10

    There is consistent evidence of a cumulative relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis, with number of adversities experienced increasing the probability of psychosis onset. It is possible that genetic factors moderate the association between childhood adversity and psychosis, potentially by influencing how an individual reacts biologically and/or psychologically following exposure to adversity, in such a way as to set them off on the path to psychosis. However, identifying the specific genetic variants involved and how they interact with childhood adversity remains challenging. We examined whether the association between cumulative exposure to childhood adversity and development of psychotic disorder was moderated by the COMT Val 158 Met, AKT1 rs2494732 or DRD2 rs1076560 polymorphisms, known to affect dopamine levels. Participants were 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 geographically-matched controls drawn from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and blood- and cheek-derived genotype data were collected. Our findings revealed no main effect of COMT Val 158 Met, AKT1 rs2494732 and DRD2 rs1076560 polymorphisms on psychosis case status or reports of childhood adversity. Individuals reporting a history of multiple adversities were more likely to be psychosis patients than controls, regardless of their genetic risk. There was no evidence of candidate genotype by childhood adversity interactions in relation to psychosis onset. These findings did not provide evidence of a possible role of COMT Val 158 Met, AKT1 rs2494732 or DRD2 rs1076560 genotypes in modifying the association between childhood adversity and onset of psychosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Suicidal Ideation, Parent-Child Relationships, and Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Cross-Validation Study Using a Graphical Markov Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Jochen; Herke, Max; Schier, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in many Western countries. An exploration of factors associated with suicidality may help to understand the mechanisms that lead to suicide. Two samples in Germany (n = 500 and n = 477) were examined via Internet regarding suicidality, depression, alcohol abuse, adverse childhood experiences, and…

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health and Wellness Outcomes among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Ports, K A; Lee, R D; Raiford, J; Spikes, P; Manago, C; Wheeler, D P

    2017-06-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are a population at the intersection of two minority statuses-racial minority and sexual minority. Membership in either group, compared to white or heterosexual group membership, may increase one's risk of negative childhood and adult experiences. Baseline data from an HIV intervention efficacy trial (the Black Men Evolving Study) were used to explore the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among 536 BMSM and associations between ACEs and adult mental and physical health outcomes. Overall, the prevalence of ACEs was high among this sample of BMSM with almost 90% experiencing at least one ACE. Findings revealed that ACE score was significantly associated with adult mental health (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI [1.12, 1.30]), but not with adult physical health. All ACEs were significantly associated with mental health, but only physical neglect and household substance abuse were significantly associated with physical health (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.02, 2.74] and AOR = 1.57, 95% CI [1.03, 2.40], respectively). The findings support the need for interventions targeting improved adult health outcomes, particularly for minority groups, to consider the impact of early adversity on health and wellness.

  2. [Association between adverse childhood experiences with depression in adults consulting in primary care].

    PubMed

    Vitriol, Verónica; Cancino, Alfredo; Leiva-Bianchi, Marcelo; Serrano, Carlos; Ballesteros, Soledad; Potthoff, Soledad; Cáceres, Cristián; Ormazábal, Marcela; Asenjo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic experiences during childhood may influence the development of mental disorders during adulthood. To determine clinical and psychosocial variables that are associated with a higher frequency of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in patients who consult for depression in Primary Health Care clinics in Chile. A socio-demographic interview, the mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI), a screening for ACE, a questionnaire for partner violence (PV), the Life Experiences Survey (LES) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRDS) were applied to 394 patients with major depression (87% women). Eighty two percent of patients had experienced at least one ACE and 43% of them reported three or more. Positive correlations were observed between the number of ACE and severity of depressive symptoms (r = 0.19; p < 0.01), psychiatric comorbidities (r = 0.23; p < 0.01), partner violence events (r = 0.31; p < 0.01), vital stressful events (r = 0.12; p < 0.01), number of depressive episodes (r = 0.16; p < 0.01), duration of the longer depressive episode (r = 0.12; p < 0.05) and suicidal tendency according to HDRS (r = 0.16; p < 0.01). An inverse correlation was observed between frequency of ACE and age at the first depressive episode (r = -0.12; p < 0.05). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that early trauma is associated with more severe and complex depressive episodes during adulthood.

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences among a Community of Resilient Centenarians and Seniors: Implications for a Chronic Disease Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Torres, Xochitl; Valladares, Johanny; Pasco-Rubio, Marco; Dougherty, Molly; Kim, Wonha

    2018-03-11

    Research has linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with chronic disease in adults and diminished life span. Adverse biological embedding of ACEs potentially occurs through inflammatory mechanisms; inflammatory marker alterations are identified as candidate biomarkers for mediating health consequences. Lifestyle practices of residents of California's Loma Linda Blue Zone, one of five worldwide longevity hotspots, may provide insight into inflammation remediation and chronic disease prevention. Little research has been done on centenarians' early-life experiences or on ACEs in a longevity community. To interview centenarians and seniors in this region regarding their childhood experiences to inform chronic disease prevention frameworks. Qualitative study of Loma Linda Blue Zone community members. Childhood exposures and practices were assessed using focus groups and semistructured key informant interviews, with open-ended questions on general hardships and ACEs and supplemented with lifestyle and resiliency factor questions. Data were audiorecorded and transcribed. Integrative grounded theory methods guided coding and theming. Exposure to ACEs and practice of resiliency factors. Participants (7 centenarians and 29 seniors) reported exposure to multiple ACEs (domains: Economic deprivation, family dysfunction, and community violence). Community members reported practicing resiliency factors, each with anti-inflammatory properties suggesting mitigation of ACE-related toxic stress. This is one of the first studies of its kind to identify a community of resilient members despite their tremendous burden of ACEs. Embedding the identified resiliency factors into chronic disease prevention frameworks has potential for mitigating systemic inflammation, alleviating chronic disease burden, and promoting a culture of health.

  4. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chi-Yi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R

    2010-11-01

    Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries. Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM-IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries. Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators.

  5. Adversity in childhood and measures of aging in midlife: Findings from a cohort of british women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma L; Heron, Jon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-01

    Very few studies have assessed whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity during childhood are associated with objective measures of aging later in life. We assessed associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and total psychosocial adversity during childhood, with objectively measured cognitive and physical capability in women during midlife. Adverse childhood experiences were retrospectively reported at mean ages 28-30 years in women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (N = 2,221). We investigated associations of childhood SEP and total psychosocial adversity, with composite measures of cognitive and physical capability at mean age 51 years. There was evidence that, compared with participants whose fathers had professional occupations, participants whose fathers had managerial/technical, skilled nonmanual, skilled manual, and partly or unskilled manual occupations had, on average, lower physical and cognitive capability. There was a clear trend for increasing magnitudes of association with lowering childhood SEP. There was also evidence that greater total psychosocial adversity in childhood was associated with lower physical capability. Total psychosocial adversity in childhood was not associated with cognitive capability. Lower SEP in childhood is detrimental to cognitive and physical capability in midlife, at least in part, independently of subsequent SEP in adulthood. Greater psychosocial adversity in childhood is associated with poorer physical capability, independently of social disadvantage in childhood. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to both identify and support children experiencing socioeconomic or psychosocial of adversity as early as possible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Adversity in Childhood and Measures of Aging in Midlife: Findings From a Cohort of British Women

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Very few studies have assessed whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity during childhood are associated with objective measures of aging later in life. We assessed associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and total psychosocial adversity during childhood, with objectively measured cognitive and physical capability in women during midlife. Adverse childhood experiences were retrospectively reported at mean ages 28–30 years in women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (N = 2,221). We investigated associations of childhood SEP and total psychosocial adversity, with composite measures of cognitive and physical capability at mean age 51 years. There was evidence that, compared with participants whose fathers had professional occupations, participants whose fathers had managerial/technical, skilled nonmanual, skilled manual, and partly or unskilled manual occupations had, on average, lower physical and cognitive capability. There was a clear trend for increasing magnitudes of association with lowering childhood SEP. There was also evidence that greater total psychosocial adversity in childhood was associated with lower physical capability. Total psychosocial adversity in childhood was not associated with cognitive capability. Lower SEP in childhood is detrimental to cognitive and physical capability in midlife, at least in part, independently of subsequent SEP in adulthood. Greater psychosocial adversity in childhood is associated with poorer physical capability, independently of social disadvantage in childhood. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to both identify and support children experiencing socioeconomic or psychosocial of adversity as early as possible. PMID:28891666

  7. Severity of mental illness as a result of multiple childhood adversities: US National Epidemiologic Survey.

    PubMed

    Curran, Emma; Adamson, Gary; Stringer, Maurice; Rosato, Michael; Leavey, Gerard

    2016-05-01

    To examine patterns of childhood adversity, their long-term consequences and the combined effect of different childhood adversity patterns as predictors of subsequent psychopathology. Secondary analysis of data from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. Using latent class analysis to identify childhood adversity profiles; and using multinomial logistic regression to validate and further explore these profiles with a range of associated demographic and household characteristics. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis substantiated initial latent class analysis findings by investigating a range of mental health diagnoses. Latent class analysis generated a three-class model of childhood adversity in which 60 % of participants were allocated to a low adversity class; 14 % to a global adversities class (reporting exposures for all the derived latent classes); and 26 % to a domestic emotional and physical abuse class (exposed to a range of childhood adversities). Confirmatory Factor analysis defined an internalising-externalising spectrum to represent lifetime reporting patterns of mental health disorders. Using logistic regression, both adversity groups showed specific gender and race/ethnicity differences, related family discord and increased psychopathology. We identified underlying patterns in the exposure to childhood adversity and associated mental health. These findings are informative in their description of the configuration of adversities, rather than focusing solely on the cumulative aspect of experience. Amelioration of longer-term negative consequences requires early identification of psychopathology risk factors that can inform protective and preventive interventions. This study highlights the utility of screening for childhood adversities when individuals present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and adult attachment interview (AAI) in a non-clinical population.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) tend to be interrelated rather than independently occurring. There is a graded effect associated with ACE exposure and pathology, with an increase when ACE exposure is four or more. This study examined a sample of active individuals (n=129) to determine distribution patterns and relationships between ACEs, attachment classification, unresolved mourning (U), and disclosure difficulty. The results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between increased ACEs and greater unresolved mourning. Specifically, the group differences for individuals who experienced no ACE (n=42, 33%), those with 1-3 ACEs (n=48, 37.8%), and those with ≥4 ACEs (n=37, 29.1%) revealed a pattern in which increased group ACE exposure was associated with greater lack of resolution for past trauma/loss experiences, more adult traumatic events, and more difficulty disclosing past trauma. Despite ≥4 ACEs, 51.4% of highly exposed individuals were classified as secure in the Adult Attachment Interview. Resilience in this group may be related to a combination of attachment security, college education, and engagement in meaningful activities. Likewise, adversity may actually encourage the cultivation of more social support, goal efficacy, and planning behaviors; factors that augment resilience to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual Identity, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Suicidal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Lensch, Taylor; Baxa, Amberlee; Gay, Christopher; Larson, Sandra; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of sexual identity and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on suicidal behaviors in a population-based sample of high school students. A two-stage cluster random sampling design was used to recruit 5,108 students from 97 high schools. A total of 4,955 students (97%) provided information that allowed for classification of sexual identity into three groups: (1) lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) (10%); (2) not sure (4.6%); and (3) heterosexual (85.4%). Five measures of childhood abuse and household dysfunction were summed, and the ACE score was categorized as 0, 1, 2, and 3-5 ACEs. Weighted logistic regression was used to assess the influence of sexual identity, ACEs, and their interaction on suicide ideation and attempts in the past 12 months. Compared with heterosexual students, those who were LGB and were not sure had higher odds of suicide ideation and attempts. There was also a graded relationship between cumulative ACE exposure and suicidal behaviors. Although sexual identity/ACE interaction was not observed, LGB/not sure students who experienced a high number of ACEs were disproportionately affected. Compared with heterosexual students with 0 ACE, LGB/not sure students with 0 ACE (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-5.61), 1 ACE (AOR = 6.58, 95% CI = 4.05-10.71), 2 ACEs (AOR 13.50, 95% CI = 8.45-21.58), and 3-5 ACEs (AOR = 14.04, 95% CI = 8.72, 22.62) had higher odds of suicide ideation. A similar pattern was observed for suicide attempts. LGB and students not sure of their sexual identity with greater exposure to ACEs have disproportionately high levels of suicide ideation and attempts. Trauma-informed interventions for these populations are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood adversity, early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders, and adult-onset asthma.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kate M; Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Kovess, Viviane; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2008-11-01

    To investigate a) whether childhood adversity predicts adult-onset asthma; b) whether early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders predict adult-onset asthma; and c) whether childhood adversity and early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders predict adult-onset asthma independently of each other. Previous research has suggested, but not established, that childhood adversity may predict adult-onset asthma and, moreover, that the association between mental disorders and asthma may be a function of shared risk factors, such as childhood adversity. Ten cross-sectional population surveys of household-residing adults (>18 years, n = 18,303) assessed mental disorders with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) as part of the World Mental Health surveys. Assessment of a range of childhood family adversities was included. Asthma was ascertained by self-report of lifetime diagnosis and age of diagnosis. Survival analyses calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of adult-onset (>age 20 years) asthma as a function of number and type of childhood adversities and early-onset (Childhood adversities predicted adult-onset asthma with risk increasing with the number of adversities experienced (HRs = 1.49-1.71). Early-onset depressive and anxiety disorders also predicted adult-onset asthma (HRs = 1.67-2.11). Childhood adversities and early-onset depressive and anxiety disorders both predicted adult-onset asthma after mutual adjustment (HRs = 1.43-1.91). Childhood adversities and early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders independently predict adult-onset asthma, suggesting that the mental disorder-asthma relationship is not a function of a shared background of childhood adversity.

  11. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawi, Ameel F; Lafta, Riyadh K

    2015-01-01

    Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile) is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57) and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile) is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  12. Childhood adversities, bonding, and personality in social anxiety disorder with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Rambau, Stefanie; Forstner, Andreas J; Wegener, Ingo; Mücke, Martin; Wissussek, Christine T S; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Geiser, Franziska; Schumacher, Johannes; Conrad, Rupert

    2018-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently associated with alcohol use disorders (abuse/dependence). However, there has been little research on the characteristics of this subgroup so far. In the current study we investigated individuals with SAD and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) with regard to socialization experiences and personality. The sample comprised 410 individuals diagnosed with SAD by the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV. 108 participants with comorbid AUD were compared to 302 participants without comorbid AUD concerning traumatic experiences during childhood and adolescence (Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire; ACE), parental bonding (Parental Bonding Instrument; PBI), and personality (Temperament and Character Inventory; TCI). MANCOVA with covariates sex and depression displayed that individuals with SAD plus AUD reported significantly more traumatic events during childhood and adolescence, lower levels of maternal care, as well as lower cooperativeness. Our results highlight that adverse childhood experiences and unfavourable maternal bonding characterize individuals suffering from SAD plus AUD. These experiences might be reflected in a personality-based tendency to distance themselves from others, which corresponds to low scores on the character dimension cooperativeness. A deeper understanding of personality and specific socialization experiences is necessary to develop new treatment options in this clinically challenging subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A simulation and video-based training program to address adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Wen, Frances K; Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Coon, Kim A; Jelley, Martina J; Foulks-Rodriguez, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are 10 categories of childhood abuse and maltreatment, which have a dose-response relationship with common adult health concerns seen in primary care including health risk behaviors, chronic disease, and mental illness. Many of the ACEs-associated biopsychosocial risk factors are modifiable. However, physicians may not address these issues for fear of opening "Pandora's Box", that is, a source of extensive problems for which they are not sufficiently prepared with training, resources, or time. Residents need training in how to conduct trauma-focused conversations within the limited scope of an office visit. To address this need, a 4-hour simulation and video-based training program was developed for primary care residents about how to conduct brief interventions connecting their patients' current health concerns with their experiences of ACEs. Resident participants have evaluated this program as preparatory for real-life encounters and as being designed to allow for educational mastery. This article describes a workshop presenting this training program which was given at the 37th Annual Behavioral Science Forum in Family Medicine. Five skills targeted in the program were presented and a demonstration was made of the components, that is, didactics, provider and patient videos, simulated patient encounters, trainee feedback, and facilitated discussion that encompasses targeted skills, clinical implementation, and self-care. Companion tools were shared, including the syllabus, evaluation rubric, and provider and patient resources. Participants practiced trainee feedback and discussed the challenges in implementation.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences among a Community of Resilient Centenarians and Seniors: Implications for a Chronic Disease Prevention Framework

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Torres, Xochitl; Valladares, Johanny; Pasco-Rubio, Marco; Dougherty, Molly; Kim, Wonha

    2018-01-01

    Context Research has linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with chronic disease in adults and diminished life span. Adverse biological embedding of ACEs potentially occurs through inflammatory mechanisms; inflammatory marker alterations are identified as candidate biomarkers for mediating health consequences. Lifestyle practices of residents of California’s Loma Linda Blue Zone, one of five worldwide longevity hotspots, may provide insight into inflammation remediation and chronic disease prevention. Little research has been done on centenarians’ early-life experiences or on ACEs in a longevity community. Objective To interview centenarians and seniors in this region regarding their childhood experiences to inform chronic disease prevention frameworks. Design Qualitative study of Loma Linda Blue Zone community members. Childhood exposures and practices were assessed using focus groups and semistructured key informant interviews, with open-ended questions on general hardships and ACEs and supplemented with lifestyle and resiliency factor questions. Data were audiorecorded and transcribed. Integrative grounded theory methods guided coding and theming. Main Outcome Measures Exposure to ACEs and practice of resiliency factors. Results Participants (7 centenarians and 29 seniors) reported exposure to multiple ACEs (domains: Economic deprivation, family dysfunction, and community violence). Community members reported practicing resiliency factors, each with anti-inflammatory properties suggesting mitigation of ACE-related toxic stress. Conclusion This is one of the first studies of its kind to identify a community of resilient members despite their tremendous burden of ACEs. Embedding the identified resiliency factors into chronic disease prevention frameworks has potential for mitigating systemic inflammation, alleviating chronic disease burden, and promoting a culture of health. PMID:29702049

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and dental health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bright, Melissa A; Alford, Shannon M; Hinojosa, Melanie S; Knapp, Caprice; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel E

    2015-06-01

    This study seeks to explore the how specific toxic stressors, specifically adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and their frequencies may be associated with tooth condition and the presence of caries. Data from the 2011-12 National Survey for Child Health (NSCH), a nationally representative survey of child health, were used in this study. Pediatric dental health was measured using parent report of two characteristics: condition of teeth and having a toothache, decayed teeth, and/or unfilled cavities in the past 12 months. ACEs were measured by asking about a child's exposure to the divorce of a parent, parental incarceration, domestic violence, neighborhood violence, drug and alcohol abuse, mental illness, and financial hardship. Analyses were adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare access and utilization, and comorbid chronic conditions. The presence of even one ACE in a child's life increased the likelihood of having poor dental health. Additionally, having multiple ACEs had a cumulative negative effect on the condition of their teeth and the presence of dental caries (Odds Ratios 1.61-2.55). Adjusted models show that racial and socioeconomic factors still play a significant role in dental health. In addition to the known disparities in dental caries, this study demonstrates that there is significant association between childhood psychosocial issues and dental health. Preventive dental care should be considered incorporating the screening of multiple biological stressors, including ACEs, in routine dental visits as a means of identifying and reducing dental health inequities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Miller, Jacqueline W; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H; Felitti, Vincent J; Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F

    2006-04-01

    Alcohol is the most common and frequently used drug and has the potential to cause multiple deleterious effects throughout the lifespan. Because early age at initiation of alcohol use increases this potential and programs and laws are in place to attempt to delay the onset of alcohol use, we studied the relationship between multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and both the likelihood of ever drinking and the age at initiating alcohol use. This was a retrospective cohort study of 8417 adult health maintenance organization (HMO) members in California who completed a survey about ACEs, which included childhood abuse and neglect, growing up with various forms of household dysfunction and alcohol use in adolescence and adulthood. The main outcomes measured were ever drinking and age at initiating alcohol use among ever-drinkers for four age categories: < or = 14 years (early adolescence), 15 to 17 years (mid adolescence), and 18 to 20 years (late adolescence); age > or = 21 years was the referent. The relationship between the total number of adverse childhood experiences (ACE score) and early initiation of alcohol use (< or =14 years) among four birth cohorts dating back to 1900 was also examined. Eighty-nine percent of the cohort reported ever drinking; all individual ACEs except physical neglect increased the risk of ever using alcohol (p < .05). Among ever drinkers, initiating alcohol use by age 14 years was increased two- to threefold by individual ACEs (p < .05). ACEs also accounted for a 20% to 70% increased likelihood of alcohol use initiated during mid adolescence (15-17 years). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a very strong graded relationship to initiating alcohol use during early adolescence and a robust but somewhat less strong relationship to initiation during mid adolescence. For each of the four birth cohorts, the ACE score had a strong, graded relationship to initiating alcohol use by age 14 years (p < .05). Adverse childhood experiences

  17. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frissa, Souci; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2014-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity. To investigate main effects of, and synergy between, childhood abuse and life events and cannabis use on odds of psychotic experiences. Data on psychotic experiences and childhood abuse, life events and cannabis use were collected from 1680 individuals as part of the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH), a population-based household survey. There was strong evidence that childhood abuse and number of life events combined synergistically to increase odds of psychotic experiences beyond the effects of each individually. There was similar, but weaker, evidence for cannabis use (past year). Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood abuse creates an enduring vulnerability to psychosis that is realised in the event of exposure to further stressors and risk factors.

  19. Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frissa, Souci; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity. Aims To investigate main effects of, and synergy between, childhood abuse and life events and cannabis use on odds of psychotic experiences. Method Data on psychotic experiences and childhood abuse, life events and cannabis use were collected from 1680 individuals as part of the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH), a population-based household survey. Results There was strong evidence that childhood abuse and number of life events combined synergistically to increase odds of psychotic experiences beyond the effects of each individually. There was similar, but weaker, evidence for cannabis use (past year). Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood abuse creates an enduring vulnerability to psychosis that is realised in the event of exposure to further stressors and risk factors. PMID:24627297

  20. Measuring Childhood Adversity in Life Course Cardiovascular Research: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Allison A; Holdsworth, Elizabeth; Ryan, Margaret; Tracy, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the life course health effects of childhood adversity is a burgeoning area of research, particularly in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, adversity measurement varies widely across studies, which may hamper our ability to make comparisons across studies and identify mechanisms linking adversity to CVD. The purposes of this review are to summarize adversity measurement approaches in the context of CVD, identify gaps, and make recommendations for future research. PubMed and PsycINFO searches were conducted through June 2016. Studies were selected if CVD end point or predisease risk markers were investigated in association with a measure of childhood adversity. Forty-three studies were reviewed. A meta-analysis was not conducted because of the variation in exposures and outcomes assessed. Adversity measurement was heterogeneous across studies. Metrics included different sets of adverse events, relational factors, and socioeconomic indicators. Thirty-seven percent measured childhood adversity prospectively, 23% examined a CVD end point, and 77% treated adversity as an unweighted summary score. Despite the heterogeneity in measurement, most studies found a positive association between childhood adversity and CVD risk, and the association seems to be dose-response. The literature on childhood adversity and CVD would benefit from improving consistency of measurement, using weighted adversity composites, modeling adversity trajectories over time, and considering socioeconomic status as an antecedent factor instead of a component part of an adversity score. We suggest conceptual and analytic strategies to enhance, refine, and replicate the observed association between childhood adversity and CVD risk.

  1. Is there a relationship between adverse childhood experiences and problem drinking behaviors? Findings from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; McNeil, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    The study investigated the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and heavy and binge drinking, stratified by gender. Population-based cross-sectional study. Data were retrieved from 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Over 39,000 individuals from five states were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the weighted data to determine factors associated with heavy and binge drinking for men and women. Each model included ACEs and controlled for sociodemographic variables, depression and smoking status. Bonferroni method was used to correct multiple comparisons. Only a few relationships between ACEs and problem drinking were observed. Among men, living with a drug abuser as a child was significantly associated with both heavy and binge drinking compared to men who did not reside with a drug abuser as a child. Childhood verbal abuse was linked with men's binge drinking compared to men who were not verbally abused as children. Among women, none of the nine ACEs examined in the study were associated with their heavy drinking. Only one ACE, verbal abuse, was found to be correlated with binge drinking, compared to women who did not experience childhood verbal abuse. In addition, we did not find the hypothesized, step-wise, graded relationship between the number of ACEs and heavy and binge drinking. However, the risk of heavy drinking was greater if the individual was exposed to four or more childhood adversities among both men and women. Study hypotheses were only partially supported. Future studies should unpack the interplay among gender, socio-economic status, ACEs, and problem alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interprofessional Education on Adverse Childhood Experiences for Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jeanette M; Warring, Sarah L

    2018-02-01

    The health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is significant. Nurses need knowledge and must work in multidisciplinary teams to address this problem. This study examined the effects of an interprofessional education (IPE) activity with nonhealth care students on associate degree nursing (ADN) students' ACEs knowledge and perspectives on IPE. The mixed-methods approach used a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with an intervention and control group and thematic analysis of focus group data. Readiness for Interprofessional Learning scale mean scores indicated positive baseline IPE perspectives. Scores changed minimally for most measures in both the intervention and control groups on posttest. However, four major relevant themes related to ACEs knowledge and two related to interprofessional learning were identified. IPE with nonhealth care students is an effective way to teach ADN students about ACEs and infuse interprofessional learning in a nonuniversity setting. However, outcomes are best captured with qualitative data. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(2):101-105.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Relationship between adverse childhood experiences and homelessness and the impact of axis I and II disorders.

    PubMed

    Roos, Leslie E; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Katz, Laurence Y; Distasio, Jino; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, and included 34,653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%-60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways.

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Risk of Criminal Justice Involvement and Victimization Among Homeless Adults With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Edalati, Hanie; Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Roy, Laurence; Somers, Julian M; Patterson, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is highly prevalent among homeless individuals and is associated with negative consequences during homelessness. This study examined the effect of ACEs on the risk of criminal justice involvement and victimization among homeless individuals with mental illness. The study used baseline data from a demonstration project (At Home/Chez Soi) that provided Housing First and recovery-oriented services to homeless adults with mental illness. The sample was recruited from five Canadian cities and included participants who provided valid responses on an ACEs questionnaire (N=1,888). Fifty percent reported more than four types of ACE, 19% reported three or four types, 19% reported one or two, and 12% reported none. Rates of criminal justice involvement and victimization were significantly higher among those with a history of ACEs. For victimization, the association was significant for all ten types of ACE, and for justice involvement, it was significant for seven types. Logistic regression models indicated that the effect of cumulative childhood adversity on the two outcomes was significant regardless of sociodemographic factors, duration of homelessness, and psychiatric diagnosis, with one exception: the relationship between cumulative childhood adversity and criminal justice involvement did not remain significant when the analysis controlled for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence. Findings support the need for early interventions for at-risk youths and trauma-informed practice and violence prevention policies that specifically target homeless populations.

  5. Neighborhood Collective Efficacy Moderates the Association between Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Marital Conflict.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    In a socio-demographically diverse sample of 501 caregivers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study during the childbearing years, we examined whether neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the association between maternal adverse childhood experience (ACEs) and marital conflict. Maternal ACEs were assessed via retrospective reports. Neighborhood collective efficacy was measured via maternal and paternal reports at 2 months, and maternal reports of marital conflict were collected at infant age 2 and 18 months. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that maternal ACEs were associated with increased marital conflict. Neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the association between early maternal ACEs and marital conflict, such that mothers experiencing ACEs had lower levels of marital conflict when exposed to high levels of neighborhood collective efficacy. Results suggest that extra-familial sources of social support and control, such as feelings of security, trust, order, and connectedness with others, may buffer the effects of early adversity on marital discord. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    PubMed

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs.

  8. Animal cruelty as an indicator of family trauma: Using adverse childhood experiences to look beyond child abuse and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Bright, Melissa A; Huq, Mona Sayedul; Spencer, Terry; Applebaum, Jennifer W; Hardt, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before violence is visited on other humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p < .001) ranging from a high of 12.9 years in the oldest cohort (age 59 or older at the time of interview) to a low of 12.4 in the second youngest cohort (age 28-37). Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly

  10. Childhood Adversity, Religion, and Change in Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Research indicates that childhood adversity is associated with poor mental health in adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the deleterious long-term effects of childhood adversity on adult mental health are reduced for individuals who are involved in religious practices. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of American adults ( N = 1,635), I find that religious salience and spirituality buffer the noxious effects of childhood abuse on change in positive affect over time. By contrast, these stress-buffering properties of religion fail to emerge when negative affect serves as the outcome measure. These results underscore the importance of religion as a countervailing mechanism that blunts the negative impact of childhood abuse on adult mental health over time. I discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for views about religion, childhood adversity, and mental health.

  11. Modifiable Resilience Factors to Childhood Adversity for Clinical Pediatric Practice.

    PubMed

    Traub, Flora; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2017-05-01

    Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and associated with risk for poor health outcomes in childhood and throughout the life course. Empirical literature on resilience over the past 40 years has identified protective factors for traumatized children that improve health outcomes. Despite these empirical investigations of resilience, there is limited integration of these findings into proactive strategies to mitigate the impact of adverse childhood experiences. We review the state of resilience research, with a focus on recent work, as it pertains to protecting children from the health impacts of early adversity. We identify and document evidence for 5 modifiable resilience factors to improve children's long- and short-term health outcomes, including fostering positive appraisal styles in children and bolstering executive function, improving parenting, supporting maternal mental health, teaching parents the importance of good self-care skills and consistent household routines, and offering anticipatory guidance about the impact of trauma on children. We conclude with 10 recommendations for pediatric practitioners to leverage the identified modifiable resilience factors to help children withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity. Taken together, these recommendations constitute a blueprint for a trauma-informed medical home. Building resilience in pediatric patients offers an opportunity to improve the health and well-being of the next generation, enhance national productivity, and reduce spending on health care for chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-04-12

    It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n=364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374.

  13. Lest we forget: Comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, Aaron; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, Honalee; Schroeder, Felix; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Danese, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g., abuse, neglect, parental loss, etc.) have been associated with increased risk for later-life disease and dysfunction using adults’ retrospective self-reports of ACEs. Research should test whether associations between ACEs and health outcomes are the same for prospective and retrospective ACE measures. Methods We estimated agreement between ACEs prospectively-recorded throughout childhood (by Study staff at Study member ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15) and retrospectively-recalled in adulthood (by Study members when they reached age 38), in the population-representative Dunedin cohort (N=1,037). We related both retrospective and prospective ACE measures to physical, mental, cognitive, and social health at midlife measured through both objective (e.g., biomarkers and neuropsychological tests) and subjective (e.g., self-reported) means. Results Dunedin and CDC ACE distributions were similar. Retrospective and prospective measures of adversity showed moderate agreement (r=.47, p<.001; weighted Kappa = .31, 95% CI: .27–.35). Both associated with all midlife outcomes. As compared to prospective ACEs, retrospective ACEs showed stronger associations with life outcomes that were subjectively assessed, and weaker associations with life outcomes that were objectively assessed. Recalled ACEs and poor subjective outcomes were correlated regardless of whether prospectively-recorded ACEs were evident. Individuals who recalled more ACEs than had been prospectively recorded were more neurotic than average, and individuals who recalled fewer ACEs than recorded were more agreeable. Conclusions Prospective ACE records confirm associations between childhood adversity and negative life outcomes found previously using retrospective ACE reports. However, more agreeable and neurotic dispositions may respectively bias retrospective ACE measures toward underestimating the impact of adversity on objectively-measured life outcomes and

  14. Childhood and Adolescent Adversity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira F; Koenen, Karestan C; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Chan, Paul S; Clark, Cari J; Danese, Andrea; Faith, Myles S; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Hayman, Laura L; Isasi, Carmen R; Pratt, Charlotte A; Slopen, Natalie; Sumner, Jennifer A; Turer, Aslan; Turer, Christy B; Zachariah, Justin P

    2018-01-30

    Adverse experiences in childhood and adolescence, defined as subjectively perceived threats to the safety or security of the child's bodily integrity, family, or social structures, are known to be associated with cardiometabolic outcomes over the life course into adulthood. This American Heart Association scientific statement reviews the scientific literature on the influence of childhood adversity on cardiometabolic outcomes that constitute the greatest public health burden in the United States, including obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. This statement also conceptually outlines pathways linking adversity to cardiometabolic health, identifies evidence gaps, and provides suggestions for future research to inform practice and policy. We note that, despite a lack of objective agreement on what subjectively qualifies as exposure to childhood adversity and a dearth of prospective studies, substantial evidence documents an association between childhood adversity and cardiometabolic outcomes across the life course. Future studies that focus on mechanisms, resiliency, and vulnerability factors would further strengthen the evidence and provide much-needed information on targets for effective interventions. Given that childhood adversities affect cardiometabolic health and multiple health domains across the life course, interventions that ameliorate these initial upstream exposures may be more appropriate than interventions remediating downstream cardiovascular disease risk factor effects later in life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) and childhood adversity are associated with the personality trait openness to experience.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Guban, Peter; Wang, Mei; Melas, Philippe A; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence supporting an association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of human personality. 5-HTTLPR has also been found to interact with stressful life events to increase risk of psychopathology. In the present study, by taking into account stressful life events in the form of childhood adversity, we examined the association between 5-HTTLPR and FFM traits using an adult Swedish cohort (N = 3112). We found that 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with openness (to experience). Specifically, homozygote carriers of the short allele had lower levels of openness compared to carriers of the long allele. In addition, childhood adversity was found to influence openness. These findings support a previously reported association of 5-HTTLPR with openness in a younger cohort and may provide insights into the neurobiological basis of human personality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Foundations for screening adverse childhood experiences: Exploring patterns of exposure through infancy and toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Selig, James P; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have lifetime consequences for health and development. Identification of ACEs early in childhood provides the potential to intervene before health and development are impaired. This study examined the timing and duration of exposure to ACEs experienced by children from low-income families from ages one to three years to identify whether there were patterns of exposure when infants and toddlers were most vulnerable. We were able to confirm the early negative consequences on cognitive, health, and behavior outcomes previously reported in young children using a national, longitudinal data set of parents and children from low-income households (N=2250). Using Finite Mixture Models, five classes of exposure were identified for children, Consistently Low (63.8%), Decreasing (10.3%), High at Age 2 (11.4%), Increasing (10.4%), and Consistently High (4%). The Consistently Low and Consistently High classes had the most and least optimal development across all domains, respectively. When examining child development outcomes among children with variable exposures to adversities, we found that for cognitive, language, and physical development, the most proximal ACEs were more robust for predicting child outcomes. For socioemotional health, exposure at any time from one to three to ACEs had negative consequences. As a whole, findings from this study highlight the need to consider ACEs screening tools that are both time-sensitive and permit a lifetime report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Recidivism in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders in Community-Based Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Kevin T; Baglivio, Michael T; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been identified as a key risk factor for a range of negative life outcomes, including delinquency. Much less is known about how exposure to negative experiences relates to continued offending among juvenile offenders. In this study, we examine the effect of ACEs on recidivism in a large sample of previously referred youth from the State of Florida who were followed for 1 year after participation in community-based treatment. Results from a series of Cox hazard models suggest that ACEs increase the risk of subsequent arrest, with a higher prevalence of ACEs leading to a shorter time to recidivism. The relationship between ACEs and recidivism held quite well in demographic-specific analyses. Implications for empirical research on the long-term effects of traumatic childhood events and juvenile justice policy are discussed.

  18. Childhood Adversities and Adult Cardiometabolic Health: Does the Quantity, Timing, and Type of Adversity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Montez, Jennifer Karas; Sheehan, Connor McDevitt; Guenewald, Tara L.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse events in childhood can indelibly influence adult health. While evidence for this association has mounted, a fundamental set of questions about how to operationalize adverse events has been understudied. Method We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States to examine how quantity, timing, and types of adverse events in childhood are associated with adult cardiometabolic health. Results The best-fitting specification of quantity of events was a linear measure reflecting a dose–response relationship. Timing of event mattered less than repeated exposure to events. Regarding the type of event, academic interruptions and sexual/physical abuse were most important. Adverse childhood events elevated the risk of diabetes and obesity similarly for men and women but had a greater impact on women’s risk of heart disease. Discussion Findings demonstrate the insights that can be gleaned about the early-life origins of adult health by examining operationalization of childhood exposures. PMID:25903978

  19. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  20. The relationship between childhood adversities and fibromyalgia in the general population.

    PubMed

    Varinen, Aleksi; Kosunen, Elise; Mattila, Kari; Koskela, Tuomas; Sumanen, Markku

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by widespread pain and a variety of somatic symptoms. The international prevalence of fibromyalgia is 2-5%, but its current prevalence in Finland is unclear. Various adversities are linked to the onset of fibromyalgia. However, there is need for more data regarding the association between childhood physical abuse and fibromyalgia. Further, the association of childhood emotional stressors and fibromyalgia is disputed. The aim of the current study is to produce more information about that relationship using data from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) Study. HeSSup is a postal study consisting of a random sample of the Finnish population. The study setting is cross-sectional. Participants in the study were asked if they have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Those responding affirmatively were classified as fibromyalgia patients. Six childhood adversities were enquired, and the relationship between fibromyalgia and these events were analysed by cross tabulation and logistic regression. There were associations between examined adversities and fibromyalgia before and after adjustments for demographic features and depression (being afraid of a family member: odds ratio after adjustment 1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.01; long-lasting financial difficulties 1.45, 1.18-1.77; serious conflicts in the family 1.40, 1.14-1.72; parental divorce 1.34, 1.05-1.72; serious or chronic illnesses in the family 1.27, 1.05-1.55; alcohol problems in the family 1.25, 1.02-1.53). All six enquired adversities were associated with fibromyalgia after adjustments. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing adverse childhood experiences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fahy, A E; Stansfeld, S A; Smuk, M; Lain, D; van der Horst, M; Vickerstaff, S; Clark, C

    2017-06-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood. This study builds upon previous research by examining associations between childhood adversity and self-reported labour force participation among older adults (aged 55). Data was from the National Child Development Study - a prospective cohort of all English, Scottish, & Welsh births in one week in 1958. There was evidence for associations between childhood adversity and increased risk of permanent sickness at 55 years - which were largely sustained after adjustment for educational disengagement and adulthood factors (mental/physical health, qualifications, socioeconomic disadvantage). Specifically, children who were abused or neglected were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. In addition, among males, those in care, those experiencing illness in the home, and those experiencing two or more childhood adversities were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. Childhood factors were also associated with part-time employment and retirement at 55 years. Severe childhood adversities may represent important distal predictors of labour force exit at 55 years, particularly via permanent sickness. Notably, some adversities show associations among males only, which may inform interventions designed to extend working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Coping Resources, and Mental Health Problems among Court-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Tennyson, Robert L.; Nurius, Paula S.; Borja, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are gaining attention among court-involved youth with emphasis on the role of childhood adversity, but assessment lags. Objective: The present study uses a commonly delivered assessment tool to examine mental health problems (current mental health problem, mental health interfered with probation goals, and…

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Alcohol Consumption in Midlife and Early Old-Age

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jessica Pui Kei; Britton, Annie; Bell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the individual and cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on alcohol consumption in midlife and early old-age, and the role of ACEs in 10-year drinking trajectories across midlife. Methods Data were from the Whitehall II study, a longitudinal British civil service-based cohort study (N = 7870, 69.5% male). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the individual and cumulative effects of ACEs on weekly alcohol consumption. Mixed-effect multilevel modelling was used to explore the relationship between ACEs and change in alcohol consumption longitudinally. Results Participants who were exposed to parental arguments/fights in childhood were 1.24 (95% CI 1.06, 1.45) times more likely to drink at hazardous levels in midlife (mean age 56 years) after controlling for covariates and other ACEs. For each additional exposure to an ACE, the risk of hazardous drinking versus moderate drinking was increased by 1.12 (95% CI 1.03, 1.21) after adjusting for sex, age, adult socio-economic status, ethnicity and marital status. No associations between ACEs and increased risk of hazardous drinking in early old-age (mean age 66 years) were found. In longitudinal analyses, ACEs did not significantly influence 10-year drinking trajectories across midlife. Conclusion The effect of exposure to parental arguments on hazardous drinking persists into midlife. PMID:26553290

  4. Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Homelessness and the Impact of Axis I and II Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O.; Katz, Laurence Y.; Distasio, Jino

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. Methods. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001–2002 and 2004–2005, and included 34 653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Results. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%–60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Conclusions. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways. PMID:24148049

  5. The relationship between childhood adversity, recent stressors, and depression in college students attending a South African university.

    PubMed

    Mall, Sumaya; Mortier, Philippe; Taljaard, Lian; Roos, Janine; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2018-03-09

    College students are at risk of depression. This risk may be increased by the experience of childhood adversity and/or recent stressors. This study examined the association between reported experiences of childhood adversity, recent stressors and depression during the last 12 months in a cohort of South African university students. Six hundred and eighty-six first year students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa completed a health-focused e-survey that included items on childhood adversity, recent stressors and mood. Individual and population attributable risk proportions (PARP) between experiences of childhood adversity and 12-month stressful experiences and 12-month depression were estimated using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. About one in six students reported depression during the last 12 months. Being a victim of bullying and emotional abuse or emotional neglect during childhood were the strongest predictors of depression in the past year at both individual and population level. With regard to recent stressors, a romantic partner being unfaithful, serious ongoing arguments or break-ups with some other close friend or family member and a sexual or gender identity crisis were the strongest predictors of depression. The predictor effect of recent stressors was significantly reduced in the final model that adjusted for the type and number of childhood traumatic experiences. At a population level, academic stress, serious ongoing arguments or break-ups with a close friend or family member, and serious betrayal by someone close were the variables that yielded the highest PARP. Our findings suggest a significant relationship between early adversity, recent stressors, and depression here and throughout, consistent with the broader literature on predictors of depression. This study contributes to the limited data on college students' mental health in low and middle income countries including on the African continent. The findings provide

  6. Cancer in working-age is not associated with childhood adversities.

    PubMed

    Korpimäki, Sonja K; Sumanen, Markku P T; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Mattila, Kari J

    2010-05-01

    Early life events are studied as potential causes of cancer. The objective here was to study childhood adversities in the etiology of cancer. The material comprised a population based random sample of 25 898 individuals among the Finnish working-aged population. In 1998 they were requested through six questions in a postal questionnaire to recall their childhood adversities. The cases consisted of people with cancer diagnosed 2000-2006 and registered in the Finnish Cancer Registry (n = 384). The rest of the sample consisted of cancer-free controls. The most common adversities were prolonged financial difficulties, serious conflicts in the family and someone in the family having been seriously or chronically ill. The cancer patients reported more prolonged financial difficulties and someone seriously or chronically ill in the family. They reported less parental divorce than the controls. The associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, education, and health behaviour. Nor was there a significant difference in the total number of childhood adversities between the study group and the controls. On the whole, these cancer patients had not experienced more childhood adversities than the controls. According to our findings, there is no cause to attribute development of cancer in working age to childhood adversities. This information may also give relief to other family members.

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), Stress and Mental Health in College Students.

    PubMed

    Karatekin, Canan

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) could be used to identify college students at risk for mental health problems and whether current level of stress mediates the relationship between ACEs and mental health. Data on ACEs and mental health (depression, anxiety and suicidality) were collected at the beginning of the semester, and data on current stressors and mental health were collected toward the end of the semester (n = 239). Findings indicated that ACEs predicted worsening of mental health over the course of a semester and suggested current number of stressors as a mediator of the relationship between ACEs and mental health. Results suggest that screening for ACEs might be useful to identify students at high risk for deterioration in mental health. Results further suggest that stress-related interventions would be beneficial for students with high levels of ACEs and point to the need for more research and strategies to increase help-seeking in college students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Robin; Sibinga, Erica M.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood. PMID:28264496

  9. Job Demands and Job Control as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: Moderating Effects of Negative Childhood Socioemotional Experiences.

    PubMed

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Puttonen, Sampsa; Joensuu, Matti; Lipsanen, Jari; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    There have been calls to know more about vulnerability factors that may predispose to adverse health outcomes at work. We examined if childhood adverse experiences would affect vulnerability to psychosocial stress factors at work. A nationally representative sample of 1546 Finnish men and women was followed up from childhood to adulthood. Childhood adverse experiences consisted of socioeconomic and emotional factors. Job demands and job control were measured 21 years later, and depressive symptoms were measured 21 and 27 years after the childhood measurements. Job demands predicted depressive symptoms over 6 years, and the association was modified by childhood emotional adversity. Participants with three or more emotional adversities in childhood had more depressive symptoms in response to high job demands compared with participants with zero or one emotional adversities in childhood (Betas = -1.40 and -2.01, ps < 0.05 and <0.01). No such moderating effect by childhood adverse experiences was found for the association between job control and depressive symptoms. Although modest in effect size, these findings provide a developmental viewpoint for understanding the role of childhood experiences in work-related stress factors. Such knowledge can enhance understanding of individual differences in vulnerability to the demands of working life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B.; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters, and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and children, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Lastly, those youth who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared to those youth whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the lifespan. PMID:27481911

  11. The relationship between childhood adversity, attachment, and internalizing behaviors in a diversion program for child-to-mother violence.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski-Sims, Eva; Rowe, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of childhood adversity in child-to-parent violence. Childhood adversity places youth at risk for internalizing behaviors (i.e. anxiety and depression) and externalizing behaviors (i.e. aggression). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 80 youth who have been arrested for domestic battery against a mother. This study reported high prevalence rates of childhood adversity (mean score of 10 out of 17 events). Multiple regression analysis indicated that insecure attachment predicted depression among females (F(6, 73)=4.87, p<0.001), and previous experience with child maltreatment and/or witness to parental violence predicted anxiety among females (F(6, 73)=3.08, p<0.01). This study is the first study to explore childhood adversity among a sample of perpetrators of child-to-mother violence and notably adds to our understanding of the multiple pathways connecting childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and depression and anxiety among a difficult to treat youth population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lest we forget: comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Aaron; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Schroeder, Felix; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Danese, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g. abuse, neglect, and parental loss) have been associated with increased risk for later-life disease and dysfunction using adults' retrospective self-reports of ACEs. Research should test whether associations between ACEs and health outcomes are the same for prospective and retrospective ACE measures. We estimated agreement between ACEs prospectively recorded throughout childhood (by Study staff at Study member ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15) and retrospectively recalled in adulthood (by Study members when they reached age 38), in the population-representative Dunedin cohort (N = 1,037). We related both retrospective and prospective ACE measures to physical, mental, cognitive, and social health at midlife measured through both objective (e.g. biomarkers and neuropsychological tests) and subjective (e.g. self-reported) means. Dunedin and U.S. Centers for Disease Control ACE distributions were similar. Retrospective and prospective measures of adversity showed moderate agreement (r = .47, p < .001; weighted Kappa = .31, 95% CI: .27-.35). Both associated with all midlife outcomes. As compared to prospective ACEs, retrospective ACEs showed stronger associations with life outcomes that were subjectively assessed, and weaker associations with life outcomes that were objectively assessed. Recalled ACEs and poor subjective outcomes were correlated regardless of whether prospectively recorded ACEs were evident. Individuals who recalled more ACEs than had been prospectively recorded were more neurotic than average, and individuals who recalled fewer ACEs than recorded were more agreeable. Prospective ACE records confirm associations between childhood adversity and negative life outcomes found previously using retrospective ACE reports. However, more agreeable and neurotic dispositions may, respectively, bias retrospective ACE measures toward underestimating the impact of adversity on objectively measured life outcomes and

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Well-Being in a Low-income, Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Alison; Reynolds, Arthur J; Mondi, Christina F; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2016-04-01

    This study tests the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and multidimensional well-being in early adulthood for a low-income, urban cohort, and whether a preschool preventive intervention moderates this association. Follow-up data were analyzed for 1202 low-income, minority participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of the impact of early experiences on life-course well-being. Born between 1979 and 1980 in high-poverty neighborhoods, individuals retrospectively reported ACEs from birth to adolescence, except in cases of child abuse and neglect. Nearly two-thirds of the study sample experienced ≥1 ACEs by age 18. After controlling for demographic factors and early intervention status, individuals reporting ACEs were significantly more likely to exhibit poor outcomes than those with no ACEs. Those with ≥4 ACEs had significantly reduced likelihood of high school graduation (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; P < .001), increased risk for depression (OR = 3.9; P < .001), health compromising behaviors (OR = 4.5; P < .001), juvenile arrest (OR = 3.1; P < .001), and felony charges (OR = 2.8; P < .001). They were also less likely to hold skilled jobs (OR = 0.50; P = .001) and to go further in school even for adversity measured by age 5. ACEs consistently predicted a diverse set of adult outcomes in a high-risk, economically disadvantaged sample. Effective and widely available preventive interventions are needed to counteract the long-term consequences of ACEs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  15. Childhood adversity, mental disorder comorbidity, and suicidal behavior in schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Vanessa; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M

    2010-11-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a serious and relatively common psychiatric disorder, yet remains understudied among the personality disorders. The current study examines the psychiatric correlates of SPD in a representative epidemiologic sample, utilizing data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Multiple logistic regression compared people with SPD to the general population across a broad range of childhood adversities, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and suicidal behavior. SPD was strongly associated with many adverse childhood experiences. After adjusting for confounding factors, SPD was independently associated with major depression and several anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Interestingly, SPD was more strongly associated with borderline and narcissistic personality disorders than cluster A personality disorders. Individuals with SPD were also more likely to attempt suicide. As a whole, these results suggest that individuals with SPD experience significant morbidity and may be at increased risk of mortality.

  16. Childhood Adversities and Substance Misuse Among the Incarcerated: Implications for Treatment and Practice in Correctional Settings.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-05-12

    Incarcerated populations have high rates of childhood adversities and substance use problems. Moreover, childhood adversities are well-documented predictors of substance misuse. To investigate the impact of childhood sexual and physical abuse, caregiver abuse of drugs or alcohol, and time spent in foster care on several substance misuse outcomes. Data comes from a sample of 16,043 incarcerated men and women in the United States Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities. Bivariate analyses revealed differences by sex in childhood adversities and socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses assessed the data for a link between childhood adversities and substance misuse after adjusting for other variables. Analyses were stratified by sex to show differences in predictors of substance misuse between men and women. Childhood adversities increased the risk of many substance misuse outcomes. The prevalence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care, and caretaker abuse of drugs or alcohol were greatest for inmates who reported injecting and sharing drugs. Growing up with a caregiver that used drugs or alcohol was a consistent predictor of increased risk of substance misuse for men and women. However, childhood sexual abuse increased risk for only women. Inmates who experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care involvement and caretakers who use drugs and alcohol are at an increased risk of substance misuse, injecting drug use and syringe sharing. Implications suggest correctional HIV prevention and substance misuse programs must address unresolved trauma and important gender differences.

  17. The impact of childhood adversity on suicidality and clinical course in treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Tunnard, Catherine; Rane, Lena J; Wooderson, Sarah C; Markopoulou, Kalypso; Poon, Lucia; Fekadu, Abebaw; Juruena, Mario; Cleare, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity is a risk factor for the development of depression and can also affect clinical course. We investigated this specifically in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). One hundred and thirty-seven patients with TRD previously admitted to an inpatient affective disorders unit were included. Clinical, demographic and childhood adversity (physical, sexual, emotional abuse; bullying victimization, traumatic events) data were obtained during admission. Associations between childhood adversity, depressive symptoms and clinical course were investigated. Most patients had experienced childhood adversity (62%), with traumatic events (35%) and bullying victimization (29%) most commonly reported. Childhood adversity was associated with poorer clinical course, including earlier age of onset, episode persistence and recurrence. Logistic regression analyses revealed childhood adversity predicted lifetime suicide attempts (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.14, 6.84) and childhood physical abuse predicted lifetime psychosis (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.00, 11.70). The cross-sectional design and retrospective measurement of childhood adversity are limitations of the study. Childhood adversity was common amongst these TRD patients and was associated with poor clinical course, psychosis and suicide attempts. Routine assessment of early adversity may help identify at risk individuals and inform clinical intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of childhood adversities on anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Marackova, Marketa; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Holubova, Michaela; Slepecky, Milos; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Ales

    2016-12-01

    The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder". No backward time constraints were used. Non-original studies, conference abstracts, books and book chapters, commentaries, and dissertations were excluded. The influence of childhood adversities on later age psychopathology is examined in five categories: the negative family atmosphere, abuse, loss of a close person, the social difficulties, and problems at school (including, most importantly bullying). The majority of studies confirmed the connection between childhood adversities and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. The character of the adversities is not, apparently, a specific predictor for a concrete psychopathology. Multiple adversities are more frequently connected with depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood, cumulating together in broader adverse context. Childhood adversities were found to increase vulnerability to the distress, depression, fear and anxiety later in the life. However, specific correlations between a given childhood adversity and a specific form of depression or anxiety disorder were either not found or weak. This is in line with the generally accepted view considering each of these factors a non-specific stressor increasing vulnerability to mood and affect disorders later in life.

  19. Corticolimbic Connectivity Mediates the Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Symptom Severity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vai, Benedetta; Sforzini, Laura; Visintini, Raffaele; Riberto, Martina; Bulgarelli, Chiara; Ghiglino, Davide; Melloni, Elisa; Bollettini, Irene; Poletti, Sara; Maffei, Cesare; Benedetti, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    The interaction between biological and environmental factors (especially adverse childhood experiences, ACEs) plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). These factors act influencing BPD core features such as pervasive instability in affect regulation, impulse control, social cognition, and interpersonal relationships. In line with this perspective, abnormalities in social cognition and related neurobiological underpinnings could mediate the relationship between ACEs and psychopathological manifestations in adulthood. In a sample of 14 females, functional connectivity (FC) analyses were performed modeling the interaction between ACEs and corticolimbic dysregulation during emotional processing and its relationship with BPD symptom severity. ACEs were associated with a dampening of the negative FC between (1) the right amygdala (Amy) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and between (2) the left Amy and bilateral DLPFC, right precuneus, left cerebellum and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during emotional processing. The connectivity between right Amy and DLPFC mediates the relationship between childhood adversities and BPD symptomatology. Furthermore, the negative FC between Amy and DLPFC, postcentral gyrus, the vermis of cerebellum and precuneus was also associated with BPD symptom severity, with a weaker negative coupling between Amy and these regions being related to a worse BPD psychopathology. Our results confirm the role of ACEs in contributing to social cognition impairments in BPD and related symptomatology from a neurobiological perspective. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and risk for suicidal behavior in male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans seeking PTSD treatment.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy D; Currier, Joseph M; McCormick, Wesley H; Drescher, Kent D

    2017-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for suicide and appear to occur in disproportionately high rates among men who served in the U.S. military. However, research has yet to examine a comprehensive range of ACEs among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or whether these premilitary stressors may contribute to suicidal behavior in this highly vulnerable population. A sample of 217 men entering a residential program for combat-related PTSD completed measures for ACEs, combat exposure, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts. The majority of patients had experienced multiple types of adversity or traumas during childhood/adolescence. In particular, 83.4% endorsed at least 1 ACE category and 41.5% reported experiencing 4 or more ACEs. When accounting for effects of deployment-related stressors, we further found that accumulation of ACEs was uniquely linked with thoughts of suicide or attempts among these patients. Namely, for every 1-point increase on the ACE Questionnaire, veterans' risk of suicidal ideation and attempts increased by 23% and 24%, respectively. This brief report provides initial evidence that veterans seeking treatment for combat-related PTSD often have extensive histories of premilitary stressors that may increase suicide risk beyond probable deployment-related traumas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Higher-Level Functional Limitations Among Older Japanese People: Results From the JAGES Study.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Murayama, Hiroshi; Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-16

    A life-course perspective is essential in understanding the determinants of higher-level functional limitations. We examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on higher-level functional limitations in older people. Data were from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013, a population-based cohort of independent people aged 65 years or older across Japan (n = 19,220). ACEs before the age of 18 were assessed in terms of seven adversities: parental death, parental divorce, parental mental illness, family violence, physical abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological abuse. Associations between the cumulative number of ACEs and higher-level functional limitations were investigated by multivariate Poisson regression with robust error variances, adjusted for age, gender, childhood disadvantage, adult sociodemographics, adult health behaviors, and health status. Of the older people, 36.3% reported at least one ACE. Older people who had experienced two or more ACEs showed significantly greater higher-level functional limitations than those with no ACE in a crude model (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.51-1.71). After adjusting the covariates, this association remained (PR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). ACEs showed robust independent effects on higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese without disabilities, even after adjusting for potential covariates in childhood and adulthood. The current findings may help in understanding the impact of the latent effects of ACEs on functional limitations in older people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicide attempts in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Baird, S L; Dhrodia, R; Brennenstuhl, S

    2016-09-01

    To further our understanding of the relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and suicidal behaviour, this study investigates the association between three types of ACEs and lifetime suicide attempts, while considering potential gender-specific and mediating effects. Data were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH), a cross-sectional, population-based survey comprised of respondents aged 18 or older who provided self-reported data on past experiences of suicide attempts, as well as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parental domestic violence (PDV) (n = 22 559). After testing for ACE by gender interactions, we estimated the odds of lifetime suicide attempts for each ACE and then investigated whether depression, anxiety, substance abuse and chronic pain acted as mediators of the relationship. The odds of suicide attempts are significantly higher among those with a history of CPA (OR = 3.29; 99.9% CI 2.33-4.64), CSA (OR = 4.42; 99.9% CI 3.14-6.23) or PDV (OR = 2.52; 99.9% CI 1.69-3.76), when ACEs are mutually adjusted. There is little evidence that gender acts as a moderator; however, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and chronic pain appear to partially mediate the associations. Depression alone accounts for about a quarter of the associations with CSA and CPA. Mental health factors and chronic pain appear only to partially mediate relationships between ACEs and lifetime suicide attempts. Future research should look at other pathways with the goal of developing multi-level interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Gender differences in the effects of childhood adversity on alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-07-01

    To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships. We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pair-wise comparisons corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni's method. For each type of substance use disorder, risk was increased by more exposure to childhood adversity, and women had a lower risk than men. However, moderation effects revealed that with more experiences of childhood adversity, the gender gap in predicted probability for a disorder narrowed in relation to alcohol, it converged in relation to drugs such that risk among women surpassed that among men, and it widened in relation to polysubstances. Knowledge regarding substance-specific gender differences associated with childhood adversity exposure can inform evidence-based treatments. It may also be useful for shaping other types of gender-sensitive public health initiatives to ameliorate or prevent different types of substance use disorders.

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences and ADHD Diagnosis at Age 9 Years in a National Urban Sample.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Lin, Yong; Reichman, Nancy E

    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at age 9 years using longitudinal data and assess the extent to which ACEs during middle childhood are independently associated with ADHD at age 9 years. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families urban birth cohort 5- and 9-year interviews. The sample was limited to children for whom mothers were the primary caregiver and mother-reported information on 8 ACEs and ADHD were available at age 5 and 9 years. We examined associations between ACEs and parent-reported ADHD at age 9 years using logistic regression and controlling for potential confounders. We included 1572 children; 48% were African American, 11% had parent-reported ADHD at age 9 years, 41% and 42% experienced ≥1 ACE by age 5 years and between the ages of 5 and 9 years, respectively. ACEs before age 5 years were associated with ADHD at age 9 years. One, 2, and ≥3 ACEs between age 5 and 9 years were associated with ADHD at age 9 years even after controlling for ACEs before age 5 years and ADHD at age 5 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3; AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.8; and AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3). In this study of urban children, ACEs occurring before age 5 years as well as between the ages of 5 and 9 years were associated with ADHD at age 9 years. Even after controlling for early childhood ACEs and ADHD at age 5 years, the association between ADHD and ACEs in middle childhood remained significant, highlighting the importance of screening and intervention throughout childhood. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Income Inequality and the Differential Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences in US Children.

    PubMed

    Halfon, Neal; Larson, Kandyce; Son, John; Lu, Michael; Bethell, Christina

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect health and development across the life course. Despite a general understanding that adversity is associated with lower income, we know less about how ACEs manifest at different income levels and how these income-related patterns affect children's health and development. Data from the 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health were used to examine the prevalence of 9 ACEs in US children, across 4 levels of household income, and in relationship to 5 parent-reported measures of child health. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between number of ACEs and children's health outcomes on the basis of the 4 income groups. When partitioned according to income strata, the proportion of children who experienced ACEs showed a steep income gradient, particularly for children who experienced ≥4 ACEs. The linear gradient across income groups was less pronounced for each specific ACE, with several ACEs (experience of divorce, drug and alcohol exposure, parental mental illness) showing high reported prevalence in all but the highest income group. Multivariate analysis showed a consistent income-related gradient for each of the health outcomes. However, higher income was not necessarily found to be a protective factor against ACEs. ACEs are distributed across the income ladder and not just concentrated below the poverty level. This suggests that a more comprehensive policy strategy that includes targeted as well as universal interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and the cardiovascular health of children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse, household dysfunction, and neglect, have been shown to increase adults’ risk of developing chronic conditions and risk factors for chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Much less work has investigated the effect of ACEs on children’s physical health status that may lead to adult chronic health conditions. Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs and early childhood risk factors for adult cardiovascular disease. Methods 1 234 grade six to eight students participated in school-based data collection, which included resting measures of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Parents of these children completed an inventory of ACEs taken from the Childhood Trust Events Survey. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between experiencing more than 4 ACEs experienced, systolic BP, HR, BMI and WC. In additional analysis, ACEs were assessed ordinally in their relationship with systolic BP, HR, and BMI as well as clinical obesity and hypertension status. Results After adjustment for family education, income, age, sex, physical activity, and parental history of hypertension, and WC for HR models, four or more ACEs had a significant effect on HR (b = 1.8 bpm, 95% CI (0.1-3.6)) BMI (b =1.1 kg/m2, 95% CI (0.5-1.8)), and WC (b = 3.6 cm, 95% CI (1.8-5.3)). A dose–response relationship between ACE accumulation and both BMI and WC was also found to be significant. Furthermore, accumulation of 4 or more ACEs was significantly associated with clinical obesity (95th percentile), after controlling for the aforementioned covariates. Conclusions In a community sample of grade six to eight children, accumulation of 4 or more ACEs significantly increased BMI, WC and resting HR. Therefore, risk factors related to reported associations between ACEs and cardiovascular outcomes among adults are

  8. Interplay between Schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score and Childhood Adversity in First-Presentation Psychotic Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Di Forti, Marta; Sham, Pak C.; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Mondelli, Valeria; Aitchison, Katherine J.; Murray, Robin M.

    2016-01-01

    A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to number or severity of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Research on gene-environment interaction in psychosis has primarily focused on candidate genes, although the genetic effects are now known to be polygenic. This pilot study investigated whether the effect of childhood adversity on psychosis is moderated by the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS). Data were utilised from the Genes and Psychosis (GAP) study set in South London, UK. The GAP sample comprises 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 unaffected controls with information on childhood adversity. We studied only white subjects (80 cases and 110 controls) with PRS data, as the PRS has limited predictive ability in patients of African ancestry. The occurrence of childhood adversity was assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and the PRS was based on genome-wide meta-analysis results for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Higher schizophrenia PRS and childhood adversities each predicted psychosis status. Nevertheless, no evidence was found for interaction as departure from additivity, indicating that the effect of polygenic risk scores on psychosis was not increased in the presence of a history of childhood adversity. These findings are compatible with a multifactorial threshold model in which both genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk contribute independently to the etiology of psychosis. PMID:27648571

  9. Disability and Exposure to High Levels of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Effect on Health and Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anna; Herrick, Harry; Proescholdbell, Scott; Simmons, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities among persons with disabilities have been previously documented. However, there is little research specific to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in this population and how ACE exposure affects health outcomes in adulthood. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey were analyzed to compare the prevalence of ACEs between adults with and without disabilities and high ACE exposure (3-8 ACEs). Adjusted risk ratios of health risks and perceived poor health by disability status were calculated using predicted marginals. A higher percentage of persons with disabilities (36.5%) than those without disabilities (19.6%) reported high ACE exposure. Among those with high ACE exposure, persons with disabilities were more likely to report several ACE categories, particularly childhood sexual abuse. In adjusted analyses, persons with disabilities had an increased risk of smoking (relative risk [RR] = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51), poor physical health (RR = 4.34; 95% CI, 3.08-6.11), poor mental health (RR = 4.69; 95% CI, 3.19-6.87), and doctor-diagnosed depression (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.82-2.56) compared to persons without disabilities. The definition of disability derived from the BRFSS survey does not allow for those with disabilities to be categorized according to physical disabilities versus mental or emotional disabilities. In addition, we were unable to determine the timing of ACE exposure in relation to disability onset. A better understanding of the life course associations between ACEs and disability and the impact of exposure to multiple types of childhood adversity on disability and health is needed to inform research and services specific to this vulnerable population. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  10. Relation between childhood experiences and adults' self-esteem: A sample from Baghdad.

    PubMed

    AlShawi, Ameel F; Lafta, Riyadh K

    2014-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with significant functional impairments and loss of life in adolescence and adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into psychological disorders later in life. The family is one of the most critical risks and resilient factors for mental health in adolescence and emerging adulthood. To estimate the effect of childhood experiences on self-esteem during adulthood in a sample from Baghdad city. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Baghdad city during the period from January 2013 through to January 2014. Multistage sampling techniques were used to choose 13 primary healthcare centers and eight colleges from three universities in Baghdad. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) form. A total of 1040 subjects were surveyed and 1000 responded giving a response rate of 96.2%. The results revealed that 82.7% of the participants were confident within themselves, 14.9% (149) reported to feel a failure, while 28.3% of subjects expressed feeling useless at times. The score for family bonding is expected to significantly increase the score for self-esteem by a mean of 21.48. University, diploma and higher education are expected to significantly decrease the self-esteem score by a mean of - 6.31 compared to those with less than secondary school education. Parents education show statistically insignificant association with the mean score for self-esteem. The findings of this study give an insight into the essential role of childhood experiences in building self-esteem and adaptation later in their life. National health programs are suggested for intervention targeting early adverse childhood experiences and their consequences.

  11. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES, FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Alvira-Hammond, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACE on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Study Design Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Methods Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents ages 12 through 17. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Results Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Conclusions Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. PMID:26718424

  12. Chronic School Absenteeism and the Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    PubMed

    Stempel, Hilary; Cox-Martin, Matthew; Bronsert, Michael; Dickinson, L Miriam; Allison, Mandy A

    To examine the association between chronic school absenteeism and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among school-age children. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health including children 6 to 17 years old. The primary outcome variable was chronic school absenteeism (≥15 days absent in the past year). We examined the association between chronic school absenteeism and ACEs by logistic regression with weighting for individual ACEs, summed ACE score, and latent class analysis of ACEs. Among the 58,765 school-age children in the study sample, 2416 (4.1%) experienced chronic school absenteeism. Witnessing or experiencing neighborhood violence was the only individual ACE significantly associated with chronic absenteeism (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-2.01). Having 1 or more ACE was significantly associated with chronic absenteeism: 1 ACE (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79), 2 to 3 ACEs (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.39-2.36), and ≥4 ACEs (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.32-2.43). Three of the latent classes were also associated with chronic absenteeism, and children in these classes had a high probability of endorsing neighborhood violence, family substance use, or having multiple ACEs. ACE exposure was associated with chronic school absenteeism in school-age children. To improve school attendance, along with future graduation rates and long-term health, these findings highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach to address child adversity that involves pediatricians, mental health providers, schools, and public health partners. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-30

    Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of adverse childhood experiences as determinants of non-suicidal self-injury among children and adolescents referred to community and inpatient mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Stewart, Shannon L; Fallon, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of, and determine the effect of adverse childhood experiences on non-suicidal self-injury among children and adolescents referred to community and inpatient mental health settings. Data for this study were obtained from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health dataset. A total of 2038 children and adolescents aged 8-18 years (M=12.49; SD=2.88, 61.1% males) were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify predictors of non-suicidal self-injury as a function of adverse childhood experiences, depression, and social support while simultaneously controlling for age, gender, type of patient, legal guardianship, marital status of parents/caregivers, history of foster family placement, and mental health diagnoses. Of the 2038 children and adolescents examined, 592 (29%) of this clinical sample engaged in non-suicidal self-injury. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children and adolescents who were physically abused had 49% higher odds of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury and children and adolescents who were sexually abused had 60% higher odds of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury, when compared to their non-abused counterparts. Other predictors of non-suicidal self-injury include: older age, female gender, inpatient status, depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior disorder, and mood disorders. Children and adolescents who had some form of social support had a 26% decrease in the odds of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury. Assessment procedures for indicators of mental health, particularly among children and adolescents with a history of adverse childhood experiences, should also take into account non-suicidal self-injury. In addition to bolstering social support networks, addressing depression and related emotion regulation skills in childhood may help prevent future non-suicidal self-injury behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health in Adulthood in a Rural Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Iniguez, Kristen C.; Stankowski, Rachel V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including emotional abuse, substance abuse in the household, separation or divorce, physical abuse, violence between adults, mental illness in the household, sexual abuse, or incarceration of a household member, have the potential to profoundly impact health and well-being in adulthood. To assess whether previously reported relationships between ACEs and health outcomes withstand validation, we conducted a community-based ACE study with the unique capacity to link self-reported ACEs and other survey results to validated health data in an electronic medical record (EMR). Methods Information regarding ACEs and health outcomes was captured from 2013–2014 via a telephone survey of residents of the predominantly rural northern and central regions of Wisconsin and electronic abstraction of EMR data. ACE score was calculated by counting each exposure as one point. We examined the relationship between ACE score, type, and self-reported and validated health outcomes. Results A total of 800 participants completed the telephone survey. Overall, 62% reported at least one ACE and 15% reported experiencing four or more. All self-reported measures of poor health were associated with increased ACE score. EMR data were positively correlated with ACE score for increased body mass index and diagnoses of depression, anxiety, and asthma. In contrast, diagnoses of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, and skin and other cancers were inversely related to ACE score. Emotional abuse was the most common ACE reported followed by substance abuse in the household. ACEs tended to cluster so that people who reported at least one ACE were likely to have experienced multiple ACEs. There was no clear correlation between abuse type (e.g., direct abuse vs. household dysfunction) and health outcomes. Conclusions In the first community-based study to link self-reported ACEs to comprehensive health measures documented in the medical

  16. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  17. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A.; Cohen, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p < 0.001) and parental violence (β = −0.0002; p = 0.012). Among men, IPV perpetration fully mediated sexual abuse (β = −0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. PMID:27688144

  18. Childhood adversities and risk for problematic alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Małgorzata; Hardt, Jochen

    2016-08-01

    The findings from studies exploring the relationship between childhood adversities (CAs) and adolescent and adult drinking problems are inconclusive - some researchers have found strong effects, others virtually none. In this study, we sought to examine the associations between 23 types of retrospectively reported CAs and adult problematic alcohol use in two samples, one drawn from Germany, the other from Poland. A total sample of 1008 participants was recruited via the internet: 500 in Germany and 508 in Poland. They completed a set of questionnaires including questions regarding various types of CA, and also the CAGE tool for the identification of problem drinking. CAs were grouped into four categories: Negative Personal Experience, Family Adversities, Parental Disorders, Parent-Child Relationships; this last category included role reversal. Separate logistic regression analyses were performed, with age, gender and country as potential confounders. The probability of having an alcohol problem was higher in men, and higher in Poland than in Germany. Of the risk factors tested, three displayed a significant association with problematic alcohol use. The risk factors concerned were Regular Arguments Between the Parents, plus two types of adversities from the Parent-Child Relationships cluster: Maternal Control and Maternal Role Reversal. The results serve to underline the importance of examining links between childhood risk factors and problematic alcohol use, and also suggest that certain less visible symptoms of a disordered parent-child (particularly mother-child) relationship, such as parentification, may constitute important risk factors for the development of drinking problems in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental perspectives of screening for adverse childhood experiences in pediatric primary care.

    PubMed

    Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Moira A; Jee, Sandra H; Manly, Jody T; Briggs, Rahil; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    Pediatricians recognize a need to mitigate the negative impact that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have on health and development. However, ACEs screening and interventions in primary care pediatrics may be inhibited by concerns about parental perceptions. We assessed parent perspectives of screening for ACEs in the pediatric primary care setting, to understand their views on the potential impact of their ACEs on their parenting and to identify opportunities for pediatric anticipatory guidance. We used purposive sampling to recruit parents of children <6 years receiving care at an urban, pediatric clinic. Semistructured questions guided 1:1 interviews that were later coded by multiple researchers to verify reliability. A thematic framework approach guided analysis and identified main themes and subthemes. We reached thematic saturation after 15 parent interviews, which consistently revealed 3 interrelated themes. First, parents strongly supported ACEs screening as a bridge to needed services, and they recommended using a trauma-sensitive, person-centered approach in pediatric practices. Second, parents understood the intergenerational impact of ACEs and expressed a desire to break the cycle of adversity. Finally, parents saw their child's pediatrician as a potential change-agent who could provide support to meet their parenting goals. Parents want to discuss their ACEs and receive help and guidance from pediatricians. Furthermore, they perceive their child's pediatrician as having an important role to play in meeting their parenting goals. It is important to ensure that pediatricians have the training, skills and familiarity with available resources to meet parental expectations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, Bruno M; Santana, Geilson L; Viana, Maria C; Andrade, Laura H; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2018-06-11

    Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment - encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence - was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

  2. Walking Children Through a Minefield: How Professionals Experience Exploring Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Albaek, Ane U.; Kinn, Liv G.; Milde, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the challenges of professionals in addressing child adversity is key to improving the detection, protection, and care of exposed children. We aimed to synthesize findings from qualitative studies of professionals’ lived experience of addressing child adversity. Through a systematic search, we identified eight qualitative studies and synthesized them using metaethnography. We generated three themes, “feeling inadequate,” “fear of making it worse,” and “facing evil,” and one overarching metaphor, “walking children through a minefield.” The professionals felt that they lacked the means necessary to explore child adversity, that they were apprehensive of worsening the child’s situation, and that their work with child adversity induced emotional discomfort. This metasynthesis indicated that the professionals’ efficiency in exploring abuse relied upon their ability to manage emotional and moral distress and complexity. To support children at risk, we propose developing professionals’ ability to build relationships, skills in emotion regulation, and proficiency in reflective practice. PMID:29046119

  3. Suicidality in male prisoners: influence of childhood adversity mediated by dimensions of personality.

    PubMed

    Godet-Mardirossian, Hélène; Jehel, Louis; Falissard, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to study the influence of childhood adversity on suicidal behavior in male prisoners. Including a random sample of 899 male prisoners (French National Mental Health Prison Survey, 2003), this paper studied suicidal ideations and suicide attempts using MINI criteria, and personality using Temperament and Character Inventory. Risk factors of suicidality were examined, and structural equations studied the influence of childhood trauma on suicidality, mediated by personality dimensions. The prisoners reported high levels of childhood adversity. More than a third reported recent suicidal ideations. Childhood adversity and dimensions of personality were associated with suicidality. Structural equations showed that childhood adversity was positively associated with suicidality, mediated by poor dimensions of character (affective stability, self-cooperativeness, and self-transcendence). In conclusion, these results confirm the importance of screening and treatment of childhood trauma among male prisoners. They suggest the importance to study dimensions of personality and tailor treatment to specific needs. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  5. Childhood adversity, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype, and risk for cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in alcohol dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Mingione, Carolyn J; Heffner, Jaimee L; Blom, Thomas J; Anthenelli, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in adults with alcohol dependence (AD) are associated with adverse childhood experiences. Gender, social support, and an allelic variant in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) were examined as moderators of this relationship. The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism - Version II (SSAGA-II) was used to assess DSM-IV diagnoses and cigarette smoking characteristics as well as traumatic life events and social support during childhood in 256 AD men (n=149) and women (n=107). An increase in number of adverse childhood events was associated with heightened risk of cigarette use and nicotine dependence. 5-HTTLPR genotype, gender, and social support did not significantly moderate the relationships among childhood adversity and ever-smoking or nicotine dependence. Results extend previous findings to suggest that childhood adversity is strongly related to risk for ever-smoking and nicotine dependence in AD individuals. Additional research is needed to examine other potential genetic and environmental moderators and mediators of the relationships among smoking, alcohol use, and childhood trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood Adversity, Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Genotype, and Risk for Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Alcohol Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mingione, Carolyn J.; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Blom, Thomas J.; Anthenelli, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the extent to which cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in adults with alcohol dependence (AD) are associated with adverse childhood experiences. Gender, social support, and an allelic variant in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) were examined as moderators of this relationship. Methods The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism- Version II (SSAGA-II) was used to assess DSM-IV diagnoses and cigarette smoking characteristics as well as traumatic life events and social support during childhood in 256 AD men (n=149) and women (n=107). Results An increase in number of adverse childhood events was associated with heightened risk of cigarette use and nicotine dependence. 5-HTTLPR genotype, gender, and social support did not significantly moderate the relationships among childhood adversity and ever-smoking or nicotine dependence. Conclusions Results extend previous findings to suggest that childhood adversity is strongly related to risk for ever-smoking and nicotine dependence in AD individuals. Additional research is needed to examine other potential genetic and environmental moderators and mediators of the relationships among smoking, alcohol use, and childhood trauma. PMID:22172222

  7. Childhood adversity and personality disorders: results from a nationally representative population-based study.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; Mather, Amber; Boman, Jonathon; Fleisher, William; Enns, Murray W; Macmillan, Harriet; Sareen, Jitender

    2011-06-01

    Although, a large population-based literature exists on the relationship between childhood adversity and Axis I mental disorders, research on the link between childhood adversity and Axis II personality disorders (PDs) relies mainly on clinical samples. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between a range of childhood adversities and PDs in a nationally representative sample while adjusting for Axis I mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653; data collection 2004-2005); a nationally representative sample of the United States population aged 20 years and older. The results indicated that many types of childhood adversity were highly prevalent among individuals with PDs in the general population and childhood adversity was most consistently associated with schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs. The most robust childhood adversity findings were for child abuse and neglect with cluster A and cluster B PDs after adjusting for all other types of childhood adversity, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, other PD clusters, and sociodemographic variables (Odd Ratios ranging from 1.22 to 1.63). In these models, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders also remained significantly associated with PD clusters (Odds Ratios ranging from 1.26 to 2.38). Further research is necessary to understand whether such exposure has a causal role in the association with PDs. In addition to preventing child maltreatment, it is important to determine ways to prevent impairment among those exposed to adversity, as this may reduce the development of PDs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  9. Maternal Childhood Adversity, Prepregnancy Obesity, and Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Ranchod, Yamini K; Headen, Irene E; Petito, Lucia C; Deardorff, Julianna K; Rehkopf, David H; Abrams, Barbara F

    2016-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests that exposure to childhood adversity may influence obesity across the life course. High maternal weight complicates pregnancy and increases the risk of child obesity. This study examined the association between maternal childhood adversity and pregnancy-related weight in a large U.S. Data on 6,199 pregnancies from 2,873 women followed from 1979 to 2012 by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 were analyzed in 2014. Associations between three adversity exposures before age 18 years (history of physical abuse, alcohol problems, or mental illness in the household) and two maternal weight outcomes (prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain) were modeled separately using survey-adjusted log-binomial models. After adjusting for race/ethnicity and early-life socioeconomic factors, childhood physical abuse was associated with a 60% increase in the risk of prepregnancy obesity (adjusted risk ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.1, 2.2). Household alcohol abuse was associated with a 30% increase in prepregnancy obesity (adjusted risk ratio=1.3, 95% CI=1.0, 1.7), as was household mental illness (adjusted risk ratio=1.3, 95% CI=0.8, 1.9), but the mental illness exposure was not significant. Physical abuse and household alcohol abuse were associated with a significant 20% increase in the risk of excessive gestational weight gain; mental illness was not. Adversity in early life may affect maternal weight before and during pregnancy. Screening and treating women of reproductive age for childhood adversity and its negative effects could significantly reduce obesity-related health outcomes for women and their children. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences, family functioning and adolescent health and emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Balistreri, K S; Alvira-Hammond, M

    2016-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACEs on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children's Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental psychoneuroendocrine and psychoneuroimmune pathways from childhood adversity to disease.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Chiang, Jessica J; Horn, Sarah; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-09-01

    Childhood adversity has been repeatedly and robustly linked to physical and mental illness across the lifespan. Yet, the biological pathways through which this occurs remain unclear. Functioning of the inflammatory arm of the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis are both hypothesized pathways through which childhood adversity leads to disease. This review provides a novel developmental framework for examining the role of adversity type and timing in inflammatory and HPA-axis functioning. In particular, we identify elements of childhood adversity that are salient to the developing organism: physical threat, disrupted caregiving, and unpredictable environmental conditions. We propose that existing, well-characterized animal models may be useful in differentiating the effects of these adversity elements and review both the animal and human literature that supports these ideas. To support these hypotheses, we also provide a detailed description of the development and structure of both the HPA-axis and the inflammatory arm of the immune system, as well as recent methodological advances in their measurement. Recommendations for future basic, developmental, translational, and clinical research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood memories of threatening experiences and submissiveness and its relationship to hallucination proneness and ideas of reference: The mediating role of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Senín-Calderón, Cristina; López-Jiménez, Ana María; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan Francisco

    2018-05-29

    Recent studies have emphasized the importance of childhood memories of threatening experiences and submissiveness in a diversity of psychological disorders. The purpose of this work was to study their specific relationship with hallucination proneness and ideas of reference in healthy subjects. The ELES scale for measuring memory of adverse childhood experiences, the DES-II scale for measuring dissociation, the LSHS-R scale for measuring hallucination proneness, and the REF for ideas of reference were applied to a sample of 472 subjects. A positive association was found between childhood memories of adverse experiences and hallucination proneness and ideas of reference, on one hand, and dissociation on the other. A mediation analysis showed that dissociation was a mediator between the memory of adverse childhood experiences and hallucination proneness on one hand, and ideas of reference on the other. When the role of mediator of the types of dissociative experiences was studied, it was found that absorption and depersonalization mediated between adverse experiences and hallucination proneness. However, this mediating effect was not found between adverse experiences and ideas of reference. The relationship between these last two variables was direct. The results suggest that childhood memories of adverse experiences are a relevant factor in understanding hallucination proneness and ideas of reference. Similarly, dissociation is a specific mediator between adverse childhood experiences and hallucination proneness. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and health-related quality of life in adulthood: revelations from a community needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Salemi, Jason L; King, Lindsey M; Baldwin, Julie A; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Austin, Deborah A; Scarborough, Kenneth; Spooner, Kiara K; Zoorob, Roger J; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2015-08-11

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been previously linked to quality of life, health conditions, and life expectancy in adulthood. Less is known about the potential mechanisms which mediate these associations. This study examined how ACE influences adult health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a low-income community in Florida. A community-based participatory needs assessment was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 with 201 residents of Tampa, Florida, USA. HRQoL was measured by an excessive number of unhealthy days experienced during the previous 30-day window. Mediation analyses for dichotomous outcomes were conducted with logistic regression. Bootstrapped confidence intervals were generated for both total and specific indirect effects. Most participants reported 'good to excellent health' (76%) and about a fourth reported 'fair to poor health' (24%). The mean of total unhealthy days was 9 days per month (SD ± 10.5). Controlling for demographic and neighborhood covariates, excessive unhealthy days was associated with ACE (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.43), perceived stress (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.10), and sleep disturbance (AOR = 8.86; 3.61, 21.77). Mediated effects were significant for stress (β = 0.08) and sleep disturbances (β = 0.11) as they related to the relationship between ACE and excessive unhealthy days. ACE is linked to adult HRQoL. Stress and sleep disturbances may represent later consequences of childhood adversity that modulate adult quality of life.

  14. Retraumatization Mediates the Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Clinical Training-Related Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lisa D; Maguin, Eugene; Carello, Janice

    2018-01-01

    Previous research (Butler, Carello, & Maguin, 2016) has found that exposure to trauma-related material in graduate clinical coursework and field training can put students at risk for reactivations of feelings/memories from negative past experiences (retraumatization) and for secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. The present report sought to examine the role, if any, of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in these outcomes. Using the Butler et al. (2016) sample, we examined: (1) rates of ACEs in 195 graduate social work students, (2) whether the total number of ACEs was associated with training-related retraumatization (TRT) and/or STS symptoms, and (3) if TRT mediated the relationship between ACEs and STS symptoms. The results indicate that more than three quarters of the sample had experienced one or more ACEs before age 18 and almost one third endorsed 4 or more. The most commonly reported ACEs were household mental illness, parental separation/divorce, household alcohol/substance abuse, and emotional abuse or neglect by a parent or household member. Higher ACE scores were associated with increased likelihood of TRT experiences and STS symptoms during training. A mediation analysis confirmed that TRT mediated the effect of ACE scores on STS symptoms; this finding also provides support for the role of proximal emotional reactions in mediating the effects of distal adverse experiences on the development of trauma symptoms. In summary, despite the evident resilience of this graduate student sample, those with ACE histories were at heightened risk for training-related distress. These results underscore the need for a trauma-informed approach to clinical training.

  15. Childhood adversities predict strongly the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood: a population-based cohort study of 24,284 Finns.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences has been shown to be associated with negative health outcomes including mental health problems, but only a few studies with register-based data have used psychotropic drugs as an outcome variable. The purpose of this study is to examine whether adverse emotional childhood experiences, such as serious conflicts in the family and frequent fear of a family member, predict the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood. In addition, the association of a child-parent relationship during childhood with the use of psychotropic drugs is studied. The participants of the population-based Health and Social Support Study (24,284 working aged Finns) were followed up for 9 years. The information on childhood experiences and child-parent relationships was obtained from the questionnaires in 1998 and 2003. The number of psychotropic purchases (antipsychotics, drugs for bipolar disorder, antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives) was obtained from the National-Drug-Prescription-Register. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used. A graded association between childhood adversities and the use of psychotropic drugs was found, even after adjustments for occupational training, work status, recent life events and health behaviour. Frequent fear of a family member showed the strongest association: the OR for multiple use of antidepressants was 3.08 (95% CI 2.72 to 3.49) and 2.69 (2.27 to 3.20) for multiple use of anxiolytics. Use of psychotropic drugs was clearly increased among those with poor child-parent relationship and multiple childhood adversities. The results highlight the effect of environmental factors during childhood on mental health and the need for early recognition of families at risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; <2.5% refusal). Random selection of census enumeration areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p < 0.001) and parental violence (β = -0.0002; p = 0.012). Among men, IPV perpetration fully mediated sexual abuse (β = -0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  18. A New Framework for Addressing Adverse Childhood and Community Experiences: The Building Community Resilience Model.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy R; Dietz, William H

    We propose a transformative approach to foster collaboration across child health, public health, and community-based agencies to address the root causes of toxic stress and childhood adversity and to build community resilience. Physicians, members of social service agencies, and experts in toxic stress and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) were interviewed to inform development of the Building Community Resilience (BCR) model. Through a series of key informant interviews and focus groups, we sought to understand the role of BCR for child health systems and their partners to reduce toxic stress and build community resilience to improve child health outcomes. Key informants indicated the intentional approach to ACEs and toxic stress through continuous quality improvement (data-driven decisions and program development, partners testing and adapting to changes to their needs, and iterative development and testing) which provides a mechanism by which social determinants or a population health approach could be introduced to physicians and community partners as part of a larger effort to build community resilience. Structured interviews also reveal a need for a framework that provides guidance, structure, and support for child health systems and community partners to develop collective goals, shared work plans, and a means for data-sharing to reinforce the components that will contribute to community resilience. Key informant interviews and focus group dialogues revealed a deep understanding of the factors related to toxic stress and ACEs. Respondents endorsed the BCR approach as a means to explore capacity issues, reduce fragmented health care delivery, and facilitate integrated systems across partners in efforts to build community resilience. Current financing models are seen as a potential barrier, because they often do not support restructured roles, partnership development, and the work to sustain upstream efforts to address toxic stress and community resilience

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences Related to Poor Adult Health Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Harry; Proescholdbell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association of sexual orientation with poor adult health outcomes before and after adjustment for exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods. Data were from the 2012 North Carolina, 2011 Washington, and 2011 and 2012 Wisconsin Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys regarding health risks, perceived poor health, and chronic conditions by sexual orientation and 8 categories of ACEs. There were 711 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 29 690 heterosexual respondents. Results. LGB individuals had a higher prevalence of all ACEs than heterosexuals, with odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.1. After adjustment for cumulative exposure to ACEs, sexual orientation was no longer associated with poor physical health, current smoking, and binge drinking. Associations with poor mental health, activity limitation, HIV risk behaviors, current asthma, depression, and disability remained, but were attenuated. Conclusions. The higher prevalence of ACEs among LGB individuals may account for some of their excess risk for poor adult health outcomes. PMID:26691127

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and School-Based Victimization and Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Forster, Myriam; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey ( n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction ( ps < .001) and perpetration: bullying and bringing a weapon to campus ( ps < .001), with boys especially vulnerable to the negative effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse experiences in infancy and toddlerhood: Relations to adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Edge, Nicola Conners; Mesman, Glenn R; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H

    2018-06-13

    Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on long-term well-being. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs experienced in infancy and toddlerhood and adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood. We used data collected from a sample of low-income families during the impacts study of Early Head Start (EHS). Data were collected by trained interviewers demonstrating at least 85% reliability with protocols. Data come from 1469 socio-demographically diverse mothers and children collected at or near ages 1, 2, 3, and 11. At ages 1, 2, and 3, an EHS-ACEs index was created based on interview and observation items. The EHS-ACEs indices were averaged to represent exposure across infancy and toddlerhood. At age 11, parents were asked about school outcomes and completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Across development, children were exposed to zero (19%), one (31%), two (27%), and three or more ACEs (23%). Logistic regression analyses, controlling for EHS program assignment, and parent, school, and child characteristics, showed ACEs were significantly associated with parental report of the child: having an individualized educational program since starting school and in the current school year, having been retained a grade in school, and problems with externalizing and internalizing behavior, as well as attention. Findings suggest that ACEs influence children's behavioral and academic outcomes early in development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective- and Cross-sectional Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41 803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35 546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34–3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90–3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12–4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17–3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%–47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  4. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  5. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  6. Childhood adversity and the continued exposure to trauma and violence among adolescent gang members

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Katherine; Pacella, Maria L.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Nydegger, Liesl A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines experiences of childhood adversity, trauma, and violence among adolescent gang members prior to and during adolescent gang involvement to better understand the effects of violence and trauma on gang members. We conducted 58 qualitative semi-structured interviews with members of six adolescent gangs. Data was analyzed using thematic content analysis and the constant comparative method in MAXQDA. Findings revealed that frequent and ongoing exposure to neighborhood violence and personal and familial trauma led many youth to normalize experiences of violence. Furthermore, although they believed gangs would offer protection and social support, gang membership led to additional exposure to violence and trauma and bleak future expectations. Interventions for adolescent gang members should address the complex childhoods and cumulative traumatic experiences of these adolescents. PMID:28262961

  7. Childhood psychosocial adversity and female reproductive timing: a cohort study of the ALSPAC mothers

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Maria C; Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Joinson, Carol J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Fraser, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. Methods We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used confirmatory factor analysis to characterise lack of care, maladaptive family functioning, non-sexual abuse, overprotective parenting, parental mental illness and sexual abuse. These specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity were combined into a total psychosocial adversity score using a second-order factor analysis. We used structural equation models to simultaneously conduct the factor analysis and estimate the association with the continuous outcomes of interest. Results Total childhood psychosocial adversity was not associated with age at menarche, age at menopause or length of reproductive lifespan. When we examined the separate psychosocial adversity constructs, sexual abuse was inversely associated with age at menarche, with a mean difference of −0.17 (95% CI −0.23 to −0.12) years per SD higher factor score, and with age at menopause, with a mean difference of −0.17 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.18) per SD higher factor score. Conclusion Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower age at menarche and menopause, but the latter needs to be confirmed in larger samples. PMID:29122994

  8. The Disease Burden of Childhood Adversities in Adults: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Unger, Froukje; Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is much evidence showing that childhood adversities have considerable effects on the mental and physical health of adults. It could be assumed therefore, that the disease burden of childhood adversities is high. It has not yet been examined, however, whether this is true. Method: We used data of a large representative sample (N =…

  9. Adverse childhood exposures and reported child health at age 12.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Thompson, Richard; Litrownik, Alan J; Zolotor, Adam J; Dubowitz, Howard; Runyan, Desmond K; English, Diana J; Everson, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between adverse childhood exposures and poor health, illness, and somatic complaints at age 12 was examined. LONGSCAN (Consortium for Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect) tracks a group of children with variable risk for maltreatment. Of the participating child-caregiver dyads, 805 completed an interview when the child was age 4 or age 6, as well as interviews at age 8 and 12. The relationships between 8 categories of childhood adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, child neglect, caregiver's substance/alcohol use, caregiver's depressive symptoms, caregiver's being treated violently, and criminal behavior in the household) and child health at age 12 were analyzed. The impact of adversity in the first 6 years of life and adversity in the second 6 years of life on child health were compared. Only 10% of the children had experienced no adversity, while more than 20% had experienced 5 or more types of childhood adversity. At age 12, 37% of the children sampled had some health complaint. Exposure to 5 or more adversities, particularly exposure in the second 6 years of life, was significantly associated with increased risks of any health complaint (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-4.96), an illness requiring a doctor (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.02-15.1), and caregivers' reports of child's somatic complaints (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.0). There was no association between adverse exposures and self-rated poor health or self-rated somatic complaints. A comprehensive assessment of children's health should include a careful history of their past exposure to adverse conditions and maltreatment. Interventions aimed at reducing these exposures may result in better child health.

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Young Adult Health Outcomes among Youth Aging Out of Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Rebbe, Rebecca; Nurius, Paula S; Courtney, Mark E; Ahrens, Kym R

    2018-04-27

    Former youth in foster care (YFC) are at greater risk of chronic health conditions than their peers. Although research in general population samples has demonstrated a dose-response relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health outcomes, few studies have conducted similar analyses in highly stress-exposed populations such as YFC. This paper uses person-centered latent class analysis (LCA) methods to examine the relationship between different profiles of ACE exposures and divergent health trajectories amongst this high-risk population. Data are from longitudinal research that followed transition-age YFC from age 17-26 (N =732). Using three subgroups previously identified by their ACEs histories, Complex, Environmental, and Lower Adversity groups, we applied group mean statistics to test for differences between the groups for physical and sexual health outcomes in young adulthood. In contrast to prior research demonstrating that the Environmental group was at the highest risk of criminal behavior outcomes, for most of the physical and sexual health risk outcomes evaluated in this paper, the Complex Adversity group had the highest risk. This study demonstrates that there are subgroups of YFC which each have a distinct profile of risk in young adulthood, with the Complex group being at highest risk of the physical and sexual health risk outcomes evaluated. Findings strongly suggest the need for targeted strategies to promote screening for ACEs and chronic health conditions, linkage to adult healthcare, and continuity of care for adolescents and young adults in foster care to offset these trajectories. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Association of adverse childhood experiences with shaking and smothering behaviors among Japanese caregivers.

    PubMed

    Isumi, Aya; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Shaking and smothering in response to infant crying are life-threatening child abuse. Parental childhood abuse history is known to be one of the most robust risk factors for abusing their offspring. In addition to childhood abuse history, other adverse childhood exposures (ACEs) need to be considered due to co-occurrence. However, few studies have investigated the impact of ACEs on caregivers shaking and smothering their infant. This study aims to investigate the association of ACEs with shaking and smothering among caregivers of infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers participating in a four-month health checkup between September 2013 and August 2014 in Chiba City, Japan, to assess their ACEs (parental death, parental divorce, mentally ill parents, witness of intimate partner violence, physical abuse, neglect, psychological abuse and economic hardship), and shaking and smothering toward their infants (N=4297). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the cumulative and individual impacts of ACEs on shaking and smothering. Analyses were conducted in 2015. A total of 28.3% reported having experienced at least one ACE during their childhood. We found that only witness of IPV had a significant association with shaking of infant (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.03-3.61). The total number of ACEs was not associated with either shaking or smothering. Our findings suggest that shaking and smothering in response to crying can occur regardless of ACEs. Population-based strategies that target all caregivers to prevent shaking and smothering of infants are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of adversity in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in mid-adulthood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma L; Fraser, Abigail; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2018-02-01

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess associations of various types of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. At study enrolment, women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=3612) retrospectively reported: lack of maternal care, maternal overprotection, parental mental illness, household dysfunction, sexual abuse, physical and emotional abuse, and neglect in childhood. Approximately 23 years later, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial distensibility were assessed (mean age 51 years). We examined associations of each specific type of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity with CVD risk factors. No specific type of psychosocial adversity was consistently associated with the CVD risk factors. There was evidence that a one standard deviation greater cumulative psychosocial adversity was associated with 0.51cm greater waist circumference (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02cm, 1.00cm, p=0.04) and a lower arterial distensibility, even after adjustment for age, ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic position. We found no consistent evidence that any specific type of psychosocial adversity, or cumulative psychosocial adversity in childhood, is associated with CVD risk factors in adult women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences among Veterinary Medical Students: A Multi-Site Study.

    PubMed

    Strand, Elizabeth B; Brandt, Jennifer; Rogers, Kenita; Fonken, Laurie; Chun, Ruthanne; Conlon, Peter; Lord, Linda

    This research explores Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among veterinary medical students across six academic institutions of veterinary medicine, and their relationship with depression, stress, and desire to become a veterinarian. Between April 1, 2016, and May 23, 2016, 1,118 veterinary medical students in all 4 years of the curriculum (39% response rate) completed an anonymous web-based questionnaire about ACEs, depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD), stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the age at which they wanted to become a veterinarian. Sixty-one percent (677) of respondents reported having at least one ACE. The most prevalent ACE reported was living with a household member with a mental illness (31%). Students who had experienced four or more ACEs had an approximately threefold increase in signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress when compared to students who had experienced no ACEs. The number of ACEs showed an overall graded relationship to signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress. There was no statistically significant relationship between age at which a student wanted to become a veterinarian and exposure to ACEs. Veterinary students report being exposed to ACEs before age 18 at a rate similar to that of other population-based studies. These findings do not suggest that veterinary students enter the veterinary medical education system more at risk for poor mental health due to ACEs than the general population.

  14. The impact of childhood adversity on the persistence of psychotic symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trotta, A; Murray, R M; Fisher, H L

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that childhood adversity is associated with the development of psychotic experiences (PE), psychotic symptoms and disorders. However, less is known regarding the impact of early adversity on the persistence of PE and clinically relevant psychosis. Thus we conducted a systematic review of the association between childhood adversity and the course of PE and symptoms over time. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases was undertaken to identify articles published between January 1956 and November 2014. We included studies conducted on general population samples, individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis, and patients with full-blown psychotic disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on a subgroup. A total of 20 studies were included. Of these, 17 reported positive associations between exposure to overall or specific subtypes of childhood adversity and persistence of PE or clinically relevant psychotic symptoms. A meta-analysis of nine studies yielded a weighted odds ratio of 1.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.32, p < 0.001] for general population studies and 1.55 (95% CI 0.32-2.77, p = 0.007) for studies conducted using clinical populations. The available evidence is limited but tentatively suggests that reported exposure to adverse events in childhood is associated with persistence of PE and clinically relevant psychotic symptoms. This partially strengthens the case for addressing the consequences of early adversity in individuals presenting with psychotic phenomena to improve long-term outcomes. However, the heterogeneity of studies was high which urges caution in interpreting the results and highlights the need for more methodologically robust studies.

  15. Adulthood Stressors, History of Childhood Adversity, and Risk of Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Conron, Kerith J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. Purpose This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. Methods The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004–2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8% increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3% increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3% increased risk compared with a 2.5% increased risk in the low-level adversity group. Conclusions Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration. PMID:21238860

  16. Childhood psychosocial adversity and female reproductive timing: a cohort study of the ALSPAC mothers.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Joinson, Carol J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Fraser, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used confirmatory factor analysis to characterise lack of care, maladaptive family functioning, non-sexual abuse, overprotective parenting, parental mental illness and sexual abuse. These specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity were combined into a total psychosocial adversity score using a second-order factor analysis. We used structural equation models to simultaneously conduct the factor analysis and estimate the association with the continuous outcomes of interest. Total childhood psychosocial adversity was not associated with age at menarche, age at menopause or length of reproductive lifespan. When we examined the separate psychosocial adversity constructs, sexual abuse was inversely associated with age at menarche, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.12) years per SD higher factor score, and with age at menopause, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.18) per SD higher factor score. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower age at menarche and menopause, but the latter needs to be confirmed in larger samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. An analysis of retrospective and repeat prospective reports of adverse childhood experiences from the South African Birth to Twenty Plus cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A.; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Richter, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies rely on cross-sectional retrospective reports from adult samples to collect information about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to examine relationships with adult outcomes. The problems associated with these reports have long been debated, with only a few studies determining their reliability and validity and fewer still reaching consensus on the matter. This paper uses repeat prospective and retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences from two respondent sources in the South African Birth to Twenty Plus (Bt20+) cohort to explore agreement and concordance in the prospective reporting of ACEs by caregivers and respective children as adolescents and then as young adults. The findings demonstrate little overall agreement between prospective and retrospective accounts of childhood experiences, with 80% of kappa values below the moderate agreement cutoff (k = .41). The highest levels of agreement were found between prospective and retrospective reporting on parental and household death (kappas ranging from .519 to .944). Comparisons between prospective caregiver reports and retrospective young adult reports yielded high concordance rates on sexual and physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence (91.0%, 87.7% and 80.2%, respectively). The prevalence of reported ACEs varied with the age of the respondent, with adolescents reporting much higher rates of exposure to violence, physical and sexual abuse than are reported retrospectively or by caregivers. This variation may partly reflect actual changes in circumstances with maturation, but may be influenced by developmental stage and issues of memory, cognition and emotional state more than has been considered in previous analyses. More research, across disciplines, is needed to understand these processes and their effect on recall. Long-term prospective studies are critical for this purpose. In conclusion, methodological research that uses a range of information sources to establish

  18. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma. PMID:22788356

  19. Addressing Adverse Childhood Experiences Through the Affordable Care Act: Promising Advances and Missed Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Aditi; Fairbrother, Gerry; Simpson, Lisa A

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) occur when children are exposed to trauma and/or toxic stress and may have a lifelong effect. Studies have shown that ACEs are linked with poor adult health outcomes and could eventually raise already high health care costs. National policy interest in ACEs has recently increased, as many key players are engaged in community-, state-, and hospital-based efforts to reduce factors that contribute to childhood trauma and/or toxic stress in children. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided a promising foundation for advancing the prevention, diagnosis, and management of ACEs and their consequences. Although the ACA's future is unclear and it does not adequately address the needs of the pediatric population, many of the changes it spurred will continue regardless of legislative action (or inaction), and it therefore remains an important component of our health care system and national strategy to reduce ACEs. We review ways in which some of the current health care policy initiatives launched as part of the implementation of the ACA could accelerate progress in addressing ACEs by fully engaging and aligning various health care stakeholders while recognizing limitations in the law that may cause challenges in our attempts to improve child health and well-being. Specifically, we discuss coverage expansion, investments in the health workforce, a family-centered care approach, increased access to care, emphasis on preventive services, new population models, and improved provider payment models. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The disease burden of childhood adversities in adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Unger, Froukje; Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron

    2011-11-01

    There is much evidence showing that childhood adversities have considerable effects on the mental and physical health of adults. It could be assumed therefore, that the disease burden of childhood adversities is high. It has not yet been examined, however, whether this is true. We used data of a large representative sample (N=7,076) of the general population in the Netherlands. We calculated the disability weight (DW) for each respondent. The DW is a weight factor that reflects the severity of a disease or condition on a scale from 0 (perfect health) to 1 (equivalent to death). We used an algorithm based on the SF-6D to estimate DW. Because the DW indicates the proportion of a healthy life year that is reduced by the specific health state of the individual, it also possible to calculate the total number of years lost due to disability (YLD) in the population. We calculated the years lived with disability (YLD) for 9 different childhood adversities (in the areas of parental psychopathology; abuse and neglect; major life events), as well as for major categories of mental disorders and general medical disorders. All 9 adversities resulted in a significantly increased DW, except death of a parent before the age of 16. Adversities in the category of abuse and neglect are associated with the highest DWs (0.057), followed by parental psychopathology (0.031) and life events during childhood (0.012). All adversities (46.4% of the population reports one or more adversity) are associated with 20.7 YLD/1,000, which is more than all mental disorders together (12.9 YLD/1,000). The category of abuse/neglect has the highest YLD/1,000 (15.8), which is also higher than all mental disorders together. Adjustment for the presence of mental and general medical disorders resulted in comparable outcomes. Childhood adversities are more important from a public health point of view than all common mental disorders together, and should be a priority for public health interventions. Copyright

  1. Gender differences in adverse childhood experiences, collective violence, and the risk for addictive behaviors among university students in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Lemieux, Andrine; Bouanene, Ines; Ben Salah, Arwa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Ben Salem, Kamel; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to a variety of addictive behaviors. The recent adaptation of the ACE measure by the World Health Organization (WHO) allows for the assessment of the negative role of additional adverse experiences, such as extra-familial violence. To date, the relationship between extra-familial violence and addictive behaviors has not been assessed. We report the contribution of ACEs, including the new scales for extra-familial violence, on the risk for mental health problems and addictive behaviors by gender in a sample of young adults in Tunisia. We conducted a cross sectional study in Tunisia during 2014, where we recruited 1200 young university adults who completed the validated Arabic version of the WHO ACE questionnaire in a university setting. Results indicated that intra-familial adversities were associated with increased risk for addictive behaviors, particularly in males. ACEs were also associated with increased risk for mental health problems with women showing more difficulties than men. Exposure to peer, community and collective violence was higher in males than in females and logistic regression confirms that exposure to extra-familial violence increased the risk for addictive behaviors both in male and females by two to three-fold. Mental health problems were associated with peer violence and substance abuse in males, but not in females. Results demonstrate for the first time the contribution of exposure to extra-familial violence on risk for addictive behaviors. Results highlight the need for addressing mental health and addiction in a community with high burden of adversity and violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Family Medicine Setting: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Glowa, Patricia T; Olson, Ardis L; Johnson, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    The role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in predicting later adverse adult health outcomes is being widely recognized by makers of public policy. ACE questionnaires have the potential to identify in clinical practice unaddressed key social issues that can influence current health risks, morbidity, and early mortality. This study seeks to explore the feasibility of implementing the ACE screening of adults during routine family medicine office visits. At 3 rural clinical practices, the 10-question ACE screen was used before visits with 111 consecutive patients of 7 clinicians. Clinician surveys about the use of the results and the effect on the visits were completed immediately after the visits. The presence of any ACE risk and "high-risk" ACE scores (≥4) were compared with clinician survey responses. A risk of ACEs was present in 62% of patients; 22% had scores ≥4. Clinicians were more likely to have discussed ACE issues for high-risk patients (score 0-3, 36.8%; score ≥4, 83.3%; P =. 00). Clinicians also perceived that they gained new information (score 0-3, 35.6%; score ≥4, 83.3%; P = .00). Clinical care changed for a small proportion of high-risk patients, with no change in immediate referrals or plan for follow-up. In 91% of visits where a risk of ACEs was present, visit length increased by ≤5 minutes. Incorporation of ACE screening during routine care is feasible and merits further study. ACE screening offers clinicians a more complete picture of important social determinants of health. Primary care-specific interventions that incorporate treatment of early life trauma are needed. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Controlling Anxiety Mediates the Influence of Childhood Adversities on Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Chan, Claudia Kor-Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2017-10-01

    Relatively little research has assessed the exposure-response relationship of childhood adversities on engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Also, no previous research has examined the interrelationship among childhood adversities, adult anxiety and depressive symptoms, and risky sexual behaviors. This study aimed to investigate their interrelationships. We used data from a multisite survey of emerging adults aged 18 to 29 studying at four universities in Hong Kong between September and December 2015. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the pathways from childhood adversities to risky sexual behaviors. Participants who had higher childhood adversity scores reported more severe adult anxiety symptoms (β = 0.20, p = 0.002); and adult anxiety symptoms were associated with significantly more risky sexual behaviors (β = 0.46, p < 0.0001). The model with adult anxiety symptoms as the mediator between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors showed good fit (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.04, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.96, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.94 and standardized root mean square residual [SRMSR] = 0.04). However, adult depressive symptoms failed to mediate between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors. This study demonstrates the link between childhood adversities and risky sexual behaviors via adult anxiety but not adult depressive symptoms. It is essential to reduce anxious symptoms in dealing with emerging adults who have risky sexual behaviors to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy.

  4. Childhood Adversities and Educational Attainment in Young Adulthood: The Role of Mental Health Problems in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Almansa, Josue; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment in young adulthood can be explained by mental health problems in adolescence and whether associations and pathways differ for boys and girls. Data were used of 2,230 participants from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch prospective cohort study with a 9-year follow-up. Childhood adversities were measured at age 11 years, mental health problems (i.e., externalizing, internalizing and attention problems with Youth Self-Report) at age 16 years, and educational attainment at age 19 years. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data, overall and stratified by gender. Only among boys, childhood adversities were associated with low educational attainment in young adulthood. Externalizing problems in adolescence explained 5% of the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment. Furthermore, for both boys and girls, externalizing problems in adolescence had a direct effect on educational attainment in young adulthood. Among boys, childhood adversities are associated with poorer educational outcomes of young adults. A part of this association runs via adolescent externalizing problems. The results suggest that boys, compared with girls, are less capable to cope with childhood adversities. Monitoring of exposed boys to childhood adversities is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behaviour in the Northern Ireland population.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Ferry, Finola; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population's psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n = 1986). The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behaviour. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Well-Being of Women Who Were in Foster Care as Children

    PubMed Central

    Bruskas, Delilah; Tessin, Dale H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Research has shown that many children in foster care later have psychosocial problems as adults; this is often attributed to cumulative adversities and a lack of supportive caregivers. The risk factors associated with foster care, such as maternal separation and multiple placements, often counteract many protective factors that can ameliorate the effects of childhood adversities. This study assessed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychosocial well-being in women who were in foster care as children. Methods: A total of 101 women aged 18–71 years (mean, 36.83 [12.95] years) completed an anonymous online survey based on the 10-item ACE Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. Results: More than 56% of respondents were identified as experiencing current psychological distress. Sense of coherence scores (mean, 54.26 [15.35]) showed a significant inverse association with both General Health Questionnaire (mean, 14.83 [5.88]) and ACE (mean, 5.68 [2.90]) scores (r = −0.64 and −0.31, respectively) and 97% reported at least 1 ACE, 70% reported ≥ 5 and 33% reported ≥ 8. Linear regressions indicated that ACEs reported to occur before foster care were associated with lower levels of sense of coherence (8%) and higher levels of psychological distress (6%). Physical neglect and living in a dysfunctional household (parental loss, maternal abuse, or household member associated with substance abuse or prison) significantly decreased during foster care by 16 and 19 percentage points, respectively. Rates of emotional and physical abuse did not change. Conclusion: The number of ACEs was associated with the level of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that children entering the foster care system are already vulnerable and at risk of experiencing ACEs during foster care and psychological distress during adulthood. Measures implemented to protect children must

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and psychosocial well-being of women who were in foster care as children.

    PubMed

    Bruskas, Delilah; Tessin, Dale H

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that many children in foster care later have psychosocial problems as adults; this is often attributed to cumulative adversities and a lack of supportive caregivers. The risk factors associated with foster care, such as maternal separation and multiple placements, often counteract many protective factors that can ameliorate the effects of childhood adversities. This study assessed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychosocial well-being in women who were in foster care as children. A total of 101 women aged 18-71 years (mean, 36.83 [12.95] years) completed an anonymous online survey based on the 10-item ACE Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. More than 56% of respondents were identified as experiencing current psychological distress. Sense of coherence scores (mean, 54.26 [15.35]) showed a significant inverse association with both General Health Questionnaire (mean, 14.83 [5.88]) and ACE (mean, 5.68 [2.90]) scores (r = -0.64 and -0.31, respectively) and 97% reported at least 1 ACE, 70% reported ≥ 5 and 33% reported ≥ 8. Linear regressions indicated that ACEs reported to occur before foster care were associated with lower levels of sense of coherence (8%) and higher levels of psychological distress (6%). Physical neglect and living in a dysfunctional household (parental loss, maternal abuse, or household member associated with substance abuse or prison) significantly decreased during foster care by 16 and 19 percentage points, respectively. Rates of emotional and physical abuse did not change. The number of ACEs was associated with the level of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that children entering the foster care system are already vulnerable and at risk of experiencing ACEs during foster care and psychological distress during adulthood. Measures implemented to protect children must not cause more harm than good. Social services that preserve

  8. Offspring of a parent with genetic disease: childhood experiences and adult psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Lucienne; van Duijn, Erik; Wolterbeek, Ron; Tibben, Aad

    2014-12-01

    To investigate childhood experiences and psychological characteristics in offspring of a parent with genetic disease. Self-report scales were used to assess adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), adult attachment style, mental health, and psychological symptomatology in offspring of a parent with a neurogenetic disorder (i.e. Huntington's Disease, HD; Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy, CADASIL; and Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis-Dutch type, HCHWA-D), and in offspring of a parent affected with Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer (HBOC). These groups were compared to persons who did not have a parent with one of these genetic diseases. Associations between childhood experiences and adult psychological characteristics were investigated. Compared with the reference group (n = 127), offspring of a parent with a neurogenetic disorder (n = 96) reported more parental dysfunction in childhood, and showed more adult attachment anxiety and poorer mental health. Offspring of a parent with HBOC (n = 70) reported more parental loss in childhood and showed poorer mental health. Offspring who experienced parental genetic disease in childhood had more attachment anxiety than offspring who experienced parental disease later in life. In the group of offspring, a higher number of ACEs was associated with poorer mental health and more psychological symptomatology. This cross-sectional study indicates that adult offspring of a parent with genetic disease may differ in attachment style and mental health from persons without one of these genetic diseases in their family, and that this may be related to adverse childhood experiences.

  9. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS) in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i) assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii) assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support). The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study ( N = 4,530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV), and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V). Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (%) of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71) in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18), and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood ( p < 0.001). Smoking in adulthood did not significantly mediate the

  10. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS) in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i) assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii) assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support). The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV), and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V). Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (%) of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71) in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18), and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001). Smoking in adulthood did not significantly mediate the

  11. Distinct contributions of adverse childhood experiences and resilience resources: a cohort analysis of adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S; Longhi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence is rapidly amassing as to the damaging potential of early life adversities on physical and mental health, as yet few investigations provide comparative snapshots of these patterns across adulthood. This population-based study addresses this gap, examining the relationship of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to physical and mental health within a representative sample (n = 19,333) of adults, comparing the prevalence and explanatory strength of ACEs among four birth cohorts spanning ages 18-79. This assessment accounts for demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as both direct and moderating effects of resilience resources (social/emotional support, life satisfaction, and sleep quality). Findings demonstrate (1) increasing trends of reported ACEs across younger cohorts, including time period shifts such as more prevalent family incarceration, substance abuse, and divorce, (2) significant bivariate as well as independent associations of ACEs with poor health within every cohort, controlling for multiple covariates (increasing trends in older age for physical health), and (3) robust patterns wherein resilience resources moderated ACEs, indicating buffering pathways that sustained into old age. Theoretical and practice implications for health professionals are discussed.

  12. Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and ADHD Diagnosis and Severity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicole M; Brown, Suzette N; Briggs, Rahil D; Germán, Miguelina; Belamarich, Peter F; Oyeku, Suzette O

    Although identifying adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among children with behavioral disorders is an important step in providing targeted therapy and support, little is known about the burden of ACEs among children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We described the prevalence of ACEs in children with and without ADHD, and examined associations between ACE type, ACE score, and ADHD diagnosis and severity. Using the 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health, we identified children aged 4 to 17 years whose parents indicated presence and severity of ADHD, and their child's exposure to 9 ACEs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate associations between ACEs, ACE score, and parent-reported ADHD and ADHD severity, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. In our sample (N = 76,227, representing 58,029,495 children), children with ADHD had a higher prevalence of each ACE compared with children without ADHD. Children who experienced socioeconomic hardship (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.59), divorce (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55), familial mental illness (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.26-1.90), neighborhood violence (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23-1.75), and incarceration (aOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.72) were more likely to have ADHD. A graded relationship was observed between ACE score and ADHD. Children with ACE scores of 2, 3, and ≥4 were significantly more likely to have moderate to severe ADHD. Children with ADHD have higher ACE exposure compared with children without ADHD. There was a significant association between ACE score, ADHD, and moderate to severe ADHD. Efforts to improve ADHD assessment and management should consider routinely evaluating for ACEs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing a Community-Wide Initiative to Address Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress: A Case Study of The Philadelphia ACE Task Force.

    PubMed

    Pachter, Lee M; Lieberman, Leslie; Bloom, Sandra L; Fein, Joel A

    The Philadelphia ACE Task Force is a community based collaborative of health care providers, researchers, community-based organizations, funders, and public sector representatives. The mission of the task force is to provide a venue to address childhood adversity and its consequences in the Philadelphia metropolitan region. In this article we describe the origins and metamorphosis of the Philadelphia ACE Task Force, which initially was narrowly focused on screening for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in health care settings but expanded its focus to better represent a true community-based approach to sharing experiences with addressing childhood adversity in multiple sectors of the city and region. The task force has been successful in developing a research agenda and conducting research on ACEs in the urban context, and has identified foci of local activity in the areas of professional training and workforce development, community education, and local practical interventions around adversity, trauma, and resiliency. In this article we also address the lessons learned over the first 5 years of the task force's existence and offers recommendations for future efforts to build a local community-based ACEs collaborative. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Alcohol Abuse among South Carolina Adults.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Elizabeth; Radcliff, Elizabeth; Strompolis, Melissa; Wilson, Abygail

    2018-06-07

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including alcohol misuse. The impact of ACEs on alcohol use may vary by gender, with ACEs impacting women more than men in coping with adulthood stressors. The objective of this study is to examine the gender-specific relationships between ACEs and self-reported binge drinking and heavy drinking in adulthood among South Carolina residents. This study analyzed a sample of 8492 respondents who completed the 2014 or 2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the impact of types and the number of ACEs on binge drinking and heaving drinking in adulthood. Thirty-seven percent of men and 22.8% of women survey respondents reported binge drinking and 12.2% of men and 4.1% of women reported heavy drinking. Almost all categories of ACE were associated with increased odds of reporting binge and heavy drinking; household mental illness had the greatest odds for men (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.30-1.33) and emotional abuse had the greatest odds for women (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.40-1.43). Men and women with four or more ACEs had greater odds of reporting binge and heavy drinking compared to their counterparts. Conclusions/Importance: Given the potential for negative outcomes associated with alcohol misuse and transmission of risky alcohol-related behaviors from parent to child, strategies that utilize a multigenerational approach could have a large impact on population health.

  15. Commentary: Childhood Exposure to Environmental Adversity and the Well-Being of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, E.

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to a wide range of environmental adversities in childhood. Research undertaken in the general population has demonstrated that exposure to environmental adversity in childhood can have an adverse impact on health and…

  16. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  17. History of childhood adversity is positively associated with ventral striatal dopamine responses to amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Lynn M; Wand, Gary S; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Zhu, Shijun; Brasic, James R

    2014-06-01

    Childhood exposure to severe or chronic trauma is an important risk factor for the later development of adult mental health problems, such as substance abuse. Even in nonclinical samples of healthy adults, persons with a history of significant childhood adversity seem to experience greater psychological distress than those without this history. Evidence from rodent studies suggests that early life stress may impair dopamine function in ways that increase risks for drug abuse. However, the degree to which these findings translate to other species remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine associations between childhood adversity and dopamine and subjective responses to amphetamine in humans. Following intake assessment, 28 healthy male and female adults, aged 18-29 years, underwent two consecutive 90-min positron emission tomography studies with high specific activity [(11)C]raclopride. The first scan was preceded by intravenous saline; the second by amphetamine (AMPH 0.3 mg/kg). Consistent with prior literature, findings showed positive associations between childhood trauma and current levels of perceived stress. Moreover, greater number of traumatic events and higher levels of perceived stress were each associated with higher ventral striatal dopamine responses to AMPH. Findings of mediation analyses further showed that a portion of the relationship between childhood trauma and dopamine release may be mediated by perceived stress. Overall, results are consistent with preclinical findings suggesting that early trauma may lead to enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants and that this mechanism may underlie increased vulnerability for drug abuse.

  18. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  19. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: the role of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Claudia; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris

    2008-05-01

    Child abuse has been associated with poorer physical health in adulthood, but less is known about childhood adversity more broadly, including neglect and family problems, or the pathways from adversity to adult disease. We have examined how different stressful emotional or neglectful childhood adversities are related to adiposity and glucose control in midadulthood, taking into account childhood factors, and whether the relationships are mediated by adult health behaviors and socioeconomic position. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 9310 members of the 1958 British birth cohort who participated in a biomedical interview at 45 years of age. Primary outcomes consisted of continuous measures of BMI, waist circumference, and glycosylated hemoglobin at 45 years and categorical indicators: total obesity (BMI > or = 30), central obesity (waist circumference: > or = 102 cm for men and > or = 88 cm for women), and glycosylated hemoglobin level of > or = 6. The risk of obesity increased by 20% to 50% for several adversities (physical abuse, verbal abuse, witnessed abuse, humiliation, neglect, strict upbringing, physical punishment, conflict or tension, low parental aspirations or interest in education, hardly takes outings with parents, and father hardly reads to child). Adversities with the strongest associations with adiposity (eg, physical abuse) tended to be associated with glycosylated hemoglobin levels of > or = 6, but in most cases associations were explained by adjustment for adulthood mediators such as adiposity. Effects of other adversities reflecting less severe emotional neglect and family environment were largely explained by childhood socioeconomic factors. Some childhood adversities increase the risk of obesity in adulthood and thereby increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Research is needed to understand the interrelatedness of adversities, the social context of their occurrence, and trajectories from adversity to adult disease.

  1. Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment among Children with Autism Who Experience Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kristin L.; Acharya, Kruti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Msall, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of family adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on timing of ASD diagnoses and receipt of therapies were measured using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Parametric accelerated failure time models estimated the relationship between family ACEs and both timing of ASD diagnosis and receipt of therapies among US…

  2. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels.

  3. Childhood Adversities and Traumata in Lebanon: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Itani, Lynn; Haddad, Youmna C; Fayyad, John; Karam, Aimee; Karam, Elie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The goal of this paper is to map the total occurrence and evaluate the risk of co-occurrence of childhood adversities (CA) and a wide variety of childhood traumatic events (including war) in a national sample. Method: The nationally representative sample included 2,857 respondents and the instrument used was the Composite International Diagnostic Interview which screened for all CAs and traumatic events. Results: 27.9% experienced CAs; the most common were parental death and parental mental/substance use disorder. 70.6% experienced a war-related traumatic event during their lifetime, and around half of them (38.1%) experienced it below the age of 18 years. 51.3% of the subjects experienced a traumatic event not related to war during their lifetime, and 19.2% experienced it before the age of 18 years. Sexual abuse, being a refugee during war, and experiencing a natural disaster were associated with female gender. Having any CA was associated with active war exposure (OR: 4.2, CI: 2.0-8.6); war-related direct personal trauma (OR: 3.9, CI: 1.5-10.0); war-related trauma to others (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.3-4.4); non-war direct personal trauma (OR: 3.8, CI: 2.0-7.4); and any non-war childhood traumatic event (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.1). Conclusion:Childhood is awash with adversities and traumatic events that co-occur and should be measured simultaneously; otherwise, the effects of a subset of traumata or adversities could be wrongly thought to be the contributor to negative outcomes under study. PMID:25356085

  4. Childhood Adversity and Self-Care Education for Undergraduate Social Work and Human Services Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michelle; Burton, Judith; Edwards, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Many students pursuing social work and human services courses have experienced adverse childhoods. This article focuses on their learning about self-care, an important skill for future practice. Interviews with 20 undergraduate students with a history of childhood adversity found unmet needs both for conceptualizing self-care and developing…

  5. Childhood social adversity and risk of depressive symptoms in adolescence in a US national sample.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Emma; Pebley, Anne R; Burström, Bo; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2017-04-01

    Childhood social adversity has been associated with an increased risk of depression and other psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood. However, the role of timing and accumulation of adversities has not yet been established in longitudinal studies. We examined the association between childhood adversities and adolescent depressive symptoms, and the impact of timing and accumulation of adversity. Longitudinal data were obtained from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n=2223), a nationally representative survey of US families that incorporates data from parents and their children. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate effects of childhood social adversity on adolescent depressive symptoms, presented as Incidence Rate Ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Children exposed to social adversity reported higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms captured by two depression scales. Single-parent household and residential instability were particularly associated with depressive symptoms. A positive relationship was found between cumulative adversity and the risk of adolescent depression. The timing of exposure appeared to have little effect on the risk of adolescent depressive symptoms. The structure of the data implies that alternative causal pathways cannot be fully discounted. The self- or parent-reported data is subject to recall bias. Our findings support the long-term negative impact of childhood adversity on adolescent depressive symptoms, regardless of when in childhood the adversity occurs. Policies and interventions to reduce adolescent depressive symptoms need to consider the social background of the family as an important risk or protective factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences: Findings from a low-income sample of U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E

    2018-02-01

    Despite great interest in adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), there has been limited research on racial and ethnic differences in their prevalence. Prior research in the United States suggests that the prevalence of ACEs varies along socioeconomic lines, but it is uncertain whether there are racial/ethnic differences in ACE rates among low-income populations. This study examined the distribution of ACEs in a sample of 1523 low-income women in Wisconsin that received home visiting services. Participants ranging in age from 16 to 50 years were coded into five racial/ethnic groups, including Hispanics and four non-Hispanic groups: blacks, whites, American Indians, and other race. Following measurement conventions, ten dichotomous indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were used to create a composite ACE score. Five other potential childhood adversities were also assessed: food insecurity, homelessness, prolonged parental absence, peer victimization, and violent crime victimization. Results from bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that, while rates of adversity were high overall, there were significant racial/ethnic differences. Total ACE scores of American Indians were comparable to the ACE scores of non-Hispanic whites, which were significantly higher than the ACE scores of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Whites were more likely than blacks to report any abuse or neglect, and they were more likely than blacks and Hispanics to report any household dysfunction. The results underscore the need to account for socioeconomic differences when making racial/ethnic comparisons. Potential explanations for the observed differences are examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length among perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of

  8. Increased alpha-Amylase Response to an Acute Psychosocial Stress Challenge in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Kuras, Yuliya I.; McInnis, Christine M.; Thoma, Myriam V.; Chen, Xuejie; Hanlin, Luke; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examing salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n=24 male; n=17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Saliva for measurement of sAA was collected at three time points; before the TSST, immediately after, and 10 minutes post-TSST. We found that those with childhood trauma had a higher overall sAA response to the TSST, as seen in a repeated measures ANOVA (CTQ by time interaction: F(1.8,71.5)=6.46, p=.01) and an independent samples t-test indicating higher sAA baseline to peak response (t=3.22, p=.003). There was also a positive correlation between sAA reactivity and the CTQ subscales of childhood physical abuse (r=.46, p=.005) and emotional abuse (r=.37, p=.024). Healthy adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity had a heightened sAA response immediately following the stressor. Higher SNS reactivity could be a link to negative health outcomes in adults with early adversity. Future research should address whether altered sAA reactivity is predictive of negative health outcomes in those with childhood adversity. PMID:27577885

  9. The effect of childhood adversity on 4-year outcome in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis in the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Tamar C; Ising, Helga K; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P G; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H; Nieman, Dorien H; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M C; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing a psychosis. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the effect of childhood adversity on depression, anxiety, transition to psychosis and overall functioning at 4-year follow-up. In addition, we evaluated economic costs of childhood adversity in terms of health care use and productivity loss. Data pertain to 105 UHR participants of the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL). Physical abuse was associated with higher depression rates (b=0.381, p=0.012) and lower social functional outcome (b=-0.219, p=0.017) at 4-year follow-up. In addition, emotional neglect was negatively associated with social functioning (b=-0.313, p=0.018). We did not find evidence that childhood adversity was associated with transition to psychosis, but the experience of childhood adversity was associated with excess health care costs at follow-up. The data indicate long-term negative effects of childhood adversity on depression, social functioning and health care costs at follow-up in a sample of UHR patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-10-01

    Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety disorder and the concurrent role of neuroticism. Few studies have investigated whether clustering of life adversities or comorbidity of psychiatric disorders critically influence these relationships. Using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we analyzed the association of childhood adversities and negative life experiences across the lifespan with lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses of depression or anxiety among 2288 participants with at least one affective disorder. Controlling for comorbidity and clustering of adversities the association of childhood adversity with affective disorders was greater than that of negative life events across the life span with affective disorders. Among childhood adversities, emotional neglect was specifically associated with depressive disorder, dysthymia, and social phobia. Persons with a history of emotional neglect and sexual abuse were more likely to develop more than one lifetime affective disorder. Neuroticism and current affective disorder did not affect the adversity-disorder relationships found. Using a retrospective study design, causal interpretations of the relationships found are not warranted. Emotional neglect seems to be differentially related to depression, dysthymia and social phobia. This knowledge may help to reduce underestimation of the impact of emotional abuse and lead to better recognition and treatment to prevent long-term disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Pediatricians Ask About Adverse Childhood Experiences in Pediatric Primary Care?

    PubMed

    Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Szilagyi, Moira; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2016-03-01

    The stress associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has immediate and long-lasting effects. The objectives of this study were to examine 1) how often pediatricians ask patients' families about ACEs, 2) how familiar pediatricians are with the original ACE study, and 3) physician/practice characteristics, physicians' mental health training, and physicians' attitudes/beliefs that are associated with asking about ACEs. Data were collected from 302 nontrainee pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who completed the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey. Pediatricians indicated whether they usually, sometimes, or never inquired about or screened for 7 ACEs. Sample weights were used to reduce nonresponse bias. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Only 4% of pediatricians usually asked about all 7 ACEs; 32% did not usually ask about any. Less than 11% of pediatricians reported being very or somewhat familiar with the ACE study. Pediatricians who screened/inquired about ACEs usually asked about maternal depression (46%) and parental separation/divorce (42%). Multivariable analyses showed that pediatricians had more than twice the odds of usually asking about ACEs if they disagreed that they have little effect on influencing positive parenting skills, disagreed that screening for social emotional risk factors within the family is beyond the scope of pediatricians, or were very interested in receiving further education on managing/treating mental health problems in children and adolescents. Few pediatricians ask about all ACEs. Pediatric training that emphasizes the importance of social/emotional risk factors may increase the identification of ACEs in pediatric primary care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. During stress, heart rate variability moderates the impact of childhood adversity in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.

  13. Relationship between breastfeeding and asthma prevalence in young children exposed to adverse childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Nancy E; Garro, Aris C; Pearlman, Deborah N

    2018-03-13

    To investigate if duration of supplemental breastfeeding is associated with a lower asthma risk and whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) early in life influence this relationship in children ages 3 to 5 years. Data were from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate incident risk ratios (IRR) for lifetime and current asthma in young children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 15,642). We tested for effect measure modification using stratified analyses. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months or supplemental breastfeeding for children ≥12 months significantly reduced the risk of lifetime asthma prevalence compared to never breastfed children (IRR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46-0.88, p = 0.007; and IRR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47-0.99, p = 0.044, respectively), adjusted for covariates. In stratified analyses, breastfeeding reduced the risk of lifetime asthma for children who experienced 1 ACE but not for children who experienced 2 or more ACEs. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months, with and without supplementation, appears to prevent asthma or delay its onset. The protective effect of breastfeeding was attenuated among children who experienced more than 2 ACEs. The known harmful effects that ACEs have on children's health may outweigh the benefits of breastfeeding in reducing the risk of a child developing asthma. Understanding how specific time periods in a child's life may be most affected by exposure to early life adversities, along with the protective effect of breastfeeding against asthma, are important areas of further study.

  14. Increased alpha-amylase response to an acute psychosocial stress challenge in healthy adults with childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Kuras, Yuliya I; McInnis, Christine M; Thoma, Myriam V; Chen, Xuejie; Hanlin, Luke; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examining salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n = 24 male; n = 17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Saliva for measurement of sAA was collected at three time points; before the TSST, immediately after, and 10 min post-TSST. We found that those with childhood trauma had a higher overall sAA response to the TSST, as seen in a repeated measures ANOVA (CTQ by time interaction: F(1.8,71.5) = 6.46, p = .01) and an independent samples t-test indicating higher sAA baseline to peak response (t = 3.22, p = .003). There was also a positive correlation between sAA reactivity and the CTQ subscales of childhood physical abuse (r = .46, p = .005) and emotional abuse (r = .37, p = .024). Healthy adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity had a heightened sAA response immediately following the stressor. Higher SNS reactivity could be a link to negative health outcomes in adults with early adversity. Future research should address whether altered sAA reactivity is predictive of negative health outcomes in those with childhood adversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Brief Report: Examining the Association of Autism and Adverse Childhood Experiences in the National Survey of Children's Health: The Important Role of Income and Co-Occurring Mental Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for mental and physical illness and more likely to occur for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to clarify the contribution of poverty, intellectual disability and mental health conditions to this disparity. Data on child and family characteristics, mental…

  16. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, Bruno Mendonça; Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Santana, Geilson Lima; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies. This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata. Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1). Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation. Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  17. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Borges, Guilherme; Santana, Geilson Lima; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies. Method This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata. Results Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1). Among adults 20–29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation. Conclusion Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently. PMID:27192171

  18. Early origins of inflammation: An examination of prenatal and childhood social adversity in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Loucks, Eric B; Appleton, Allison A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D; Non, Amy L; Buka, Stephen; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation. We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age=42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders. In separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β=0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease. Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of adversities during childhood. This

  19. Associations between specific psychotic symptoms and specific childhood adversities are mediated by attachment styles: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Bentall, Richard P; Shevlin, Mark; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Sellwood, William

    2014-07-30

    Accumulated evidence over the past decade consistently demonstrates a relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis in adulthood. There is some evidence of specific associations between childhood sexual abuse and hallucinations, and between insecure attachment and paranoia. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey were used in assessing whether current attachment styles influenced the association between adverse childhood experiences and psychotic symptoms in adulthood. Hallucinations and paranoid beliefs were differentially associated with sexual abuse (rape and sexual molestation) and neglect, respectively. Sexual abuse and neglect were also associated with depression. The relationship between neglect and paranoid beliefs was fully mediated via anxious and avoidant attachment. The relationship between sexual molestation and hallucinations was independent of attachment style. The relationship between rape and hallucinations was partially mediated via anxious attachment; however this effect was no longer present when depression was included as a mediating variable. The findings highlight the importance of addressing and understanding childhood experiences within the context of current attachment styles in clinical interventions for patients with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Pozzi, Elena; Giacosa, Chiara; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increases the risk of adult physical and mental health disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and influences adult brain structure and function. ACE could influence the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood, and treatment seeking behaviors. We assessed the severity of ACE in a sample of 31 healthy controls and 66 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred for hospitalization and were either drug-naïve or drug-treated. In addition, we explored the possible clinical relevance of ACE with two additional analyses: (a) a discriminant function analysis with sex and ACE as factors, and (b) a logistic regression with use of medication as dependent variable and ACE as factor. Despite comparable age, years at school, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and severity of illness (Y-BOCS), adult drug-naïve patients reported lower exposure to ACE and later contacts with mental health professionals than drug-treated. This effect was particularly evident in female patients compared to males. The interaction of gender with factors linked with the early familial environment biased access to psychiatric care and use of medication, independent of OCD-associated factors such as severity of symptoms or duration of illness. The need for medications of patients could be higher in families where OCD symptomatology is associated with ACE. © 2014.

  1. Childhood adversity, adult socioeconomic status and risk of work disability: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-09-01

    To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability. Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects. When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29 to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects. These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34. PMID:22970785

  3. Detailed Assessments of Childhood AdversityEnhance Prediction of Central Obesity Independent of Gender, Race, Adult Psychosocial Risk and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Cynthia R.; Dearing, Eric; Usher, Nicole; Trifiletti, Sarah; Zaichenko, Lesya; Ollen, Elizabeth; Brinkoetter, Mary T.; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Joung, Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Crowell, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether a novel indicator of overall childhood adversity, incorporating number of adversities, severity, and chronicity, predicted central obesity beyond contributions of “modifiable” risk factors including psychosocial characteristics and health behaviors in a diverse sample of midlife adults. The study also examined whether the overall adversity score (number of adversities X severity X chronicity) better predicted obesity compared to cumulative adversity (number of adversities), a more traditional assessment of childhood adversity. Materials/Methods 210 Black/African Americans and White/European Americans, mean age = 45.8; ±3.3 years, were studied cross-sectionally. Regression analysis examined overall childhood adversity as a direct, non-modifiable risk factor for central obesity (waist-hip ratio) and body mass index (BMI), with and without adjustment for established adult psychosocial risk factors (education, employment, social functioning) and heath behavior risk factors (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise). Results Overall childhood adversity was an independent significant predictor of central obesity, and the relations between psychosocial and health risk factors and central obesity were not significant when overall adversity was in the model. Overall adversity was not a statistically significant predictor of BMI. Conclusions Overall childhood adversity, incorporating severity and chronicity and cumulative scores, predicts central obesity beyond more contemporaneous risk factors often considered modifiable. This is consistent with early dysregulation of metabolic functioning. Findings can inform practitioners interested in the impact of childhood adversity and personalizing treatment approaches of obesity within high-risk populations. Prevention/intervention research is necessary to discover and address the underlying causes and impact of childhood adversity on metabolic functioning. PMID:24211017

  4. Detailed assessments of childhood adversity enhance prediction of central obesity independent of gender, race, adult psychosocial risk and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cynthia R; Dearing, Eric; Usher, Nicole; Trifiletti, Sarah; Zaichenko, Lesya; Ollen, Elizabeth; Brinkoetter, Mary T; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Joung, Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Mantzoros, Christos S; Crowell, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether a novel indicator of overall childhood adversity, incorporating number of adversities, severity, and chronicity, predicted central obesity beyond contributions of "modifiable" risk factors including psychosocial characteristics and health behaviors in a diverse sample of midlife adults. The study also examined whether the overall adversity score (number of adversities × severity × chronicity) better predicted obesity compared to cumulative adversity (number of adversities), a more traditional assessment of childhood adversity. 210 Black/African Americans and White/European Americans, mean age=45.8; ±3.3 years, were studied cross-sectionally. Regression analysis examined overall childhood adversity as a direct, non-modifiable risk factor for central obesity (waist-hip ratio) and body mass index (BMI), with and without adjustment for established adult psychosocial risk factors (education, employment, social functioning) and heath behavior risk factors (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise). Overall childhood adversity was an independent significant predictor of central obesity, and the relations between psychosocial and health risk factors and central obesity were not significant when overall adversity was in the model. Overall adversity was not a statistically significant predictor of BMI. Overall childhood adversity, incorporating severity and chronicity and cumulative scores, predicts central obesity beyond more contemporaneous risk factors often considered modifiable. This is consistent with early dysregulation of metabolic functioning. Findings can inform practitioners interested in the impact of childhood adversity and personalizing treatment approaches of obesity within high-risk populations. Prevention/intervention research is necessary to discover and address the underlying causes and impact of childhood adversity on metabolic functioning. © 2013.

  5. Childhood adversity in association with personality disorder dimensions: new findings in an old debate.

    PubMed

    Hengartner, M P; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rodgers, S; Müller, M; Rössler, W

    2013-10-01

    Various studies have reported a positive relationship between child maltreatment and personality disorders (PDs). However, few studies included all DSM-IV PDs and even fewer adjusted for other forms of childhood adversity, e.g. bullying or family problems. We analyzed questionnaires completed by 512 participants of the ZInEP epidemiology survey, a comprehensive psychiatric survey of the general population in Zurich, Switzerland. Associations between childhood adversity and PDs were analyzed bivariately via simple regression analyses and multivariately via multiple path analysis. The bivariate analyses revealed that all PD dimensions were significantly related to various forms of family and school problems as well as child abuse. In contrast, according to the multivariate analysis only school problems and emotional abuse were associated with various PDs. Poverty was uniquely associated with schizotypal PD, conflicts with parents with obsessive-compulsive PD, physical abuse with antisocial PD, and physical neglect with narcissistic PD. Sexual abuse was statistically significantly associated with schizotypal and borderline PD, but corresponding effect sizes were small. Childhood adversity has a serious impact on PDs. Bullying and violence in schools and emotional abuse appear to be more salient markers of general personality pathology than other forms of childhood adversity. Associations with sexual abuse were negligible when adjusted for other forms of adversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  7. Childhood Psychosocial Adversity and Adult Neighborhood Disadvantage as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2015-08-04

    Childhood adverse psychosocial factors (eg, parental divorce, long-term financial difficulties) and adult neighborhood disadvantage have both been linked to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, their combined effects on disease risk are not known. Participants were 37 699 adults from the Finnish Public Sector study whose data were linked to a national neighborhood disadvantage grid with the use of residential addresses between the years 2000 and 2008 and who responded to a survey on childhood psychosocial adversities and adult CVD risk behaviors in 2008 to 2009. Survey data were also linked to national registers on hospitalization, mortality, and prescriptions to assess CVD risk factors in 2008 to 2009 and to ascertain incident CVD (coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease) between the survey and the end of December 2011 (mean follow-up, 2.94 years; SD=0.44 years). Combined exposure to high childhood adversity and high adult disadvantage was associated with CVD risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, heavy alcohol use, and physical inactivity) and with a 2.25-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.63) hazard of incident CVD compared with a low childhood adversity and low adult disadvantage. This hazard ratio was attenuated by 16.6% but remained statistically significant after adjustment for the CVD risk factors (1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.16). Exposure to high childhood adversity or high adult neighborhood disadvantage alone was not significantly associated with CVD in fully adjusted models. These findings suggest that individuals with both childhood psychosocial adversity and adult neighborhood disadvantage are at an increased risk of CVD. In contrast, those with only 1 of these exposures have little or no excess risk after controlling for conventional risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Childhood Adversity and Epigenetic Regulation of Glucocorticoid Signaling Genes: Associations in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Parade, Stephanie H.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood experiences have lasting effects on development, including the risk for psychiatric disorders. Research examining the biologic underpinnings of these associations has revealed the impact of childhood maltreatment on the physiologic stress response and activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. A growing body of literature supports the hypothesis that environmental exposures mediate their biological effects via epigenetic mechanisms. Methylation, which is thought to be the most stable form of epigenetic change, is a likely mechanism by which early life exposures has lasting effects. In this review, we present recent evidence related to epigenetic regulation of genes involved in HPA axis regulation, namely the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), after childhood adversity and associations with risk for psychiatric disorders. Implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:27691985

  9. Childhood adversity and adult depressive disorder: a case-controlled study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loh, S F; Maniam, T; Tan, S M K; Badi'ah, Y

    2010-06-01

    To describe the association between childhood adversity and depression in adult depressed patients in a Malaysian population. Fifty-two patients, who met the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia according to the Structured Clinical Interview based on the revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were used as cases and compared with 52 controls matched for age and sex. Cases and controls were assessed using a sexual and physical abuse questionnaire and a Parental Bonding Instrument. There was a positive relationship between childhood abuse in general and childhood physical abuse with adult depressive disorder in particular. Nearly a quarter (23%) of depressed patients reported being abused in childhood compared with none in the control group. There was no significant association between childhood loss and depression in adulthood. Low level of parental care during childhood was significantly correlated with adult depressive disorder. Clinicians should assiduously seek a history of childhood adversities in adult patients with depression. This information can influence clinical management by way of implementing secondary preventive measures. In all depressed patients, mental health professionals also need to look out for their poor attachment with parents during childhood. This may enable interventions directed at parenting skills and improved attachment relationships with their own children. These types of interventions together with pharmacotherapy may provide the optimal approach to the management of depression in adults and help prevent the cycle of depression perpetuating itself in the next generation.

  10. Childhood adversity increases the risk of onward transmission from perinatal HIV-infected adolescents and youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Nachman, Sharon; Dietrich, Janan; Liberty, Afaaf; Violari, Avy

    2018-05-01

    Repeated exposure to childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and other traumas experienced before age 18) can have lifelong impacts on health. For HIV-infected adolescents and youth, such impacts may include onward transmission of HIV. To evaluate this possibility, the current study measured the burden of childhood adversity and its influence on risky health behaviors among perinatally-infected adolescents and youth. We surveyed 250 perinatally-infected adolescents and youth (13-24 years) receiving care in Soweto, South Africa. Both male and female participants reported on childhood adversity (using the ACE-IQ), sexual behavior, and psychosocial state. Viral load was also abstracted from their charts. We used logistic regressions to test the association between cumulative adversity and behavioral outcomes. Half the sample reported eight or more adversities. Overall, 72% experienced emotional abuse, 59% experienced physical abuse, 34% experienced sexual abuse, 82% witnessed domestic violence, and 91% saw someone being attacked in their community. A clear gradient emerged between cumulative adversities and behavioral risk. Having experienced one additional childhood adversity raised the odds of risky sexual behavior by almost 30% (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.48). Viral suppression was poor overall (31% had viral loads >400 copies/ml), but was not related to adversity. Adversity showed a robust relationship to depression and substance abuse. Childhood adversity is common, influences the current health of HIV-positive adolescents and youth, and puts their sexual partners at risk for HIV infection. Greater primary prevention of childhood adversity and increased access to support services (e.g., mental health) could reduce risk taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Adversities Associated with Poor Adult Mental Health Outcomes in Older Homeless Adults: Results From the HOPE HOME Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chuan Mei; Mangurian, Christina; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Guzman, David; Kushel, Margot

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether childhood adversity is associated with depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, or psychiatric hospitalization. History of seven childhood adversities (physical neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental incarceration, and child welfare system placement) was gathered through in-person interviews. Multivariate models examined associations between history of childhood adversities and moderate to severe depressive symptoms, lifetime history of suicide attempt, or lifetime history of psychiatric hospitalization. The study enrolled 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, in Oakland, California, using population-based sampling methods. Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were measured on a Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (≥22), self-reported lifetime history of suicide attempt, and self-reported lifetime history of psychiatric hospitalization. Participants with exposure to one childhood adversity had elevated odds of reporting moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.7) and lifetime history of suicide attempt (AOR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.6) when compared with those who had none; the odds of these two outcomes increased with exposure to additional childhood adversities. Participants with four or more childhood adversities had higher odds of having a lifetime history of psychiatric hospitalization (AOR: 7.1; 95% CI: 2.8-18.0); no increase with fewer adversities was found. Childhood adversities are associated with poor mental health outcomes among older homeless adults. Clinicians should collect information about childhood adversities among this high-risk population to inform risk assessment and treatment recommendations. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Childhood and Adolescent Adversity on Substance Use Disorders and Poor Health in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Sewart, Amy; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Bobova, Lyuba; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent adversity have been shown to predict later mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding which aspects and developmental timings of adversity are important, and the mechanisms by which they have their impact may help guide intervention approaches. A large subset of adolescents (N = 457; Female 68.9%) from the 10-year longitudinal Youth Emotion Project was examined to better understand the associations among childhood/adolescent adversity, substance use disorder, and later health quality. Adolescent (but not childhood) adversities were associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood, adolescent adversities were associated with subsequent onset of substance use disorder, and adolescent adversities continued to be associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood after accounting for the variance explained by substance use disorder onset. These associations were observed after statistically accounting for emotional disorders and socioeconomic status. Specific domains of adversity uniquely predicted substance use disorder and poorer health outcomes. In contrast with current recent research, our findings suggest the association between childhood/adolescent adversity and poorer health outcomes in late adolescence and emerging adulthood are not entirely accounted for by substance use disorder, suggesting efforts to curtail family-based adolescent adversity may have downstream health benefits. PMID:27613006

  13. The Effects of Childhood and Adolescent Adversity on Substance Use Disorders and Poor Health in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Sewart, Amy; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Bobova, Lyuba; Adam, Emma K; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent adversity have been shown to predict later mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding which aspects and developmental timings of adversity are important, and the mechanisms by which they have their impact may help guide intervention approaches. A large subset of adolescents (N = 457; Female 68.9 %) from the 10-year longitudinal Youth Emotion Project was examined to better understand the associations among childhood/adolescent adversity, substance use disorder, and later health quality. Adolescent (but not childhood) adversities were associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood, adolescent adversities were associated with subsequent onset of substance use disorder, and adolescent adversities continued to be associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood after accounting for the variance explained by substance use disorder onset. These associations were observed after statistically accounting for emotional disorders and socioeconomic status. Specific domains of adversity uniquely predicted substance use disorder and poorer health outcomes. In contrast with current recent research, our findings suggest the association between childhood/adolescent adversity and poorer health outcomes in late adolescence and emerging adulthood are not entirely accounted for by substance use disorder, suggesting efforts to curtail family-based adolescent adversity may have downstream health benefits.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel P; Liu, Yong; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Edwards, Valerie J; Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2013-01-03

    Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥ 14 days in past 30 days) in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD) (≥ 14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good) were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥ 1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) times higher in persons with ≥ 5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly associated with frequent insufficient sleep during

  15. An Enduring Health Risk of Childhood Adversity: Earlier, More Severe, and Longer Lasting Work Disability in Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2018-02-08

    Childhood adversity has been linked with adult health problems. We hypothesized that childhood adversity would also be associated with work limitations due to physical or nervous health problems, known as work disability. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (1968-2013; n=6,045; 82,374 transitions; 129,107 person-years) and the 2014 PSID Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study, we estimated work disability transition probabilities with multinomial logistic Markov models. Four or more adversities defined a high level. Microsimulations quantified adult work disability patterns for African American and non-Hispanic white women and men, accounting for age, education, race, sex, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior. Childhood adversity was significantly associated with work disability. Of African American women with high adversity, 10.2% had moderate work disability at age 30 versus 4.1% with no reported adversities; comparable results for severe work disability were 5.6% versus 1.9% (both p<0.01). Comparable results for whites were 11.3% versus 4.7%, and 3.5% versus 1.1% (p<0.01). The association of childhood adversity with work disability remained significant after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior (p<0.05). Childhood adversity may increase work disability throughout adult life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Profiles of childhood adversities in pathological gamblers - A latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Lotzin, Annett; Ulas, Mehmet; Buth, Sven; Milin, Sascha; Kalke, Jens; Schäfer, Ingo

    2018-06-01

    Despite of high rates of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in pathological gamblers, researchers have rarely studied which types of ACEs often co-occur and how these profiles of ACEs are related to current psychopathology. We aimed to identify profiles of ACEs in pathological gamblers and examined how these profiles were related to gambling-related characteristics and current general psychopathology. In 329 current or lifetime pathological gamblers, diagnosed with the Composite Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV, 10 types of ACEs were measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. Global psychopathology was assessed using the Symptom Checklist SCL-27. ACE profiles were identified using latent class analysis. Differences between ACE profiles in gambling-related characteristics and global psychopathology were analyzed using MANOVA. We found that four out of five gamblers (n=257, 78.1%) reported at least one ACE. Four distinct ACE profiles were identified: 'Low ACE', 'High ACE', 'Physical and emotional abuse', and 'Neglect'. The number of the fulfilled pathological gambling criteria and the severity of current global psychopathology differed between the ACE profiles: Gamblers with a 'High ACE' profile fulfilled more pathological gambling criteria and showed a more severe current psychopathology than gamblers of the 'Low ACE' profile. Gamblers with a 'Physical and emotional abuse' or an 'Emotion neglect' profile showed an intermediate severity of psychopathology. Our findings indicate that four different ACE profiles can be distinguished in pathological gamblers that differed in their gambling-related characteristics and current psychopathology. Systematic assessment of profiles of ACEs in pathological gamblers may inform about the severity of current global psychopathology that might be important to be addressed in addition to gambling-specific treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  18. Differences by Veteran/civilian status and gender in associations between childhood adversity and alcohol and drug use disorders.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Upchurch, Dawn M; Simpson, Tracy; Hamilton, Alison B; Hoggatt, Katherine J

    2018-04-01

    To examine differences by US military Veteran status and gender in associations between childhood adversity and DSM-5 lifetime alcohol and drug use disorders (AUD/DUD). We analyzed nationally representative data from 3119 Veterans (n = 379 women; n = 2740 men) and 33,182 civilians (n = 20,066 women; n = 13,116 men) as provided by the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III). We used weighted multinomial logistic regression, tested interaction terms, and calculated predicted probabilities by Veteran status and gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pairwise comparisons. Among civilians, women had lower AUD and DUD prevalence than men; however, with more childhood adversity, this gender gap narrowed for AUD and widened for DUD. Among Veterans, in contrast, similar proportions of women and men had AUD and DUD; with more childhood adversity, AUD-predicted probability among men surpassed that of women. Childhood adversity elevated AUD probability among civilian women to levels exhibited by Veteran women. Among men, Veterans with more childhood adversity were more likely than civilians to have AUD, and less likely to have DUD. Childhood adversity alters the gender gap in AUD and DUD risk, and in ways that are different for Veterans compared with civilians. Department of Defense, Veterans Affairs, and community health centers can prevent and ameliorate the harmful effects of childhood adversity by adapting existing behavioral health efforts to be trauma informed, Veteran sensitive, and gender tailored.

  19. Childhood Adversity and Cumulative Life Stress: Risk Factors for Cancer-Related Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bower, Julienne E; Crosswell, Alexandra D; Slavich, George M

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in healthy and clinical populations, including cancer survivors. However, risk factors for cancer-related fatigue have not been identified. On the basis of research linking stress with other fatigue-related disorders, we tested the hypothesis that stress exposure during childhood and throughout the life span would be associated with fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Stress exposure was assessed using the Stress and Adversity Inventory, a novel computer-based instrument that assesses for 96 types of acute and chronic stressors that may affect health. Results showed that breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue reported significantly higher levels of cumulative lifetime stress exposure, including more stressful experiences in childhood and in adulthood, compared to a control group of nonfatigued survivors. These findings identify a novel risk factor for fatigue in the growing population of cancer survivors and suggest targets for treatment.

  20. Childhood Adversity and Cumulative Life Stress: Risk Factors for Cancer-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.; Crosswell, Alexandra D.; Slavich, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in healthy and clinical populations, including cancer survivors. However, risk factors for cancer-related fatigue have not been identified. On the basis of research linking stress with other fatigue-related disorders, we tested the hypothesis that stress exposure during childhood and throughout the life span would be associated with fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Stress exposure was assessed using the Stress and Adversity Inventory, a novel computer-based instrument that assesses for 96 types of acute and chronic stressors that may affect health. Results showed that breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue reported significantly higher levels of cumulative lifetime stress exposure, including more stressful experiences in childhood and in adulthood, compared to a control group of nonfatigued survivors. These findings identify a novel risk factor for fatigue in the growing population of cancer survivors and suggest targets for treatment. PMID:24377083

  1. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Joy E; Neylan, Thomas C; Epel, Elissa; O'Donovan, Aoife

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n=11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β=0.03, p=0.01 and β=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Those who had experienced both types of stress had higher levels of hsCRP than those with adulthood trauma alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [-0.003, -0.12], p=0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [0.03, -0.16], p=0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Joy E.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Epel, Elissa; O’Donovan, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β = 0.03, p = 0.01 and β = 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). Those who had experienced both types of stress had higher levels of hsCRP than those with adulthood trauma alone, Estimate = −0.06, 95% CI [−0.003, −0.12], p = 0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate = −0.06, 95% CI [0.03, −0.16], p = 0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation. PMID:26616398

  3. Childhood adversity and behavioral health outcomes for youth: An investigation using state administrative data.

    PubMed

    Lucenko, Barbara A; Sharkova, Irina V; Huber, Alice; Jemelka, Ron; Mancuso, David

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to measure the relative contribution of adverse experiences to adolescent behavioral health problems using administrative data. Specifically, we sought to understand the predictive value of adverse experiences on the presence of mental health and substance abuse problems for youth receiving publicly funded social and health services. Medicaid claims and other service records were analyzed for 125,123 youth age 12-17 and their biological parents. Measures from administrative records reflected presence of parental domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, criminal justice involvement, child abuse and/or neglect, homelessness, and death of a biological parent. Mental health and substance abuse status of adolescents were analyzed as functions of adverse experiences and other youth characteristics using logistic regression. In multivariate analyses, all predictors except parental domestic violence were statistically significant for substance abuse; parental death, parental mental illness, child abuse or neglect and homelessness were statistically significant for mental illness. Odds ratios for child abuse/neglect were particularly high in both models. The ability to identify risks during childhood using administrative data suggests the potential to target prevention and early intervention efforts for children with specific family risk factors who are at increased risk for developing behavioral health problems during adolescence. This study illustrates the utility of administrative data in understanding adverse experiences on children and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood adversity and risk of suicide: cohort study of 548 721 adolescents and young adults in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Björkenstam, Emma

    2017-04-19

    Objective  To examine the relation between childhood adversity, the role of school performance, and childhood psychopathology and the risk of suicide. Design  Cohort study of register based indicators of childhood adversity (at ages 0-14) including death in the family (suicide analysed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single parent household, receipt of public assistance, and residential instability. Setting  Swedish medical birth register and various Swedish population based registers. Participants  548 721 individuals born 1987-91. Main outcome measures  Estimates of suicide risk at ages 15-24 calculated as incidence rate ratios adjusted for time at risk and confounders. Results  Adjusted incidence rate ratios for the relation between childhood adversity and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood ranged from 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.4) for residential instability to 2.9 (1.4 to 5.9) for suicide in the family. There was a dose-response relation between accumulating childhood adversity and risk: 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) for those exposed to one adversity and 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) and 2.6 (1.9 to 3.4) for those exposed to two and three or more adversities, respectively. The association with increased risk of suicide remained even after adjustment for school performance and childhood psychopathology. Conclusion  Childhood adversity is a risk factor for suicide in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly accumulated adversity. These results emphasise the importance of understanding the social mechanisms of suicide and the need for effective interventions early in life, aiming to alleviate the risk in disadvantaged children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and suicide attempts among those with mental and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Segal, Steven P

    2017-07-01

    Using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data, we examined the associations of ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with (1) lifetime suicide attempts and (2) number and age of attempts among U.S. adults aged 18+. In a case-control design, suicide attempters (5.14% of the full sample) were matched with never attempters (matched sample N=3912) on nine mental and substance use disorders. ACE rates were higher among attempters (3.30 [SE=0.07]) than their matched controls (2.19 [SE=0.06]). Results from multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that sexual abuse and parental/other family member's mental illness were associated with increased odds of having attempted suicide among both genders, and emotional neglect was also a factor for men. Population attributable risk fractions for sexual abuse were 25.75% for women and 8.56% for men. Sexual abuse and a higher number of ACEs were also related to repeated suicide attempts. A higher number of ACEs was associated with a younger first attempt age. Gay/bisexual orientation in men and the lack of college education in both genders were significant covariates. In conclusion, this study underscores that ACEs are significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts even when mental and substance use disorders are controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent's own education. Young adults aged 18-29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity. Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent's own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent's own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education. There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

  8. Impact of childhood adversity on the course and suicidality of depressive disorders: the CRESCEND study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2013-10-01

    The impact of childhood adversity persists across the life course. This study aimed to investigate the associations of childhood adversity with the course, suicidality, and treatment outcomes of depressive disorders. A total of 919 people with depressive disorders were recruited. Childhood adversities (≤12 years old) were ascertained using a checklist, in sexual abuse, physical abuse by parents, and separation of parents. Various assessment scales were administered at baseline and over 12 weeks of antidepressants treatment. All three forms of childhood adversity were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing more current stressful events. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were significantly higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale were significantly higher, and scores on the WHO Quality of life instrument were significantly lower in participants with a history of physical abuse by parents. They were more likely to receive augmentation and combination treatment after the initial antidepressant treatment, whereas overall response rates to treatment did not differ. Scores on the Beck Scale for suicide ideation were significantly higher after treatment and/or at baseline in patients with sexual or physical abuse. Physical illness was more prevalent in individuals with physical abuse by parents or separation of parents. Depressive patients with a history of childhood adversities had more severe and chronic forms of depression with high suicidality. More intensive treatment with particular clinical attention is indicated for this special population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic associations of MAOA and NR3C1 with depression and childhood adversities.

    PubMed

    Melas, Philippe A; Wei, Yabin; Wong, Chloe C Y; Sjöholm, Louise K; Åberg, Elin; Mill, Jonathan; Schalling, Martin; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2013-08-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) harbours a polymorphic upstream variable-number tandem repeat (u-VNTR). The MAOA-L allele of the u-VNTR leads to decreased gene expression levels in vitro and has been found to increase the risk of conduct disorder in males with childhood adversities. Early-life adversities have been associated with hypermethylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). In this study, we first performed a genetic association analysis of the MAOA u-VNTR using individuals with depression (n = 392) and controls (n = 1276). Next, DNA methylation analyses of MAOA and NR3C1 were performed using saliva samples of depressed and control subgroups. Adult MAOA-L females with childhood adversities were found to have a higher risk of developing depression (p = 0.006) and overall MAOA methylation levels were decreased in depressed females compared to controls (mean depressed, 42% vs. mean controls, 44%; p = 0.04). One specific childhood adversity [early parental death (EPD)] was associated with hypermethylation of NR3C1 close to an NGFI-A binding site (mean EPD, 19% vs. mean non-EPD, 14%; p = 0.005). Regression analysis indicated that this association may be mediated by the MAOA-L allele (adjusted R² = 0.24, ANOVA: F = 23.48, p < 0.001). Conclusively: (1) depression in females may result from a gene × childhood-adversity interaction and/or a dysregulated epigenetic programming of MAOA; (2) childhood-adversity subtypes may differentially impact DNA methylation at NR3C1; (3) baseline MAOA-genotypic variations may affect the extent of NR3C1 methylation.

  10. Childhood experiences and psychosocial influences on HIV risk among adolescent Latinas in southern California.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F; Goodyear, Rodney K

    2003-08-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles (N = 904) within a modified ecodevelopmental perspective. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Many direct and mediated paths were revealed using structural equation modeling. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risk sexual practices, including more partners, less condom use, more frequent intercourse, and less HIV testing. Drug use and general self-efficacy mediated several relationships. Reducing childhood maltreatment reduced HIV risk and improved psychosocial functioning. Many factors tested did not influence HIV risk. Much of what is known about HIV risk among other populations may not apply to young Latina women.

  11. Associations of early childhood adversities with mental disorders, psychological functioning, and suitability for psychotherapy in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Erkki; Knekt, Paul; Härkänen, Tommi; Virtala, Esa; Lindfors, Olavi

    2018-06-01

    Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ). They also filled self-reports on interpersonal behavior and problems, perceived competence, dispositional optimism, sense of coherence, defenses, and psychiatric history. Clinicians assessed the patients' symptomatology, personality, object relations, cognitive performance, and psychotherapy suitability. Regression analyses were conducted. Childhood adversities predicted both worse current psychological functioning (e.g., interpersonal problems), and better clinician-rated capacities for benefiting from psychotherapy (e.g. self-reflection, capacity for interaction). Parental problems had the most numerous negative associations to psychological functioning. Best capacities for psychotherapy were predicted by recollected family unhappiness. Associations with psychiatric criteria were, however, largely non-significant. In conclusion, for psychosocial treatment planning, patients' early adversities may indicate both vulnerability and resources. As childhood adversities are frequent among treatment-seekers, further studies examining how early adversities predict psychotherapy outcome are needed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  13. Parenting Attitudes and Infant Spanking: The Influence of Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Esther K.; Mathew, Leny; Rothkopf, Amy C.; Elo, Irma T.; Coyne, James C.; Culhane, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess associations among maternal childhood experiences and subsequent parenting attitudes and use of infant spanking (IS), and determine if attitudes mediate the association between physical abuse exposure and IS. METHODS We performed a prospective study of women who received prenatal care at community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), attitudes toward corporal punishment (CP), and IS use were assessed via face-to-face interviews, conducted at the first prenatal care visit, 3 months postpartum, and 11 months postpartum. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS The sample consisted of 1265 mostly black, low-income women. Nineteen percent of the participants valued CP as a means of discipline, and 14% reported IS use. Mothers exposed to childhood physical abuse and verbal hostility were more likely to report IS use than those not exposed (16% vs 10%, P = .002; 17% vs 12%, P = .02, respectively). In the adjusted analyses, maternal exposure to physical abuse, other ACEs, and valuing CP were independently associated with IS use. Attitudes that value CP did not mediate these associations. CONCLUSIONS Mothers who had childhood experiences of violence were more likely to use IS than mothers without such experiences. Intergenerational transmission of CP was evident. Mothers who had experienced physical abuse as a child, when compared to those who had not, were 1.5 times more likely to use IS. Child discipline attitudes and maternal childhood experiences should be discussed early in parenting in order to prevent IS use, particularly among at-risk mothers. PMID:19620204

  14. Parenting attitudes and infant spanking: the influence of childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Chung, Esther K; Mathew, Leny; Rothkopf, Amy C; Elo, Irma T; Coyne, James C; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2009-08-01

    To assess associations among maternal childhood experiences and subsequent parenting attitudes and use of infant spanking (IS), and determine if attitudes mediate the association between physical abuse exposure and IS. We performed a prospective study of women who received prenatal care at community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), attitudes toward corporal punishment (CP), and IS use were assessed via face-to-face interviews, conducted at the first prenatal care visit, 3 months postpartum, and 11 months postpartum. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. The sample consisted of 1265 mostly black, low-income women. Nineteen percent of the participants valued CP as a means of discipline, and 14% reported IS use. Mothers exposed to childhood physical abuse and verbal hostility were more likely to report IS use than those not exposed (16% vs 10%, P = .002; 17% vs 12%, P = .02, respectively). In the adjusted analyses, maternal exposure to physical abuse, other ACEs, and valuing CP were independently associated with IS use. Attitudes that value CP did not mediate these associations. Mothers who had childhood experiences of violence were more likely to use IS than mothers without such experiences. Intergenerational transmission of CP was evident. Mothers who had experienced physical abuse as a child, when compared to those who had not, were 1.5 times more likely to use IS. Child discipline attitudes and maternal childhood experiences should be discussed early in parenting in order to prevent IS use, particularly among at-risk mothers.

  15. Maternal adverse childhood experiences and antepartum risks: the moderating role of social support.

    PubMed

    Racine, Nicole; Madigan, Sheri; Plamondon, Andre; Hetherington, Erin; McDonald, Sheila; Tough, Suzanne

    2018-03-28

    The aims of the current study were to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and antepartum health risks, and to investigate whether social support moderated this association. It was hypothesized that ACEs would be associated with antepartum health risks; however, social support in the prenatal period would buffer mothers from the deleterious consequences of ACEs. Data from 1994 women (mean age = 31 years) and their infants were collected from a longitudinal cohort recruited in health care offices in Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women completed questionnaires related to ACEs prior to the age of 18 and prenatal social support, and a health care professional assessed the mother's antepartum health risk. ACEs included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, exposure to domestic violence, as well as exposure to household dysfunction such as parental substance use, mental illness, or incarceration. Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association between ACEs and antepartum health risks. However, a significant interaction between maternal ACEs and social support was also observed. Specifically, women exposed to high ACEs and low social support in pregnancy had high antepartum health risks. However, among mothers who had high ACEs but also high levels of social support, there was no association between ACEs and antepartum health risk. A history of ACEs can place mothers at risk of antepartum health complications. However, a resiliency effect was observed: women with a history of ACEs were buffered from experiencing antepartum health risks if they reported high levels of social support in pregnancy.

  16. The Affordable Care Act, science, and childhood adversity: a call for pediatric nurses and physicians to lead.

    PubMed

    Oʼmalley, Donna M

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act aims to increase access to many who were previously uninsured, to increase the quality of health care, and to decrease costs. Accountable Care Organizations are a manifestation of these new health care reforms. A proactive approach focused on primary prevention to address modifiable determinants of health holds the promise of a healthier population while being cost-effective. Exposure to toxic stress in childhood places many children on a trajectory for poor immediate and long-term health outcomes. A lifecourse approach to disease prevention offers opportunities at every age and stage to build resilience, which buffers and protects children from the effects of adversity and toxic stress. The American Academy of Pediatrics, recognizing that many adult diseases are rooted in experiences in early childhood, has proposed an ecobiodevelopmental framework that expands the role of pediatricians and embraces a preventive lifecourse approach to health and well-being. Exposure to adversity and toxic stress in childhood is a serious public health problem. A new kind of leadership is required to address these issues. Pediatric nurses and physicians are trusted healers and in a position to seek solutions skillfully and intentionally.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences in relation to mood and anxiety disorders in a population-based sample of active military personnel.

    PubMed

    Sareen, J; Henriksen, C A; Bolton, S L; Afifi, T O; Stein, M B; Asmundson, G J G

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been posited that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases vulnerability to deployment stress, previous literature in this area has demonstrated conflicting results. Using a cross-sectional population-based sample of active military personnel, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs, deployment related stressors and mood and anxiety disorders. Data were analyzed from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey-Canadian Forces Supplement (CCHS-CFS; n = 8340, age 18-54 years, response rate 81%). The following ACEs were self-reported retrospectively: childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, economic deprivation, exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce/separation, parental substance abuse problems, hospitalization as a child, and apprehension by a child protection service. DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders [major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks/disorder and social phobia] were assessed using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). Even after adjusting for the effects of deployment-related traumatic exposures (DRTEs), exposure to ACEs was significantly associated with past-year mood or anxiety disorder among men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.34, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.73, p < 0.01] and women [aOR 1.37, 99% CI 1.00-1.89, p = 0.01]. Participants exposed to both ACEs and DRTEs had the highest prevalence of past-year mood or anxiety disorder in comparison to those who were exposed to either ACEs alone, DRTEs alone, or no exposure. ACEs are associated with several mood and anxiety disorders among active military personnel. Intervention strategies to prevent mental health problems should consider the utility of targeting soldiers with exposure to ACEs.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences among Direct Support Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Direct support professionals (DSPs) provide integral support to many individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Yet, individuals' access to qualified DSPs is often compromised as organizations struggle to hire and retain DSPs. Despite a vast body of research exploring factors associated with turnover, adverse childhood…

  19. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women: A Danish register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in 495,244 women. In this nationwide, register-based cohort study, nine types of early childhood adversity (family disruption, residential instability, placement in out-of-home care, familial death, parental somatic illness, parental psychiatric illness, parental disability, severe parental criminality, and parental substance use disorder) were defined and exposure during the first 6 years of life was determined. Hazard ratios for eating disorders were calculated using Cox regression. Few adversities were significantly associated with AN, and for each, the presence of the adversity was associated with lower risk for AN. BN, and EDNOS were positively associated with several types of adversities. AN rates were unchanged or reduced by up to 54% by adversities, whereas rates of BN and EDNOS were unchanged or increased by adversities by up to 49 and 89%, respectively. Our findings indicate that childhood adversities appear to be associated with an increased risk of BN and in particular EDNOS, whereas they seem to be either unassociated or associated with a decreased risk of AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Health Status of Adolescents Reporting Experiences of Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Naomi N.; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adolescent health indicators among a sample of 8th, 9th, and 11th graders participating in the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine whether 10 types of ACEs were associated with health indicators that may link to health in adulthood, including self-rated health, body mass index (BMI), sleep duration, and dietary and physical activity participation after adjustment for demographic covariates. Individual and cumulative ACEs measures were significantly associated with adverse health indicators, including poorer self-rated health, increased odds of BMI ≥85% and frequent fast food intake, and reduced odds of adequate sleep duration, daily fruit intake, and physical activity participation on most days of the week. Findings advocate screening for ACEs as a means to inform anticipatory guidance strategies and to support development of care models that are relevant and responsive to youth and family needs. PMID:29687049

  1. Cumulative adversity in childhood and emergent risk factors for long-term health.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Koenen, Karestan C; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2014-03-01

    To examine whether and when effects of cumulative adversity in the first 7 years of life are evident in relation to 3 childhood markers of risk for poor adult physical health. The study data are from an English birth cohort. Parental reports of 8 social risk factors were obtained during the child's first 7 years, and scores were created to reflect cumulative adversity at 4 developmental periods. At age 7 and 11 years, weight, height, and blood pressure (BP) were measured by clinic staff, and caregivers reported behavior problems. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of cumulative adversity with each outcome (n = 4361) and changes in these outcomes between 7 and 11 years (n = 3348). At age 7 years, mean adversity and chronic exposure to high adversity were associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms (P < .05), but not elevated BP. Adversity in all developmental periods was associated with elevated numbers of internalizing and externalizing symptoms (P < .0001), but associations were less robust for BMI. Adversity did not predict change in BMI or BP between age 7 and 11 years, however, it predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms (P < .0001). Cumulative adversity was associated with BMI and behavior problems at age 7 years, and our data indicate that timing and chronicity of exposure to adversity differentially influence diverse indicators of long-term health risk commonly measured in childhood. This research suggests the hypothesis that interventions to address adversity could reduce the development of multiple chronic disease risk factors and limit their effects on health. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse Childhood Environment: Relationship With Sexual Risk Behaviors and Marital Status in a Large American Sample.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kermyt G

    2017-01-01

    A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs. never married, divorced, or a member of an unmarried couple). Data come from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample contains 17,530 men and 23,978 women aged 18-54 years living in 13 U.S. states plus the District of Columbia. Adverse childhood environment is assessed through 11 retrospective measures of childhood environment, including having grown up with someone who was depressed or mentally ill, who was an alcoholic, who used or abused drugs, or who served time in prison; whether one's parents divorced in childhood; and two scales measuring childhood exposure to violence and to sexual trauma. The results indicate that adverse childhood environment is associated with increased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors or taking an HIV test, and increased likelihood of being in an unmarried couple or divorced/separated, for both men and women. The predictions are supported by the data, lending further support to the hypothesis that childhood environments influence adult reproductive strategy.

  3. The divergent impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genetic polymorphisms on executive function in adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihui; Li, Jie; Yang, Bei; Ji, Tao; Long, Zhouting; Xing, Qiquan; Shao, Di; Bai, Huayu; Sun, Jiwei; Cao, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function. The participants' COMT Val 158 Met genotype was determined. Associations among the variables were explored using latent class analysis and general linear models. We found that Val/Val homozygotes showed significantly worse performance on behavioral shift, relative to Met allele carriers (F=5.921, p=0.015, Partial η 2 =0.018). Moreover, three typical patterns of childhood adversity, namely, low childhood adversity (23.5%), childhood neglect (59.8%), and high childhood adversity (16.7%), were found. Both childhood neglect and high childhood adversity had a negative impact on each aspect of EF and on global EF performance. Importantly, these results provided evidence for significant interaction effects, as adolescents with the Val/Val genotype showed inferior behavioral shift performance than Met carriers (F=6.647, p=0.010, Partial η 2 =0.020) in the presence of high childhood adversity. Furthermore, there were no differences between the genotypes for childhood neglect and low childhood adversity. Overall, this is the first study to show that an interaction between the COMT genotype and childhood adversity affects EF in non-clinical adolescents. These results suggest that the COMT genotype may operate as a susceptibility gene vulnerable to an adverse environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood adverse life events, disordered eating, and body mass index in US Military service members.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Jennifer L; Barmine, Marissa; Druskin, Lindsay; Olsen, Cara H; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2018-03-02

    US service members appear to be at high-risk for disordered eating. Further, the military is experiencing unprecedented prevalence of overweight and obesity. US service members also report a high prevalence of childhood adverse life event (ALE) exposure. Despite consistent links between early adversity with eating disorders and obesity, there is a dearth of research examining the association between ALE exposure and disordered eating and weight in military personnel. An online survey study was conducted in active duty personnel to examine childhood ALE history using the Life Stressor Checklist - Revised, disordered eating using the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire total score, and self-reported body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). Among 179 respondents, multiple indices of childhood ALE were positively associated with disordered eating. Traumatic childhood ALE and subjective impact of childhood ALE were associated with higher BMI and these associations were mediated by disordered eating. Findings support evaluating childhood ALE exposure among service members with disordered eating and weight concerns. Moreover, findings support the need for prospective research to elucidate these relationships. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Unstable child welfare permanent placements and early adolescent physical and mental health: The roles of adverse childhood experiences and post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Villodas, Miguel T; Cromer, Kelly D; Moses, Jacqueline O; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-12-01

    Although researchers have found that child welfare placement disruptions are associated with elevated youth physical and mental health problems, the mechanisms that explain this association have not been previously studied. The present study built on a previous investigation of the physical and behavioral consequences of long-term permanent placement patterns among youth who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The current investigation (n=251) aimed to (a) report the early adolescent living situations of youth with different long-term placement patterns, and (b) to delineate the roles of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions in the association between unstable long-term placement patterns and physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Information about youth's living situations, ACEs, and physical and mental health was gathered prospectively from child protective services records and biannual caregiver and youth interviews when youth were 4-14 years old. The majority of youth remained with the same caregiver during early adolescence, but youth with chronically unstable permanent placement patterns continued to experience instability. Path analyses revealed that ACEs mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and elevated mental, but not physical, health problems during late childhood. Additionally, late childhood PTS mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and subsequent escalations in physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Findings highlight the importance of long-term permanency planning for youth who enter the child welfare system and emphasize the importance of trauma-focused assessment and intervention for these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adverse Childhood and Recent Negative Life Events: Contrasting Associations With Cognitive Decline in Older Persons.

    PubMed

    Korten, Nicole C M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pot, Anne Margriet; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie C

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether persons who experienced adverse childhood events or recent negative life events have a worse cognitive performance and faster cognitive decline and the role of depression and apolipoprotein E-∊4 in this relationship. The community-based sample consisted of 10-year follow-up data of 1312 persons participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (age range 65-85 years). Persons who experienced adverse childhood events showed a faster 10-year decline in processing speed but only when depressive symptoms were experienced. Persons with more recent negative life events showed slower processing speed at baseline but no faster decline. Childhood adversity may cause biological or psychological vulnerability, which is associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in later life. The accumulation of recent negative life events did not affect cognitive functioning over a longer time period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  8. Commentary: Childhood exposure to environmental adversity and the well-being of people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Emerson, E

    2013-07-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to a wide range of environmental adversities in childhood. Research undertaken in the general population has demonstrated that exposure to environmental adversity in childhood can have an adverse impact on health and well-being across the life course. Recently, research in this area has added new breadth and depth to our understanding of: (1) the extent to which cumulative exposure to environmental adversities across the life course, but especially in early childhood, can reduce health and well-being; (2) the social, psychological and biological mediating pathways through which environmental adversities may impair health; (3) the processes associated with resilience and vulnerability in the face of exposure to adversity; and (4) the social significance of these effects in accounting for the magnitude of the inequalities in health that are apparent both between and within populations. This new knowledge is making a significant contribution to the development of social policies that seek to combine health gain with the reduction in health inequalities. This paper attempts to apply this knowledge to research aimed at understanding and improving the health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  9. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Merrick, Melissa T; Rolle, Italia V; Giles, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61), sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10), living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81), witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72), and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80) during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs. Reporting ≥5 ACEs (PR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.80) compared to none was associated with a higher likelihood of COPD among women only. ACEs are related to COPD, especially among women. These findings underscore the need for further research that examines sex-specific differences and the possible mechanisms linking ACEs and COPD. This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions.

  10. Relations between childhood traumatic experiences, dissociation, and cognitive models in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Aydin, Adem; Gulec, Mustafa; Atli, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat; Celik, Cihat

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with childhood traumatic experiences and higher levels of dissociation. Dissociative tendency may arise when individual attempt to incorporate adverse experiences into cognitive schema. We investigated the possible links among childhood trauma, dissociation, and cognitive processes. We evaluated 95 patients with OCD using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30), White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28). The CTQ-28 total scores were not associated with Y-BOCS total, Y-BOCS insight, BDI, TAFS, MCQ-30, and WBSI scores. The TAFS Total, MCQ-30, WBSI, and BDI scores were significantly associated with DES scores. Regression analysis revealed that MCQ-30 and WBSI scores significantly predicted the DES scores. These results suggest that in spite of pathological connotation of dissociative experiences, dissociation may primarily constitute a cognitive trait which is strongly associated with cognitive processes.

  11. [Study of association between adverse experiences in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China].

    PubMed

    Wan, Y H; Ma, S S; Xu, S J; Zhang, S C; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To explore the relationship between adverse experience in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China. Methods: 15 278 adolescents were selected as subjects from 20 junior and senior middle schools located in 3 cities of China by stratified cluster sampling method. The survey collected the demographic information, ACEs, social support and physical-psychological status. A total of 14 820 valid questionnaires were retained for analysis. We assessed ACE score (count of six categories of childhood adversity), social support (adolescent social support questionnaire), and the prevalence of two outcomes: physiological and psychological sub-health status. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, social support, and physiological and psychological sub-health status. Results: The prevalence of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 26.4%